American Social Reform Movements: Almanac Indices

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Italic type indicates the volume number. Illustrations are marked by (ill.).

AAC (Afro-American Council), 1: 73 AAPA (Association Against the Prohibition Amendment), 2: 368–369 Abernathy, Ralph, 1: 88 Abolition movement. See Slavery and abolition Abortion, 2: 394, 399–400 Abstinence, alcohol. See Temperance movement and Prohibition Abzug, Bella, 1: 45; 2: 403 (ill.) Acid rain, 1: 177, 179, 180 (ill.) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See HIV/AIDS ACT UP, 1: 207–208 Acting for Nature: What Young People around the World Have Done to Protect the Environment (Collard), 1: 166 Activism. See names of specific movements Activists. See names of individual activists Adams, Annette, 2: 428 Addams, Jane, 1: 28; 2: 272, 273 (ill.), 426 AFC (America First Committee), 1: 37 AFCD (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), 2: 282–283 Afghanistan, 1: 58 AFL. See American Federation of Labor (AFL) AFL-CIO, 2: 257, 259 Africa, 1: 169

African Americans education of, 1: 118–119, 121, 129–131, 130 (ill.) labor movement, 2: 227, 228–229, 229 (ill.), 230, 235, 254–255 poverty reform movement, 2: 281 prison reform movement, 2: 307–308, 315, 316 (ill.) soldiers, 2: 339–340, 340 (ill.) women’s rights movement, 2: 404 women’s suffrage movement, 2: 417–418, 435, 439 See also Black Codes; Civil rights movement; Slavery and abolition Afro-American Council (AAC), 1: 73 Agribusiness, 1: 16 Agricultural economies, 2: 268 Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee. See United Farm Workers of America (UFW) Ahmann, Matthew, 1: 103 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 2: 282–283 AIDS. See HIV/AIDS AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, 1: 207–208 AIDS Memorial Quilt, 1: 207, 209 AIM (American Indian Movement), 1: 108 Alabama, 1: 95; 2: 301 Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, 1: 99 Albany, Georgia, 1: 98–99 Albany Movement, 1: 98–99

