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Cataloged for perlite product What is perlite Origin and

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									Cataloged for perlite product


What is perlite

Origin and Characteristics...
Perlite is not a trade name but a generic term for
naturally occurring siliceous rock. The distinguishing
feature which sets perlite apart from other volcanic
glasses is that when heated to a suitable point in its
softening range, it expands from four to twenty times
its original volume.
This expansion is dues to the presence of two to six percent combined water in the crude
perlite rock. When quickly heated to above 871°C (1600°F), the crude rock pops in a manner
similar to popcorn as the combined water vaporizes and creates countless tiny bubbles
which account for the amazing light weight and other exceptional physical properties of
expanded perlite.
This expansion process also creates one of perlite's most distinguishing characteristics: its
white color. While the crude rock may range from transparent light gray to glossy black, the
color of expanded perlite ranges from snowy white to grayish white.
Expanded perlite can be manufactured to weigh as little as (32kg/m3) making it adaptable
for numerous applications in the construction, industrial, chemical and horticultural.
Since perlite is a form of natural glass, it is classified as chemically inert and has a pH of
approximately 6.5 - 7.5




                                              1
.

    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    72 - 76%                   SiO2

    11 - 17%                   Al2O3

    0.5 - 2%                   CaO

    0.1 - 0.5%                 MgO

    0.5 - 1.5%                 Fe2O3

    4 - 5%                     K2O

    3 - 4%                     Na2O




    Physical Properties

    Color                  White

    Free moisture          0.5%

    PH                     neutral

    Specific gravity       2.2 - 2.4




                           2
                    Bulk Density                    70 - 120kg/m3

                    Softening Point                 890 - 1100oC

                    Fusion Point                    1280 - 1380oC

                    Specific Heat                   0.2


Uses for Perlite...
There are many uses for perlite. These uses can be broken down into three general
categories: construction applications, horticultural applications, and industrial applications




Construction application
Because of perlite's outstanding insulation, light weight, fire retardant and sound control
characteristics and its being rot, vermin and termite resistant perlite is widely used in the
following construction applications.

       Loose fill insulation
       Portland cement and gypsum plasters
       Underfloor insulation
       Concrete roof decks
       Chimney Linings
       Fireproofing
       Blocks
       Pipe insulation

Mixing



Loose fill insulation



Because of Perlite's outstanding insulating characteristics and light weight, it is widely used
as a loose-fill insulation. In this application, free flowing perlite loose-fill masonry insulation is
poured into the cavities of concrete block
where it completely fills all cores, crevices,
mortar areas and ear holes
What is the benefits of perlite loose fill
insulation?

       It is non combustible with a fusion
        point of approximately 1260oC.
        (2300oF).
       It is inorganic and is rot, vermin and
        termite resistant.
       It improves the fire rating.

                                                   3
       It is non settling and supports its own weight in masonry wall cavities and masonry
        block cores.
       It may be easily installed without special training or equipment.

Portland cement and gypsum plasters



Perlite can also be used as an aggregate in Portland cement and
gypsum plasters for exterior applications and for the fire protection of
beams and columns.
Traditionally plaster had been made from a mix of gypsum plaster
and sand. The problem with sand plaster is that in a fire the sand
explodes and cracks, and can be easily destroyed.
In contrast, perlite plaster can offer a product which is both
lightweight and fire-proof




       lightweight: it weighs approximately 60% less than ordinary sand plaster.
       Thermal Insulation: 4 times more resistant to heat transmission than sanded plaster
        thus permitting savings in air conditioning .
       Fire rating: Non- combustible and non- toxic provides up to 5 hours fire protection
        with minimum weight and thickness.
       Noise Reduction - Because of its porous structure it doesn't permit sound reflection, it
        is sound absorbent and reduces sound transmission between partitions.

Mixing of plaster Perlite:
For every two bags (100ltr per bag) of Perlite-C one sack of cement (50kg) and 20-40lts lime
plus water

Underfloor insulation:


Why Perlite Insulation?
Perlite underfloor insulation is an inorganic product that doesn't rot, doesn't support
combustion nor provide a habitat for rodents. Because of its neutral PH, the product doesn't
foster corrosion in piping and electrical wiring that may be in the underfloor area and it is
greatly reduce sound transmission form floor to floor, form floors to walls and from underfloor
piping system.
When used for underfloor insulation, a water repellent, dust suppressed perlite specially
produced for this application is used.
It can be used:
under floating concrete floors,
asphalt floors
floating board floors.




