Separation Agreement Ga

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					The SESAR Concept of Operations in Detail




         Andy Barff, EUROCONTROL
         Philip Hogge, Airspace Users
               8th October, 2007 - NLR
                            The SESAR CONOPS is


                             Performance Driven

                             Process Orientated

                              Trajectory Based
Date: 05/11//07




                             Founded on SWIM

                  Page: 2
                                  The SESAR Concept


                        Trajectory Based Concept Founded on SWIM
                                    ATM Capability Levels
                                    Network Management
                          Airspace Organisation and Management
                                     Queue Management
                                      Airport Operations
Date: 05/11//07




                            Conflict Management and Separation


                  Page: 3
                       Airport     The world without SWIM               A/O

                                  MET
                                              ATC             ATC
                            ATC

                                        A/O             ATC
                                                                    Airport
                    Airport
                                          ATC
                                                        A/O
                                                                          AIS
Date: 05/11//07




                    A/O
                                  A/O         Airport         Airport

                  Page: 4
                            System Wide Information Management

                              MET


                               A/O
                               OPS                                                                  EFB


                              ATFM                            DISTRIBUTE
                                                                                                    CDM

                              CDM              STORE
                                                                              CHECK
                                                          Manage Data
                                                                                                     FDM
                              World
                                AIS
                                          PROCESS                      EAD
                                                                Supplies Traditional
                              NAV                                  AIS products

                              FIS

                                                                                                    ATC
                               ATC
Date: 05/11//07




                               OPS
                                      Source           RESPONSIBILITY                      Output

                               FDM
                                                                                 AIS App




                  Page: 5
                                              The Business Trajectory

                      4D Trajectory which expresses the Business/Mission intention of the airspace user.

                      Fully owned by the airspace user:
                            •   Changes via CDM processes involving user BUT does not interfere with ATC/Pilot
                                time-critical decision processes.
                            •   When constraints are needed the solution is chosen by the user whenever possible

                      Based on most timely and accurate data available
                            •   Sources: AOC, Airborne Automation, ANSP, 3rd Party on behalf user.
                            •   Normally the relevant ANSP will compute trajectory for Military or non-capable users
                                during flight.

                      Exists through out all phases of the ATM process
                                             Exists during the planning phase
                   Exists during Business Development processes.           Trajectory that airspace user agrees to fly and
Date: 05/11//07




                   Internal to the User      „Published‟ by the user and shared by all participants
                                                                           the ANSP and Airport agrees to facilitate
                                             (User at this time)
                   (Not all users have a Trajectory entry point to process will vary)


                    Business Development Trajectory       Shared Business Trajectory      Reference Business Trajectory


                  Page: 6
                               Reference Business Trajectory (RBT)

                                                                                                  Continuous
                  RBT authorised by the ANSP, executed by the                                  Descent Approach
                  flight crew unless there is intervention for the
                  purpose of separation provision or other safety
                  related needs.
                                                                     AUTHORIZED           AGREED
                                                                        RBT                 RBT              CTA
                                             Current Position

                                     EXECUTED
                                        RBT
Date: 05/11//07




                                                                                  “The unique 4D description
                                                                                       of the trajectory”


                  Page: 7
                            ATM Capability Levels
Date: 05/11//07




                  Page: 8
                                                                   ATM Capability Levels
                                         4

                                               Aircraft is a                 Available 2025+: Trajectory Sharing Air-Air; Met data sharing (Air-
                                              “node” on the                  Air/Air-Ground); Avionics with Longitudinal Navigation Performance
                                                                             Capability (4D Contract) and Airborne Self-Separation
                                              SWIM network
                                         3
                  ATM Capability Level




                                                                   SESAR 2020 Requirements: Trajectory Sharing meeting ATM requirements;
                                                                   Avionics with Vertical Navigation Performance capability; multiple RTA and
                                                                   Airborne Separation capability

