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Vegetables Powered By Docstoc
FOODS- Mrs. Cosper
  • Most vegetables are fairly low in
    cost and calories.
  • They can be served raw or cooked
    to add color, flavor, texture, and
    nutritious meals.
  • Vegetables can be purchased fresh,
    frozen, canned, and dried.
Choosing Fresh Vegetables
• Methods of growing and shipping
  vegetables has improved over the
• These improvements have
  made a greater variety of
  fresh veggies available in
  grocery stores all year
Nutritional Value of Vegetables
• 2 ½ - 4 cups of vegetables should be consumed per
• Vegetables are:
   – Low in fat
   – Low in calories
   – Rich in fiber
• Good Sources of:
   – Vitamins A, C, and E
• Eating vegetables reduces your risk for:
   – Stroke, Heart Disease, & Diabetes
Nutritional Value of Vegetables
• Vegetables are sorted into 5 subgroups:
  – Dark Green Veggies = broccoli, dark green leafy
    lettuce, spinach, and greens such as collards and kale.
  – Orange Veggies = carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes,
    and squash.
  – Legumes = peas, beans, and lentils.
  – Starchy Veggies = corn, and white potatoes.
  – Other Veggies = beets, cabbage, celery, cucumbers,
    onions, tomatoes, peppers, and green beans.
• To have a balanced diet try to consume vegetables
  from each subgroup multiple times during the
Selecting Fresh Vegetables
• Temperature & Handling may reduce the quality of
  fresh vegetables.
• Guidelines for shopping:
  – Look for good color, firmness, and absence of bruises
    or decay.
  – Avoid wilted and misshapen veggies.
  – Choose medium sized veggies.
  – Only purchase what you will use within a short amount
    of time.
  – Buy ready-to –eat veggies if you can fit them into your
    budget- these may encourage you to eat more
Storing Fresh Vegetables
• Vegetables should be used ASAP to have
  peak flavor and nutrition.
• Vegetables can be stored in the
  refrigerator for several days.
• Use the Crisper container in your
Tips for Storing
• Corn = store in husks.
• Tomatoes = allow to ripen at room
  temperature before refrigerating.
• Leafy Greens = wrap in damp towel and
  place in plastic bag before refrigerating.
• Onions = store at room temperature
• Potatoes, Squash, Eggplant = store in cool,
  dark place
Canned Vegetables
• Can be whole, sliced, or in pieces.
• Buying & Storing:
  – Usually cost less than frozen or fresh produce
  – Can purchase generic or house brands to save
  – Choose cans that are free from dents and
  – Store in a cool, dry place.
  – After opening store unused portions in the
Frozen Vegetables
• Retains flavor and appearance of fresh
  vegetables better than canned or dried.
• Freezing may alter texture.
• Some vegetables are frozen in combinations or
• Buying & Storing:
  – Cost less than fresh- usually
  – Choose packages that are clean and frozen solid.
  – A heavy layer of ice on the package may indicate
    that the package has thawed and refroze- Avoid!
  – Store in the coldest of the freezer.
Dried Vegetables
• Few vegetables are dried.
• Legumes- peas, beans, & lentils- are the
  most commonly used dried vegetables.
• Legumes are high in Protein and an excellent
  source of Fiber.
• Buying & Storing:
  – Choose legumes that are uniform in size, free
    from visible defects, and brightly colored.
  – Store in a covered container in a cool, dry place.
Preparing Vegetables
• Vegetables come in a variety of colors and
• Vegetables can be used in countless ways.
• Add them to an old favorite to create new
Preparing Raw Vegetables
• Raw vegetables are attractive to serve
  because they are colorful and crunchy.
• Wash all vegetables and carefully remove
  any dirt and pesticide residue- they can carry
  harmful bacteria.
• Use a vegetable brush to get into hard to
  reach places and crevices.
• Trim away any bruised areas.
• Good idea to cut into easy to eat pieces.
Preparing Raw Vegetables
• Raw veggies make colorful garnishes: carrot
  curls, celery fans, and radish roses add
  nutrients as well as eye appeal.
• Taste best when served cold.