                                                4
Concrete roof-decks:


Perlite concrete aggregate combined with portland cement and water produces a lightweight
insulating concrete used for lightweight roof decks, floor fills,
lightweight structural decks and many other applications

Benefits of concrete roofdeck insulating

       not combustible.
       superior fire ratings .
       lightweight and durable .
       reduce sound transmission .
       Excellent insulating value
       Slope to Drain




                   PHISICAL PROPERTIES OF PERLITE CONCRETE
Perlite Portland    Water        Compressive             Thermal           Dry
 m3 Cement kg         kg strength(after28days)Kg/cm3 conductivityw/m.C densityKg/m3
  1       200        200             8 - 10                0.09            340
  1       250        230            12 - 15                0.10            380
  1       300        250            17 - 20                0.11            440
  1       350        275            22 - 25                0.12            500
  1       450        300            25 - 30                0.13            540




Chimney Lining



Condensate, which can form in chimneys when hot gases impinge on cold chimney
linings, can create two serious problems. The first is he formation of combustible tars
on chimney linings that may cause chimney fires. The second is the formation of
sulphite solutions that can attack chimney morter which can lead to leakage, staining

                                               5
and possibly even chimney collapse.
Other reasons for relining chimneys are to deal broken or cracked masonry work and to
improve draft by reducing flue size.
Why Perlite?

        Perlite is inorganic.
        Doesn't support combustion.
        Exhibits excellent thermal insulting properties over wide range of temperature.
        Doesn't affected by most acids.




Blocks


Perlite blocks consist of Portland cement and expanded Perlite and it is same in shape and
dimension as ordinary blocks.
Advantages of Perltie Blocks:

        Weighing much less than the half of traditional concrete blocks.
        Perlite concrete blocks provide excellent noise absorption.
        perlite concrete is non-toxic, rot, vermin and termite resistant and
         non-combustible.
        It is as permanent as the structure, which contains it.
        transportation, handling and installation is easier and faster.

Fireproofing




                             Thickness of the Plaster Perlite for
                                      Covering (mm)
                           HP/Am-1 1/2hr 1hr 1.5hr 2hr 3hr 4hr
                             150     10     12   23    33 54 75
                             170     10     13   24    35 57 79
                             190     10     13   25    37 60 83
                             210     10     14   26    38 63 86




Mixing




                                                 6
Pipe insulation


Lightweight perlite insulating concrete can play a multiple role in undergroundpipe
and duct installations . Perlite concrete insulation can also serve as a supporting
envelope . This latter advantage is of special importance when pipe or ducts are laid
under roadways , parking lots or other areas subject to traffic. Perlite concrete pipe
insulation provides a monolithic
( seamless ) insulation for the length of a pipe or duct. Additionally , Perlite insulating
concrete is permanent, fire proof , rot proof and vermin proof .




                                                  7
Agricultural application
THE ADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURAL PERLITE

   Improves soil aeration and drainage.

   Makes moisture and nutrients readily available to plants.

   Inorganic and does not deteriorate.

   Serves as an insulator to reduce extreme soil temperature
    fluctuations.

   Has essentially neutral PH of 6.5 to 7.5.

   It is sterile and free of weeds and disease.

   It is clean, odorless, lightweight.

   Acts as an ideal medium for Keeping cuttings and ensures also.

Increasing the percentage of rooting.
Fastness in rooting and growing.
Easiness in working with it.

Perlite for Rooting Cuttings

Growers have found that Perlite is the ideal rooting medium for cuttings
that come from many woody plants. It is important to keep the perlite
moist at all times and to keep cuttings out of direct sun. If temperatures
are cool rooting is hastened by applying bottom heat. Misting on warm
days helps the cuttings retain moisture and hastens rooting.



Perlite for Starting Seeds
Fine perlite can be used alone as a seed-starting medium or it can be mixed half and half
with shredded sphagnum moss or shredded peatmoss. Many seeds
have limited "pushing-up" power. Perlite alone or perlite mixes are
ideal for seed starting because they are light in weight. It also offers
protection to seedlings by resisting surface moss and algae growth.




                                                   8
Perlite in hydroponic cutlrue
Initially al culturers were made in the soil. But, The need to understand the mechanism of
nutrient and physiology of the plants drove sceintists to soiless culture, on simple substrates
and not composite ones as the soil. These experimental cultures, which have nothing to do
with the soil or the soil mixtures, were named hydropinic culture or soiless culture.