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Alcoholic beverages. See Temperance movement and Prohibition Alms houses, 2: 269 (ill.) al-Qaeda, 1: 58, 59 America First Committee (AFC), 1: 37 American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 2: 331 American Anti-Slavery Society, 2: 330, 331, 332 American Birth Control League. See Planned Parenthood Federation of America American Civil War African American soldiers, 2: 339–340, 340 (ill.) antiwar movement, 1: 26 women’s suffrage movement, 2: 416, 418–419, 419 (ill.), 421 American Convention for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and Improving the Condition of the African Race, 2: 329 American Correctional Association, 2: 305 American Dictionary of the English Language (Webster), 1: 121 American Federation of Labor (AFL), 2: 235–236, 240, 248, 252, 254, 257 American Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, 1: 108 American Indian Movement (AIM), 1: 108 American Indians. See Native Americans American Medical Association, 1: 202 American Peace Society, 1: 25 American Prison Association. See American Correctional Association American Psychiatric Association, 1: 197, 202 American Psychological Association, 1: 202 American Railway Union (ARU), 2: 239 American Revolution, 1: 26 American South labor movement, 2: 222, 228, 229 (ill.) slavery’s growth, 2: 320–321 See also Civil rights movement; Slavery and abolition American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), 2: 421, 422 (ill.), 423, 425 American Woolen Company, 2: 245 Amish, 1: 24 Amistad (ship), 2: 325 Ammons, Elias M., 2: 247 (ill.) Amnesty International, 1: 63; 2: 301 Anderson, Marian, 1: 78 (ill.), 79
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Animal conservation. See Environmental movement Anthony, Susan B. labor movement, 2: 230 women’s rights movement, 2: 375, 376 (ill.) women’s suffrage movement, 2: 412 (ill.), 414–416, 418, 420, 421, 425, 427 Antiglobalization movement, 1: 1–22 environmentalism, 1: 14–16 European reconstruction, 1: 4 globalization movement vs., 1: 1–2, 8–10, 21 intellectual property rights, 1: 16–17 politics of, 1: 7 protests by, 1: 18–21 roots of, 1: 3–6 third world debt, 1: 11–13 workers’ rights, 1: 13–14 Antinuclear movement, 1: 43–47, 56–57 See also Nuclear weapons Antiquities Act of 1906, 1: 159 Anti-Saloon League, 2: 357–358 Anti-semitism, 1: 35, 37 Antiwar movement, 1: 23–64 antinuclear movement, 1: 43–47, 56–57 Cold War, 1: 40–43 Department of Peace, 1: 62–63 Iraq, wars in, 1: 58–62 roots of, 1: 23–27 Vietnam War, 1: 47–55 war on terror, 1: 58–62 World War I, 1: 27–34 World War II, 1: 34–40 Apprenticeship, 1: 122 Armed forces African Americans, 2: 339–340, 340 (ill.) desegregation of, 1: 82–83; 2: 257 (ill.) educational opportunities after leaving, 1: 135 gay rights movement, 1: 210 IQ testing, 1: 135 women, 2: 379–380 Army Air Corps, U.S., 2: 380 Army, U.S., 1: 47 Artists, 1: 154–155 ARU (American Railway Union), 2: 239 Asian Americans, 1: 83–84 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, 1: 8 Assembly lines, 2: 222–223
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Association Against the Prohibition Amendment (AAPA), 2: 368–369 Athletic programs, 1: 140–141; 2: 401–402 Atlanta Compromise, 1: 74 Attica Correctional Institution, 2: 308, 309 (ill.) Auburn Penitentiary, 2: 291–293, 294, 299 Audubon, John James, 1: 158 Audubon Society. See National Audubon Society Automation. See Technology Automobiles, 1: 161, 173, 179, 189 Automotive industry, 1: 13 (ill.); 2: 252–254, 253 (ill.) AWSA (American Woman Suffrage Association), 2: 421, 423, 425

Baker, Ella Jo, 1: 89 Bald eagles, 1: 167–168, 168 (ill.), 185 Bans, alcohol. See Temperance movement and Prohibition Barnett, Ross, 1: 97 Barton, Clara, 2: 418 Bates, Daisy, 1: 90–91 Beauvoir, Simone de, 2: 384–385 Beck, Dave, 2: 258 Beckwith, Byron De La, 1: 105 Beecher, Catharine, 1: 131, 132 Beecher, Lyman, 2: 336 Benevolent societies. See Labor movement Bethune, Mary McLeod, 2: 379 Bible, 1: 117, 120, 121 Big business, in labor movement, 2: 228, 229–230, 231, 248, 249, 252 Bilingual Education Act, 1: 140 bin Laden, Osama, 1: 58 Biodiesel, 1: 186 Biodiversity, 1: 186 Biomass, 1: 185–186 Birds, 1: 167–168, 169, 184–185 Birmingham, Alabama, 1: 99–101, 100 (ill.) Birth control, 2: 382–383, 399 Black Cabinet, 1: 78–79 Black Codes, 1: 68; 2: 228–229, 341 Black Panthers, 2: 307
American Social Reform Movements: Almanac

