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Assessment Integrity Toolkit

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					Assessment Integrity Toolkit


International




A Toolkit for International External Verifiers and
Centres
Contents

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  Preface                                                                                1
  1    Considering academic integrity in the external verifier visit
       plan                                                         5
  2    Assignment design to ensure academic integrity                                    6
  3    Enhancing assessment in BTEC qualifications                                       7
  4    Policies for managing assessment in the BTEC programme 9
  5    Developing an assessment policy to support integrity in
       assessment                                                                      10
  6    Developing strategies for avoiding plagiarism                                   11
  7    Using assessment methods to promote authentic work                              12
  8    Designing assignments to promote authentic work                                 16
  9    Assessing and annotating work                                                   24
  10   Using the internal verification system                                          25
  11   Finding anti-plagiarism software                                                26
  12 Locating information about academic integrity                                     27
  13    Finding references                                                             28
  14    Answering frequently asked questions                                           29
  References used in the preparation of the toolkit                                    31
Preface

Purpose
                Ensuring the integrity of assessment is an issue on which external verifiers will provide
                advice and guidance.
                Edexcel’s requirements in the assessment criteria are unambiguous. The statement, ‘a
                learner must …’ is quite clear and requires that each learner is able to demonstrate their
                own achievement against each assessment criterion. Learners should not rely on the effort
                of others to supply the material to support the claims that the criteria are met.
                In a unit such as Exploring Team Development, where there is a criterion, ‘explain how
                targets are set and team performance is monitored’, centres and students might say that
                learner work is the same because the group members share a common view about how the
                group set targets and monitored group performance. However, there is no reason for each
                group member to have taken the same approach, or to have considered exactly the same
                sources of information, or to have reached exactly the same conclusions.


Status
                The toolkit is designed to offer guidance on how external verifiers might work with centres
                in ensuring integrity in the assessment process. The advice offered is not mandatory.
                Appropriate tools will give centre staff some specific suggestions about how they might
                ensure the integrity of assessment. The material in the toolkit can be copied and
                distributed and can be adapted to suit a centre’s own requirements.




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Meanings

Authentic
              Authentic, according to the Concise Oxford Dictionary1 means, ‘ of undisputed origin’.
              Work handed in for assessment should be the learner’s own work.


Cheating
              Cheating is trying to gain an unfair advantage by deceiving the assessor into awarding a
              better mark than can be justified on the basis of the work done.


Cooperation and collaboration
              These two terms have positive associations and they refer to individual learners working
              together to achieve specific goals. Edexcel encourages realistic vocational tasks to be
              given to learners that involve team or group working. However, assessment must be of
              individual performance.


Collusion
              Collusion is when two or more individuals work together and agree to mask the work of the
              weaker individuals to ensure that the mark of the stronger individual is awarded to all
              learners.


Integrity
              Integrity means meeting professional academic standards and being honest in producing
              work for assessment.


Falsification
              Falsification occurs when the outcomes of investigations and experiments are inaccurately
              recorded and are at odds with the results actually generated. This might be done to ensure
              data supports preconceived ideas about hypotheses that are being tested.


Malpractice
              Edexcel defines malpractice as, ‘those acts which undermine the integrity and validity of
              assessment, the certification of qualifications and/or damage the authority of those
              responsible for conducting the assessment and certification’.




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                In its own guidance on malpractice, Edexcel offers two more general statements about
                what constitutes plagiarism:
                ‘Allowing evidence, which is known by the staff member not to be the learner’s own, to
                be included in a learner’s assignment/task/portfolio/ course work’
                and
                ‘Assisting learners in the production of work for assessment, where the support has the
                potential to influence the outcomes of assessment, for example, where the assistance
                involves the centre staff producing work for the learner’.


                Activities such as the following would constitute plagiarism:
            • Copying work from published sources.
            • Buying work to include in assignments.
            • Copying the work of other learners (with or without permission).
            • Using work without attribution.


Sufficiency of evidence
                Assessors need to decide how much work they need to see before awarding a grade. In
                some circumstances the BTEC specification will identify how much is enough.
                For example, the criterion, ‘Describe how the principles of customer service and methods
                used to evaluate it, are applied in two different travel and tourism organisations’ requires
                two organisations to be studied.
                 However, it is left open to the assessor to decide how many principles of customer service
                the learner needs to identify. The assessor will use professional judgement to identify
                whether a learner knows about the principles of customer service.


Theft
                Any work taken from others without their consent and/or without attribution.


Validity of evidence
                Valid evidence is work that can be matched reliably to a criterion. The work also has to be
                real, authentic and correctly attributed and must justify the assessors’ awarding of
                criteria, outcomes, units and qualifications.