Benefites of Hydroponic culture

       Horticultural perlite provides more constant moisture status aroun the roots at all
        times irrespective of weather or stage of root growth.

       Perlite ensures more even watering throughout the
        grwoing area.

       Thera is less probability of over-watering with
        horticutlural perlite.

       Perlite culture avoids wasting of water and nutrients.

       The use of perlite eliminates the need to grade growing floors accurately.

Other horticultural applications for Perlite are as a carrier for fertilizer, herbicides and
pesticides and for pelletizing seed. Horticultural Perlite is as useful to the home gardener as
it is to the commercial grower. It is used with equal success in greenhouse growing,
landscaping application and in the home in houseplants.




                                               9
Industrial applications
Industrial applications for perlite are the most diverse, ranging from high performance fillers
for plastics to cements for petroleum, water and geothermal wells. Other applications
include its use as a filter media for pharmaceuticals, food products, chemicals and water for
municipal systems and swimming pools.
Additional applications include its use as an abrasive in soaps, cleaners, and polishes; and a
variety of foundry applications utilizing perlite's insulating properties and high heat
resistance. This same heat resistant property is taken advantage of when perlite is used in
the manufacture of refractory bricks, mortars, and pipe insulation.


Filter aid
The properties which give perlite filter aids a competitive
advantage over competitive products are their not toxicity and
low bulk density. Their low bulk density is very important for the
cost effectiveness of the process because at the filtration bed it is
the volume of filteraids that matters and not their mass. Perlite
filteraids are also preferred in many industries because they allow
filtration equipment to filter liquids at a faster rate and for a
longer time without the filter septum to be blocked.
Perlite filteraids are used in the filtration of wine, sugar and starch, beverages, edible oil, as
well as pharmaceuticals and chemicals.
Expanded perlite is an excellent filteraid, characterized by high purity and inertness. It has
the property of forming pre-coats and cakes of a large number of pores, which can trap
effectively the various solid impurities from the liquid to be filtered. Their main advantages
over competitive products are their non-toxicity and low bulk density. Perlite filteraids also
facilitate the fast rate of filtration and high clarity of the liquid

Evacuated and non evacuated Cryogenic service
Perlite insulation suitable for evacuated and nonevacuated
cryogenic service exhibits low thermal conductivity
throughout a range of temperatures, pressures, and
densities.
In addition to excellent thermal properties, perlite
insulation is relatively low in cost, easy to handle and
install, and does not shrink, well, warp or slump. It also is
noncombustible and meets fire regulations and can reduce
insurance costs.




                                                10
Perlite in the steel and Foundry Industries
Perlite insulation is used in high temperature applications in the steel
and foundry industries such as ladle topping, hot topping and risering,
in topping compounds, in exothermic and insulating shapes, as a
cushioning agent, in molding sand and in the manufacture of
refractory blocks and bricks.



Filler
Advantages of Perlite Hollow spheres or Bubbles as fillers
Because of their unique multicellular structure, these lightweight perlite fillers can provide
many advantages.

They are effective bulk fillers because of their low density.

Exhibit a uniform white color that has minimal to no effect on the color of the finished
product.

The particle shape of lightweight perlite fillers promotes good bonding between the
perlite and resins.

Some properties such as impact resistance and tensile strength may be enhanced by the
particle shape and size of lightweight perlite fillers.

Lightweight perlite fillers can reduce raw material costs while improving workability.

when used with other fire retardant materials, lightweight , inert and inorganic perlite
fillers can enhance fire resistance.

Because of these characteristics, perlite lightweight hollow spheres or bubbles have been
found to be cost effective in a number of applications including the manufacture of
adhesives, auto body putty, cultured marble, coatings, patching compounds and stucco.




                                               11
filtration
Introduction


Filtration is the removal of fine solid matter from a liquid by passage through a septum or
layer having small openings. It is one of the major industrial application that concern a wide
rang of industries; basic chemicals (like sulfuric acid or caustic soda manufacturing), water
treatment, food and beverage industry.
In various branches of industry filtering operations are carry out to have liquids with
maximum clarity, within a shorter time and less efforts and costs. It's not possible to reach
this ideal results of filtration without a filter aid.

Filter aid
Without using a filter aid the solid particles in the liquid will soon
accumulate on filtering surfaces and block them. Here it comes the
necessity of using it.
Filter aid is an inert material which can make a filtering layer (cake)
that transfers the actual filtering from the septum to the whole mass
of filter aid. Filtration occurs in the tiny pores formed by the fine particles of filter aid.