Blackwell, Alice Stone, 2: 425, 427 Blackwell, Henry, 2: 414 Blake, Eugene Carson, 1: 103 Blatch, Harriot Stanton, 2: 375, 427, 428, 439 Bloch, Jesse, 2: 438 Bloomer, Amelia, 2: 420–421 Bloomers. See Pantalettes The Blue-back Speller (Webster), 1: 121 Boissevain, Inez, 2: 429 (ill.) Bolivia, 1: 21 Bolling v. Sharpe, 1: 81 Bomb shelters, 1: 41 (ill.) Bono, 1: 12 (ill.) Boone and Crockett Club, 1: 158 Booth, John Wilkes, 2: 341 Bootleggers, 2: 361, 363–364, 367 Boston Latin (school), 1: 125 Bowers v. Hardwick, 1: 206–207 Boycotts civil rights movement, 1: 87–89, 94, 99, 113 labor movement, 2: 261 (ill.), 262 Bradley, Mamie, 1: 86 Bretton Woods Conference, 1: 4, 5 (ill.) Briggs, John, 1: 203 Brockway, Zebulon, 2: 297–299 Brokeback Mountain, 1: 217 (ill.) Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1: 81; 2: 256 Brower, David, 1: 165 Brown, Antoinette, 2: 414 Brown, John, 2: 335, 337, 338 (ill.) Brown, Linda, 1: 84 Brown, Oliver, 1: 84 Brown v. Board of Education II, 1: 90 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1: 67, 80, 81, 84–85, 89–90, 92, 94, 137 Bryan, William Jennings, 1: 28 Bryant, Anita, 1: 203 Bryant, Roy, 1: 86 Buchanan, Pat, 1: 7 Buffalo, 1: 152–154, 153 (ill.) ´ ´ Burgues Florez, Miriam, 1: 166 Burke, Yvonne Brathwaite, 2: 403 (ill.) Burn, Harry, 2: 439 Burns, Lucy, 2: 428, 434 Burnside, John, 1: 194 (ill.)
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Buses, 1: 87–89, 94–97 See also Freedom rides Bush, George H.W., 1: 207, 208 (ill.) Bush, George W. on education, 1: 147 environmental movement, 1: 182 poverty reform movement, 2: 283–284, 285 war policy of, 1: 58, 59, 60 Byrne, Ethel, 2: 383

Cambodia, 1: 52, 53–54 Camp meetings. See Religious revivals Canada, 1: 8, 14; 2: 327, 328, 363 Capone, 2: 366, 367 Carbon dioxide, 1: 181–182 Carmichael, Stokely, 1: 115 Carnegie Steel Company, 2: 237–238 Carson, Rachel, 1: 161–164, 164 (ill.) Catholics, 1: 128–129 Catlin, George, 1: 154, 155 (ill.) Catt, Carrie Chapman, 2: 375, 431–432, 433, 435, 437, 439 La Causa, 2: 261 CFCs, 1: 180–181 Chain gangs, 2: 301, 303 (ill.) Chaney, James, 1: 106, 107 (ill.) Channel One, 1: 147 Charity. See Poverty reform movement Charity Organization Societies (COS), 2: 271 Charter schools, 1: 145, 146 (ill.) ´ ´ Chavez, Cesar, 1: 113; 2: 260, 261 (ill.) Chesbrough, Ellis Sylvester, 2: 426 Chicago, Illinois, 2: 366 Child labor, 2: 231–232, 264 Child, Lydia Maria, 2: 332, 412 (ill.) Children and youth, 1: 166; 2: 294 See also Child labor Chin, Vincent, 1: 84 China communism, 1: 8 economic reform, 1: 9 Korean War, 1: 42 Vietnam War, 1: 48
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Chinese Americans. See Asian Americans Chinese Exclusion Act, 2: 230 Chisholm, Shirley, 2: 403 (ill.) Chlorofluorocarbons, 1: 180–181 Church and state education, 1: 121, 129, 145 poverty reform movement, 2: 284 Church of the Brethren, 1: 24 Cigar Makers’ International Union, 2: 235 CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations), 2: 246, 252, 257 Cities. See Urban areas Citizenship, 1: 66 Civil disobedience, 1: 25 Civil Rights Act of 1866, 1: 67; 2: 341–342 Civil Rights Act of 1871, 1: 67; 2: 341–342 Civil Rights Act of 1875, 1: 67; 2: 341–342 Civil Rights Act of 1964 civil rights movement, 1: 104; 2: 279 education reform movement, 1: 138 women’s rights movement, 2: 388–389, 390, 391, 401, 402 Civil rights movement, 1: 65–116 Albany Movement, 1: 98–99 antiwar movement, 1: 50 Birmingham conflict, 1: 99–102 division within, 1: 113–115 Du Bois, W.E.B., 1: 74–76, 75 (ill.) Freedom Rides, 1: 94–97 Freedom Summer, 1: 104–106 Jim Crow laws, 1: 68–69, 70, 71–73, 72 (ill.) labor movement, 2: 254–256 legacy of, 1: 115 Little Rock conflict, 1: 89–92 March on Washington, 1: 102–103 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), 1: 107, 109–110 Montgomery bus boycott, 1: 87–89 Native Americans, 1: 108–109 overview of, 1: 65–67 Reconstruction, 1: 67–68 resistance to, 1: 85–86 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 1: 77–79 Selma conflict, 1: 110–112 sit-ins, 1: 92–94 Supreme Court rulings, 1: 68–69, 76, 79–80, 84–85
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voting rights, 1: 69–70, 104–107, 109–114 Washington, Booker T., 1: 73–74 women’s liberation movement, 2: 395 women’s rights movement, 2: 391, 392 (ill.) World War I, 1: 76–77 World War II, 1: 81–83 Civil rights, women’s. See Women’s rights movement Civil War, American. See American Civil War Civilian Public Service, 1: 38–40, 39 (ill.) Clayton Act of 1914, 2: 248 Clean Air Act of 1970, 1: 172 Clean Air Act of 1990, 1: 179 Clean Water Act of 1977, 1: 172 Cleveland, Grover, 2: 239 Climate change, 1: 181–182 Clinton, Bill environmental movement, 1: 171 (ill.) gay rights movement, 1: 207, 210, 217–218 poverty reform movement, 2: 283 Coal mining environmental movement, 1: 183 labor movement, 2: 233, 234 (ill.), 240, 246– 248, 262–263 Code words, 2: 328 COFO (Council of Federated Organizations), 1: 104–105 COINTELPRO, 1: 56 Cold War, 1: 40–43, 41 (ill.), 137 See also Communism Collard, Sneed B., III, 1: 166 Collective bargaining, 2: 248, 251 Cologne, Germany, 1: 19 Colonial America, education in, 1: 117–121, 119 (ill.), 120 (ill.) Colonization, 1: 3 Colored Women’s League, 2: 417 Columbia University, 1: 121 Commerce, international, 1: 10 Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), 1: 44–45, 44 (ill.), 46, 57 Committee for Industrial Organizations. See Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Committee on Public Information, 1: 30 Communications, 1: 10 Communism China, 1: 8
American Social Reform Movements: Almanac

