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					                Service Delivery Platform Technologies



                 Takafumi Chujo              Masafumi Katoh         Akira Chugo
                 Hisayuki Sekine
                                                                      (Manuscript received April 8, 2009)


                The penetration of broadband networks is playing a key role in bringing about major
                changes in the way that network-based services are provided. New schemes such
                as software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) let users access
                a variety of services over networks. Applications, computers, storage, and other
                resources combined over the network enable the rapid delivery of diverse services.
                Fujitsu is working to provide a low-cost, quick, and highly reliable SaaS service
                based on the technologies it developed in constructing information technology
                systems and on operational know-how accumulated at data centers. In response
                to this shift to a service economy, it will become increasingly important for the
                infrastructure of the network society to increase the value of the network and
                build a service platform that can deploy new services promptly. In this paper, we
                introduce future directions of network services, describe a service delivery platform
                architecture, and present the research and development of its key technologies.




1     Introduction                                                  of a service-oriented network and present
      Broadband networks are penetrating deeply                     Fujitsu’s R&D activities related to a service
into homes and enterprises, and the spread of video                 delivery platform suitable for these trends.
delivery and Internet protocol television (IPTV)
services is expected to increase network traffic by                 2. Shift toward a service-oriented
1.4 times every year.1) From a usage viewpoint,                        network
the way in which network-based services are                              A service-oriented network interconnects
delivered is undergoing major changes. Schemes                      services, terminals, and devices to provide value-
like software as a service (SaaS)2) and platform                    added services. In order to create new markets
as a service (PaaS) are giving users access to a                    and services, we aim to transform the value of a
wide variety of services via the network, and it                    network in the following two ways.
is becoming possible to provide diverse services                         The first transformation, as shown in
by combining whatever resources are needed—                         Figure 1, would be to enhance the effectiveness of
applications, computers, or storage—through                         information and communications technology (ICT)
the network. In response to these changes, it                       by gathering information from diverse locations
is becoming increasingly important to build a                       via sensors as a service front-end and using that
service platform that can transform network                         information to obtain a detailed understanding
value and provide new services promptly as an                       of situations in the field. In agriculture and
infrastructure of the network society.                              medical care, the use of sensing technologies and
     In this paper, we introduce future directions                  wireless technologies in this way could increase

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T. Chujo et al.: Service Delivery Platform Technologies




the effectiveness of ICT significantly.                                     prevents information from being shared among
      The second transformation would be to                                 them sufficiently.     This situation makes it
provide a place for information sharing among                               difficult to understand rapidly changing customer
service providers. Information brought together                             needs. If various types of data and messages
from various channels would be interrelated                                 originating from a customer are interrelated
and integrated to draw a big picture of the real                            across the channels, it should be possible to
world.     This value-added information could                               uniformly manage and visualize the customer
then be provided to service providers, resulting                            behavior across all channels. For example, point
in further evolution of ICT. An example in the                              of sale (POS) data at the retail store, hypertext
retail business3) is shown in Figure 2. In this                             transfer protocol (HTTP) requests to the Web
field, multi-channel retailing using multiple                               site, and voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)
sales channels such as retail stores, Web sites,                            calls to the call center are interrelated using a
and catalogs is now showing an upward trend.                                commonly specified customer attribute as a key.
However, each of these channels has its own                                 In short, obtaining an understanding of the
operations department (or system), which                                    customer experience over all channels should




                           Personal space            Network                  Service platform              Distributors
                                                                                                             Services
                                               Information acquisition

                                                                                                             Delivery
                                    Things
                                         s
                                     hings
                                                                                                             Services
                                                               Integration
                                                                                      Relations

                                                                                                            Producers
                         Environment
                                               Information distribution                                      Services
                                                                           Real-time information
                                                                            about real world

                       Sensors

                       Figure 1
                       Creation of new markets through transformation of network values.




