You have been selected from among your peers to
represent your community at this short, intensive School of
You have come to learn, not only about government, but
also about people. Use this opportunity to acquaint yourself
with the others in attendance, the leading students from all parts
Many times in the next few days, you might consider
this program too rigorous, but it attempts to accomplish much in
a short period of time. Within the next few days, you will elect
and organize, not only a state government, but also city and town
governments. The success of this week depends on the
willingness of all those in attendance to cooperate at all times.
This book is divided into many parts. The first provides
background and general information. The second explains the
structure of Boys’ State and its government. The third section
Massachusetts details the week’s program. The last two sections give a brief
explanation of the Government of Massachusetts and the Bill of
Rights. There is additional information on either side of these
Boys’ State 2006 five sections.
Use this book; refer to it frequently. It contains plenty
of valuable information.
GUIDE & PROGRAM
WELCOME to Massachusetts Boys’ State 2006.
Mark Avis Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq.
Patrice Y. Hebert
Guide & Program
Page 2 Page
2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS The
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 2 American
LETTER FROM THE NATIONAL COMMANDER ............................................................................... 4
LETTER FROM THE MASSACHUSETTS COMMANDER ...................................................................... 5 Legion * National Headquarters * P.O. Box 1055 * Indianapolis, IN 46206
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS' STATE STAFF ........................................................................................ 6 (317) 630-1200 * FAX (317) 630-1223
THE AMERICAN LEGION, DEPARTMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS, INC. ............................................... 7
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS' STATE FOUNDATION ............................................................................. 7
1. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INFORMATION ......................................... 8
1-1 HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE ................................................................... 8
1-2 ELIGIBILITY ............................................................................................................... 8
1-3 JOE NASIATKA AWARD ............................................................................................... 8
1-4 GENERAL RULES OF MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE ....................................................... 9
1-5 PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE ....................................................................................... 9 Office of the
2. MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE GOVERNMENT .................................. 11 National Commander
2-1 THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT OF BOYS’ STATE ........................................................... 11
2-2 MUNICIPAL ORGANIZATION OF BOYS’ STATE ............................................................... 12
2-3 LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT OF BOYS’ STATE ................................................................ 12 June 2006
2-4 CITY GOVERNMENT OF BOYS’ STATE .......................................................................... 13
2-5 TOWN GOVERNMENT OF BOYS’ STATE ........................................................................ 14 Dear Boys’ State Citizen:
2-6 MUNICIPAL OPERATION ............................................................................................ 15
2-7 MUNICIPAL SCENARIOS ............................................................................................. 15 Congratulations on your selection and your decision to participate in the American Legion
2-8 MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE MAP .......................................................................... 20
Boys’ State Program. I am confident that you will not be disappointed with your decision to attend.
2-9 SAMPLE CITY ORDINANCE ........................................................................................ 20
2-10 SPECIMEN TOWN WARRANT ...................................................................................... 21 In fact, your participation in this outstanding program may influence your life decisions in ways that
2-11 SPECIMEN TOWN BY-LAW ........................................................................................ 21 you cannot fully appreciate until years later.
2-12 SPECIMEN BUDGET - CITY OF BOSTON, FY 2005 ....................................................... 22
2-13 U. S. SENATOR — BOYS’ NATION ............................................................................. 22 As one of almost 20,000 young men who attend Boys’ State nationwide in this activity,
2-14 THE PARTY SYSTEM OF BOYS’ STATE ......................................................................... 23 you will experience government in a practical sense by actually participating in it. Boys’ State is a
2-15 ELECTION PROCEDURE AT BOYS’ STATE ....................................................................... 23 leadership action program; one that teaches government and its structure. It proves that govern-
2-16 DINING HALL SCHEDULE .......................................................................................... 24 ment is just what you make it. You will find it to be challenging and sometimes tiring, but I’m
2-17 ACADEMIC PROGRAM AT BOYS' STATE ........................................................................ 24
2-18 SPEECH TOPICS ........................................................................................................ 25 certain you will always find it to be enjoyable and educational.
2-19 ZONING .................................................................................................................. 25
BOYS’ STATE DAILY PROGRAM .............................................................................. 27 Our form of government requires citizen involvement if it is to continue. The American
2-20 GENERAL EDUCATION 1 ............................................................................................ 35 Legion Boys’ State program strives to meet that objective. If this government, “…. Of the
2-21 GENERAL EDUCATION 2A .......................................................................................... 36 people, by the people, and for the people” is to continue, the burden of the task rests squarely on
2-22 GENERAL EDUCATION 2B .......................................................................................... 36 your shoulders and those of your generation.
2-23 GENERAL EDUCATION 3 ............................................................................................ 36
2-24 GENERAL EDUCATION 4 ............................................................................................ 37
3. THE GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS ............................................. 38 It is possible that a future governor, congressman or even president will be in your class
3-1 CONSTITUTIONAL OFFICERS ....................................................................................... 38 of Boys’ State citizens. I make this statement because this program has historically been the
3-2 THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH .......................................................................................... 40 springboard for many careers in public service. Others benefit by their participation by develop-
3-3 THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH ........................................................................................ 41 ing friendships with their fellow citizens while joining a common fraternity that extends long after
3-4 THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE COURT SYSTEM .............................................................. 44 the on-site program ends. I encourage you to make the most of this experience.
3-5 COUNTY GOVERNMENT ............................................................................................. 47
3-6 CITY GOVERNMENT .................................................................................................. 47 Finally, I again extend my best wishes for an interest provoking, exciting and personally
3-7 TOWN GOVERNMENT ................................................................................................ 48
rewarding 2006 American Legion Boys’ State.
3-8 MUNICIPAL BUDGETS ............................................................................................... 50
3-9 POLITICAL PARTIES .................................................................................................. 51
3-10 PRIMARY ELECTIONS ................................................................................................. 51 Sincerely,
4. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ......................................... 53
THE BILL OF RIGHTS ................................................................................................ 53
THE FLAG CODE ..................................................................................................... 54
Thomas P. Cadmus
CITY/TOWN, COUNTY, PLATOON & ROOM ASSIGNMENTS ......................................................... 56
LOCATIONS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................... 57 Thomas P. Cadmus
SEATING FOR ASSEMBLIES ...................................................................................................... 58 National Commander
STONEHILL COLLEGE INFO .................................................................................................... 58
MAP KEY (FOR MAP ON P.59) ............................................................................................. 58
STONEHILL COLLEGE CAMPUS MAP ...................................................................................... 59
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE PLEDGE .................................................... (BACK OF BOOKLET) 60 Page 4 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE OATH OF OFFICE ........................................ (BACK OF BOOKLET) 60
2006 MASSACHUSETTS BOYS' STATE STAFF
The American Legion
Department of Massachusetts, Inc. Mark Avis Patrice Y. Hebert
546-2 State House Tom Bedard
Boston, MA 02133-1044 SECRETARY CONVENTION MODERATORS
617-727-2966 Dorothy Pickup Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq.
Fax: 617-727-2969 Marc Jacques
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq. BOYS' STATE POLL
Thomas E. Bedard Marc Jacques
Andy Gallagher Tim Smith
June 2006 Mark Avis BOYS’ STATE NEWSPAPER
DIRECTOR OF ACADEMICS Charlie Curnow
Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq. Tim Smith
Welcome to the 2006 American Legion Boys' State Program STAFFING BAND DIRECTOR
Andy Gallagher Jonas Toutant
On behalf of the Department of Massachusetts American Legion, it is a pleasure to SCHEDULING / PROGRAM
welcome all of the 2006 Boys' State Citizens to this year's Boys' State Program. You are DIRECTOR OF ATHLETICS Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq.
Dave Krueger Patrice Y. Hebert
about to embark on a journey that will teach you how the government of this great
nation works. You will learn how the political parties select the leaders in your commu- PUBLIC RELATIONS
nities and nation. DIRECTOR of ELECTIONS John T. Griffin, Photographer
Ed Sargavakian Maxine Thompson, Historian
You will be guided by counselors who, like yourself, attended Boys' State and have
returned to teach you what they have learned through their experiences. There will also DEAN of JUDICIARY ELECTIONS SECRETARIES
be members of the American Legion here to teach and guide you. You will learn about Thomas J. Recupero, Esq. Patrice Y. Hebert
the American Legion as well as the Boys' State Program. Take this knowledge into the
DEAN of POLITICAL SCIENCE NURSE
future and pass it on to others so that this Country will be better from it. Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq. Barbara Sage, RN
Sincerely, SCHOLARSHIP COORDINATOR CAFETERIA COORDINATORS
John Brady Leon Langille
James Brehio DEAN of ECONOMICS
M. Kathleen Langille
James Brehio DIRECTORS of PUBLIC SAFETY &
Department Commander COLORS
Massachusetts American Legion Bill Flannery
Guide & Program Page 5 Page 6 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
THE AMERICAN LEGION, DEPARTMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS, INC. 1. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INFORMATION
'05/'06 Boys' State Committee '05/'06 Department Officers 1-1 HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE
The idea of Boys’ State is credited to Hayes Kennedy, a professor at
Director Commander Loyola University School of Law. In 1935, Mr. Kennedy was National American-
Leo Bernier James Brehio ism Chairman for the American Legion. He was concerned about the “Young
Pioneer Camps” being promoted by the Communist Party in the United States so he
Advisor Vice-Commanders proposed a program for the nation’s youth that would emphasize the understanding,
Lawrence S. DiCara, Esq. Bill Barbour importance and value of our democratic form of government.
Steven Jimmo The Department of Illinois agreed and the first Boys’ State began in June
Chairman Leland Plummer of 1935. By 1941, thirty-four states were conducting Boys’ States. Today the
Mark Avis George Gonsalves American Legion conducts Boys’ State programs in 49 states and the District of
William Chisholm Columbia.
Vice-Chairmen The American Legion, Department of Massachusetts, initiated the Boys’
Leonard Archambault Department Adjutant State Program in 1944. With the exception of 1945, when gas rationing made it
John Ward Leslie McKittrick, Jr. nearly impossible to travel, the program has existed continuously since that time.
Arthur Cole For many years, the program was held at the University of Massachusetts at
Robert Hicks District Commanders Amherst, and later at Assumption College, Nichols College, Clark University and
Ted LeClair 1. Ronald Sage Bentley College. In 1996, Boys’ State moved to Stonehill College. Many of today’s
2. Edward Bezio leaders in Massachusetts, both in political and private life, attended Boys’ State.
District Chairmen 3. Richard Purcell
1. Ron Sage 4. Donald Temple The staff consists of members of the American Legion, former Boys’ Staters, and
2. Steve Rowe 5. Al Lanzilli interested citizens who are experienced in government and/or education.
3. Robert Myco 6. Paul Pomerleau
4. M. Kathleen (Kitty) Langille 7. John Griffin 1-2 ELIGIBILITY
5. William Barbour 8. David Comeau To attend Boys’ State, a boy should be completing his junior year in high
6. Arthur Cole 9. Albert Watson school, and should be no more than eighteen years of age.
7. Jonathan Whitehead 10. Charles Francis American Legion Posts throughout the State contact high schools in search
8. Al Harte of top caliber students. Once a student is selected by a post, all expenses are paid
9. John Griffin for. Other organizations may sponsor boys to Boys’ State, provided that the
10. Maxine Thompson sponsorship is done through an American Legion Post.
11. Mathew Boyle
12. Robert Hicks 1-3 JOE NASIATKA AWARD
13. Charles Francis The Boys’ State Committee voted to establish an award in memory of Joe
Nasiatka, a longtime counselor and friend of many, who passed away in October,
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS' STATE FOUNDATION 1976. In addition to being active in the American Legion and many other organiza-
tions, Joe was an active citizen in the Town of Templeton, and served for many
The Massachusetts Boys' State Mark Avis, Chairman years as a member of the Narragansett Regional School Committee.
Foundation is a nonprofit organization Will McDonough, President Starting on Wednesday, a process involving the Boys’ State Staff and
Andy Gallagher, Vice-President Citizens will be undertaken to select that boy who exemplifies those characteristics
consisting of Boys' Staters and Staff of dependability, perseverance, loyalty, leadership and honesty for which Joe
T.J. Recupero, Esq., Treasurer
whose purpose is to support the Mike Davidson, Secretary Nasiatka stood, in his service to many Boys’ States, and to his community. The
program and promote the fraternity of recipient of the Joe Nasiatka Award will be announced on Friday at the closing
its alumni. '05-'06 EXECUTIVE BOARD assembly, and will be honored at that time.
Marc Jacques 1977 Adam Bolonsky 1987 Joe Gentile 1997 Joseph DaSilva
Mike DiBenedetto 1978 John E. Shea 1988 Christopher Shaw 1998 Liam Toomey
Christopher Tilden 1979 Scott Persechino 1989 Spencer Burling 1999 Andrew Gallagher
Tim Smith 1980 Joseph DiCenso 1990 Kevin Krasinski 2000 Andy Cancellieri
The Boys' State Foundation continued its financial support of the Boys' State Program by 1981 Michael Poisson 1991 Steven L’Heureux 2001 Andrew Tanner
1982 Christopher Roellke 1992 Marc Nascarella 2002 Peter Mulcahy
sponsoring boys to the program this year. In memory of Gene Biagi, whose dedication served
1983 James Welch 1993 Waldemar Vega 2003 James Perry
as an example to staters and staff alike, these Foundation sponsored "Biagi Fellows" 1984 Jeffrey Silvasy 1994 Eric Livingstone 2004 James Falzone
continue each year. The Foundation also supports Girls’ State by sponsoring girls to Girls' 1985 Brian Walsh 1995 Chris Amar 2005 Nick Diego
State. Support the Foundation; become a member. 1986 Brian Powilaitis 1996 Douglas Martland
Foundation Annual Meeting
Friday, June 17, 2006, Details TBA
Guide & Program Page 7 Page 8 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
1-4 GENERAL RULES OF MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE Motions
1. Violent personal contact of any sort is not permitted.
2. Firearms, fireworks, explosives of any sort, and liquor are not permitted. Business is conducted by acting on motions. A subject is introduced by a
3. No cars are allowed at Boys’ State. Any Boys’ Stater with a car at Boys’ State main motion. Once this has been seconded and stated by the presiding officer
must check his keys with the Chairman. nothing else should be taken up until it is disposed of. Long and involved
4. The citizens of Boys’ State will at no time solicit rides. motions should be submitted in writing. Once a motion has been stated, the
5. Food and beverages will not be permitted in classrooms or meeting rooms. mover may not withdraw it without the consent of the meeting. Most motions
Food and beverages will only be allowed in the Dining Commons. must be seconded.
6. No boy can leave campus without the written permission of the Chairman. While a main motion is being considered, other parliamentary motions,
7. All injuries must be reported to the Boys’ State Nurse. We are covered by an which affect either the main motion or the general conduct of the meeting, may
insurance policy, but it serves no purpose if an injury is not reported. be made. The ones most frequently used are described in general below, but it
8. At no time shall any counselor actively get involved in politics. Counselors should be noted that there are exceptions and modifications that cannot be
may advise and encourage. They shall not write speeches nor suggest to a included in this brief text.
person that he should vote for another.
9. Boys’ State shirts are required to be worn all day. Short pants may be worn, 1 • Amend Debatable; majority vote
except for the assemblies on Sunday, Monday and Thursday evenings. Out of Used when the intention is to change, add or omit words in the main
respect to our guests, we request that all wear long pants for those assemblies. motion. The first vote is on the amendment. The second vote is on the
10. Boys’ State citizens shall carry their I.D. cards at all times. I.D. cards must be motion as changed or as originally proposed depending on the first vote.
presented on request to any Boys’ State Staff member, or College Official. 2 • Refer Debatable; majority vote
11. All Boys’ Staters should maintain a neat appearance at all times. Hats are only If a motion becomes too complicated through amendments or if more
to be worn outdoors. information is needed, a motion may be made to refer it to a committee
12. Boys’ Staters must be accounted for at all times, especially at “Lights Out.” for study or redrafting. This committee must report back or as instructed.
13. Residence halls are off limits except when otherwise stated. 3 • Postpone Debatable; majority vote
14. Signs may be posted only on cork bulletin boards, unless permission is granted Consideration of a motion can be delayed until a more suitable time, until
for other locations by Stonehill College. No signs shall be tacked, taped or other decisions have been made or until more information is available, by
otherwise affixed to windows, painted surfaces, natural wood, or brick. a motion to postpone to a stated future time.
15. No rooms may be locked while occupied, including after lights out. 4 • Lay on the Table Not debatable; majority vote
16. The use of personal stereos (e.g. “Walkman”) or televisions is not permitted "I move that we table this motion." This postpones consideration in such
during any class, lecture, meeting or assembly. Use during such times may a way that the motion can be taken up again in the near future if a majority
result in loss of the stereo or TV for the week of Boys’ State. decides to "take it from the table."