Cold War, 1: 40–43 fear of, 2: 383–384 globalization as protection against, 1: 4 labor movement, 2: 249, 256 McCarthyism, 1: 46–47 Vietnam, 1: 47–48 See also McCarthyism Compromise of 1820. See Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850, 2: 334, 335 (ill.) Compromise of 1877, 2: 344 Confederate States of America, 2: 339 Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 2: 246, 252, 257 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1: 92, 94, 104 Congressional Union (CU), 2: 430 Connor, Theophilus Eugene (Bull), 1: 99, 101 Conscientious objectors, antiwar movement, 1: 24, 26, 27, 32, 38–40, 39 (ill.) Conservation and conservationists. See Environmental movement Constitution, U.S. See U.S. Constitution Consumerism, 1: 161 Consumers Union, 1: 178 Containment (policy), 1: 40 Contraceptives. See Birth control CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), 1: 92, 94, 104 Corporate ethics, 1: 178; 2: 264 Corporate responsibility, environmental movement and, 1: 174–175, 176–177, 178 Corporate sponsorship, 1: 147 Corrections (criminal justice), 2: 305 COS (Charity Organization Societies), 2: 271 Cotton, 2: 222 Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), 1: 104–105 Council on Religion and the Homosexual (CRH), 1: 198 Counterculture. See Youth movement Counterintelligence, 1: 56 Cousins, Norman, 1: 44, 46 Crane, Caroline Bartlett, 2: 426 Creel, George, 1: 30 CRH (Council on Religion and the Homosexual), 1: 198 Crime, organized. See Organized crime
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