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    The Tools




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1               Considering academic integrity in the
                external verifier visit plan

                There are different ways in which an external verifier can engage with centres about
                assessment integrity. The external verifier may:


            • Include an item on assessment integrity when planning a centre visit for the first time.
            • Link the item to ‘Quality of assessments’ and ‘Assessment standards and processes’.
            • Ask to see any centre policies on academic integrity.
            • Check whether the internal verification system identifies and deals with matters of
              academic integrity.
            • Ask assessors how they deal with inauthentic work when examples are found in the sample.
            • Provide centres with action Points if there are matters of academic integrity that need the
              centre’s attention.
            • Comment on specific examples of inauthentic work when completing the sampling section
              of the form: ‘Details of units/learners sampled’.
            • Suggest that the centre responds to any action point within 4 weeks of the visit.
            • It is the responsibility of the centre to ensure assessment integrity and eliminate problems.




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2           Assignment design to ensure academic
            integrity

            Here is an example of how the design of an assignment can reduce the chances of students
            copying or plagiarising:
WEBSITE DESIGN UNIT;
            A unit on web site design requires learners to ‘Describe how three contrasting
            organisations use their websites for business purposes’.
            Example 1 A teacher could just use the criterion as a question. This could then lead to
            several members of the class producing work on the same three organisations.
            Example 2 A variation on the question might be;

 ‘Describe how a local design studio, the ministry of tourism and an airline use their websites for
business purposes’.

            The teacher’s choice of business ensures there is diversity in the selection but again
            several members of the group may produce the same work.
            Example 3 The teacher may produce three lists of organisations. The task might then be;

‘Choose one organisation from each list and describe how the three contrasting organisations use their
websites for business purposes’.

            The probability of learners choosing the same three organisations is less than 100% so there
            is less chance of the same answer appearing.
            Example 4 The teacher may allocate specific businesses to individual learners.
            Example 5 A further variation is to give learners a completely free choice of organisation
            that has to be agreed with the teacher before any work is done. The task would then be;

‘Select three contrasting organisations. Your choices must be agreed with the lecturer. Describe how
the three contrasting organisations use their websites for business purposes’.

            The teacher can then ensure that nobody in the class is looking at the same organisations.
HOSPITALITY
            Another option is to set questions for which there is no answer on the internet or in a book
            e.g.

‘Investigate the factors affecting menu design’

            This asks for a simple internet search that would yield some standard answers.
            However, if the teacher devised a case study around a new bistro in Thessaloniki called the
            Tobacco Café then all relevant variables could be imagined by the lecturer and identified
            in the case study (target market, location of premises, size of business, hours of operation,
            style of cuisine).
            The question set would be;
‘Investigate the factors affecting menu design for the Tobacco Café’.
            There are no answers to that question either on the internet or in a textbook, so there is
            no reason for learners to produce the same answers.


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3               Enhancing assessment in BTEC
                qualifications
                ‘Students can, with difficulty, escape from the effects of poor teaching; they cannot
                escape the effects of poor assessment.’4

                Responsibilities in relation to assessment include:

            • Ensuring learners have been taught the material identified in the units that make up the
              qualification.
            • Providing formative assessment and feedback.
            • Designing summative assessments.
            • Planning the assessment programme.
            • Briefing learners on the requirements of assignments.
            • Assessing work against the criteria.
            • Making assessment decisions.
            • Providing feedback to learners.
            • Helping learners to improve their work.

                Careful assignment design can help support the integrity of the assessment process. There
                are different ways to do this.

Assessment method
                Choose methods that are suitable for the outcome and criteria being assessed.
                For example, if the criterion being assessed is:
                ‘use appropriate resources to produce two complex travel itineraries for business travel
                customers to given client briefs’
                the assessor must ask for the right evidence. It would not be correct to ask:

 ‘Write a report describing how to use appropriate resources to produce two complex travel itineraries
for business travel customers to given client briefs’

                It would be correct to ask:

‘Produce two complex travel itineraries for business travel customers that meet the clients’ needs
using appropriate resources’

                There is an important difference in vocational qualifications between asking someone to
                describe how to do something and asking them to do it.
                Ensure the assignments meet the learning styles of different individuals. ‘Produce a report
                … ‘ encompasses both written as well as spoken reports and you need to be happy and
                confident to ask ‘Make a presentation . .’ which will achieve the same purpose as ‘Write a
                report …’.
Designing the stimulus material
                Stimulus material may be a case study, project, scenario or problem. It is tempting to ask
                a learner to identify a problem and then to suggest a solution. A typical (real) example
                requires learners to:

‘Visit an organization of your choice. Identify the characteristics of the markets in which the
organisation operates. Describe how the organization develops its position in the market and how it
develops its products to sustain its competitive advantage.’