17. Tampering with safety equipment, including fire extinguishers or alarms, 5 • The Previous Question Not debatable; two-thirds vote
smoke detectors, or Red Emergency Phones may result in removal from "I move the previous question." This motion is used to end debate that
campus by the Campus Police Department. has become lengthy or repetitious. When seconded, the presiding officer
18. No gambling is permitted. immediately asks for a vote on the question of closing debate. If this
19. There shall be no defacing or marking of Boys' State T-Shirts. receives a two-thirds vote, the pending motion is voted on without further
20. Neither smoking nor smokeless tobacco is allowed at any time at Boys' State. discussion.
21. Beepers and cell phones shall be shut off during classes and lectures. 6 • Reconsider Usually debatable; majority vote
22. All facilities at Stonehill College not assigned to Boy’s State are off limits at all A vote may be reconsidered through a motion, which must be made on the
times same day by someone who voted on the prevailing side. A motion can be
reconsidered only once. The first vote is on whether the motion should be
1-5 PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE reconsidered. If passed, the 2nd vote is on the motion itself.
Parliamentary law establishes an orderly procedure for meetings. This 7 • Point of Order or Appeal
procedure originated with the Senate of ancient Rome, but the rules commonly A member who feels the rules are not being followed may call attention to
used in legislative bodies, clubs, lodges, and most other deliberative groups the breach by rising and saying: "Point of order." The chair says: "State
emanated from the British Parliament in 1722. The purpose of these rules is to your point of order." Upon hearing it, the chair may say: "Your point is
conduct meetings efficiently and equitably. well taken," or "Your point is not well taken."
At Boys’ State, city and town meetings, political conventions, and One dissatisfied with the ruling may appeal to the meeting for a final
meetings of the House, Senate or Governor's Council are to be conducted under decision: "Shall the decision of the chair be sustained?" This appeal is
parliamentary procedure; of course, limitations may be necessary due to time debatable. A majority of “no” votes is necessary to reverse the ruling; a
restrictions. At Boys’ State, the senior counselor in attendance serves as tie sustains it.
parliamentarian and rules on all matter of parliamentary inquiry. 8 • Questions and Inquiries
Whenever necessary, advice may be asked to correct procedures
(parliamentary inquiry), facts may be requested (point of information), or
change may be sought for comfort or convenience (question of privilege).
The presiding officer responds to the question or refers it to the proper
Guide & Program Page 9 Page 10 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
9 • Adjourn Usually not debatable; majority vote 2-2 MUNICIPAL ORGANIZATION OF BOYS’ STATE
If the time set for adjournment has arrived or there is no further business, Dorm and municipal meeting room assignments are provided on page 56. Use
the presiding officer declares that meeting adjourned without waiting for a the table in conjunction with the Stonehill Campus map on p. 59 to locate municipal
formal motion. A member may move to adjourn at any time except when meeting rooms.
a speaker has the floor or a vote is in the process. If the motion carries, Counties will also play an important role at Boys' State.
the meeting is immediately adjourned. Each city and town shall have a caucus of Federalists and Nationalists. Each
municipal caucus shall select a state committeeman. The 16 state committeemen so
Parliamentary Tips selected will meet on Sunday and organize the respective political parties. Each
• Though most motions require a 2nd, they do not require a 3rd or 4th. county caucus will choose a nominee for each of the 6 constitutional offices, and for
• Voice votes are routine, standing votes common, roll call votes rare. U.S. Senate. Therefore, a total of 7 selections are made by each caucus.
• Most votes require a majority of those in attendance, but a two-thirds vote Furthermore, counties will be the building block used for athletic contests. The
is needed to "suspend the rules". counties are delineated on page 56.
• In governmental bodies, a two-thirds vote is needed to borrow money or
pledge the credit of the city, town or state. 2-3 LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT OF BOYS’ STATE
• The presiding officer, who chairs the meeting, often sits above the rank The legislative department of Massachusetts Boys’ State is patterned after the
and file members. organization of the General Court of the Commonwealth.
• The chair has the exclusive right to recognize people from the floor. The General Court will consist of two branches, the Senate and the House of
Representatives. Two senators and three representatives will be chosen on a
partisan basis from among the citizens of each city and town.
After the oath of office has been administered, the duly elected members will
2. MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE GOVERNMENT assemble in their respective places of assembly. They will be called to order, and
advised by the counselors assigned to them.
2-1 THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT OF BOYS’ STATE Both branches will elect a presiding officer. The presiding officer of the House
We shall organize Massachusetts Boys’ State in as close a manner as possible is known as the Speaker, and that of the Senate, the President.
to the actual organization of the government of the Commonwealth of Next each branch will elect a Clerk, a Sergeant-at-Arms, and Chaplain.
Massachusetts. The Speaker and President can appoint as many committees as they choose.
At the party conventions, candidates for the various state offices will speak and As Boys’ State is a simplification of the actual legislative process which occurs
campaign for the party nominations. From this primary campaign, there will emerge at our State Legislature, each house will act on sample legislation provided at Boys'
two slates of candidates for the subsequent election. State. In addition to this sample legislation, any Legislator, as well as the Governor,
At the time of the general election of state officials, the citizens will elect those may file a bill or any other matter for consideration with the clerk of the proper
who will serve in these positions for the coming year. branch. The clerk will then place each of these items on the calendar, which is
The constitutional officers will be asked to address the legislature on Thursday officially known as the Orders of the Day. Thus, there will be two Orders of the
afternoon to discuss issues relevant to their offices. Day, one for the Senate, and one for the House. During the Legislative sessions of
The Governor presides over Boys’ State assemblies and represents Boys’ State each branch, these items will be open for debate by all members of the respective
at public functions. He makes appointments, supervises state business, and chamber.
approves or vetoes all actions taken by the General Court. The Governor may A bill's passing into law follows essentially the same procedure at Boys' State
appoint whatever officers he considers necessary, including cabinet secretaries and as at the Massachusetts Legislature. Under parliamentary procedure, each item of
members of authorities. legislation may be subject to a number of motions. Approval of a measure requires
The Lieutenant Governor acts as Governor in the absence or incapacity of a simple majority vote, and following approval in the House, it is sent immediately
the Governor. to the Senate for consideration, where it follows the aforementioned procedure. If
The Secretary of State is the official custodian of all Boys’ State records, the bill is defeated in either house, no further action is possible, nor can any measure
including municipal reports and legislation which has been passed by both houses embodying substantially the same material be presented during the remainder of the
and signed by the Governor. He can suggest to the governor the appointment of session. Upon Senate approval, the bill is then subject to either ratification or veto
certain subordinates. by the Governor. If the Governor signs the bill, it becomes law. However, if the
The Attorney General is the legal advisor to state officials and cities and Governor vetoes the bill, both houses must vote to override by a two-thirds majority,
towns. He can suggest the appointment of subordinates to the Governor. for the bill to pass into law.
The Treasurer & Receiver General serves as custodian of Boys’ State
property, and may suggest appointment of subordinates to the Governor. H1An act to waive the mandatory physical education requirement for all three
The Auditor can examine the books of any state officer or local government. season secondary school athletes.
He can suggest appointment of subordinates to the Governor. Section 1. Provisions of this bill shall only apply to 3 season or full year athletes.
Section 2. Students must submit a letter of intent demonstrating that they are
committed to participating in extracurricular school sports throughout the year.
Section 3. Participation in sports activities outside the school will not be considered
in meeting the provisions of this bill.
Section 4. Schools may not use this bill to prevent full year athletes from taking
physical education courses.
Guide & Program Page 11 Page 12 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
Section 5. Students who falsely state intentions of participating in school sports for Each city shall have a Planning Board of no more than five members, appointed by
an entire year will be required to make up their physical education requirement the Mayor and confirmed by the City Council. The Board shall be concerned with
or make other arrangements with the school administration. all matters of city construction, zoning, and numerous other issues. The Planning
Board may act in conjunction with the Commissioner of Public Works in
S1 An act to establish the death penalty as punishment for criminals who commit maintaining parks, modernizing public transportation systems, or constructing new
unusually harsh and violent crimes. city facilities.
Section 1. All persons convicted of murder in the first degree shall be executed by The City Council shall elect a President who will serve as its presiding officer.
either lethal injection or electrocution. The Planning Board elects a Chairman, as does the School Committee.
Section 2. In order to prevent increasing overcrowding in state prisons, said The Mayor, with the City Council’s consent, shall appoint a City Clerk, a City
executions will be carried out within five days of the expiration of all appeal Treasurer, who shall work with the Council in constructing the city budget; a Police
periods. Chief and a Fire Chief, who shall oversee all matters of public safety and a
Section 3. In cases that involve violent crimes in which murder is not committed, Commissioner of Public Works, who shall work with the Planning Board, as well as
such as rape, domestic violence, and extreme cases of abuse; (e.g., repeated any other officials deemed necessary for the functioning of city government.
cases of child abuse), it shall be the decision of the individual judge to determine
sentencing of the convicted criminal. Said sentencing shall be at the sole 2-5 TOWN GOVERNMENT OF BOYS’ STATE
discretion of the judge, who may sentence the criminal to the death penalty by Town meeting is the legislative branch of Massachusetts town government. All
the aforementioned means. business to be conducted at town meeting will be listed on the Town Warrant. No
Section 4. The death penalty cannot be inflicted as punishment for any convicted business may be carried on by Town Meeting unless it is called for by an Article in
criminal who is not of legal age, that being 18. Those convicted of the above the Warrant. Among those matters in the town that are considered articles are the
mentioned crimes will be sentenced to an alternative sentence determined by the election of officers, the enactment of by-laws and resolutions, and the appropriation
court in the interim period until they reach legal age, at which time they will be of moneys needed for the town's government. Articles must be submitted in writing
subject to psychological evaluation and resentencing. by either a Selectman or by petition of at least five voters in the town. Town
Section 5. The resentencing mentioned in Section 4 of this bill may result in the elections will be supervised by two elections officers, known as the Election
execution of the individual depending upon the results of a psychological Commission, members of which cannot at any time be candidates for office, but
evaluation carried out by a court appointed state psychologist. Resentencing who can be appointed to minor positions. Volunteers should be sought for these
shall be performed by the judge who originally heard the case. In the case of positions; 1 from each party. With the exception of these two, any citizen may run
death or resignation of the original judge, the resentencing will be made by the for any office.
Supreme Judicial Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. All citizens attend town meeting, a Moderator is elected to serve as the
meeting's presiding officer. Numerous committees will be asked to make
2-4 CITY GOVERNMENT OF BOYS’ STATE recommendations on town meeting articles.
Cities in Boys’ State will have a weak mayor/strong council form of Each town will elect three members to the Board of Selectmen. A Chairman
government. Cities will be organized on Saturday and Sunday. The program gives will be elected to serve as the Board's presiding officer. Selectmen will also appoint
the schedule of these activities. The Counselor-in-Charge shall preside until officers all minor officers, supervise their work, provide for the enforcement of all local by-
are selected. All city elections will be supervised by two Election Officers, known laws and regulations, and report on all town business.
as the Election Commission, members of which can not at any time be candidates Each town will elect three School Committee members, who will select a
for office, but who can be appointed to minor positions. Volunteers should be Chairman. The School Committee will propose legislation regarding school policy,
sought for these positions. One must be a member of each party. With the prepare a school budget, and appoint a Superintendent to manage the school
exception of these two, any citizen may run for any municipal office. system.
Each city shall elect a Mayor who shall serve as the chief executive officer of Each town will elect three Planning Board members, who will select a Chairman.
the municipality. He shall appoint all minor officials with the approval of the City The Planning Board will make proposals to promote town growth, authorize building
Council. He shall approve or disapprove all actions of the City Council, most construction, and attend to all environmental concerns.
notably ordinances and home rule petitions. The Mayor also has the obligation to Each town will elect a Town Clerk, who shall keep accurate records of town
prepare a city budget for presentation to the City Council, after consulting with meetings, and a constable who shall maintain order at town meeting and at polling
various city officials. He also must supervise the work of all appointed officers. places.
Each city shall elect nine City Councilors. The City Council can formulate city Each town will elect a Town Treasurer, who shall serve as the custodian of all
ordinances, approve or disapprove the Mayor’s budget, act upon appointments of town property and work closely with the Finance Committee.
the Mayor, hear reports of all committees and appointed officials, make resolutions, Those citizens not elected to town offices shall be appointed to a position by
and pledge the credit of the city. The City Council, working with both the Mayor the Board of Selectmen. Those positions include: Town Clerk, Police Chief, Fire
and the City Treasurer, shall create a city budget, documenting the estimated costs Chief, Commissioner of Public Works, Town Counsel, Librarian, Purchasing Agent,
which are necessary for the proper functioning of the city. Town Engineer, Health Director, Constable, or any other office deemed necessary,
Each city shall elect a School Committee of five members who shall appoint a including a Finance Committee. The Finance Committee is responsible for the town
Superintendent of Schools. The committee shall discuss and propose solutions to budget, proposing legislation to increase revenues and providing financial
all school issues and those issues which may concern the city's school system. The recommendations.
School Committee shall consider financial aspects of the city's school system and
prepare a budget for the year.
Guide & Program Page 13 Page 14 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
2-6 MUNICIPAL OPERATION T3 Pearl Harbor Seaside, middle income village, population: 6,000.
Each Boys' State city and town will receive detailed information about its Two months ago, Hurricane Rocky ripped through Massachusetts Bay, causing
demographics and the major issues it faces. Using this information, each locale can mild damage to C-2 and C-6, but destroying the northern part of T-3, the town’s main
determine its needs and design a budget. The scenarios listed in section 2-7 are the business district. The storm obliterated private and public buildings worth tens of
communities' most pressing issues and should be addressed by the entire millions of dollars. Furthermore, tremendous wave surges eroded away a large
municipality. In addition, significant issues faced by city and town public works, chunk of “the North Keys”, T-3’s natural barrier against the Atlantic Ocean. T-3’s
education, and public safety departments will be distributed. Each respective harbor and beaches have become extremely rough and residents living along the
branch of government will respond to these issues. Cities and towns should also shore have recently experienced flooding during high tide. Meteorologists theorize
consider filing legislation to remedy their problems. that any future hurricanes pose a major threat to the T-3 area. Marriott wants to
Each city and town should refer to its community profile for budgetary construct a 10-story seaside hotel, which business leaders say would revitalize
information. By adding its tax levy, local receipts and state aid, a municipality can tourism in T-3. They seek to build a seawall around the hotel as part of the building
determine its total revenue. Tax levies are obtained by multiplying the tax rate by plan. Environmentalists argue that this would only aggravate the flooding in other
property value. The maximum tax rate in Massachusetts is 2.5% of fair market areas of the town. The town needs to revitalize tourism, its main industry, but
value, unless a special election is held to override the 2.5% limit. Local receipts are doesn’t want its rebuilding efforts to be destroyed by another hurricane. In addition,
revenues collected for fines, parking tickets, etc. coastal flooding must be offset somehow in the absence of the North Keys. How
Then, yearly expenses contained in the community profile should be subtracted should T-3 rebuild from the hurricane?
from the budget. Such expenses include debt service (paying off money borrowed
in prior years for various municipal projects), pensions (checks sent to retired town T4 Anzio Lower income town, population: 12,000.
or city employees), insurance (the municipality's share of health and life insurance T-4’s withering industrial base has recently absorbed an additional blow. Studies
for public employees as agreed via the collective bargaining process), and other have shown far higher than average leukemia and asthma rates in Anzio, compared
necessary allotments to state or regional facilities, such as a vocational school with other communities in Massachusetts. Many in town have pointed the finger at
shared by a few communities. Thunder and Steel Chemical Corporation. Investigators have revealed significant
After factoring in fixed costs, community leaders must distribute funds in a leakages from Thunder and Steel’s plant, situated only half a mile of T-4’s reservoir.
manner agreed upon by elected officials. Each municipal department should Citizens who have contracted diseases from the tainted water would like the town to
request a stipend which covers all departmental salaries, equipment, etc. The file a lawsuit against the company, seeing as the families themselves haven’t the
departments must then work with elected officials to determine budgets (p. 22). means to hire a top notch attorney. However, Thunder and Steel employs nearly
500 area workers and such a lawsuit might force the corporation to shut its doors. If
2-7 MUNICIPAL SCENARIOS the company shuts down, T-4’s economy might be devastated. Should T-4 aid in the
Citizens of each city and town at Boys’ State are presented the following scenarios lawsuit and how should the town provide safe drinking water for its residents?
to use as the basis of debate during certain municipal meetings:
T5 Argonne Middle income town, population: 15,000.