                                         2

                                                        Aircraft Delivered 2013 onwards: ADS-B/IN and avionics enabling airborne spacing –
                                                        “Sequencing and Merging”; Datalink: Link 2000+ applications

                                         1                                                                                                   CDTI
Date: 05/11//07




                                             “Current Aircraft”: ADS-B/out (position/aircraft/met data); Avionics with 2D-RNP, vertical
                                             constraint management and a single RTA; Datalink: Event reporting/Intent sharing

                                         0
                                                                     2010                              2020                               2030

                             Page: 9
                             Managing the Network
Date: 05/11//07




                  Page: 10
                                      Trajectories in all the ATM processes
                                                     YEARS                 6 MONTHS                      DAYS            HOURS                            MINUTES
                  ATM PLANNING                                                                   Mid/Short
                                                Long Term                                                                                   Execution
                     PHASES                                                                        Term




                                                                                                                                                      C      L

                                                                                                                                                                 F
                                                     BDT                 SBT     SBT       SBT         SBT         SBT           RBT
                                                                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                                                                 R
     LIFECYCLE OF THE                          Business             Shared                                                   Reference                      ASAS
                                              Development          Business                                                  Business                  D
   BUSINESS TRAJECTORY                         Trajectory          Trajectory                                                Trajectory                Time-critical
                                                                                                                                                         Actions
                                                                                                                                       • Local Capacity Mgt.
                                                                                        ACFT          ATM                              • Traffic Balancing
                                                      Negotiations on:
                                                      • Schedules                                                                      • Real-time Queue Mgt
Date: 05/11//07




                              • Forecasts             • Airspace                 AOC                     NETman                        • Tactical De-confliction
                              • Airline Plans         • Routes                           SWIMNet                         Plan refinement:
                              • Schedule Dev.         • Resources                 MIL                        APT
                              • Military Exercises                                                                       • Arrival Capacity
                              • Major Events                                                                             • Departure Planning
                                                                                       BA/GA         MET                 • Impacting Events
                              • Airspace Design
                                                                                                                         • Weather



                   Page: 11
                       The NOP to support the Network Management
                    The Network Operations Plan (NOP) a dynamic rolling plan for continuous
                     operations
                    Supports the Layered Planning process achieving a balanced demand and
                     capacity situation
                    Provides to all stakeholders precise and up-to-date information on:
                          Traffic demand
                          Airspace and Airport Capacity
                          Scenarios to assist the management of diverse events
                    Network Management is the ultimate mediator
                    In case of excess of demand, Airspace Users can recommend a priority order
                     for flights through the User Driven Prioritisation Process (UDPP)
Date: 05/11//07




                          Monitored by Network Management




                  Page: 12
                             Airspace Organisation and
                                   Management
Date: 05/11//07




                  Page: 13
                              Airspace Organisation and Management
                  •    European Airspace a Single Continuum
                  •    Two types of airspace – managed and unmanaged
                        •    Managed:
                              • All information on all traffic is shared
                              • Pre-determined separator is the ANSP (may be delegated)
                        •    Unmanaged:
                              • Traffic may not share information
                              • Pre-determined separator in the Flight Crew

                  •    Full application of Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA) by 2020 and the gradual
                       abandonment of fixed dimensions for special airspace activities
                        •    New airspace types (dynamic, variable, mobile)
Date: 05/11//07




                        •    Improved airspace management and simulation




                  Page: 14
                              Airspace Organisation and Management
                  •    Needs of Trajectory Management determine the dynamic adjustment of
                       airspace

                  •    Distortions to the business/mission trajectory kept to an absolute minimum
                        •    Potential distortions at points of transfer (LoA etc.) eliminated through trajectory
                             sharing

                  •    In Managed airspace user preferred routing will apply with no need to adhere
                       to a fixed route structure
                        •    Route structures will be available
                        •    Trade off between flight efficiency and capacity will mean that route structures
                             may be deployed to maximise capacity and suspended when no longer needed
Date: 05/11//07