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             The problems with this approach are:
         • Some learners will choose unsuitable organisations.
         • Some suitable organisations may not have the necessary range of information to allow for
           the completion of a satisfactory assignment.
         • Some organisations may be entirely suitable but will not release commercially sensitive
           information.
         • The learner will have to generate the information on which to base the answer and then
           produce the answer. The unit requires the learner only to produce the answer.


             The teacher can create realistic problems with all relevant parameters and variables and
             then just allow the learner to answer the problem. This will not be a problem for the
             teacher as they have the necessary expertise and knowledge to create these realistic
             problems. Creating interesting case studies is one of the most refreshing parts of a
             teacher’s job. An example assignment with an embryo case study can be found in the
             toolkit, section 9 ‘Designing assignments to promote authentic work’.
             Consider collecting together a bank of stimulus material in the centre. Obtaining five
             copies of a report and making them available to learners in the library is much better then
             having 50 learners write to the organisation asking for the same information.


Group work
             Group work will hide from the assessor the ability of some of the learners, as it may not be
             clear who can do what. Consider why you need to use group work. If you do, then have a
             look at the Specialist Paper on Group Work available on the Edexcel website
             www.Edexcel.com.


Working with the internal verifier
             The internal verifier must look at your assignments before you give them to learners. Ask
             your internal verifier for advice on your assignments and how they might be improved to
             reduce opportunities for collusion, plagiarism etc.




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4               Policies for managing assessment in the
                BTEC programme

                The management of BTEC programmes requires centres to have in place a set of effective
                procedures. It is the responsibility of centres to devise implement, monitor and review
                their own systems. Edexcel will ask about what systems are in place and will be able to
                offer advice and guidance.


                Policies and procedures need to be fair and reasonable. Centres should continually monitor
                and review the operation of policies.


                There is a range of policies which can support integrity in assessment. Centres might find it
                both important and useful to have policies for the following:
            • Assessment.
            • Internal verification.
            • Malpractice.
            • Special consideration.
            • Academic appeals.
            • Assessment board operation.
            • Accreditation of prior learning.
            • Equal opportunities in assessment.


                The Centre Handbook ‘Quality Assurance 2009 - 2010’ provides further information about
                policies and can be found on the Edexcel website www.Edexcel.com.


Induction programmes
                Induction programmes can describe all aspects of course operation including how teaching
                and learning will take place. It is a good point at which to introduce learners to policies
                and procedures.


Learner handbook
                Sections in a learner handbook can be devoted to learning and assessment in BTEC
                programmes, as well as providing summaries of centre policies and procedures in relation
                to assessment.


Tutorials
                Build in tutorial time and use it to discuss assignments, read drafts and provide feedback.
                This will give you an insight in to what each individual knows and can do.




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5          Developing an assessment policy to
           support integrity in assessment

Assessment policy
           Centres should identify how assessment works in BTEC programmes. A policy can cover:
        • Assessment methods.
        • Assessment plans.
        • Centre presentation of assignments to learners.
        • Guidance on assignment production.
        • Assignment submission.
        • Deadlines.
        • Referral.
        • Deferral.
        • Assessment and grading.
        • Qualification achievement.
        • Assessment board arrangements.
        • Accreditation of prior achievement.




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6               Developing strategies for avoiding
                plagiarism

Students and staff need to be informed of the following:


Referencing and citation
                Material should be referenced, using a standard citation and referencing system such as the
                Harvard Referencing system.


Quotation
                  Material that comes from a source, whether it is a book or a downloaded piece of text
                  should be put into quotation marks and possibly also italics.


Synopses, paraphrasing and summarising
                Researched material which the learner puts into his or her own words still needs to
                recognise the original source material.


Abstract
                An abstract is a summary, in the learner’s own words, of what an assignment is about. It is
                placed at the beginning of an assignment.


Keeping track of the source
                Students should be advised to make accurate and careful notes about the sources used and
                to keep full bibliographic references. In the case of websites a note should be made, not
                only of the address but also of the date on which the material was accessed.




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7         Using assessment methods to promote
          authentic work
Assessment methods
          A variety of methods for assessing generic vocational skills, knowledge and understanding is
          identified here which will ensure that the learner work is authentic. The list of methods is
          neither definitive nor prescriptive.