T1 Iwo Jima Rural, upper middle income community, population: 8,000. For 15 years, T-5 has bought water and used sewage facilities in neighboring C-1
To reduce the tremendous air traffic at C-2 international airport, the state has for a fairly reasonable price. However, recent mild drought conditions in Massa-
decided to build a second airport. The state is especially interested in using a large chusetts have depleted C-1’s reservoirs and consequently forced the city to sell
parcel of land in T- 1 for the project. Housing a second airport would definitely water and sewage services at higher rates. Currently, T-5 is paying $5 million
increase the amount of noise pollution, air pollution, and traffic. In addition, annually to C-1 for the rights to use its water and sewer services, a 120% increase
property values within the town would probably decline. However, the state has over the rates of just four years ago. T-5’s residents are clamoring for rate relief,
promised to construct a multi-lane highway which would connect the airport with particularly older property owners and those on fixed incomes. T-5 Chamber of
Interstate 1, the Massachusetts Freeway. In addition, thousands of construction jobs Commerce officials fear that water and sewage rates are so high that families are
created in the building of a second airport would be earmarked to T- 1 residents. reluctant to move to the town. Some T-5 citizens have suggested providing for the
Even though the state retains eminent domain powers, T-1’s views regarding the community’s water and sewage needs on an independent basis. However, construc-
airport will be carefully considered. Should T-1 cooperate with the state to con- tion of sewage facilities, wells, and reservoirs would range from $20 million to $50
struct the airport on its land? million, depending on the plan. If adopted such a plan, the town would then incur
annual costs for staffing and testing its facility. How should T-5 resolve the
T2 Okinawa Rural, lower income community, population: 4,000. situation?
Mild drought conditions have plagued Massachusetts for the past several years.
One of the hardest hit industries has been agriculture, with T-2 farmers suffering T6 Guadalcanal Upper income suburb, population: 5,000.
great economic hardships. The level of the Massachusetts River, which provides T-6’s school system has become one of Massachusetts’ best because of its superb
drinking water and irrigation water for crops, has become extremely low. This year, faculty, excellent facilities and ample tax base. Currently, a substantial number of
the owners of T-2’s three biggest farms have disclosed their intentions of selling parents from other communities pay to have their children attend school in T-6.
their property. T-2 fears that contractor giant, Slick Bros., might buy out the farms Several T-6 residents active on the school board have argued in favor of adopting
and commercialize the land. Many of T-2’s, constituents are strongly against such the school choice measure. By doing so, T-6 would draw many more qualified
development since it is likely to pollute the fertile farmland and take away from the students to its school system and would thereby receive additional state funding.
town’s historic character. However, to prevent the three farms and others from However, the additional influx of students into T-6’s schools would create the need
selling their land, the town must provide enough water for irrigation, which would for additional classes, teachers, and perhaps new building. T-6’s senior community,
be quite expensive. How should the town resolve its water woes? Should it amoung others, has spoken out against opening the school system to outsiders,
purchase water from other communities? especially students from C-2. Should T-6 adopt the school choice program?
Guide & Program Page 15 Page 16 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
T7 Bataan Middle income suburb, population: 30,000. on each side of the park. The company has also highlighted the tremendous
In a controversial decision, the T-7 Board of Selectmen recently purchased a 5,000 number of jobs, business for local restaurants and hotels, and potential economic
acre tract of land from the estate of Donald Clump to protect it from development or growth which a Two Flags park would add. However, many residents are virulently
industry. The formerly rural T-7 has exploded with growth over the past decade and opposed to the plan because of the tremendous additional traffic and noise burden
has a high demand for multi-unit housing developments. The Board feared that if and loss of open space. Many of those citizens against Two Flags are more affluent
they had not purchased the Clump estate, the land might have been sold to another and have threatened to leave town en masse if the amusement park construction is
developer. The town intended to set aside the land as a conservation area, but a permitted. What should T-10 do?
local golf course architect, Jack Nickelhorse, has recently offered the town $5
million to build a golf course on the property. Several local officials favor selling C1 Aisne Mid-size metropolitan center; population: 150,000.
the land to Mr. Nickelhorse because in a sense, the land would still be preserved as Over the past few years, C-1 has sought to construct an indoor facility capable of
open space and the deal would allow T-7 to pay off the debt it incurred after buying seating over 15,000 people. Despite interest from business and academic groups,
the Clump estate. However, a local real estate developer claimed that T-7 is unfairly C-1 has failed to attract large conventions due to a lack of facilities. To add insult to
preventing them from bidding for the land. They note that several T-7 Selectmen are injury, C-1 was amoung a list of cities considered to host a first round series of the
members of the local country club and demand that the land be sold to the highest N.C.A.A. men’s basketball tournament, but could not provide a suitable stadium.
bidder. However, if the parcel were to be developed into housing units, the town Of course, financing of a potential facility is of chief concern. The tax increase
would be saddled with far greater expenses in education, road construction, and needed to fund a stadium / convention center would probably require a Proposition
social services. What should T-7 do with the land parcel? 2 1/2 override referendum. A simple 15,000 seat arena could be built for about $25
million, while a complex that would attract a N.C.A.A tournament series would
T8 Verdun Town with a major state facility, population: 20,000. propably cost between $200 million and $300 million. Last week, the Kellogg’s
As part of a national phenomenon, the prisons of Massachusetts have become Corporation made a bid to privately construct a dluxe 20,000 seat arena, provided
extremely overcrowded during the past few years. T-8 is home to Golden Hill, the that the city takes responsibility for providing roadways and parking and exempts
only maximum security jail in Massachusetts. Golden Hill currently houses 1,400 Kellogg’s from any taxes. Finally, the new arena would be called “The Corn Flake
inmates, but only contains 550 beds. The grounds of Golden Hill have become too Dome” under Kellogg’s plan. Many civic leaders object to Kellogg’s proposal
small for the population, and the rate of escaped inmates has doubled. Last month, since the facility and all groups using it could serve as a valuable source of tax
the “C- 1 Strangler” managed to flee guards and took the life of a T-8 victim. The revenue for C-1. Some see the potential earnings to be so high that the convention
state would like to expand Golden Hill, but such an addition might mean a decrease center would eventually pay for itself. However, convincing the general public of
in T-8’s property values. The state has promised that financial aid and jobs created the facility’s value would be far more challenging. C-1 residents have been writing
by the prison addition would be earmarked for T-8 residents. Should the town to the local paper daily to opine that a convention center is unnecessary and would
embrace or fight the state’s prison expansion plan? only bring unwanted traffic, noise, and alcohol to the city. Keeping hotel and
parking considerations in mind, what should the city build and how should it be
T9 Bradley Middle-upper income suburb, population: 22,500. financed?
T-9 is home to Williston College, an exclusive liberal arts college. For decades,
Williston has been a source of pride for T-9, as the college has brought national C2 Belleau Major metropolis, population: 600,000.
recognition to the community. Williston’s President, I.V. Towers, plans to nearly Over the past few decades, traffic congestion and air pollution have increased
double the size of the college using a currently undeveloped parcel of land owned significantly in C-2. Environmental consultants argue that the city’s public transpor-
by the school. Towers claims that in order to sustain its role as a premier academic tation system should be dramatically restructured. Recent studies have shown a
institution, Williston must increase its undergraduate student body from 2000 to decline in the use of subway, bus, train services and a sharp increase in car volume.
3000 and build an engineering school. The residential neighborhoods surrounding In addition, the city’s public transportation system of elevated cars, subways and
Williston College deeply oppose any expansion plans, siting additional long term buses is in need of an upgrade and more major repairs. Recent gang warfare and
traffic and noise. Several local civic groups, especially those with prominent living fighting inside the subway cars have shocked residents and have deterred many
close to Williston, claim that such an addition would forever change the small town from using public transportation. Something must be done, but the city is operating
character of T-9. However, many T-9 residents support a Williston expansion, on a tight budget and such a project could cost billions of dollars. However, many
noting the potential for economic growth and prestige. Although the college owns argue that commerce and tourism would increase heavily if the transportation
the land, it must receive a permit from T-9 before building anything. What should system were improved. How should C-2’s transportation system be renovated, if at
the community do? all?
T10 Pershing Rural, middle income county seat, population: 19,000. C3 Normandy Small city outside C2, population: 50,000.
Citing the paltry ride selections of local amusement parks, Two Flags Amusement, C-3 Correctional Institute (C.C.I.) is known to house the city’s worst criminals and
Inc. seeks to create a colossal theme park in New England. Although it is consider- the infamous “room with no view”, a minuscule, windowless cubicle reserved for
ing locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island, the site, which Two Flags is most misbehaving inmates. Over the past decade, the Institute has received little
actively seeking, is located along State Route 60 in T-10. The large wooded area is maintenance and security has been consequently compromised. Five prisoners have
currently owned by H. Boss Tarot, who has announced his willingness to sell for a escaped in the last year alone, including the notorious underworld ruler, Jerry
high enough price. According to Two Flags C.E.O., Brent Builtobucks, the park “Wrists” Carpalowski. Furthermore, several men have been arrested while attempt-
would be one of the nation’s largest, with a zoo and an African Safari ride, a ing to smuggle drugs into C.C.I. C-3 residents have not complained about the
complete water park, and roller coasters that would “make Sir Isaac Newton roll facility because it is located in T-5! The land was once the hunting grounds for C-
over in his grave”. If allowed to construct the park, Builtobucks has agreed to pay 3’s founder, George Oregon, and his family has owned the property ever since. T-5
for three new traffic lights and the creation of an additional traffic lane for one mile officials are livid over C-3’s mismanagement of the facility and are threatening to
Guide & Program Page 17 Page 18 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
sue the city for millions of dollars. Legal fees alone would be extremely costly for C-
3 and losing the suit would be devastating. However, C-3 has neither the land nor 2-8 MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE MAP
the money to relocate C.C.I. with city limits. What should the City do?
C4 Marne City within the C2 metropolitan area, population: 85,000.
For over 10 years, the C-4 area has safely obtained power from nuclear fission.
However, residents have become increasingly concerned about the city’s Patriot
plant. Citizens living within a one mile radius of Patriot have demonstrated
abnormally high rates of cancer, leukemia, and other maladies. Conservationists
warn that the plant could permanently contaminate the city’s water and soil and
contend that constructing a series of solar generators and windmills could provide
cheap, safe power. Power plant officials claim that Patriot’s problems could be
remedied by increasing safety personnel and sending drums of nuclear waste to a
government facility in Nevada. Patriot has an unblemished reputation and without
it, C-4 residents would most likely pay over two times more for power than they do
now. Should C-4 petition the state to close Patriot?
C5 Eisenhower Lower income city, population: 110,000.
Over the past 10 years, C-5 has experienced its first epidemic of gang violence.
Parents and many town officials agree that a large part of the problem rests in the
high percentage of single parents who work during the day and cannot afford child
care. Furthermore, C-5 High School offers its large student body a paltry selection
of after school activities. An education professor at C-5 State University, H.
Howard Howe, has proposed a radical new plan to solve the city’s woes. His plan
calls for an 8 AM to 5 PM school day consisting of three 3-hour blocks. The first
and last 3 hours would be designated for core subject classes and students would be
required to participate in an activity involving sports, the fine arts, the performing
arts, or music during the middle block. The C-5 Parents’ Association strongly
favors the proposal and notes that if the city doesn’t take action soon, the school will
lose its accreditation and will be placed under state control. The teachers union, on
the other hand, is fervently protesting serving as a testing ground for an idea, which
in their minds, only forces teachers to serve as baby-sitters. They are threatening to
strike if Howe’s proposal is implemented. Should C-5 High School extend its
school day and if not, what steps should the city take to curb violence among its
youth? 2-9 SAMPLE CITY ORDINANCE
An ordinance creating the Commission on Affairs of the Elderly,
C6 MacArthur Low to middle income coastal city, population: 30,000. Be it ordained by the City Council as follows:
A once proud seaport, C-6 has seen its marine industry slowly decline. Fish Section 1. There shall be in the city a Commission on Affairs of the Elderly.
populations have dwindled and the waters of C-6 Harbor now contain a substancial Said commission shall consist of seven members who shall be appointed by the
amount of pollution. Throughout the 1970’s, 1980’s, and 1990’s, C-6 suffered a mayor, with the consent of the council, for a term expiring on the first Monday of
higher unemployment rate than the rest of the state because fishermen and others January following the next municipal election at which the mayor is elected.
linked to the maritime industries either became unemployed or relocated to find The mayor shall designate a member of the commission as the Commissioner
other jobs. Bill “Blackjack” Jackson, a local entrepreneur, claims that he has a on Affairs of the Elderly provided said person has expert knowledge and skill in a
panacea for C-6’s economic woes. He has sought permission to construct and field relating to the elderly; the other 6 members shall be associate commissioners.
operate a fleet of three gambling boats, which would circle around C-6 harbor. No The Commissioner shall receive an annual salary as fixed by the mayor and shall
other Massachusetts community has allowed floating casinos to this point, and devote full time to the duties of the office. Associate commissioners shall serve
Jackson claims that they would bring a small economic boom to C-6. Jackson also without compensation.
promises to earmark 90% of the jobs created in constructing his gambling boats to The Commissioner shall be the executive and administrative head of the
C-6 residents. However, a team of over 20 local religious leaders have united in Commission on Affairs of the Elderly. Any vacancy on the commission shall be
their adamant opposition to local casino gambling. The group has promised to lead filled by the mayor, with the consent of the council, for the unexpired term.
their congregations in mass demonstrations against the casinos, should C-6 embrace Section 2. This ordinance shall be published by the action of the City Council
Jackson’s proposal. Furthermore, the police union opposes the proposal because of in adopting the same.
the potential skyrocketing of gambling related crime. How should the city resolve
the matter, remembering that a gambling operation must not only be approved by
the community, but also the state legislature, since it would be operating in state
Guide & Program Page 19 Page 20 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
2-10 SPECIMEN TOWN WARRANT 2-12 SPECIMEN BUDGET - CITY OF BOSTON, FY 2005
To _____, or either of the Constables in the Town of _____, in the County of
_____, Greetings: Amount Percentage
In the name of Massachusetts Boys’ State, you are directed to notify and warn (Thousands) (approximate)
the inhabitants of the Town of _____ qualified to vote in the elections and town Revenues
affairs to meet in the Town Hall on the __ day of June, 200_, at ____ o’clock to act Real & Personal Property Taxes $ 1,148,742 ........................... 59.5
on the following articles of this warrant:
ARTICLE 1. To choose officers. Excises 119,500 ............................. 6.2
ARTICLE 2. To see if the town will vote to raise and appropriate such sums as Commonwealth of Massachusetts 254,466 ........................... 11.8
may be necessary to defray town charges for the ensuing year. Health & Hospitals 164,211 ............................. 8.5
ARTICLE 3. To see if the town will vote to appropriate a sum of money for Departmental & Other Revenue 163,814 ............................. 8.5
the purchase of 1 automobile for the use of the Police Department, determine in Fines 61,390 ............................. 3.2
what manner said appropriation shall be raised, by transfer from available funds or Payments in Lieu of Taxes 16,787 ............................. 0.9
otherwise, or do anything in relation thereto. Investment Income 11,221 ............................. 0.6
ARTICLE 4. To see if the town will vote to appropriate a sum of money for
the purchase of 1 engine for the Fire Department, that the said appropriation be Licenses & Permits 17,426 ................................ 1
raised by transfer from the Excess and Deficiency Account, and that the Town Sale of Property 3,556 ............................. 0.2
Accountant be and hereby is authorized to make such transfer on the town books. Other 11,711 ............................. 0.6
ARTICLE 5. To see if the town will vote to appropriate money to make Total Revenues $ 1,972,824 ............................ 100
improvements to the High School grounds, that said appropriation be raised by Expenditures
transfer from the Excess and Deficiency Account, and that the Town Accountant be General Government $ 21,057 ................................ 3
and hereby is authorized to make such transfer on the books of the town. Human Services 24,530 ................................ 1
And you are directed to have 500 copies of this warrant printed, and to serve Public Safety 364,471 .............................. 19
the same by posting in at least 2 public places in the town 7 hours at least before the
time for holding said meeting and by causing an attested copy to be published in Public Works 88,995 ................................ 4
some newspaper in the town, the publication to be not less than 1 day before the Property & Development 20,154 ............................. 1.5
said meeting. Remaining copies should be ready for distribution at the Town Parks & Recreation 12,385 ................................ 1
Meeting. Given unto our hands this ___ day of June, in the year 200_. Library 25,739 ............................. 1.5
Signed, Board of Selectmen Schools 680,118 .............................. 30
Health & Hospitals 150,939 .............................. 15
2-11 SPECIMEN TOWN BY-LAW REGARDING PUBLIC CONDUCT County 4,503 ......................... 0.004
Section 1. No person, except an officer of the law in the performance of his duties, Other Employee Benefits 150,405 ................................ 5
shall enter upon the premises of another with the intention of peeping into the Pension Costs 146,563 ................................ 8
windows of a house or spying upon in any manner any persons therein. State & District Assessments 116,876 ................................ 4
Sports and Games Debt Requirements 122,378 ................................ 6
Section 2. No person shall without written permit from the Selectmen, engage in Total Expenditures 1,929,113 ............................ 100
any games, exercise or amusement in any street or public place (except public Excess of Net Revenues available for
playgrounds) where the same interferes with the safe and convenient use thereof, or Appropriation Over Expenditures 43,711
where such act disturbs the safety of persons or property, or the peace and quiet.