Food Science Principles & Veggies
• Several changes take place as you cook
  – The cellulose (fiber) softens to make chewing
  – Starch absorbs water, swells, and becomes
    easier to digest.
  – Some nutrients maybe lost as colors and flavors
  – Crisp-Tender Texture- veggies are tender, but
    still slightly firm.
Food Science Principles & Veggies
• Some nutrients found in vegetables are
• Vitamin C, B and several minerals will
  dissolve if the vegetable is cooked in water.
• Vegetables cooked with little or no water
  retain most of their nutrients.
Food Science Principles & Veggies
• Cooking too long causes:
  – Loss of nutrients
  – Loss of flavor
  – Mushy texture
  – Dull color
• In most cases, cook vegetables for a
  short time in a small amount of water.
Colors & Vegetables
• Chlorophyll- green pigment found in
  vegetables broccoli and spinach.
   – If overcooked color will be greenish-grey.
• Carotene- Vitamin A source found in carrots
  and sweet potatoes.
   – Heat will not destroy carotene, however,
     overcooking can cause carotene to seep
     out of the vegetable and into the water.
Colors & Vegetables
• Flavones- white pigment found in
  vegetables such as cauliflower and parsnips.
  – Water soluble
  – When overcooked, white vegetables will turn
    yellow or dark grey.
• Anthocyanin- pigment found in red
  vegetables such as beets and red cabbage.
  – Can turn deep purple when cooked, adding
    lemon or vinegar to the water will keep the
    vegetables red.
Effects of Cooking on Flavor
• Mild Veggies- (peas, green beans, corn &
  spinach) Cook for a short time in a small
  amount of water, with the pan covered.
• Strong Veggies- (cabbage, broccoli, brussels
  sprouts, and turnips) Cover with water, cook
  in an uncovered pan, for a short time.
• Very Strong Veggies- (onions, leeks) Cover
  in water, cook in an uncovered pan for a
  longer time.
Methods of Cooking
• Vegetables can be cooked by:
  – Boiling
  – Steaming
  – Pressure-cooking
  – Baking
  – Frying
  – Stir-frying
  – Broiling
  – Microwaving
Cooking in Water
1. Use a pan with a tight fitting lid when
   cooking with water.
2. Add salt, and bring water to a boil.
3. Add vegetables, cover quickly, bring to a
   boil again.
4. Reduce heat and cook at simmering
   temperature until vegetables are crisp-
Steaming Vegetables
1. Place them in a steaming basket over
   simmering water.
2. Tightly cover the pan and steam veggies until
   they are tender.
3. Commonly Steamed Vegetables:
        – Cabbage
        – Broccoli
        – Corn
        – Green beans
        – Carrots
        – Cauliflower
Pressure-Cooking Vegetables
1. You must have a pressure-cooker to
   pressure-cook vegetables.
2. Each cooker will come with its own set
   of directions.
3. The pressure in pressure-cookers
   produces high temperatures, so foods
   cook quickly.
Baking Vegetables
1. Wrap in foil or place in a covered
   casserole dish with a small amount of
2. Popular Baked Vegetables:
  – Potatoes
  – Tomatoes
  – Onions
3. Baking takes longer than other cooking
Frying Vegetables
1. Dip in a batter and deep fry.
2. Sauté in a small amount of fat.
3. Stir-frying: works well with vegetables
   that have high moisture content.
  – Shred or cut into small pieces
  – Place in heavy pan or wok
  – Use a small amount of oil to prevent from
  – Place pan over medium-high heat, stir
    constantly until tender.
Broiling Vegetables
• Tomato halves and eggplant slices are often
• To broil:
   1. Brush the cut surface with melted fat.
   2. Place under the broiling unit until tender.
   3. Veggies cook quickly- so watch them
Microwaving Vegetables
• Veggies cooked in the microwave retain their
  shape, color, flavor, and nutrients- due to the
  short cooking time and the use of little or no
  cooking liquid.
• Use high power to cook veggies.
• Allow standing time- vegetables will continue
  to cook while standing.
• Caution: vegetables that have tight skins can
  explode. To prevent this pierce the skins in
  several places before microwaving.

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