                        •    In vicinity of major airports route structures may be essential and may extend
                             to/from cruising levels




                  Page: 15
                             Queue Management
Date: 05/11//07




                  Page: 16
                                            Queue Management (1)
                      • In the real world, there will be circumstances in which, after all possible
                        optimisations, demand does exceed capacity.
                             • Queuing is a natural result of the excess of demand over capacity

                      • Queue management is the tactical establishment and maintenance of a
                        safe, orderly and efficient flow of traffic.
                             • Includes the handling of queues, both in the air and on the ground.
                             • Operates on individual flights
                             • Closely related to the Separation process

                      • Queue management will not by itself reduce delays or increase capacity:
                             • The goal is a better management of throughput, ensuring that delay is
Date: 05/11//07




                               managed in the most fuel-efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.




                  Page: 17
                                                Queue Management (2)

                                 CTA            (CTAREV)            CTAFREEZE
                                                                                         Tactical
                                                                                      Fine Spacing
                                  AMAN Horizon                                         ATC/ASAS



                                                                                Metering Fix
                                                                                (CTA point)
                                            Departure: ATD - CTA received



                                                           EOBT/TTA                            SEQ/CTA
                                                 DMAN                       SWIMNet                         AMAN
                        Turn-Around                        TTA RQ                              TTA Issued
Date: 05/11//07




                                         EOBT
                           Activities
                          (User and
                        Airport Tasks)
                                                A-SMGCS


                  Page: 18
                                     Arrival Management processes assure an optimum arrival sequence
                        SEQUENCE
                                   by the allocation of Controlled Time of Arrival (CTA) at an appropriate fix




                                                                   ASPA Merging technique achieves
                                                 MERGE
                                                                precise pair-wise time-based spacing at fix




                                                                                             ASPA in trail time-based spacing
                                                                                 SPACE
                                                                                              - precise final approach spacing
                                                                                                    in all wind conditions
                   Continuous Descent Approach
Date: 05/11//07




                   Significant Fuel Saving: UPS, NUP2+                                                 Increased consistent
                   30% less noise (6db) 34% less NOx                                                   runway utilisation



                  Page: 19
                                                                                         D
                                                                                                   Single Merge Point

                     F                                Dynamic allocation
                                                       of arrival routes




                                                                                Final spacing <50secs



                             Continuous descent
                                approaches




                                                                           A


                                                         B                     Merge point close to runway
                                                                                - time based merging
Date: 05/11//07




                         E



                                                  C

                  Page: 20
                             Airport Operations
Date: 05/11//07




                  Page: 21
                                                Airport Operations
                  •    Increased runway and surface safety
                        •    Elimination of runway incursions, improved surface movement management
                  •    Increased runway throughput
                        •    Improved wake vortex separation techniques – prediction/detection
                        •    Minimizing and predicting runway occupancy times
                        •    Accurate time-based spacing on final approach
                        •    Reduced departure spacing
                  •    Increased and consistent runway utilisation
                        •    Arrival and departure management tools – sequence optimisation
                        •    Optimising runway configuration / mode of operation
                        •    Increase runway utilization during low visibility conditions
Date: 05/11//07




                  •    Reducing noise and pollution through operational improvements
                        •    Continuous descent approaches, continuous climb departures
                        •    Minimal ground and air holding

                  Page: 22
                                              Airport Operations

                   Safety is paramount – SESAR goal is the elimination of runway incursions
Date: 05/11//07




                  Images courtesy of the FLYSAFE project (TU Darmstadt)
                  Page: 23
                             Conflict Management
                               and Separation
Date: 05/11//07




                  Page: 24
                       Conflict Management: Background and Needs

                               TMA and En-route capacity is a function of ATC task-load

                                                                           Tactical Intervention
                               Task Identification
                                                                           to ensure Separation