           1   Thinking critically and making judgements
           Possible assessment methods:                  Advice to assessors:
           Report                                        Look out for; identical phrase being used;
                                                         words used inappropriately; the level of
                                                         language that is being used; inappropriate
                                                         use of terms; inappropriate references.
           Journal / Magazine article                    Allow students to write articles for different
                                                         publications with different audiences.

           Briefing paper                                Use different scenarios for different learners
                                                         and vary from year to year.

           Review                                        Provide different students with different
                                                         material to review.

           Preparing a case                              Use debates with all students playing a role
                                                         and giving their own feedback to show what
                                                         they have learned.
           Proffering advice (in a letter or a report)   Allow students to send letters to each other
                                                         and respond to communications received.



           2   Solving problems and developing plans
           Possible assessment methods:
           Work-based problem                            Different students play different roles in the
                                                         work-based scenario.

           Case study                                    Supervision of work and asking learners to
                                                         plan how they will approach the work.

           Group work                                    Use post event interviews to identify the
                                                         individual’s contribution and also question
                                                         knowledge about other group members’
                                                         contributions.
           Analysing problems                            Use problems with a variety of acceptable
                                                         answers.

           Preparing a bid                               Allow students to choose the bid they wish
                                                         to make.

           Writing a conference paper                    Use different dates for different
                                                         conferences with a variety of audiences.




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                 3. Performing procedures and demonstrating techniques
                 Possible assessment methods:
                 Demonstration                                Unique to learner and can be observed. Keep
                                                              observation records.
                 Role play                                    Unique to learner.
                 Video production                             Individual students can easily be identified.
                 Wall displays                                Require students to identify their
                                                              contribution.

                 Promotional materials                        Leaflets/booklets/posters produced by
                                                              individual students.

                 Laboratory report                            Unique to learner. Keep observation records.
                 Producing a manual or user guide             Different applications can be used to develop
                                                              different manuals.
                 Observed performance                         Unique to learner.


4    Managing and developing oneself
                This requires personalised evidence to be produced. Possible assessment methods:
            • Diary.
            • Journal.
            • Portfolio of work.
            • Group work – individuals to be questioned about their role and contribution to the group.
            • Observed performance.
            • Learning contract – between student and centre.


                 5. Accessing and managing information
                 Possible assessment methods:
                 Project                                      Assessor needs to look for a variety of
                                                              acknowledged sources.

                 Annotated bibliography
                 Dissertation                                 Evidence that research is managed and
                                                              presented appropriately.

                 Applied work                                 Application that can be directly attributed to
                                                              the learner.

                 Researching problems                         Consider allowing student to identify a
                                                              problem in an appropriate area of research.

                 Surveys                                      Unique research and findings.




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              6   Demonstrating knowledge and understanding
              Possible assessment methods:
              Examination                                 Questions should always be testing the
                                                          assessment criteria in the specification.

              Oral test                                   Questions should always be testing the
                                                          assessment criteria in the specification.

              Essay                                       Essays are used more in academic
                                                          qualifications. An essay, when used, should
                                                          always relate to the requirements of the
                                                          assessment criteria.
              Report                                      Look out for; identical phrase being used;
                                                          words used inappropriately; the level of
                                                          language that is being used; inappropriate use
                                                          of terms; inappropriate references.
              Computer based assessment                   The assessment should always be based on the
                                                          assessment criteria for the unit being
                                                          assessed.
              Multiple choice questions                   Used infrequently and mostly for lower level
                                                          qualifications. Questions must always test the
                                                          assessment criteria as worded in the
                                                          specification.
              Short answer questions                      Used infrequently and mostly for lower level
                                                          qualifications. Questions must always test the
                                                          assessment criteria as worded in the
                                                          specification.
              Producing an A-Z of a topic                 Must always be able to assess the criteria of
                                                          the unit.


7    Designing, creating and performing
             This are personal methods of assessment, directly attributable to the learner. Possible
             assessment methods:
          • Performance.
          • Rehearsal.
          • Portfolio.
          • Presentation.
          • Projects.
          • Model making.
          • Displays.




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                 8    Communicating
                 Possible assessment
                 methods:
                 Written work                             Look out for; identical phrase being used; words used
                                                          inappropriately; the level of language that is being used;
                                                          inappropriate use of terms; inappropriate references.
                 Oral presentations                       Ensure it is the assessment criteria of the unit that is
                                                          being assessed by the presentation, not the learner’s
                                                          ability to present (unless this is one of the criteria in the
                                                          specifications).
                 Debates                                  Ensure it is the assessment criteria of the unit that is
                                                          being assessed by the presentation, not the learner’s
                                                          ability to debate (unless this is one of the criteria in the
                                                          specifications).Require everyone to feedback at the end
                                                          of the debate to show what has been learned. Perhaps
                                                          ask learners to choose an aspect of the debate to
                                                          research further but always remember it is the unit
                                                          assessment criteria that must be assessed.
                 Discussions                              Ensure that all learners take part. Test knowledge and
                                                          understanding after the discussion.