                     Retail      Sales                                                     Catalog sales
                                                                                          Catalog sales
                                             Store sales
                                             Store sales         Online sales
                                                                 Online sales
                    business    channels                                                    (call center)
                                                                                           (call center)


                          SDP                                                                      Integrated information
                                       Message-routing and monitoring
                                                                                        Customer information

                                                                                        Interrelating customer information
                     IP transport                                                       from every channel
                                             POS      Web/HTTP                            Voice/SIP



                                                                                           Outside
                                              At the store                From the home
                                                                                             SIP: Session initiation protocol


                   Figure 2
                   Example of services: cross-channel visibility.


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make it possible to improve the brand image of                               3.1 Architecture of SPACE
the retailer.                                                                     The SPACE is a platform for creating and
     Fujitsu is now researching and developing                               executing a wide range of services and plays the
such a service-front-end function as a service                               role of a place for growing and disseminating
delivery platform (SDP). Its architecture and                                new services and values. Its total architecture is
enabling technologies are introduced in the next                             shown in Figure 3.
section.                                                                          The SPACE provides a wide variety
                                                                             of common functions in the form of service
3. Service delivery platform:                                                components such as those related to network
   SPACE                                                                     control so that application developers can develop
     The Service Platform for Awareness,                                     applications without advanced or specialized
Creation and Experience (SPACE) incorporates                                 knowledge of terminals and networks. It also
terminals and networks as service components                                 aims to reduce service development costs by
with the aim of enhancing awareness of situations                            opening up these service components to service
in both the virtual and real worlds, creating new                            providers and other involved entities (stake
services through the use of service components,                              holders) and then by enabling many players to
and enabling users to experience the world of                                share those service components.
these new services.                                                               In the SPACE, services and terminals are




                              Platform application                                                                                                      to/from
                                   (workflow)                                                                                                         application
                                                                                                         to/from ASP     to/from ASP                  developer
        Service-
                                                    Management            Service
        component-                                                        platform
        specific ASIs                                                     common ASIs
                                 Platform protection                                                      Management                                   Platform
                                                                                                                                                     applications
                                                                                                                                                     development
                                                                                                                             Registration and SLA




                                     Message routing
                                                                              Consistency management




                                                                                                            Life cycle                                 contracts

                                                        Service-                                             Security
                               SE                       component
           SPACE           management                   type A
                                                                                                             Fault
                                                                                                           management
                         Service-
                         component      Service-                                                           Performance
                         type C         component                                                          management                                  Network/
                                        type B                                                                                                       terminal-use
                                                                                                            Resource                                   contracts
                                                                                                           management
                                Messaging
                                                                    TSI

                                Terminal
                               application
                                                        Internet/ NGN/VPN                                         to/from NSP                       to/from NSP

                                                                     ASI: Application-service interface                  SE:         Service element
                                                                     ASP: Application service provider                   SLA:        Service level agreement
                                                                     NGN: Next Generation Network                        TSI:        Transport-service interface
                                                                     NSP: Network service provider                       VPN:        Virtual private network


       Figure 3
       Architecture of SPACE.


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T. Chujo et al.: Service Delivery Platform Technologies