Discharge of Firearms
Section 3. No person shall fire or discharge any rifle, shotgun, air-rifle or pistol on
or across any land within the confines of the Town, but this section shall not prevent 2-13 U. S. SENATOR — BOYS’ NATION
the use of such firearms in the lawful defense and protection of one's person or other Two citizens of Boys’ State will be elected as United States Senators and
human being or property, nor shall it apply to veterinarians in the practice of their will be sent to Washington, D.C. in July for one week, to represent Massachu-
profession nor in the performance of any duty required or authorized by law, nor to setts at the American Legion Boys’ Nation. Any boy who feels he will be unable
members of the Police Department in carrying out their duties and for target practice to go to Washington in July should not be a candidate for U. S. Senator. In case
by the Police Department and the general public upon ranges duly approved by the a Boys’ Nation delegate is unable to attend (due to illness, for example), his
Chief of Police. place will be assumed by a runner-up. Sixteen boys are nominated at the outset.
Disorderly Behavior Boys’ Nation is similar to Boys’ State . All expenses, including round-
Section 4. No person shall, with purpose to cause public inconvenience, annoyance trip airfare to Washington, D.C. are paid for by the American Legion Department
or alarm or recklessly creating a risk thereof, engage in fighting or threatening, or in of Massachusetts. Boys’ Nation delegates are lodged in a college residence hall
violent or tumultuous behavior, or create a hazardous or physically offensive either in Washington, or nearby. Counselors are chosen from all over the nation.
condition by an act which serves no legitimate purpose. Two boys attend from each state. Each boy is given a party designation.
Each party selects a party chairman and secretary, and then proceeds, in conven-
tion, to nominate a candidate for President and Vice President. Each delegate is
Guide & Program Page 21 Page 22 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
a Senator, and votes for the President Pro-Tempore of the Senate, who presides elections within their municipality are carried out in a proper manner falls upon
while the delegates debate actual bills presently before the U. S. Congress. the Election Officers. They are required to cooperate with the members of the
Opportunity to sightsee in the capital is also afforded each Senator. Receptions staff who are in charge of elections.
are tendered by government agencies. Visits are made to the Capitol, House & The Election Officers have an obligation to oversee the distribution of
Senate Office Buildings, and the White House. nomination papers, and to check all signatures to be certain they are valid. They
Boys’ Nation is a high honor and should be appreciated as such. Any must also obtain all ballots and return tally sheets and ballots after they have
questions concerning Boys’ Nation can be addressed to Mr. DiCara [Boys’ been utilized.
Nation 1966], Mr. Bedard  or Mr. Jacques . Prior to voting, each citizen must identify himself to the election officer in
charge. All voting is done silently and privately. In primary elections, there will
2-14 THE PARTY SYSTEM OF BOYS’ STATE be two different ballots, one for each party. Each citizen must be certain to
Unlike in national and local political life, party affiliation at Boys’ State obtain the ballot of the party of which he is a member.
is not based on ideological beliefs, but rather on arbitrary selection.
Two parties are invented: Nationalists and Federalists. These parties have 2-16 DINING HALL SCHEDULE
no connection with any existing political movements, and at the time the citizens To facilitate movement into the dining hall there shall be three platoons
of Boys’ State take them over, they have no programs or platforms. which shall report to meals on a staggered basis. The platoons are also shown
Each municipality will have a Federalist and Nationalist delegation which on p. 56.
will elect a state committeeman on Saturday. On Sunday, each state committee First Platoon will consist of C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 & C6.
will meet in a private dining room to select a party chairman, a party secretary Second Platoon will consist of T1, T2, T3, T4 & T5.
and to agree upon which of their members shall serve on the Platform and Third Platoon will consist of T6, T7, T8, T9 & T10.
Resolutions and Rules and Steering Committees. When each convention first Boys’ Staters will assemble outside the dining hall only when they are scheduled
assembles on Sunday evening, the moderator will introduce the party chairman to eat.
who will in turn introduce the members of the state committee and their assigned
duties. At all times, the Chairman should have an accurate tally of who is 2-17 ACADEMIC PROGRAM AT BOYS' STATE
present. Only delegates with proper credentials should be allowed in the hall. The academic program at Boys' State will have three components - general
The following is a suggested set of rules for each convention: education, electives and mini-courses.
1. All delegates should be registered. The Chair should have an accurate On a number of occasions throughout the week, there will be lectures intended
tally of who is present. Only delegates with proper credentials should be for all. These will deal with topics of general interest, including state and local
allowed in the hall. government, the electoral process and the national political scene. Furthermore, as
2. Each county delegation may place in nomination the name of one person part of the general education program, there will be a debate conducted on Thurs-
for each of the 6 constitutional offices and U.S. Senator. It will be understood, day morning for which volunteers will prepare throughout the week. The debate will
however, that after the party primary, the Governor and Lieutenant Governor will be an opportunity for Boys' Staters to put to work some of what they have learned
run as a team. throughout the week.
3. The convention will be chaired by the Party Chairman. He shall be In addition, there will be three elective courses: Economics, Government and
assisted by the Party Secretary. Neither the Party Chairman nor Secretary can be Law, which will meet five times throughout the week. These will be traditional
a candidate for statewide office. The Party Chairman is authorized to name lecture courses, not unlike those which are conducted at college.
members of the Rules & Steering Committee, as well as others, and Sergeants- The Government Course deals with a number of questions of current
At-Arms, to keep order at the convention. interest as well as political historical value. The instructor, Lawrence S. DiCara,
4. The Party Chairman will announce appointments to the Platform and Esq., attended Boys’ State and Boys’ Nation in 1966, and has been a counselor
Resolutions and Rules and Steering Committees. Their duties are as follows: with the program ever since. Mr. DiCara is a partner with the firm of Nixon
Platform & Resolutions — Peabody with offices in Boston, New York and Washington. He is a graduate of
To write a party platform stating the broad philosophical views that Boston Latin School, Harvard College, Suffolk University Law School, and the
the party can rally around, and to prepare resolutions expressing the John Fitzgerald Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He also
beliefs of the assembled delegates. has received an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from the University of Massachu-
Rules & Steering — setts. For ten years he served as a member of the Boston City Council and has
To certify that only bona-fide delegates are present; to keep order; taught at numerous colleges. He is a frequently published author and serves on
and to direct the campaign for all party nominees. the Board of Directors of numerous corporations and organizations.
5. All candidates nominated for office will be given the opportunity to speak The Economics Course will have different lecturers and topics. Doug
before the convention. Gordon is a consultant in the Boston office of Bain & Co., where he has worked
in technology, financial services and consumer goods industry. He holds an AB
2-15 ELECTION PROCEDURE AT BOYS’ STATE in Economics from Harvard and an MBA from MIT’s Sloan School of Manage-
Elections at Boys’ State shall be held by Australian ballot, and shall be ment. Prior to business school, Doug was an early employee of a venture capital-
carried out in a manner consistent with the election laws of the Commonwealth backed telecom startup and a product manager at Internap Network Services
of Massachusetts. Corp. Doug attended Boys’ State in 1992. Andrew Cancellieri is a recent
At the outset, counselors shall appoint an Election Commission consisting graduate of the College of the Holy Cross where he attained a BA in Economics.
of two officers, one from each party. The members of the Election Commission His research interests include corporate governance reform, game theory and
should be citizens not desirous of seeking office. The burden of insuring that all sports economics. In 2003, he completed his thesis entitled “United States
Securities & Exchange Commission Rule S7-14-03: Corporate Governance Reform
Guide & Program Page 23 Page 24 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
and the Principal Agent Theory” while working at the SEC in Washington, DC. At Boys’ State each city and town must design a zoning map before it begins
Andy attended Boys’ State in 2000. the process of dealing with community issues and planning any new building
projects. First, determine what type of municipality you have from the state map
The Law Course deals with general topics in the fields of criminal, shown in the program book and the community profile. Are you a city with large
constitutional, tort and contract law. The instructor, Thomas J. Recupero, Esq., industrial and commercial zones, an almost entirely residential suburb, or a rural
is a practicing attorney in Stoughton, Mass. in the law firm of T.J.Recupero P.C.. town with lots of open space? Next, note the section of your community profile
He has been on staff since 1985. marked “land use classification” and note what percentages are residential, commer-
cial, etc. Although those percentages can and should change, they give a good
Finally, there will be a number of mini-courses offered beginning on indication of how the community has zoned in the past.
Monday afternoon. Note that during the same time period when mini-courses are Your final task is to design a map of the community with zones assigned for all
held, the legislature will meet. Therefore, no one who is elected to either the areas. The map does not have to be large or complex, but should clearly show how
House or the Senate can take a mini-course. These topics will vary and will all sections of the city or town are zoned. The 8 zones are as follows:
provide a much greater opportunity for discussion than is the case with general
education or electives. Information regarding the mini-courses available will be R-l Residential Zone: Permitted Uses
distributed early in the week. Any questions regarding the academic program Single-family residences
should be directed to Mr. DiCara. 3 story limit
Minimum lot area of 12,000 square feet
2-18 SPEECH TOPICS Public schools, parks, playgrounds
Candidates for constitutional offices are advised to address the following R-2 Residential Zone: Permitted Uses
topics in their campaigns. Candidates for the House of Representatives and State Any use permitted in R-1
Senate should think about these topics as well and suggest legislation on them, as Multiple-family dwellings with not more than six units
Constitutional officers will be meeting with both branches of the Legislature on 3 story Limit
Thursday. Candidates are encouraged to solicit their party’s Platform and Resolu- Minimum lot area of 8,000 square feet and 12,000 for multiunit dwellings
tions Committee for assistance in addressing these issues. R-3 Residential Zone: Permitted Uses
Any use permitted in R-2
1. The War in Iraq Multiple-family dwellings which shall not exceed 5 stories
2. Patriot Act Minimum lot area of 5,000 square feet
3. Universal National Service Dormitory, fraternity, sorority
4. Obesity C-1 Limited Commercial: Permitted Uses
5. Driving Age Banks; art, gift, or jewelry stores; offices; drug stores; automotive repairs;
6. School Fees apparel stores; food stores; hardware and appliance; restaurants, optical services;
7. Banning Smoking theaters; other similar uses
8. Taliban at Yale 5 story limit
9. Spreading Democracy C-2 General Commercial: Permitted Uses
10. Adoption by Gay Parents / Gay Marriage Any use permitted in C-1; Warehouses; automotive sales; bowling alleys; gas
11. SATs / APs / Standardized Tests stations; motels, hotels; office complexes: other similar uses
12. Reversion of the Massachusetts Income Tax to 5% 5 story limit
13. Smart Growth M-1 Industrial District
14. Capital Punishment A building may be used for any purpose except for residences.
15. Abortion Clinics / Freedom of Speech A-1 Agricultural District
16. New Orleans Argricultural Land
17. Immigration O-1 Open Space or Protected Land Area
18. Health Care for All Open or Protected Land
19. Milton Academy
20. World Baseball - How could the U.S. lose? If during the week, anyone seeks to construct a building that does not comply
with zoning codes, he must apply for a special use permit. Permits are granted by
2-19 ZONING the Planning Board. Typically, a special use permit specifies what guidelines the
Zoning is an essential function of local governments in Massachusetts and structure must meet since it will seek relief from certain zoning restrictions.
throughout the country. The practice allows a community to designate certain areas
for industrial growth, high rise apartments, shopping districts, or open space.
Zoning can often become quite political; developers typically seek nonrestrictive
zoning laws, while residents usually favor constraints to development near their
Section 2-20 begins on Page 35
Guide & Program Page 25 Page 26 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
BOYS’ STATE DAILY PROGRAM
SATURDAY, June 10, 2006 REGISTRATION DAY SATURDAY, June 10, 2006 REGISTRATION DAY (continued)
9:30 am • REGISTRATION 6:30 - 7:45 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Parking Area L4 - Duffy Lot (Rain Location: Hemingway Theater) Locations listed on page 56. Appointment of Temporary Clerk who should tabulate the
Boys' Staters should check in with their counselors to receive keys. Boys' State Poll and have it ready for Mr. Jacques by Sunday breakfast. Explanation of
Boys are to unpack, change into a Boys' State shirt, review this manual and “Mayor municipal offices (pp.13-15). Each city and town will review its scenario (pp.15-19), and
Augustine’s Dilemma” (see Section 2-20 on page 35). the role of zoning (see Section 2-19 on pp.25-26).
11:45 am - 12:30 pm • LUNCH 8:00 - 8:30 pm • PARTY CAUCUS
Lunch will be picked up in the Hemingway Theatre and eaten in the municipal meeting Each municipality will divide into a Federalist and a Nationalist caucus. This caucus will
rooms; locations are listed on Page 56. Boys' State shirts and ID Cards are required. choose one state committee man. On Sunday, each state committee will meet at breakfast
to choose a party chairman and other party leaders.
12:30 - 1:30 pm • PRELIMINARY MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Locations listed on Page 56. Review of Boys' State Rules (p.9), program schedule 8:45 - 9:30 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
(pp.27-34), campus locations (pp.56-59), and seating in Roche Dining Commons Room Cities and towns will discuss the following topics and will report on their discussions at
A and Hemingway Theater (p.58). Each community will select 2 election officials (1 the GENERAL EDUCATION lectures on Sunday morning.
from each party). Note that elections cannot be held without election officials. As the Cities: Should the city abandon its traditional Mayor/City Council form of Govern-
group responsible for all nomination papers and ballots, election officials may not run for ment and appoint a City Manager? (see Section 2-21, p.36)
office, but may later be appointed to other offices. Counselors will distribute and collect Towns: Should the town abandon its long-standing town meeting and elect a Town
the Boys' State Issues Poll. Discussion topic -Mayor Augustine’s Dilemma (see Section Council and appoint a Town Manager? (see Section 2-22, p.36)
2-20 on p.35).
10:30 pm • LIGHTS OUT
1:45 - 3:00 pm • GENERAL ASSEMBLY All Boys' Staters must be in their rooms, with the lights out, and accounted for at this
Roche Dining Commons Room A. Opening address by Mr. Avis, Boys' State Chairman. time. Counselors will conduct room checks.
Reciting of the Boys' State Pledge. Explanation of athletic program by Mr. Krueger and
election procedures by Mr. Sargavakian. Organization of Boys' State Band and organiza-
tion of Boys’ State Newspaper.
SUNDAY, June 11, 2006 DEP'T OF MASS. DAY
3:00 - 4:00 pm • GENERAL EDUCATION
Roche Dining Commons Room A. Mr. DiCara will introduce state issues (Section 2-18 6:30 am • REVEILLE
on page 25) and the decision making process. Forms will be distributed, including
municipal nomination papers. Note: Boys’ Staters can only run for one office at each 7:00 - 7:30 am • RELIGIOUS SERVICES
level. Introduction to parliamentary procedure (pp. 9-11). Cities and towns will report Protestant Prayer Service in Martin Institute Auditorium.
on their decision with regard to the 12:30 p.m. discussion topic, specifically, which of the
options Mayor Augustine has chosen and why. 7:30 - 8:20 am • BREAKFAST
7:30 - 2nd Platoon (Colors: 1st Platoon); 7:45 - 3rd Platoon; 8:00 - 1st Platoon
4:15 pm - Meeting of election officials with Mr. Sargavakian. The State Committeemen elected on Saturday evening shall have breakfast in the Cleary
Faculty / Staff Dining Room. They will meet with Mr. DiCara and Mr. Jacques and then
4:30 - 5:00 pm • COUNTY ATHLETIC ORGANIZATIONAL MTG divide themselves into Nationalists and Federalists. Each party will select a Party
Chairman, Party Secretary and members of the Rules and Steering and Platform and
Each county will select its athletic representatives and organize its teams. Each county
Resolutions Committees who will serve throughout the week.
will also select a High School Bowl Captain. County Meeting room locations are listed
on page 56. 8:30 - 9:30 am • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Work on nomination papers for municipal offices. A report and a printed sample ballot
5:00 pm - Catholic Mass in Chapel of Mary must be passed in by the Election Officials to the Dean of Elections in the Boys' State
Office (Duffy Hall Room 208) by 9:30 am today. Form A and Form B must be utilized.