                                                             Task-Load



                                           Clearances                      Communications
                                                            Coordination
                                            Routine Tasks
Date: 05/11//07




                  Provide Automation Assistance                            Reduce the need for Intervention
                   MTCD/R, Conformance Monitoring …                         Deconfliction, Share Tactical Intervention
                                                            Automation




                  Page: 25
                                                           Separation Modes
                                         Mode

                  Conventional Self-Separation

                  Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                  Trajectory Control by Speed Adjustment
                                                                                 !
                  Precision Trajectory-2D

                  Precision Trajectory-3D
                                                                                                  !
                  Precision Trajectory-4D Contract

                  Airborne Separation: Visual
                                                                     Vertical uncertainty results in a large
                  Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
                                                                                protected area
Date: 05/11//07




                  Airborne Separation

                  Airborne Self-Separation




                  Page: 26
                                                           Separation Modes
                                         Mode

                  Conventional Self-Separation

                  Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                  Trajectory Control by Speed Adjustment

                  Precision Trajectory-2D

                  Precision Trajectory-3D

                  Precision Trajectory-4D Contract

                  Airborne Separation: Visual

                                                                   Vertical containment releases a large volume of
                  Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
                                                                         airspace - available for other aircraft
Date: 05/11//07




                  Airborne Separation

                  Airborne Self-Separation




                  Page: 27
                                                           Separation Modes
                                         Mode

                  Conventional Self-Separation


                                                                         “Cones” and/or “tubes”
                  Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                  Trajectory Control by Speed Adjustment

                  Precision Trajectory-2D

                  Precision Trajectory-3D

                  Precision Trajectory-4D Contract

                  Airborne Separation: Visual

                  Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
Date: 05/11//07




                  Airborne Separation

                  Airborne Self-Separation




                  Page: 28
                                                           Separation Modes
                                         Mode

                  Conventional Self-Separation


                                                                        Dynamic Route Allocation
                  Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                  Trajectory Control by Speed Adjustment

                  Precision Trajectory-2D

                  Precision Trajectory-3D

                  Precision Trajectory-4D Contract
                                                                                          Optimum profile

                  Airborne Separation: Visual

                  Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
Date: 05/11//07




                  Airborne Separation

                  Airborne Self-Separation




                  Page: 29
                                                           Separation Modes
                                         Mode
                                                                  Under a 4D Contract clearance uncertainty is contained
                  Conventional Self-Separation

                  Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                  Trajectory Control by Speed Adjustment

                  Precision Trajectory-2D

                  Precision Trajectory-3D

                  Precision Trajectory-4D Contract
                                                                                                    Lateral, Vertical
                  Airborne Separation: Visual                                                       and Longitudinal

                  Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
Date: 05/11//07




                  Airborne Separation

                  Airborne Self-Separation                        The aircraft guarantees a maximum degree of deviation in
                                                                     all dimensions from the cleared trajectory segment



                  Page: 30
                                                          Separation Modes
                                          Mode

                   Conventional Self-Separation
                                                                                Overtaking Problem
                                                                            Target
                   Conventional Surveillance/Procedural                                                     Delegated

                   Trajectory Control-Speed Adjust.

                   Precision Trajectory-2D

                   Precision Trajectory-3D
                                                                  Delegated aircraft calculates overtaking manoeuvre using
                   Precision Trajectory-4D Contract               airborne separation – then shares new trajectory providing
                                                                  the controller with assurance that the situation is resolved
                   Delegated Separation: Visual

                   Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
Date: 05/11//07




                   Airborne Separation

                   Airborne Self-Separation




                  Page: 31
                                                          Separation Modes
                                          Mode
                                                                           Climb Through Problem
                   Conventional Self-Separation                                                  FL320
                                                                                                          FL340
                   Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                   Trajectory Control-Speed Adjust.

