Romanticism and Landscape Painting Words: insurance, picturesque, aristocratic, expression, vulnerability, Parliament, wig, broken, barber, brushwork, expressiveness, objects, vulgarity, spirituality, dead, dying, scientific, Industrial Revolution, Dedham Vale Romanticism (or the Romantic Era) was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the _______________ _____________________. In part, it was a revolt against _____________________ social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and natural history. The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its ______________________ qualities, both new aesthetic categories. John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of _______________ _________, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection. His early style has many of the qualities associated with his mature work, including a freshness of light, colour and touch, and reveals the compositional influence of the Old Masters he had studied. Constable painted many full-scale preliminary sketches of his landscapes in order to test the composition in advance of finished pictures. These large sketches, with their free and vigorous ________________, were revolutionary at the time, and they continue to interest artists, scholars and the general public. The oil sketches of The Leaping Horse and The Hay Wain, for example, convey a vigour and __________________________missing from Constable's finished paintings of the same subjects. Constable's watercolours were also remarkably free for their time: the almost mystical Stonehenge, 1835, with its double rainbow, is often considered to be one of the greatest watercolours ever painted. In addition to the full-scale oil sketches, Constable completed numerous observational studies of landscapes and clouds, determined to become more _________________ in his recording of atmospheric conditions. The sketches themselves were the first ever done in oils directly from the subject in the open air. To convey the effects of light and movement, Constable used ________________ brushstrokes, often in small touches, which he scumbled over lighter passages, creating an impression of sparkling light enveloping the entire landscape. Joseph Mallord William Turner RA (23 April 1775–19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker. His father, William Turner (1738–7 August 1829), was a ______________ and _________ maker. His mother, Mary Marshall, became increasingly mentally unstable, possibly due in part to the early death of Turner's younger sister, Mary Ann Turner, in 1786. He entered the Royal Academy of Art schools in 1789, when he was only 14 years old, and was accepted into the academy a year later. He exhibited his first oil painting in 1796, Fishermen at Sea, and thereafter exhibited at the academy nearly every year for the rest of his life. Turner travelled widely in Europe, starting with France and Switzerland in 1802 and studying in the Louvre in Paris in the same year. He also made many visits to Venice. Suitable vehicles for Turner's imagination were to be found in the subjects of shipwrecks, fires (such as the burning of ______________________ in 1834, an event which Turner rushed to witness first-hand, and which he transcribed in a series of watercolour sketches), natural catastrophes, and natural phenomena such as sunlight, storm, rain, and fog. He was fascinated by the violent power of the sea, as seen in Dawn after the Wreck (1840) and The Slave Ship (1840). Turner placed human beings in many of his paintings to indicate his affection for humanity on the one hand, but its ____________________ and ____________________amid the 'sublime' nature of the world on the other hand. 'Sublime' here means awe-inspiring, savage grandeur, a natural world un- mastered by man, evidence of the power of God–a theme that artists and poets were exploring in this period. The significance of light was to Turner the emanation of God's spirit and this was why he refined the subject matter of his later paintings by leaving out solid objects and detail, concentrating on the play of light on water, the radiance of skies and fires. Although these late paintings appear to be 'impressionistic' and therefore a forerunner of the French school, Turner was striving for _________________ of _____________________ in the world, rather than responding primarily to optical phenomena. In Hannibal Crossing the Alps (1812), an emphasis on the destructive power of nature had already come into play. His distinctive style of painting, in which he used watercolour technique with oil paints, created lightness, fluency, and ephemeral atmospheric effects. In his later years he used oils ever more transparently, and turned to an evocation of almost pure light by use of shimmering colour. A prime example of his mature style can be seen in Rain, Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway, where the _______________ are barely recognizable. "The Slave Ship" or "Slavers Throwing overboard the Dead and Dying—Typhoon coming on” illustrates the practice of eighteenth century slave traders who would throw the __________ and ___________ slaves overboard during the middle passage in the Atlantic Ocean in order that they might claim the __________________ for drowning.