5:30 - 6:20 pm • DINNER (see Sec. 2-16, p.24) The number of signatures required can be found at the top of p.29. Signatures must be
Roche Dining Commons Room B from citizens in the respective city/town. Citizens may not sign more papers for an office
5:30 -- First Platoon (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 & C6), Third Platoon to Colors than there are positions (e.g., 1 for Moderator, 7 for City Council, etc.). If there are 20 or
5:45 -- Second Platoon (T1, T2, T3, T4 & T5) fewer citizens in a city or town, a counselor can reduce the number of signatures needed
6:00 -- Third Platoon (T6, T7, T8, T9 & T10) to secure a position on the ballot.
Guide & Program Page 27 Page 28 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
MONDAY, June 12, 2006 LEGISLATIVE ORGANIZATION DAY
TOWNS Positions Signatures CITIES Positions Signatures
Moderator 1 7 Mayor 1 7 6:30 am • REVEILLE
Selectmen 3 7 City Council 7 7
Planning Board 3 7 School Comm. 3 7
Treasurer 1 7 7:00 - 7:50 am • BREAKFAST
School Comm. 3 7 7:00 - Third Platoon (Colors: 2nd Platoon); 7:15 - First Platoon; 7:30 - Second Platoon
Election officials should pick up ballots from Mr. Sargavakian at breakfast.
9:30 - 10:30 am • PARTY CAUCUSES
Party Caucus room locations are listed on page 56. Each county delegation will caucus to 8:00 - 8:45 am • GENERAL EDUCATION
choose nominees for six constitutional offices and one for U.S. Senate. Speech topics are Roche Dining Commons Room A.
listed in Section 2-18. Each municipal delegation will then caucus to select nominees for
State Legislature: (1 State Senator and 2 State Reps). Form C and Form F must be Topic: Electoral Process. Announcement of the Great Debate. Two teams will constitute
utilized. Caucus Report must be delivered to the Dean of Elections in the Boys' State themselves - liberals and conservatives. Each team will have five minutes to address each of
Office (Duffy Hall Room 208) by 12 noon, today. three topics provided to them.
Discussion of GEN ED #3 (see Section 2-23, p.36).
10:30 - 11:15 am • GENERAL EDUCATION
All Boys’ Staters living in Towns will report to Roche Dining Commons Room A for a 9:00 - 10:00 am • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
lecture on town government by Charles Stevens, a former member of the Board of
Selectmen in West Boylston. All Boys’ Staters living in Cities will report to Hemingway Elected officials assume roles and duties. Appointment of municipal offices. Candidates for
Theatre for a discussion of city government by Mr. DiCara. All sessions will discuss state legislature will speak. Voting for state legislature by means of paper ballot. Form J
governmental organization and budgeting as well as a review of Saturday evening’s must be utilized. Members of the American Legion will speak. Discussion topic - munici-
discussion topics. pal issues distributed at Sunday night's mayor and moderators' meeting. Mini-course room
11:30 am - 12:20 pm • LUNCH • 11:30 -- 3rd Platoon; 11:45 - 1st; 12:00 - 2nd
Election Officials must pick up ballots prior to 12:30 Municipal Meetings.
Completed Samsung Scholarship applications must be turned in to John Brady at lunch. 10:15 - 10:45 am • SPECIAL ASSEMBLY
Honorable Edward M. Kennedy, United States Senator
12:30 - 1:00 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Municipal Mtg. Rooms. Municipal office candidates will speak, voting by paper ballot. 11:00 - 11:30 am • ELECTIVES
LAW - Hemingway Theater, GOV - Roche Dining Commons Room A, ECON - Martin
1:15 - 2:00 pm • ELECTIVES
LAW - Hemingway Theater, GOV - Roche Dining Commons Room A, ECON - Martin
11:30 am - 12:20 pm • LUNCH
2:00 - 5:00 pm • RECREATION PERIOD 11:30 -- First Platoon; 11:45 - Second Platoon; 12:00 - Third Platoon
(All dorms are closed from 1:00 - 4:00 pm daily.)
12:30 - 1:30 pm • MINI-COURSES
5:30 - 6:20 pm • DINNER All state representatives and state senators should report to Roche Dining Commons Room
5:30 - 1st Platoon (Colors: 3rd Platoon); 5:45 - 2nd Platoon; 6:00 - 3rd Platoon A to be briefed about their duties. Immediately thereafter, each body will convene and select
Guests: American Legion Executive Board. Mayors & moderators will eat at 5:30 with
Mr. DiCara in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room. its officers. Then the House will go to Duffy 214 and the Senate to Duffy 215 along with
their advisors. Others report to mini courses in locations announced at 9AM.
6:30 - 8:15 pm • PARTY CONVENTION
Nationalist Convention - Roche Dining Commons Room A; Federalist Convention - 1:30 - 5:00 pm • RECREATION PERIOD
Hemingway Theater. The Party Chairman will introduce the Party Secretary and the
members of the Rules and Steering and Platform and Resolutions Committees. The party 5:30 - 6:20 pm • DINNER
will begin to plan its strategy for the week. Speeches by Auditor, Sec. of State, Atty.
General and Treasurer candidates. See suggested party rules, Section 2-14 on p. 23 and 5:30 - Second Platoon (Colors: 1st Platoon); 5:45 - Third Platoon; 6:00 - First Platoon
speech topics in Section 2-18. Invitees may have dinner in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room.
8:30 - 9:30 pm • GENERAL ASSEMBLY 6:30 - 7:45 pm • PARTY CONVENTIONS
Roche Dining Commons Room A. Speaker: Fr. Mark Cregan, President, Stonehill Nationalist Convention - Roche Dining Commons Room A; Federalist Convention -
College. Guests include the Department Commander and Executive Board, American Hemingway Theater. Speeches by candidates for Lt. Governor, Governor and U.S. Senator.
Legion. Long pants required.
Initial presentation of platforms and resolutions to each convention.
9:30 - 10:00 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Cities and towns will meet in their dorms to discuss GEN ED #3 (see Section 2-23, 8:00 pm ALUMNI NIGHT
pp.36-37). Each city & town shall report at Monday’s 8:00 AM assembly. Distinguished 1981 Boys’ State alumni will be present. Guest Speaker: Robert Ryan
10:30 pm • LIGHTS OUT 10:30 pm • LIGHTS OUT
Page 29 Page 30 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
TUESDAY, June 13, 2006 PRE-PRIMARY DAY WEDNESDAY, June 14, 2006 CANDIDATES' FORUM DAY
6:30 am • REVEILLE 6:30 am • REVEILLE
7:00 - 7:50 am • BREAKFAST 7:00 - 7:45 am • BREAKFAST
7:00 - First Platoon (Colors: 3rd Platoon); 7:15 - Second Platoon; 7:30 - Third Platoon 7:00 - Second Platoon (Colors: 1st Platoon); 7:15 - Third Platoon; 7:30 - First Platoon
Mayors & moderators meet with Mr. DiCara in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room
at 7:00 am. Election officials should pick up ballots from Mr. Sargavakian at breakfast. 7:45 am - Primary Elections will be conducted in Party Caucus.
Boys’ State I.D. Card required.
8:00 - 9:00 am • GENERAL EDUCATION
Roche Dining Commons Room A. John J. Brady, Chief for Higher Education - Middle 8:00 - 8:45 am • GENERAL EDUCATION
States Office, The College Board. Topic: Getting Into College and Paying For It. Roche Dining Commons Room A. Topic: The Bill of Rights; see page 53. Discussion of
GEN ED #4 (see Section 2-24, p.37).
9:00 am • PRE-PRIMARY ELECTIONS
Pre-Primary elections will be conducted by county in Party Caucus Rooms (p.56). 9:00 - 10:30 am • PARTY CONVENTIONS
Nationalist Convention, Roche Dining Commons Room A. Federalist Convention,
9:30 - 10:15 am • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS Hemingway Theater. This is the final convention session. Platforms and resolutions
Each official should estimate the funds he desires for the coming year, and prepare a should be finalized and adopted. Questions to be asked of candidates at tonight's forum
budget request (See Section 2-12 on p.22) for presentation at Wednesday evening's must be finalized by the Rules/Steering Committee. Each party must establish its
meeting. Clerk must pass in Appointment Sheet to Boys' State Office. strategy to elect its candidates to office.
10:30 - 11:15 am • ELECTIVES 10:30 - 11:15 am • ELECTIVES
LAW - Hemingway Theater, GOV - Roche Dining Commons Room A, ECON - Martin LAW - Hemingway Theater, GOV - Roche Dining Commons Room A, ECON - Martin
11:30 am - 12:20 pm • LUNCH 11:30 am - 12:20 pm • LUNCH
11:30 -- Second Platoon; 11:45 - Third Platoon; 12:00 - First Platoon 11:30 - Third Platoon; 11:45 - First Platoon; 12:00 - Second Platoon
11:30 am - Party chairmen and candidates for statewide office will meet with Mr. DiCara
12:30 - 1:30 pm • MINI-COURSES and Mr. Jacques in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room.
House and Senate will also meet at this time. House to D-214 and Senate to D-215.
12:30 - 1:30 pm • MINI-COURSES
1:30 - 5:00 pm • RECREATION PERIOD House and Senate will also meet at this time. House to D-214 and Senate to D-215.
5:30 - 6:20 pm • DINNER 1:30 - 5:00 pm • RECREATION PERIOD
5:30 - Third Platoon (Colors: 2nd Platoon); 5:45 - First Platoon; 6:00 - Second Platoon
5:30 - 6:20 pm • DINNER
6:30 - 7:45 pm • PARTY CONVENTIONS 5:30 - First Platoon (Colors: 3rd Platoon); 5:45 - Second Platoon; 6:00 - Third Platoon
Nationalist Convention - Roche Dining Commons Room A; Federalist Convention -
Hemingway Theater. Platforms and resolutions will be presented and discussed. 6:30 - 7:45 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
Finalists will speak. Adoption of municipal budgets. Work on municipal map. Clerk will pass in budget to
the Boys' State Office. Final resolution of municipal scenarios and issues on Form L
8:00 - 9:15 pm • GENERAL ASSEMBLY which will be handed in at Thursday morning's mayors and moderators' conference.
Roche Dining Commons Room A - Explanation of election procedures by Mr.
Sargavakian. Speaker: Brian Corey ‘75, Monster.com 8:00 - 10:00 pm • CANDIDATES FORUM
Roche Dining Commons Room A. Candidates for statewide office will speak and answer
9:30 - 10:00 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS questions. Each party will read/distribute its platforms and resolutions. Presiding: Tim
Cities and towns will meet in their dorms to discuss GEN ED #4 (see Section 2-24, p.37). Smith. Boys' State shirts required attire for all. Guest Speaker: Hon. Reed Hillman
Each city & town shall report at Wednesday’s 8:00 AM assembly.
10:30 pm • LIGHTS OUT
10:30 pm • LIGHTS OUT
Guide & Program Page 31 Page 32 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
THURSDAY, June 15, 2006 INAUGURATION DAY FRIDAY, June 16, 2006 PROROGUE DAY
6:30 am • REVEILLE 6:30 am • REVEILLE
7:00 - 7:45 am • BREAKFAST 7:00 - 7:50 am • BREAKFAST
7:00 - Third Platoon (Colors: 2nd Platoon); 7:15 - First Platoon; 7:30 - Second Platoon
The Board of Directors will be briefed by Mr. Brady. Nasiatka finalists will eat at 7:30
Mayors and Moderators are to meet with Mr. DiCara in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining
Room. Form L must be handed in. with the Board of Directors in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room.
7:00 - First Platoon (Colors: 3rd Platoon); 7:15 - Second Platoon; 7:30 - Third Platoon
7:45 am - Final elections will be conducted in Municipal Meeting Rooms.
Immediately after breakfast, completion of packing. Rooms will be inspected by
8:00 - 9:00 am • GENERAL EDUCATION representatives of Boys' State and Stonehill College.
Roche Dining Commons Room A. "The Great Debate."
8:30 - 9:45 am • COLLEGE FAIR
9:00 - 10:30 am • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS Ames Center.
This is the final business meeting of municipalities. Each City Council shall pass an
ordinance (see Section 2-9, p.20) & each town meeting shall pass a by-law (see Section 2-
11, p.21). Municipal reports must be completed. Each clerk will pass in a by-law or an Constitutional officers, House and Senate to meet: Constitutional officers to D-204,
ordinance to the Boys' State Office. Each city/town shall select 1 Boys’ Stater to enter
the Nasiatka Competition. House to D-214 and Senate to D-215.
10:30 - 11:15 am • ELECTIVES 10:00 - 11:00 am • CLOSING CEREMONIES/AWARDS
LAW - Hemingway Theater, GOV - Roche Dining Commons Room A, ECON - Martin Roche Dining Commons Room A. "Boys' State Reports". Announcement of Nasiatka
Award Recipient. Presentation of the Most Valuable Counselor Award. Awarding of
11:30 am - 12:20 pm • LUNCH prizes, trophies, and certificates; Championship Awards, Distribution of Prorogues.
Mr. Brady will have first lunch with the Nasiatka Semi-Finalists, in the Cleary Faculty / Guest Speaker: Sen. Steven Baddour (D-Methuen).
Staff Dining Room; essay topics to be distributed. Constitutional Officers will have
lunch with Tim Smith, also in the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room. 11:00 - 11:30 am • FINAL MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
11:30 - First Platoon; 11:45 - Second Platoon; 12:00 - Third Platoon
Turn in keys.
12:30 - 1:30 pm • MINI-COURSES
House and Senate will also meet at this time. House to D-214 and Senate to D-215. 11:30 am - 12:20 pm • LUNCH
Constitutional officers will address the legislature. Box lunch available in Hemingway Theatre
1:30 - 5:00 pm • RECREATION PERIOD 1:00 pm • BUSES ARRIVE
Baseball, Basketball, Softball, and Volleyball Championship Games and Track Meet. Parking Area L4 (Duffy Lot)
5:30 - 6:20 pm • DINNER
5:30 - Second Platoon (Colors: 1st Platoon); 5:45 - Third Platoon; 6:00 - First Platoon
Constitutional officers meet in Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room.
Essays to be handed in to Mr. Brady.
6:00 - 7:30 pm • SOFTBALL GAME Counselors vs. Championship Softball Team
7:45 pm The Constitutional Officers - Elect report to the Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining
Room. The Band should report to the Roche Dining Commons Room A.
8:00 - 10:00 pm • INAUGURATION
Roche Dining Commons Room A. Oath of Office will be administered to the Constitu-
tional Officers by Judge Dennis Curran ‘69. Each will speak briefly. Announcement of
Nasiatka Finalists. Coats, ties required dress.
10:00 pm • MUNICIPAL MEETINGS
10:30 pm • LIGHTS OUT
Guide & Program Page 33 Page 34 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
A permit would be used in a situation such as a bank seeking to use space in a 2-21 GENERAL EDUCATION 2A
residential zone for an office. Also please be aware that structures built prior to
the establishment of zoning laws are “grandfathered ” or not subject to the This is a simple question worthy of extensive debate among the citizens of your
restrictions. community on Saturday evening before lights out. Each community will select a spokes-
man to report at the Gen. Ed lecture to be held on Sunday morning. Towns and cities will
assemble separately as called for in the program book.
2-20 GENERAL EDUCATION 1 Should the City switch from a popularly-elected Mayor to a City Manager appointed
by the City Council?
Major Howard Augustine of the City of Forman has a dilemma: should he Cities with a council-manager form of government vest most executive power and
support the passage of the Community Preservation Act in his city and, if so, for day-to-day administrative operations in the hands of a manager, appointed by the City
what purposes? Council. Typically, he or she has an extensive background in public administration and
urban planning. The manager is a professional who is theoretically unbiased by party
The Mayor, presently serving in his second term, has been in the affiliation or other special interests. This nonpartisan aspect is probably the greatest asset
midst of a longstanding balancing act. Somehow or other he has and weakness of the council-manager form of government. The manager is not directly
remained a close ally of organized labor despite the fact that his new accountable to the voting public, but is thus insulated from the pressures and corruption
wife, Patricia Flanagan – the heir to a large mayonnaise fortune – that often come with elected office. Furthermore, the manager is responsible to the City
is an avid environmentalist who has contributed freely from her Council, who are in turn elected by the public. A mayor is retained in this system as the
fortune to groups which have worked to stop some of the development presiding officer of the City Council, but typically has few other powers.
which the Mayor has been encouraging. Ms. Flanagan, who has For more information, including which cities in Massachusetts have manager systems,
insisted upon keeping her own name, is very independent of the see section 3-6, City Government on p.47.
Mayor in most every way. The Mayor tolerates her conduct, given
that her fortune allows him to enjoy a lavish lifestyle, as well as 2-22 GENERAL EDUCATION 2B
continue his public service.