virtualized so that applications can use these            relationships between observed events
service components easily. Since servers that                  Below, we describe three enabling
execute services can be expected to change                technologies for realizing these SPACE concepts:
dynamically to optimize work loads and electric           service componentization, service virtualization,
power consumption at data centers, services               and ID information repository.
must be virtualized in such a way that they are
called not by the server address but by the service       3.2 Enabling technologies
name.                                                     3.2.1 Service componentization
     The SPACE is not only concerned with                      In the SPACE, service components are
information in the virtual world, but also gathers        designed to have a layered configuration
various types of real-world information from              consisting of a basic service component layer and
terminals and devices connected to the networks           an abstract service component layer. The purpose
and enables service providers to utilize and              of the basic service component layer is to hide the
exchange that information. This corresponds to            complexity of the protocols and terminals while
a place where service providers can share this            that of the abstract service component layer is to
information and work together closely. However,           gather real-world information in real time and
if such explosively growing information were              to provide that information in an application-
presented in its original, chaotic form, it would         friendly form. This two-layer structure lets
not by itself be able to increase the value of            application developers use either abstract or basic
this place. It is important to present that huge          functions as they require. In addition, functions
volume of information after it has been organized         and capacity can be expanded in response to
in various ways so that the people receiving it           changing demand by using both component types
can experience revelations from it. With the              as units for expansion. As shown in Figure 3,
aim of transforming information into value,               various types of interfaces are provided depending
the following aspects are being studied for the           on the level of application abstraction and three
SPACE.                                                    types of service components are defined, as
1) Quantitative analysis                                  described below.
     Obtains data from sensors to collect events          1) Service component type A
that could not be observed in the past and                     This in an abstract service component that
analyzes those events in a quantitative and               abstracts information collected over the networks
scientific manner                                         or from terminals and functions to facilitate
2) Time-based statistics                                  the execution of the application. As its main
     Presents the temporal fluctuation of                 functions, it gathers information widely dispersed
accumulated information in a statistical manner           over the networks, reshapes it into an easy-to-
to suggest various types of transitions such as           use form, and delivers necessary information to
changes in future demand                                  terminals. It communicates via high-level logical
3) Space-based statistics                                 interfaces (labeled ASI for application-service
     Presents characteristics of individual               interface in the figure) in order to provide
geographical regions so as to provide a basis for         information and functions with a high-level of
optimizing and customizing services for a specific        abstraction to a platform application.
geographical region                                       2) Service component type B
4) Correlation analysis                                        This is a basic service component that hides
     Determines steady states in order to present         the intrinsic technologies of the networks and
variations from steady-state and cause-and-effect         terminals and intermediates the access of type-A

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                                                              T. Chujo et al.: Service Delivery Platform Technologies




service components and applications to the              hidden to the outside.
networks and terminals. As its main functions, it       2) Changes in service components
terminates lower-layer communications protocols              In the SPACE, different function entities
dependent on the networks and terminals;                can be arranged into a single group and only a
manages network and terminal status during              proxy for that group is presented to external
application execution; and converts protocol, code,     entities. When the proxy of a group is called
and media. It terminates the communications             by an external function entity, the SPACE will
protocol between a network/terminal and a               select a function entity within the group to be
service component via a transport-service               executed. This means that software upgrades
interface (TSI).                                        to service components and the addition of new
3) Service component type C                             service components can be performed without
     This is a composite service component that         having to inform the outside of such changes.
combines type-A abstract functions and type-B           3) System switching in event of failure
basic functions. This one-layer model can be                 If a system failure occurs and a certain
effective in simplifying the structure in an early      service component cannot be executed, that
stage when the numbers of service components            service component will be switched over to a
and also applications are small.                        standby service component.
                                                             To achieve these virtualizations, the message
3.2.2 Service virtualization                            routing function in the SPACE analyzes the
     In the SPACE, a platform application               XML-based message (XML: extensible markup
combines service components and terminal                language) received from a platform application or
applications by message routing to compose              terminal application and forwards that message
a service. To provide a persistent connection           to the logical entity determined by that analysis.
environment for external platform applications               During the execution of an application
and terminal applications, internal mechanisms          program as a combination of multiple processes,
such as service component execution are                 the failure to pass states and parameters
“virtualized”.     As described below, external         between the processes correctly can result in a
function entities can access function entities          logical inconsistency. To prevent such logical
within the SPACE by a persistent method even            inconsistencies from occurring, the message
if the SPACE’s internal system configuration            routing function has a consistency management
changes dynamically, for example, as a result of        function.4) The message routing identifies
load balancing, changes in service components,          one entity to execute a process and transfers
or system switching in the event of failure.            messages to that entity during the execution of
1) Load balancing                                       that application. In short, once an initial request
     Multiple function entities are prepared            message has been assigned to a certain entity,
within the SPACE to avoid the performance               the message routing transfers all subsequent
bottleneck of the system. An external entity            messages to that entity.        In this way, an
that wishes to execute a particular function            application developer can devote his or her efforts
entity specifies it using its unique name. On the       to developing an application program without
basis of that name, the SPACE allocates one of          having to be aware of the internal execution
the internal function entities with the smallest        mechanism in the SPACE.
load for load balancing. Therefore, the specific
internal function entity that performs the              3.2.3 ID information repository
execution of that particular function entity is              The ID information repository component