The difference between filtrations with and without filter aid

                                             Filtration

            WITH FILTER AID                        WITHOUT FILTER AID

            - Fast filtration                      - Filtration too slow

            - Long Cycles                          - Cycle too short

            - Maximum clarity                      - Clarity not good enough

            - Very easy cleaning                   - Filter very difficult to clean




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PERLITE FILTER AID
Perlite is a unique filter aid made from volcanic rock which is
expanded and milled to a specific grades. The resulting filter aid is an
extremely pure, inert, white, lightweight material having a unique
interlocking structure with myriads of microscopic channels. It affords
optimum flow rates and sparkling clarity in filtered substances. Perltie
does not impart taste, odor or color to filtered liquids.


Therefore, it is excellent for filtering food, beverage and pharmaceutical products.

MAJOR COST ADVANTAGE
Perlite filter aids provide the user with a density advantage of 20 - 50% over other filter aids
which is an important consideration when comparing costs. Perlite filter cake density is only
110 to 270kg/m3 . The dry density of perlite filter aid ranges form 100 to 200 kg/m3.
Experiences in a variety of applications in many industries has shown that users of filter aids
can considerably reduce filtration costs without sacrificing performance by converting to
perlite filter aids.

USABLE WITH STANDARD EQUIPMENTS
Perlite filter aid can be used with both pressure and vacuum
filtration equipment. When Perlite filter aids are used with
rotary vacuum filters, filter cakes exhibit less cracking than
when other filter aids are used.


HIGH FLOW RATE
Due to their unique physical structure, Perlite filter aids offer high flow rates with optimum
clarity. They are especially applicable to highly viscous liquids such as syrup or gelatinous
slurries requiring fast flow rates.
Productivity, clarity , and flow rates may be increased through the use of perlite filter aids.

EASY CAKE RELEASE
Because they remain porous and do not compact, perlite filter aids afford easy cake release
at the completion of a filtration cycle. Not only does this facilitate filter cleaning, but it
reduces manpower requirements and increases productivity.

NON HAZARDOUS WASTE
Perlite is not hazardous waste and can be easily disposed of. Some cakes used for food
processing can even be recycled as components in animal feed.

PERLITE'S ADVANTAGES                                      PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
- Optimum clarity of filtered product
- Variable flow rates                                     Color                 White
- No color, taste, odor


                                               13
- Inert, Insoluble in acids.                     Free Moisture       0.5%
- Safe - less than .1% silica.
- Non-hazardous.                                 PH                  6-8
- Usable with standard filter equipment
                                                 Specific gravity    2.2 - 2.4
- Easy cake release
- Facilitates filter cleaning                                        110 - 145
- Less equipment abrasion                        Bulk Density
                                                                     kg/m3
- Easier to handle
- Economical                                     Softening Point     870 - 1100C

                                                 Fusion Point        1280 - 1350C

                                                 Specific heat       0.2

                                                 Specific surface
                                                                     3.5 m2/g
                                                 area

                                                 Total pore
                                                                     58.2A
                                                 diameter

                                                 Soluble Iron        8.3ppm

                                                 Permeability        (Darcies) 3 - 4

                                                 Water Absorption 600ml/100g

GRANULE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
                                                 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (wt%)
            Retained       Passing Weight
Mesh No.                                         SiO2               72 - 76%
            Weight %       %
                                                 Al2O3              11 - 17%
30          trace          100
                                                 CaO                0.5 - 2%
50          3              97
                                                 MgO                0.1 - 0.5%
100         11             86
                                                 Fe2O3              0.5 - 1.5%
140         10             76
                                                 K2O                4 - 5%
270         34             42
                                                 Na2O               3 - 4%
<270        42             0




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APPLICATIONS OF PERLTIE FILTER AID
Food Processing:


- Cider
- Corn Syrup
- Fruit Juices
- Sugar
- Pectin
- Citric Acid
- Vegetable Oils
- Vegetable Juices
- Molasses
- Soft Drinks
- Casein



                                      Industrial:
                                      - Water Treatmen
                                      - Oil Recovery
                                      - Pool Water Treatment
                                      - Greases
                                      - Solvent recovery


Chemical
- Inorganic Chemicals
- Resins
- Organic Chemicals
- Sulfuric Acid
- Polymers
- Polyethylene
- Adhesives
- Titanium Dioxide
- Fertilizers
- Waste disposal




                                     15
 Paints/Coatings/Textiles
 - Waxes
 - Oils
 - Varnish
 - Gums
 - Shellac
 - Paint




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