This is a simple question worthy of extensive debate among the citizens of your commu-
The passage of the CPA is a very important issue given that nity on Saturday evening before lights out. Each community will select a spokesman to
Freddy’s Farm, a landmark on the outskirts of the city, is under report at the General Education lecture to be held on Sunday morning. Towns and cities
agreement to a developer who intends to construct a biotech park. will assemble separately as called for in the program book.
One of the few ways for the city to prevent the farm from being Should the Town abandon its long-standing town meeting, elect a town council and appoint
developed is to match the purchase price. The town has a right of first a town manager?
refusal. One of the options for doing so is to pass the Community Most towns with a manager still retain a town meeting in which citizens vote on
Preservation Act, which would provide for a small property tax budgets, elected officials, and various issues regarding education, planning, etc. The
surcharge with the receipts there from being matched by the state. primary difference in a manager form of government is that most administrative responsi-
These dollars are earmarked for affordable housing, historic preser- bilities are bestowed upon a manager. Typically he or she has an extensive background in
vation or the acquisition of open space. Housing has become an public administration and urban planning and is appointed by the Board of Selectmen. The
important state-wide issue but the housing crisis is especially acute manager is a professional who is theoretically unbiased by party affiliation or other special
in Forman given that teachers, firefighters, police officers, nurses interests. This nonpartisan aspect is probably the greatest asset and weakness of the town
and many other public employees can no longer afford to live in the manager form of government. The manager is not directly accountable to the voting public,
city. Some have also suggested that the city has a moral obligation but is thus insulated from the pressures and corruption that often come with elected office.
to house those displaced by hurricanes and other natural disasters. Furthermore, the manager is responsible to the Board of Selectmen, who are in turn elected
by the public.
Should the Mayor support the CPA in the upcoming municipal referen- For more information, including which towns in Massachusetts have manager
dum or work against it hoping that the Biotech park will provide “good jobs at systems, see section 3-7, Town Government on p.48.
good wages”? If he does support the CPA, how should he allocate the proceeds
percentage-wise to the three options available (housing; historic preservation 2-23 GENERAL EDUCATION 3
and open space)? Keep in mind, in your discussions, that the Mayor is likely to Your consulting company - ALBS Associates - has been retained by a Democratic
seek reelection to a third term and would be appreciative of the support of orga- nominee for Congress in a conservative, mostly Catholic, district in the Northeast. This is
nized labor – both the building trades and public employees. Furthermore, keep in one of those Congressional districts filled with “Reagan Democrats.” Historically, the
mind that Patricia Flanagan is his wife and financial benefactor. District voted for Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, Clinton
and then Bush. Your candidate, who is well educated and well financed, has been a major
fund-raiser for the Democratic Party. He has met former President Clinton on a number of
occasions. He has raised money for President Clinton. The President has now offered to
Guide & Program Page 35 Page 36 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
attend a major fund-raiser in the district to benefit your candidate’s campaign and 3. THE GOVERNMENT OF MASSACHUSETTS
also to campaign publicly in a high profile/perfect for television coverage setting.
This is the type of opportunity at which most candidates would salivate. 3-1 CONSTITUTIONAL OFFICERS
Since leaving office, the President’s popularity has wavered. The pardons Massachusetts elects six constitutional officers, on a partisan basis, every
scandal seems to fester, as do allegations of his marital infidelity. Many question four years. Other than the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor who run as a
whether he and his wife, now a U.S. Senator, even live together, calling theirs a team in the final election, all are elected individually.
“marriage of convenience”. The “character” issue is especially important to older Governor The Governor is the chief executive officer of the state. Most of the
Catholic women who comprise a goodly percentage of regular Democratic voters in authority, power and responsibility come directly from the Constitution with the
this district. Despite all his problems, the former President remains the most popular remainder found in laws enacted by the Legislature. Our state Constitution does
Democrat in the country. detail some of the powers the Governor has in respect to the legislative and judicial
Advise your candidate - one way or the other - as to whether to accept the branches of state government. The Governor:
former President’s invitation to campaign in the district or to respectfully decline. • is directed to present an annual budget to the Legislature; he or she has a line-item
What if his wife, Senator Hillary Clinton makes the same offer? veto over the budget, and the authority to reduce any budget item.
2-24 GENERAL EDUCATION 4 • may recommend as well as veto legislation (which, in turn, may be overridden).
• may recommend the length of time that a state loan may be floated.
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court has ruled that our State Constitu- • may call the Legislature into a special session.
tion, written by John Adams, cannot be interpreted to prohibit the marriage of two • with the advice and consent of the Council may "adjourn or prorogue" any
consenting adults of the same gender. legislative session at the request of both legislative branches.
• is President of the Governor's Council, though he/she does not have a vote.
You are a candidate for the State Legislature and a weekly communicant at a If the Governor presides over the Council, the Lt.Governor can vote to break a
large Roman Catholic Church in the heart of the legislative district. Like many, tie. When the Lt. Governor presides he can’t vote, even to break a tie.
you question some of the church’s teachings privately and around the kitchen • may grant pardons, with the approval of the Council.
table, but not in open discussion. Your brother-in-law is gay. His sister, your • may appoint/remove heads of most major departments & state agencies.
wife, thinks you are a hypocrite for questioning the church’s teachings with • nominates all judicial officers of the Commonwealth, with the advice and consent
respect to homosexuality but not doing so publicly. When the question is asked of the Council.
at the First Candidates Night, “Would you vote to amend the Massachusetts • is the Commander-in-Chief of the state's military forces (the Massachusetts'
Constitution to limit marriage to a man and a woman?”, how will you respond? Is National Guard).
this a question of civic liberties or one of simple politics? What is an appropriate The Governor also has the authority to appoint individuals to a large number
of boards and commissions - some of which are created solely by the Executive
separation of church and state? Branch, some by other branches of state government and some mandated by the
federal government (as a prerequisite to the receipt of federal grants). The members
of these boards may be appointed on a full or part-time basis, salaried or
Lieutenant Governor The Office of the Lieutenant Governor was created by the
King of England in 1629. Its primary purpose then and now was to establish an
orderly procedure for the transferal of responsibility and power upon the absence or
death of the Governor. The Lt. Governor has little authority and responsibility
under our Constitution and our laws; he or she must rely upon the Governor for the
assignment of specific duties.
The Lt. Governor is a voting member of the Governor's Council; when the
Governor is absent, the Lt. Governor presides over the Council but may not vote.
Secretary The Secretary of the Commonwealth is charged by the Constitution to
keep the records of the Commonwealth, including a copy of every departmental
report, the election returns for the state as well as for every city and town, a record
of every appointment made by the Governor, and the original of every Act enacted
by the General Court. To these basic requirements have been added the recording
of all births and deaths; the incorporation papers of every business incorporated in
Massachusetts, and responsibility for supervising certain aspects of all elections
(federal, state and municipal). He also licenses and oversees those dealing in
securitites. He/she is also charged with the publication and distribution of the: Laws
of the Commonwealth, public documents, etc. including the Massachusetts Register
and Code of Massachusetts and overseeing the recording of all deeds.
Guide & Program Page 37 Page 38 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
The following departments are under the supervision of the Secretary's 3-2 THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
office; Citizen Information; Elections; State Bookstore; Corporations; State House All executive and administrative work of the Commonwealth is organized into
Tours; State Census; Securities; Massachusetts Historical Commission; State many departments, bureaus, commissions, authorities, boards, committees, councils
Archives; Fiscal and Personnel Divisions. and divisions, under the direction of the secretaries. The Secretaries, and those who
Attorney-General The Attorney-General is the chief legal officer of the Common- head the different departments are appointed by the Governor.
wealth who represents the state in all litigation involving the Commonwealth. He or Each of the secretaries and directors are listed below, along with some of the
she must be a member of the Massachusetts Bar. Upon request from state officers - more important departments, divisions, boards, commissions, and authorities under its
elected or appointed - the Attorney-General may provide legal advice on the laws of jurisdiction.
the Commonwealth as they pertain to the administration of the state and local
matters. In addition, the approval of the Attorney-General is mandatory as to form Executive Offices
and conformance to statutory provisions in order to establish the validity of certain
specified governmental documents. Unless ruled otherwise by the courts, the
Attorney-General's certification is final as to the legality of a document or an Administration & Finance Environmental Affairs
opinion as to the validity of a specific act by a state officer.
Treasurer and Receiver-General The State Treasurer is the custodian of all state Capital Asset Management & Maintenance Dept. of Environmental Protection
funds. He or she is the only state officer authorized to make payments from state Bureau of State Office Buildings Dept. of Agricultural Resources
funds. Further, all state funds are required to be deposited with the Treasurer. The Office on Disability Dept. of Fish & Game
State Treasurer supervises the collection of monies by the cities and towns as well Disabled Persons Protection Commission Dept. of Conservation & Recreation
as marketing state bonds and managing the State Lottery. Division of Administrative Law Appeals Dept. of Early Childhood Education
The State Treasurer serves as Chairman of the state's lottery commission. He Department of Veterans Services
sits on the State Board of Retirement and Emergency Finance Board. Information Technology Division Health & Human Services
Auditor The Auditor has a responsibility which extends to all agencies and Appellate Tax Board
departments of the state including all districts and authorities created by the General Department of Revenue Dept. of Mental Health
Court. The Auditor must oversee the use of all government funds: to ascertain that MA Commission Against Discrimination Dept. of Public Health
all monies have been dispersed in accordance with the laws of the Commonwealth, Children & Seniors’ Health Care
that records have been kept, and to conduct postaudits of these accounts. Children, Youth & Family Services Dept. of Elder Affairs
The duties of the Auditor are distinct from those of the State Comptroller, for Health Care Finance & Policy
the Comptroller has the day-to-day financial accountability responsibility of these Dept. of Transitional Assistance
funds; and for ensuring the legality of a proposed payment before payment is made. Dept. of Social Services
The State Auditor reviews the transactions after they have been made to verify their
completeness as well as legality. Public Safety & Homeland
Governor's Council The Governor's Council, sometimes termed the Executive Disabilities & Community Services Security
Council, or just Council, consists of eight persons plus the Lt. Governor. Massa-
chusetts is only one of 3 states - New Hampshire and Maine being the others - MA Commission for the Blind Dept. of Correction
whose constitutions provide for a Council to advise the Governor. The major MA Rehabilitation Commission State Police
function of the Council, as its duties are detailed in the Constitution, is to act as a MA Commission for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Registry of Motor Vehicles
check on the Governor in certain matters. Soldiers’ Home in Massachusetts Dept. of Public Safety
In colonial times the Executive Council "assisted" the Governor in managing Soldiers’ Home in Holyoke Chief Medical Examiner
the affairs of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. With the freemen, they passed the Dept. of Youth Services Sex Offender Registry Board
laws and ordinances governing the colony. Under the 1691 Charter, they elected Dept. of Mental Health Criminal Justice Training Council
the House of Representatives. In 1779, the framers of the Constitution set the Dept. of Fire Services
Council off from the Legislature, as the Councilors were originally elected from the Economic Development Merit Rating Board
Senate by the entire Legislature. Beginning in 1833, they were popularly elected on
a state-wide basis. Military Division
The Council may give its consent to the Governor's: Dept. of Labor Emergency Management Agency
• appointment of persons to positions having quasi-judicial functions. Dept. of Workforce Development County Corrections
• appointment of judicial officers. Housing & Community Development Parole Board
• signing of warrants for the payment of state funds from the Treasury. Consumer Affairs & Business Regulations
• granting of pardons. Division of Banks
• allowing the adjournment or prorogation of the Legislature. Division of Insurance
Division of Professional Licensure
Division of Standards
Dept. of Telecommunications & Energy
State Racing Commission
Division of Business & Technology
Dept. of Education
Board of Higher Education
Guide & Program Page 39 Page 40
Page 40 2003 Massachusetts Boys’ State
2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
Senate for similar action and if that body also passes the bill to be enacted, it is then sent
3-3 THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH to the Governor for his approval. The Governor has five days within which to do one of
The Great & General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the the following:
direct descendant of the body of the same name established by the royal charter of 1. Sign the bill.
the Massachusetts Bay Colony for the purpose of regulating the affairs of the 2. Allow the bill to become law without his signature.
colony and administering its laws. While the “Great and General Court” had 3. Return it to the branch in which it was originated with a recommendation that an
considerable judicial authority, its successor acts in such a capacity only in cases of amendment specified by him be made thereto.
impeachment. 4. Veto the bill, in which case he must give his reasons for so doing.
Our Legislative body is divided into 2 separate and distinct branches, the If the Governor elects to veto a bill or resolve, the measure may still become law, if
Senate and the House of Representatives. The membership of the Senate is set at
40 members, while that of the House of Representatives is set at 160. In each case passed in both Houses by a two-thirds vote of the members. The measure fails if the two-
the Commonwealth has been divided into districts which contain about the same thirds vote is not obtained, or if the legislature has prorogued for the year.
number of people. The House is organized on a partisan basis. The leader of the majority party is
The General Court convenes annually on the first Wednesday in January. traditionally elected Speaker of the House and serves as the presiding officer. He is
Massachusetts is one of the few states with regular annual sessions unlimited by assisted by a Majority Leader who has a number of assistants, his first assistant being
constitutional provision as to either time or agenda. Propositions for consideration known as the Majority Whip. The minority party is headed by the Minority Leader whose
by the General Court may be introduced into either branch and may take the form of first assistant is the Minority Whip.
bills, orders, resolves, or resolutions. Any of these types of propositions may be The Senate is also organized on a partisan basis. The leader of the majority party
introduced as a petition by a citizen or group of citizens, or be the result of a is known as the President of the Senate and serves as presiding officer. He is assisted by
message from the Governor, or the result of an annual report from the head of some a Majority Leader and a Majority Whip. The minority party is headed by the Minority
administrative branch of the state government. Leader, who is assisted by the Minority Whip.
The General Court is the only legislative body in the United States which has The powers of the General Court are as follows:
the right of free petition. A representative or senator must place his signature upon 1. To enact laws (in conformity with both the United States’ and
any bill presented to him by one of his constituents. He may note on the bill, Massachusetts’ Constitutions) to regulate the cities and towns of
however, that he is doing so “by request,” i.e. only because he must. Each bill is the Commonwealth and their inhabitants.
given a public hearing by a joint committee and in each case the petitioner is 2. To establish and organize courts.
informed of the time and place of the hearing and given an opportunity to speak. 3. To approve an annual budget for the state.
When a proposition is presented for consideration to either branch, it is 4. To impose taxes of all types.
immediately referred to an appropriate committee by the Clerk of the branch to which In 1966 the voters of the Commonwealth adopted Article 89 of the Constitution
it was presented. After both branches have concurred in the reference, a joint which reaffirmed the rights of local governments. Under “home rule” the General Court
committee holds a hearing. Upon the completion of the hearing, the committee may not enact a law relating to an individual city or town, unless the legislature and
considers the proposal and makes a report to one of the branches. This report may executive branches of the community’s government have requested the General Court to
be either favorable or adverse and may contain suggestions for amendment of the do so.
original matter as presented.
When the report of the committee has been filed with the Clerk, he places it The following are the Joint Standing Committees of the General Court:
on the calendar of the body. If the report is a favorable one, it takes its first reading
without debate and thereafter progresses successively to the second and third Bills in Third Reading Higher Education
readings. At any stage, with the exception noted, the proposal may be debated on Post Audit and Oversight Housing
the floor and rejected. Such a rejection serves to eliminate the subject matter of the Ethics and Rules Judiciary
bill from consideration by either branch for the duration of the session. Ways and Means Labor & Workforce Development
Any matter which successively passes three readings in either branch is then Bonding, Capital Expenditures and Mental Health & Substance Abuse
“Passed to be Engrossed” and sent to the other branch for consideration. Here the State Assets Municipalities & Regional Government
same procedure is followed and the matter may be favorably acted upon or rejected Commerce and Labor Public Health
by the second branch. Children and Families Public Safety & Homeland Security
The second branch must, however, accept the bill in precisely the same Community Development and Public Service
wording as it was presented to it. In the case of a difference of opinion, by amend- Small Business State Administration & Regulatory
ment or otherwise, by the second branch - and each branch insists on its position - Consumer Protection and Professional Oversignt
it is referred to a conference committee composed of members of each branch for the Licensure Revenue
purpose of effecting a compromise to both. The report of the conference committee Economic Development and Emerging Telecommunications, Utilities & Energy
must then be accepted by both houses. Technology Tourism, Arts and Cultural Development
After a bill or resolve has been “Passed to be Engrossed” by both branches, Education Transportation
it is sent to the office of the Secretary of State where it is “Engrossed”, that is, Elder Affairs Veterans & Federal Affairs
written upon a heavy parchment by a special typewriter, after which the bill or Election Laws
resolve is returned to the House for enactment or passing. It then goes to the Environmental, Natural Resources and
Health Care Financing
Guide & Program Page 41 Page 42 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
Massachusetts Legislative Process 3-4 THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE COURT SYSTEM
Massachusetts has a hierarchical court structure that resembles the steps on the
ladder of the federal court system. At the base of the ladder are the trial courts.