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T. Chujo et al.: Service Delivery Platform Technologies




stores various kinds of information collected from                                            application developers to develop new programs
the field such as sensor and presence information                                             for processing, consolidating, and storing such
as ID information and delivers it to applications.                                            data in each application. This technology also
It is thus a key element for transforming the value                                           provides a common platform for the protocols to
of the network. It combines the following three                                               connect to ubiquitous sensor-equipped devices
technologies5) to store such ID information from                                              and for data processing of sensor information
the field in a form usable by applications for each                                           and enables application developers to make use
person and thing. Here, an ID (identifier) refers to                                          of information gathered from the field through
a object like a person or thing and ID information                                            the use of an easy-to-program Web interface.
(identity) refers to all attribute information,                                               In the above manner, applications can be easily
including various types of information from the                                               developed without specialized knowledge or skills
field associated with that ID.                                                                about individual sensor characteristics and the
1) ID information integration                                                                 network protocols.
       ID information integration technology                                                  2) Relationship management
integrates and systematically stores “field                                                        Relationship     management      technology
information that changes in real time” and                                                    enables information about one object to be reused
“attribute information that changes relatively                                                with information about another object, based on
infrequently” for each person and thing (Figure 4).                                           the relationship between the two objects. For
Providing this technology as a common platform                                                example, as shown in Figure 5, the location
for multiple applications eliminates the need for                                             management of a package that is currently being
                                                                                              loaded onto a truck will not only use the radio-
                                                                                              frequency identification (RFID) tag attached to
                       Customer flow management                                               the package, but also reuse location information
                        Workforce management                                                  obtained from the truck’s global positioning
                        Traceability application                                              system (GPS).
                        Business processing                                                   3) Event generation and notification to reduce
                                                                      ID: 001
                                                                      Product: Watermelon
              Web interface                                           District: California
                                                                      Damage: none                                             Workforce management
                                                                      Location: Warehouse A
                     ID information repository component
         History                                                      Temperature: 5°C                                Traceability application
                                                                      Route: ---
        History
      Relation               ID information integration                                                               Business processing

                                                                                                                                                             Real-time notification
                         Presence                             Profile                              ID: A02                         ID: A01                   (Will notify when package
                                                            Preference                             Type: truck                     Type: package             arrives at the distribution
                     Location:
    Temperature: 5°C Warehouse A        Damage: none                                               Location: San Francisco         Destination: AAA          center)
                                                                  Watermelon, California
         Adapter           Adapter            Adapter                                                                              Location: San Francisco
                                                                Adapter
                       Detecting reader       Image                                                        ID information repository
        Filtering           location       identification         LDAP                                     component
                                                               processing
           SIP               HTTP                RTP                                                               History
        processing         processing         processing                                                                       Rule        ID information integration
                                                                                                                  History    definitions
                                                                                                               Relation
                      Tag ID,                                                                                                          Relationship       Event
Temperature                               Image      Watermelon, California                                                                             generation
                     reader ID                                                                                                         management
                                                                                               Parent
                                                                                               Parent     Child
                                                                                                          Child
                                                                                               Truck    Package
                                                                                                        Package
                            RFID
      Temperature                           Camera           Manager                                                 Relation                    Truck            Package
        sensor                                                                                            Package                               location          location
                                                                                                          location                               (GPS)             (RFID)
                                    LDAP: Lightweight directory access protocol                            (RFID)
                                    RFID: Radio-frequency identification
                                    RTP: Real-time protocol


Figure 4                                                                                      Figure 5
ID information repository technology (ID information                                          ID information repository technology (relationship
integration).                                                                                 management).