                   Precision Trajectory-2D

                   Precision Trajectory-3D

                   Precision Trajectory-4D Contract

                   Delegated Separation: Visual
                                                                                                         FL250^370
                   Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging          Controller authorises climbing
Date: 05/11//07




                                                                 Aircraft to execute RBT but
                   Airborne Separation
                                                                 delegates separation responsibility
                   Airborne Self-Separation
                                                                 against the 2 “blocking” aircraft




                  Page: 32
                             Conflict Resolution - ASAS Solution
                                           (courtesy of Dassault Aviation)


                  NTS                                      X1
                  62.5 nm      000                         22.5 nm              020
                  08:00                                    04:30
                  11 44 Z
                                          X1
                                                            ADS-B will provide :
                                                           11 38 Z
                                                                           X1


                                                             An accurate position of the Intruder
                                                             The Track of the Intruder
                   F
                   M
                                                           F
                                                           M The Ground Speed of the Intruder
                   S                                       S
                   1                                       1
                                                            and so the intruder relative course
                                                             Appropriated route change
                                                            might be proposed to the pilot
Date: 05/11//07




                                                                                          5
                                     5
                                                                                              SEPARATION
                                         SEPARATION                                           F7X F-WIDE
                                         F7X F-WIDE                                           5 nm  03:20
                                         3 nm  03:30




                  Page: 33
                                                          Separation Modes
                                          Mode
                                                                   Sequence to fix – continuous descent
                   Conventional Self-Separation

                                                                      Slowly converging “separated” RNP routes
                   Conventional Surveillance/Procedural
                                                                          – no need for a “platform altitude”
                   Trajectory Control-Speed Adjust.
                                                                    ASEP automated monitoring of parallel streams

                   Precision Trajectory-2D

                   Precision Trajectory-3D

                   Precision Trajectory-4D Contract

                   Delegated Separation: Visual

                   Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
Date: 05/11//07




                   Airborne Separation

                   Airborne Self-Separation
                                                                          ASEP monitoring replaces radar monitoring
                                                                               before radar separation is lost




                  Page: 34
                                                          Separation Modes
                                          Mode

                   Conventional Self-Separation

                   Conventional Surveillance/Procedural

                   Trajectory Control-Speed Adjust.

                   Precision Trajectory-2D

                   Precision Trajectory-3D

                   Precision Trajectory-4D Contract

                   Delegated Separation: Visual

                   Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging
Date: 05/11//07




                   Airborne Separation

                   Airborne Self-Separation




                  Page: 35
                                         Airborne Self-Separation

                  Self-Separation (SSEP) – aware of all surrounding traffic and its intent
                  – execute airborne separation in relation to all other aircraft trajectories

                                                                   However SSEP in very low density
                                                                 high altitude airspace may be feasible
                                                                     in a relatively short time-scale
Date: 05/11//07




                                                                                           SSEP in mixed airspace is
                                                                                              perhaps the most
                                                                                             challenging SESAR
                      Managed Airspace                                                         concept aspect



                  Page: 36
                                        Airborne Self-Separation

                  Self-Separation (SSEP) – awareness of all surrounding traffic and its intent
                  – execute airborne separation in relation to all other traffic

                                                        Particularly as an enabler to cruise climb….
Date: 05/11//07




                      Managed Airspace


                  Page: 37
                                                  IN CONCLUSION

                    • SESAR stakeholders have risen to the challenge and have developed
                      this new Concept of Operations.
                    • We now respect each others positions much more!
                    • There is a high level of agreement – and any disagreements or caveats
                      will be respected on the way ahead.
                    • SESAR will now use this Concept of Operations as the basis of the ATM
                      Master Plan and will test and validate the ideas it contains.



                                  Main themes of SESAR are very similar to those of NextGen
Date: 05/11//07




                             The SESAR Concept of Operations is fully compliant with the ICAO OCD



                  Page: 38
The SESAR Concept of Operations in Detail




               Questions?

              8th October, 2007 - NLR

				
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