Here is where cases are tried before a single judge or jury and where the facts are
All bills are filed at the end of the year for the next session. found. Was someone under the influence of alcohol? Did the defendant pull the
trigger or was he just standing on the sidewalk?
Bills are sent to one of 23 committees. Public hearings are convened for each bill between The finder of fact may be either a judge or a jury. Serious criminal offenses are
February and April. This is called the bill's "first reading." usually tried before a jury. In certain cases, such as divorce, zoning or land title
cases, the finder of fact is the judge. Sometimes parties choose to try a case before
finance-related bills nonfinance-related bills
a judge sitting without a jury because the subject is such that they think they can get
House Ways & Means Committee
a fairer hearing from a judge. Complex business litigation frequently falls into this
In the trial courts, one judge presides. That judge decides questions of law
House floor for debate. This is called the bill's "second reading." Any member may request a roll call such as evidence (should that statement be admitted or is it inadmissible hearsay?
where everyone's vote is recorded; if not, a voice vote is taken. Did the State Environmental Protection Act require the filing of an environmental
impact statement?), and, if a jury is sitting, instructs the jury on the law (e.g., what
Committee on Bills in Third Reading. This step allows for a review of the bill for its technical
the elements of assault and battery are).
correctness and constitutionality. If a party is dissatisfied with the result in the trial court, that party has the right
to appeal the matter to the appeals court, where judges sit in panels of three.
If dissatisfied with the result in the appeals court, the disappointed party may
House floor for debate. This is called the bill's "third reading." A voice vote or roll call follows the seek further appellate review in the Supreme Judicial Court, which has the power to
debate. If the majority votes in favor, the bill is passed by the House, which is called "engrossment." decide whether or not it will hear the case. The SJC ordinarily sits in a panel of five
judges (four is a quorum). In Massachusetts, the SJC is the last judicial word on
finance-related bills nonfinance-related bills questions of State law. If the SJC declines to grant further review, the appeals court
will have been the last stop.
Senate Ways & Means Committee
The Trial Court The Massachusetts Trial Court is a unitary court whose
judges, in theory, are interchangeable parts, subject to assignment anywhere in the
Senate floor. The bill's "second reading." Voice vote or roll call vote will be taken.
Commonwealth by the chief administrative justice of the trial court. In practice, the
judges are likely to sit in the court to which they were appointed.
Committee on Bills in Third Reading, another technical review. There are two tiers of "general jurisdiction", meaning courts which try a wide
variety of criminal and civil cases. These are the district court and the superior
court. The latter, as its name implies, handles higher level cases.
Senate floor. This is the bill's "third reading." The process here is the same as the House floor. Once
passed by the House and Senate, the bill goes through one more procedural step, called enactment. Then
There are also four specialized courts which hear particular types of cases: the
the bill is sent to the Governor. probate and family court, the land court, the juvenile court and the housing court.
The office of the commissioner of probation is also a part of the trial court organiza-
Governor's signature. The Governor has ten days to sign the bill into law. If he doesn't, the bill dies, District Court The district court is where most Massachusetts citizens are
unless the legislature overrides his veto by a two-thirds vote by both branches. likely to encounter the justice system. The jurisdiction of a district court is geo-
graphically compact, sometimes confined to a municipality (e.g. the Boston
Municipal Court or the Stoughton District Court), sometimes to abutting communi-
ties (e.g. the Cambridge division which covers Cambridge, Arlington and Belmont).
Bill may begin in either the House or the Senate. The district courts hear misdemeanor criminal cases, such as assault and battery
If the bill does not pass by the end of the year or is voted down at any step, the and larceny, and traffic offenses, including driving under the influence of alcohol.
process begins from the first step at the start of next year's legislative session. They also hear a wide variety of civil cases involving sums in dispute of less than
$25,000, such as breach of contract cases and negligence actions. They also deal
with cases involving care and protection of minors and protection against spousal
District court is the court in which hearings to establish probable cause take
place that may lead to proceedings in the superior court. A case may start in the
district court and, if the amounts in controversy turn out to be substantial (over
$25,000), may be removed to the superior court. Conversely, a case may start in the
superior court and, if the amounts in controversy are less than $25,000, may be
remanded to the district court.
Guide & Program Page 43 Page 44 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
Most district court cases are tried before a judge, who acts as the finder of fact. Housing Court Another specialized court, the housing court was established
Any person convicted by a district court judge of either a civil or a criminal offense to deal particularly with landlord/tenant disputes in urban areas. The busiest housing
previously had the right to appeal for an entirely new trial in the district court before court, as one might imagine, is in Boston. There are also a Hampden Housing
a jury of six persons. This ability to seek a second trial in the district court was Court, a Worcester Housing Court, and Northeastern and Southeastern District
known as trial de novo. This practice has been eliminated by recent legislation and Housing Courts. The housing court has a chief justice and three justices. If you are
now persons in the district court have only one "bite at the apple" in district court. involved in a landlord-tenant dispute, your first stop would likely be in housing
Juvenile criminal offenders are tried separately in juvenile court. court.
The district court has its own appellate division which handles appeals for civil Unlike other courts, the housing courts have an investigative arm so that neutral
cases. District court judges, sitting in panels of 3, review the rulings of their representatives from the court can report to the judge if an apartment is the roach-
colleagues and correct their errors, if any. Parties dissatisfied with decisions of the infested, leaking firetrap, as the tenant says, or if it is maintained at the standard of
appellate division of the district court may appeal to the appeals court. In criminal the Ritz, as the landlord says.
cases, persons may appeal their convictions in district court directly to the appeals Most housing court business is conducted in front of a judge without juries
court. although jury trials are available.
The chief administrative justice of the district court makes assignments, sees to Juvenile Court As noted earlier, criminal cases involving persons under 18
the allocation of court resources, assures uniform procedures and is generally are handled by a specialized juvenile court. In the past, the juvenile court only sat
responsible for the management of that division of the court system. in Boston, Worcester, Springfield and Bristol County, with district courts in all
Among the courts with district court jurisdiction, there is one, the Boston other areas of the Commonwealth holding juvenile court sessions as part of the
Municipal Court ("BMC"), that has separate status on the organizational chart. In district court. As part of legislation passed in 1992, the juvenile court was expanded
addition to its jurisdiction as a district court for the City of Boston, the BMC hears to sit on a state-wide basis, and the court has been expanding facilities to accom-
Civil Service Commission appeals from the entire state. plish this goal.
The Superior Court The superior court of the Commonwealth is where the The juvenile court deals with children who have been charged with various
important and notorious issues of the day are actually tried before a judge and jury. types of criminal wrongdoing. The Department of Youth Services (DYS) functions
These cases include murder, rape, conspiracy, jousts between business interests, as the treatment end into which the juvenile court funnels youthful offenders when a
trademark disputes, product liability, medical malpractice and labor controversies. sentence other than imprisonment is deemed desirable. If the crime is very grave or
In some counter, there is a special business session. the youth particularly incorrigible, the juvenile court may order a transfer to the
Within the superior court, there is an appellate division, consisting of three superior court. If a juvenile is transferred to superior court, the juvenile would be
judges, to review certain sentences of imprisonment. tried as an adult, and, if convicted, would enter the general prison population.
Grand juries meet under the umbrella of the superior court and hand up The juvenile court also has jurisdiction over children in need of services.
indictments, which under the United States Constitution, are a prerequisite to Commonly referred to as CHINS cases, these are children needing the court's care
charging a person with a serious criminal offense. Petit juries, who hear trials, are and protection, and often involve either placing a child in an adoptive home or
the standard 12-person jury. under DYS supervision.
Probate And Family Court The probate and family court department
("probate court" is the term for the probate and family court commonly used in The Appeals Court Any litigant displeased with the result in a trial court may
conversation) consists of 14 divisions, one per county. appeal to the appeals court. The only cases that do not, in the first instance, travel to
The probate part of the probate and family court deals with allowing wills, the appeals court are first degree murder and certain kinds of utility or consumer
administration of trusts, resolving disputes over wills and trusts and administration rate cases--those rates set by the Department of Public Utilities and the insurance
of estates. The family part has to do with divorces and adoptions. The probate commissioner.
court also deals with the removal of children from unfit parents and the placing of For most cases, the appeals court is also the end of the process through the
those children in adoptive homes. With only a few exceptions, a probate court court system. Cases from other administrative agencies, such as the Appellate Tax
judge sits without a jury and finds the facts: was the grandmother subjected to undue Board and the Labor Relations Commission, also go to the appeals court.
influence by her grasping nephew when she wrote her will, did the wife, as charged, One of the appeals court judges is the chief justice, the others are associate
cruelly and abusively beat her husband? justices. They sit in panels of three and issue written opinions. For the most part,
Land Court The land court is a specialized court. As the name implies, it the appeals court will decide issues of law which were raised in the trial court
deals with real estate. An original and still very important purpose of the court is proceedings, as opposed to issues of fact. The finder of fact in the trial court, be it a
the registration of land titles. Title to land in Massachusetts is generally established judge or a juror, is not often second guessed by an appeals court. The rational for
through historical evidence obtained by searching title records at the various this is that, at some point, issues have to be resolved, otherwise the courts would be
registries of deeds. Those searches often lead to uncertain titles: ancient flaws or continually relitigating the same questions. Therefore, an appeals court will
ambiguities, uncertain boundaries, double claims of title and fractionary interests generally accept the findings of fact of a trial court, and will instead decide whether
unaccounted for. The land court holds a trial and with the help of in-house engi- or not the law was properly applied in the given circumstances of a case. Thus, an
neers and title examiners, as well as through testimony, will determine title to land appeals court may well hold that a judge incorrectly instructed the jury as to what
and register it. When that is done the owner receives a certificate of title from the constituted the elements of assault and battery. However, an appeals court will
land court. These sorts of proceedings are still very important in rural areas. rarely reverse the finding of a judge or jury because it has read the trial transcript
The land court also deals with mortgage foreclosures and land use disputes and decided that the decision the fact finder reached is not rational or "supported by
arising out of the administration of zoning and planning laws. It is also the place the evidence."
where an aggrieved party may go to test the validity of a municipal zoning code.
Guide & Program Page 45 Page 46 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
The Supreme Judicial Court The Supreme Judicial Court is the top of the Councillors (sometimes called aldermen) are elected either at-large or from a
judicial pyramid in Massachusetts. There are seven SJC justices, one of whom is district; some councils have a mixture of at-large and district councillors. Most
the chief justice, the others are called associate justices. Parties dissatisfied with elections are nonpartisan and held in the fall; most terms are two years.
decisions of the appeals court may petition for further appellate review by the SJC. The City of Everett retains a bicameral local legislature; every two years the
The SJC can decide whether or not it wants to hear the case. Most of the time, the people elect members of the board of aldermen and the common council.
answer is "no" and that is why, for most cases, the appeals court is the end of the All city councillors have the inherent legislative power to pass ordinances. If
line. The cases which the SJC does agree to hear usually involve a novel or particu- the mayor vetoes a council ordinance, two-thirds of the members can override the
larly vexatious question of law which the SJC believes is important to settle veto. All city councils have the same legislative powers of town meetings and town
definitively. As with the appeals court, the SJC will base its review of the case councils, without regard to the structure of government.
primarily on the trial transcript, will not concern itself with the facts of a particular There are many different types of city government. Most, however, can be
case, but will instead focus on whether or not the underlying legal issues were placed into one of the following categories.
correctly dealt with by the trial court or the appeals court. Plan A. Strong Mayor/Weak Council - The mayor has the power to appoint
The SJC can also cause a case to bypass the appeals court by putting the case all of the chief managerial officials of city government without the necessity of
on its docket for direct appellate review. It will do so if it thinks the point being council confirmation. Boston and Springfield have this system.
raised is of particular statewide importance. Plan B. Weak Mayor/Strong Council - Most of the mayor’s appointees must
In addition to general appellate jurisdiction, the SJC deals with bar discipline, be confirmed by the city council. Pittsfield and Gardner are cities with this system.
or the oversight of attorney conduct in the discharge of their duties, the superinten- Plan C. Commission - Cities which operate under this system elect a mayor
dency of the lower courts, and renders advisory opinions to the Legislature on and four other commissioners. Each operates within his own field; together they
solemn occasions, which generally relate to the court's advice as to the constitution- care for the entire city government. The mayor is the commissioner for administra-
ality of proposed legislation. (Prepared by Robert D. Keough, Esq '79) tion, the others hold the positions of Commissioner of Public Safety, Parks and
Properties, Engineering, or Health and Charities. For many years the city of
3-5 COUNTY GOVERNMENT Lawrence retained this system in Massachusetts, but it moved to a mayor/council
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has had some form of county govern- system in January, 1986.
ment dating back to 1643. Massachusetts’ fourteen (14) counties are geographic Plan D/E. Manager - Four cities in Massachusetts have a city manager form
subdivisions, but not units of government in the accepted usage of the term, as is of government - Cambridge, Chelsea, Lowell, and Worcester. In each case, a city
frequently the case in many other states, especially outside of the Northeast. Each council is elected every two years, on a nonpartisan basis. Except in Worcester, the
county derives its political existence from the Great & General Court. Some councilors assemble and select one of their members to be their presiding officer.
counties have differing forms of government than others. Many changes have been In Worcester, the Mayor is elected popularly.
made in the past few years. Unlike mayor/council governments, however, this person who is known as the
Some counties elect county commissioners. The Mayor and the members of mayor serves as the titular and ceremonial head of city government. Acting
the Boston City Council exercise the powers of the County Commissioners in together, the city council chooses a properly qualified person to act as the chief
Suffolk County. The Town of Nantucket is also a county with the Selectmen administrative officer and who is known by the title of city manager. Various other
serving as County Commissioners. officials may be elected or appointed under the provisions of the charter granted by
Notwithstanding whatever may be occurring to other county positions, the legislature. The exact titles and duties of these officers vary according to the
especially given ever increasing state oversight, one official is likely to always be individual charters.
elected on a county basis and that is the District Attorney. The District Attorney is Each city in Massachusetts has a school committee, which, by tradition, is
elected for a term of four (4) years and is responsible for prosecuting all cases separate from the other elected bodies and the executive. The Commonwealth of
within the jurisdiction of the county. In Massachusetts, there are eleven (11) Massachusetts has a tradition of keeping politics out of education. Members of the
District Attorneys. Franklin and Hampshire Counties share a District Attorney, as school committee are elected for terms which vary according to the charter, and
do Barnstable, Dukes, (Martha’s Vineyard) and Nantucket Counties. Anyone different cities have different numbers of people serving on the school committee.
interested in the structure of their own county is advised to inquire via the office of The major job of the school committee is to administer the school system; this
the local District Attorney. includes the hiring of a superintendent and all teachers, and also the formulation of a
3-6 CITY GOVERNMENT
The authority under which a city government in Massachusetts operates is 3-7 TOWN GOVERNMENT
derived from the General Court in the form of a city charter which was traditionally Under the General Laws of Massachusetts, local government may assume one
granted by a special act of the Legislature. Under the Home Rule Amendment of the two general forms, city or town. In each case the authority under which the
(Article 89) of the Constitution of the Commonwealth, cities and towns have the local government acts is derived from the General Court.
right to write their own charters, or revise their existing charter by means of a The cornerstone of town government in Massachusetts is Town Meeting.
charter commission. Each year, changes are made. Recently, many towns have Town Meeting is truly the only place in the entire structure of government where the
adopted a city form of government. individual voter is able to support or oppose the policies under which his govern-
Of the 40 cities in Massachusetts, 36 have a mayor/council system. In all ment is operated. His voice is heard and his vote is counted before any decisions
cases, the mayor can only spend city money or apply for federal grants or send can be made.
home rule petitions to the legislature after receiving council approval. A two-thirds Under the town meeting system, all qualified voters assemble at a central point
vote is needed to borrow money or to sell public lands. Thus, the concept of a for the purpose of discussing and settling their problems and selecting their
balance of powers reaches the local level in Massachusetts. officials.
Guide & Program Page 47 Page 48 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
They authorize all expenditures and they criticize, accept or reject the reports of all Three or five selectmen are elected for terms of one, two, or three years. The
elected or appointed officials. As a final expression of their control over their own selectmen elect a chairman who shall conduct all meetings and also represent the
municipal affairs, they select their officers for the coming year. town. Except in the case of a town manager, the Board of Selectmen appoints all
The local administration of town affairs may take one of many forms in minor offices.
Massachusetts. In the majority of towns, the form just described is the one in force. A Town Clerk, who is often appointed, serves for a term of one or more years.