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                                                                        T. Chujo et al.: Service Delivery Platform Technologies




     system load processing                                      these possibilities a reality, Fujitsu will continue
     To detect changes in information from                       to research and develop enabling technologies
the field, the SPACE incorporates a real-time                    while promoting the value of network use in the
event notification engine for applications. This                 field and supporting and expanding its solution
eliminates the need for applications to make                     business.
periodic checks of changes, so it reduces the
system’s processing load.                                        References
                                                                 1)    National    Institute     of   Information      and
                                                                       Communications Technology: Diversity and
4. Conclusion                                                          Inclusion: Networking the Future. (in Japanese),
     In this paper, we introduced Fujitsu’s R&D                        September 2008.
                                                                       http://nwgn.nict.go.jp/report/
activities related to a service delivery platform                      NWGN-Vision-NICT-Report-V1-2008.pdf
with the aim of transforming network value and                   2)    K. Satake: Fujitsu’s Activities for SaaS. (in
                                                                       Japanese), FUJITSU, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 14–19
creating new services. This transformation opens                       (2008).
up many opportunities. For example, we foresee                   3)    M. Hisatomi et al.: Application of Service Delivery
                                                                       Platform for Supply Chain Management. WTC
the expansion of ICT application areas and the                         2008, 2008.
creation of new business fields; more innovation                 4)    K. Matoba et al.: Architecture and key
                                                                       technologies of the next generation service
in the workplace based on real-time information                        platform. WTC 2008, 2008.
dealing with people, things, and the environment;                5)    J. Maeda: Toward Advanced ID Management
                                                                       Systems. (in Japanese),
and the creation of novel and collaborative                            Proceedings 2 of the 2008 Communications
services between service providers. To make                            Society Conference of IEICE, BS-6-1, S-43-S-44,
                                                                       2008.



                     Takafumi Chujo                                                       Akira Chugo
                     Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd.                                            Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd.
                     Mr. Chujo received a B.E. degree in                                  Mr. Chugo received B.E. and M.E.
                     Electronics Engineering from Kanazawa                                degrees in Electrical Engineering from
                     University in 1976 and an M.E. degree                                Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan in
                     in Electronics Engineering from Nagoya                               1981 and 1983, respectively. He joined
                     University in 1978. He joined Fujitsu                                Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Kawasaki,
                     Laboratories Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan                                   Japan in 1986. Since then, he has been
                     in 1978 and has been engaged in                                      engaged in research and development
                     research and development of a broad                                  of next-generation network systems.
                     range of network systems, including                                  He is a member of the Institute of
SDH, ATM, and WDM transport systems, network management          Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE)
systems, broadband wireless systems, and next-generation         of Japan.
service platforms.




                         Masafumi Katoh                                                  Hisayuki Sekine
                         Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd.                                       Fujitsu Ltd.
                         Mr. Katoh received B.E. and M.E.                                Mr. Sekine graduated from Meiji
                         degrees in Information Engineering                              University in 1989. He joined Fujitsu
                         from Yokohama National University,                              Ltd., Japan in 1989 and engaged
                         Yokohama, Japan in 1979 and                                     in     switching    system     software
                         1981, respectively. He joined Fujitsu                           development. He now works in the
                         Laboratories Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan in                           Business Promotion Division of the
                         1981, where he has been engaged in                              Network Solution Business Unit,
                         research and development of switching                           where he has been engaged in service
                         systems for ISDN and ATM. He has                                platform strategy planning since 2007.
recently been involved in fields such as ubiquitous computing
services and the NGN. He is a member of the Institute of
Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE)
of Japan.




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