The citizens meet annually in a general town meeting to discuss their affairs and He/she must keep accurate and complete records of all town meetings, and also is
provide for the common needs for the ensuing year. In this type of town meeting charged with the keeping of all vital statistics.
every qualified voter is eligible to attend and help in the determination of the wishes A Town Treasurer, who is often appointed, for a term of one or more years, is
of the town. He may take part in the discussions and cast his vote on all matters in charge of receiving all revenues for the town and for making all disbursements.
which come before the body. Three or five members of the Board of Assessors, who are often appointed, are
In some of the larger towns, however, the number of qualified voters is so great charged with apportioning an equal share of town expenses upon every inhabitant in
that it is impossible to accommodate all of them in any single meeting place, making the manner approved by law. They are also entrusted to assess all property accord-
it impossible for a truly democratic town meeting to be held. At the present time, ing to its full and fair market value.
many of the larger towns hold what are known as “Representative” town meetings. Every town has a School Committee which has three or more members, serving
Such towns are divided into precincts from each of which a number of representa- for terms of two or more years. The School Committee is in charge of the care,
tives are elected. Their elected townsmen are known as “Town Meeting Members”. maintenance and construction of schools, and also mandated to bargain collectively
The Town Meeting Members gather in a meeting place and carry on the business of with teachers, and to prepare a school budget.
the town in much the same manner as did the larger and more unwieldy mass of A Constable, who is appointed in many towns, for a term of one or more years,
citizens. Most representative town meetings have approximately 240 members, the is in charge of posting the warrant for town meeting. He also serves writs and
same number as the former membership of the General Court. notices of jury duty, and can collect money due the town.
The forms and principles of the original town meeting are followed with the Many other officials are elected in certain towns. Other towns combine the job
exception that each “Town Meeting Member” is a direct representative of a number of selectmen with some other positions. There are wide possibilities and the only
of his fellow townsmen and acts for them on all matters. Massachusetts has 302 governing rule is the town charter combined with the acts of the various town
towns with a Town Meeting and a Board of Selectmen. Two hundred sixty-one meetings. Many of the following officials, who are now appointed by the Board of
(261) have an open Town Meeting. Forty-one (41) have a representative Town Selectmen or the Town Manager, were formerly elected:
A third form of town government, and the one which is meeting with great Tax Collector Purchasing Agent
favor is called the “Town Manager” system. The essential difference between the Director of Public Works
Town Auditor Tree Warden Dog Officer
town manager system and the other methods of town government lies in the fact Accountant
that, while the citizens exercise the usual rights of participation in town meeting and Cemetery Warden Sewer Commissioner
Town Counsel Fire Chief Highway Surveyor
voting for certain town officials, the executive and administrative powers lie in the Librarian
hands of one person known as the “Town Manager”. In some other towns, other Police Chief Town Engineer
Traffic Commissioner Housing Authority (3) Planning Board (3)
names are given to the manager, such as Town Administrator, or most frequently Board of Health (3) Playground Commissioner
Executive Secretary to the Board of Selectmen. Sealer of Weights & Measures
The chief appointive officer under the jurisdiction of the selectmen is the Town Town government in Massachusetts is changing. There are now 9 cities
Manager. This official is charged with the administration of the affairs of the town. known as towns, 5 with a Town Manager and a Town Council and 4 with a Mayor
He is subject to the direction and supervision of the selectmen and he should be a and a Town Council. Recent communities which have changed their form of
person especially fitted for the job by reason of training and experience. It is his government include Amesbury, Methuen, Easthampton, Agawam, Palmer, Winthrop
job to see that all business of the town is efficiently carried out. and Weymouth.
Under this system of town government, the Board of Selectmen, at times the
Finance Committee and the School Committee are the sole elected officers of the 3-8 MUNICIPAL BUDGETS
town. Any further officials are appointed by the Board of Selectmen, or the Every spring, every city and town in Massachusetts adopts an annual operating
Manager. budget. The fiscal year runs from 1 July through 30 June. In addition, most cities
Most towns have an unpaid Finance Committee which is charged with prepar- and towns have a capital budget which is adopted from time to time.
ing and publishing an estimate of the probable expenditures of the town in advance The purpose of the operating budget is to cover all traditional municipal
of each town meeting. The budgets of all town departments are carefully scrutinized activities, including but not limited to schools, fire, police, public works, libraries
by this committee and all articles in the annual warrant which call for the expendi- and recreation. Operating budgets pay for employees, purchases of equipment and
ture of town money are examined for the purposes of determining their necessity. in some cases contractual expenses. In addition, the operating budget of each city
On the basis of this examination the Finance Committee recommends the approval and town must cover assessments made by the state or any of its subdivisions,
or disapproval of each item in the warrant. Past experience has shown to the voters medical insurance for public employees, pension payments to retirees and pay-
that the recommendations of the Finance Committee are usually based upon sound ments, known as debt service, to those who have advanced funds for the purposes of
reasons. The suggestion of this committee on a specific budget item is very seldom constructing buildings and other matters covered in the capital budget.
disregarded. In some towns the Finance Committee is appointed by the Moderator. A capital budget is funded by money borrowed by a city or a town, for a term
ranging from 5 to 20 years, for the construction of needed municipal facilities.
These include, but are not limited to schools, playground improvements and
equipment, such as a fire engine, which will be in use for a number of years. The
Guide & Program Page 49 Page 50 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
thinking behind a capital budget is that there are many things which government tion removed, by either appearing before the city or town clerk, or by signing an
does which benefit people for a long period of time. Therefore it is only equitable application to the clerk for such a change at the polling place, immediately after
that the cost for those expenses be spread out over a period of years. voting.
Given the implementation of Proposition 2 1/2 within the past three decades, At the biennial state primaries the Democratic Party, the Republican Party, and
there is a limit placed upon the amount of revenue which any city or town can any other party that can qualify, nominate by popular vote a person for each
collect via property taxes. Depending on the state of the economy of the Common- position to be filled. The names of all nominated for office appear upon the ballot
wealth, the state provides aid to most cities and towns, but there is no certainty as to used at the general elections in the following November. At that election, the
what level the aid will be. Therefore, from time to time, especially during times of persons receiving the highest number of votes are declared elected to the offices for
economic difficulty, municipalities may be faced with reducing work forces to make which they were nominated.
ends meet. Presidential Primaries: On a Tuesday early in a Presidential election year,
A good citizen should always keep in mind that the ability of any city or town the voters of each party have a primary. At that time a voter may indicate a
to meet the needs expressed by some of its citizens is a limited one and that prudent preference for President. Delegates to each party’s convention are determined by
management of municipal government is in the long term interest of all its citizens. the percentage of votes each candidate receives. This applies to statewide as well as
congressional district delegates.
3-9 POLITICAL PARTIES Also elected at this time are ward and town committees and one man and one
While neither the Federal Constitution, nor that of the Commonwealth of woman from each state senatorial district to each State Committee. Additional
Massachusetts provided for the establishment of a party system, it soon became candidates can be elected to the State Committee pursuant to party rules.
apparent that there were large groups of voters who held the same views on many
matters of government. It was only natural, therefore, that they should band
together to attempt to have these views adopted as matters of governmental policy.
At present, while we have many political groups of varying size and influence, two
major groups outdistance all others. These are our Democratic and Republican
parties. There are other parties but their strength is not sufficient to alter the
political picture appreciably.
In a popular government such as ours, the existence of a powerful opposition
party has a beneficial effect upon the party in power and, as long as it acts as the
“loyal opposition”, our system of government has little to fear.
3-10 PRIMARY ELECTIONS
In the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as in many other states, each major
political party selects or nominates candidates to represent it in all state and national
elections. The Primary Election, designating party candidates in the Common-
wealth of Massachusetts, are held on the seventh Tuesday before the regular
election. At that time all voters who wish to indicate their preference as to the
candidates who shall represent their party in the regular election go to the polls.
Nomination Papers: All candidates for nomination by a political party must
file nomination papers. These papers must be signed by a number of voters of that
party and be submitted to the Secretary of State by a given date. All nomination
papers must include the name of the candidate, the name of the office for which
nomination is sought, and the name of the political party from which the nomination
Independent Candidates: The system of holding primary elections to select
party candidates for regular elections does not bar entrance of individual candidates
into the race for political office. Any qualified person may have his name entered
upon the November ballot, if he is able to file nomination papers with the Secretary
of State, containing the signatures of a number of qualified voters, which is equal to
two percent of those who voted in the electoral district in question at the last state
Party Enrollment: Enrollment as a member of a political party is one of the
simplest acts required of a voter. When a voter approaches the ballot clerk to take
part in his/her first primary election, the clerk asks him/her in which party he/she
wishes to enroll. Upon receiving the answer, the clerk makes the proper notation
beside the voter’s name on the voting list, and hands him/her the proper ballot for
that party. Thereafter, his/her name carries that party designation at all subsequent
primary elections. A voter does have the right, however, to have the party designa
Guide & Program Page 51 Page 52 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
4. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 4-2 THE FLAG CODE
(excerpts from the U.S. Flag Code)
4-1 THE BILL OF RIGHTS
(First 10 Amendments to The Constitution of the United States) It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on
buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic
Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of effect is desired, the flag may be displayed 24 hours a day if properly illuminated
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of during the hours of darkness.
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement,
petition the Government for a redress of grievances. except when an all weather flag is displayed.
Amendment II A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a
free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. vehicle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motorcar,
Amendment III No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, the staff shall be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender.
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, on the same level, to
prescribed by law. the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church
Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, services conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be flown above the flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy.
violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or
persons or things to be seized. pennants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs.
Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise When flags of States, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in flown on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service always be at the peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of
in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same the United States should be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or
offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any pennant may be placed above the flag of the United States or to the United States
criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or flag’s right.
property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown
public use, without just compensation. from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately
Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation
a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein above that of another nation in time of peace. When displayed either horizon-
the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously tally or vertically against a wall, the union should be uppermost and to the flag’s
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; own right, that is, to the observer’s left. When displayed in a window, the flag
to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue field to the left of
obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his the observer in the street.
defence. When used on a speaker’s platform, the flag, if displayed flat, should be
Amendment VII In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact or public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the
tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, position of superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position
than according to the rules of the common law. of honor at the clergyman’s or speaker’s right as he faces the audience. Any
Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive other flag so displayed should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. or to the right of the audience.
Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not No disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of America
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, State
Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitu- flags, and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor.
tion, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a
to the people. signal of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property.
The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the
floor, water, or merchandise.
The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and
Guide & Program Page 53 Page 54 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
CITY/TOWN, COUNTY, PLATOON & ROOM ASSIGNMENTS
The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery.
It should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to (Sunday 9:30 am)
fall free. Bunting of blue, white and red, always arranged with the blue above, City/Town Municipal County Party
the white in the middle, and the red below, should be used for covering a
speaker’s desk, draping the front of the platform, and for decoration in general. Name Mtg. Rm. County Mtg. Rm. Caucus Rms. Platoon
The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a Feds , Nats
manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way.
The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling. C1 • Aisne D-115 A D-117 D-115 , D-117 1
The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor
C2 • Belleau D-117 A D-117 D-115 , D-117 1
attached to it, any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing
of any nature. C3 • Normandy D-029 B D-029 D-029 , D-102 1
The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding,
carrying, or delivering anything. C4 • Marne D-102 B D-029 D-029 , D-102 1
The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner
C5 • Eisenhower D-016 C D-016 D-016 , D-017 1
whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or
handkerchiefs and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or C6 • MacArthur D-017 C D-016 D-016 , D-017 1
boxes or anything that is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising
signs should not be fastened to a staff or halyard from which the flag is flown. T1 • Iwo Jima D-201 D D-201 D-201 , D-203 2
No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform.
T2 • Okinawa D-203 D D-201 D-201 , D-203 2
However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel,
firemen, policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents T3 • Pearl Harbor D-204 E D-204 D-204 , D-205 2
a living country and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag
pin being a replica, should be worn on the left lapel near the heart. T4 • Anzio D-205 E D-204 D-204 , D-205 2
During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is
T5 • Argonne D-206 F D-206 D-206 , D-207 2
passing in a parade or in review, all present except those in uniform should face
the flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present T6 • Guadalcanal D-207 F D-206 D-206 , D-207 3
in uniform should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should
remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the T7 • Bataan U-104 G U-104 U-104 , U-105 3
hand being over the heart. Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the
T8 • Verdun U-105 G U-104 U-104 , U-105 3
flag in a moving column should be rendered at the moment the flag passes.
T9 • Bradley U-124 H U-124 U-124 , U-128 3
T10 • Pershing U-128 H U-128 U-124 , U-128 3
Room Assignments Map Key (p.59)
D - Duffy Hall 13
U - Student Union 22
S - Stanger Hall 14
City/Town Dorm Map Key (p.59)
T1 - T6 Boland Hall 6
T7 - T10 Villa Theresa 9
C1 - C4 Corr Hall 28
C5 - C6 Pilgrim Heights (Flynn) 7
Guide & Program Page 55 Page 56 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
LOCATIONS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES SEATING FOR ASSEMBLIES
Map The following seating will be in effect at all assemblies and conventions in the
Activity Building Key Martin Institute, Roche Dining Commons Room A and Hemingway Theater.
Registration Parking Lot No. 4 (Duffy Academic Center Lot) P4
T-9 C-5 T-4
Permanent Parking Parking Lot No. 6 P4
T-8 C-4 T-3
General Education Roche Dining Commons Room A 8 T-7 C-3 T-2
General Assemblies Roche Dining Commons Room A 8 T-6 C-2 T-1
T-5 C-1 Guests
Economics Martin Institute 17 Stage & Podium
Government Roche Dining Commons Room A 8
Law Hemingway Theater (Duffy Academic Center) 12
STONEHILL COLLEGE INFO
Party Conventions Stonehill College President Rev. Mark T. Cregan, C.S.C
Nationalists Roche Dining Commons Room A 8 Conference & Event Services Chris Augeri, Director
Federalists Hemingway Theater (Duffy Academic Center) 12 (508)565-1177 or 1177 (on campus)
Campus Switchboard (508) 565-1000 or 0 (on campus)
Campus Police (508) 565-5555 or 911 (Emergencies Only)
Meals Roche Dining Commons Room B 8 Campus Store Basement of Boland Hall
Cleary Faculty / Staff Dining Room Roche Dining Commons 8 MAP KEY (FOR MAP ON FACING PAGE)
1. Donahue Hall 15. St. Mary’s Chapel
Computer Facility Stanger Computer Center 14 2. Alumni Hall 16. Cardinal O’Hara Hall
Rooms 109 & 110 3. Merkert-Tracy Science Center 17. Martin Institute
4. Education Building 18. College Center
5. Colonial Court Merkert Gymnasium
Boys’ State Chairman’s Office Duffy Academic Center, Room 208 13 6. Boland Hall 19. Sally Ames Sports Complex
(508) 565-1580 Stonehill Bookstore 20. Cushing-Martin Building
Fax (508) 565-1583 7. Pilgrim Heights 21. MacPhaidin Library
Flynn Hall 22. Old Student Union
8. Roche Dining Commons 23. Hafstrom-Swanson House
Print Shop / Data Entry Office Duffy Academic Center, Room 224 13 9. Villa Teresa Hall President’s Residence
(508)565-1582 10. Notre Dame du Lac Hall 24. David Ames Clock Farm
11. Commonwealth Courts 25. Holy Cross Father’s Residence
12. Hemingway Theatre 26. Holy Cross Center
Nurse's Station Kingston Dorm, Commonwealth Court 11 13. Duffy Academic Center 27. 16 Belmont Street
14. Stanger Hall 28. Corr Hall
Computer Center 29. Fr. Peyton Center
Guide & Program Page 57 Page 58 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE PLEDGE
As a citizen of Massachusetts Boys' State, I voluntarily make the
I will obey the rules of Massachusetts Boys’ State;
If elected or appointed to office, I will serve that office to the best
of my ability;
I will conserve and protect all the property of Massachusetts Boys’
State, and of Stonehill College;
STONEHILL COLLEGE CAMPUS MAP
I will be fair and honest in all my dealings with my fellow citizens;
I will be prompt for meetings, and will follow the schedule as listed
in the manual.
MASSACHUSETTS BOYS’ STATE OATH OF OFFICE
I, [insert full name], do solemnly pledge that I will familiarize
myself with the duties of the office which I have sought and
accepted. I pledge to perform these duties faithfully and impartially.
I further pledge to exert my influence and set forth example by my
actions, so that the ideals for which Massachusetts Boys’ State was
instituted may be realized.
All of this I pledge upon my honor as a citizen of Massachusetts
Guide & Program Page 59 Page 60 2006 Massachusetts Boys’ State