                 Professional discussion                  One to one professional discussions that are recorded can
                                                          generate assessable evidence.

                 Demonstration of real or                 Directly attributable to the learner.
                 simulated professional
                 practice
                 TV or radio production                   Individual’s contributions and knowledge would need to
                                                          be assessed.

                 Storyboards                              Individual’s contributions and knowledge would need to
                                                          be assessed.

                 Animations                               Individual’s contributions and knowledge would need to
                                                          be assessed.


                These ideas are based on material that can be found at:
                www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/methods.html




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8    Designing assignments to promote
     authentic work

     The sample assignment that follows shows you some of the ways in which the authenticity
     of learner work can be promoted. A commentary follows the assignment to highlight the
     things that you can use to ensure authentic work.
     No single method will ensure valid and authentic learner work but taken together the
     various techniques help ensure the work is valid and authentic.




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 ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY                                                             South African
 FRONT SHEET – BTEC Higher National Diploma in Business
                                                                                     Centre
 Name___________________________                    Group___Individual____

 Activity title_______________________                 Assignment reference____Unit 19________

 Date issued: ________ Date due: ________ Date submitted: __________

 Assessor(s)______________________________________________

 Unit outcomes

    Outcome        Evidence for the                              Feedback                        Assessor’s decision
                   criteria

    Compile
                   Section in the                                                                 a
   marketing       report appraising
     audits        the processes &
                   techniques used for
     (19.1)        auditing the
                   marketing
                   environment.


                   Organisational and                                                             b
                   environmental
                   audits of the
                   Junction.




 Examine the
                   Section in the                                                                 a
     main          report identifying
  barriers to      the barriers to
  marketing        marketing planning.
   planning

     (19.2)


                   Section in the                                                                 b
                   report on how to
                   overcome the
                   barriers to
                   marketing planning.




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     Outcome     Evidence for the                        Feedback                                     Assessor’s
                     criteria                                                                          Decision

 Formulate a
               Explanation of the                                                                      a
  marketing    need to be
  plan for a   innovative.
  product or
    service
               Section in the plan                                                                     b
     (19.3)
               identifying and
               assessing techniques
               for developing
               products.


               Recommendations in                                                                      c
               the plan for pricing,
               distributing and
               communicating a
               product.

               Measures to monitor                                                                     d
               and review
               marketing
               performance in the
               plan.

               The marketing plan.                                                                     e




 Merit grades awarded                                         M1                  M2                 M3

 Distinction grades awarded                                   D1                  D2                 D3
 Assessor name and                                                                                      Date
     signature

 I, (Print student name / student ID number) hereby confirm that this assignment is my               Learner
 own work and not copied or plagiarised. It has not previously been submitted as part of            signature
 any assessment for this qualification. All the sources from which information has been
 obtained for this assignment, have been referenced. (Harvard format).
 I further confirm that I have read and understood the (Print name of centre) rules and
 regulations about plagiarism and copying and agree to be bound by them.




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Scenario
                In the last few years, the number of foreign restaurants (e.g. McDonalds; Starbucks) has
                proliferated in South Africa. It is clear from walking around Cape Town that these chains
                are popular both with local consumers and with visitors from the time they open until the
                time they shut.


                You work for a family owned restaurant business in the city. The business is thinking about
                expanding and developing a different style for its restaurants so that they are more like the
                international chains. There will be some important differences but the main idea is to sell
                up-market African-style fast food.


                The business is hoping to start on 1 October 2009.


                At present, the existing business is a traditional restaurant with a single location. It serves
                mainly traditional food. The décor is very basic but the restaurant is popular with locals
                because it offers good value for money.


                It has a central location. There are many attractions in and around Cape Town including
                the Two Oceans Aquarium, the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens, Robben Island and
                Tabletop Mountain. Government offices are nearby. Cape Town is a popular entry point for
                visitors to South Africa. The government is encouraging tourism and visitors to come from
                around the world. South Africa’s growing economy means there is a year round stream of
                business visitors. South Africa will host the 2010 World Cup. There are some international
                hotels (three, four and five star) nearby.


                The initial idea is to open a refurbished and re-branded modern restaurant. It is designed
                to offer an up-to-date variation on a typical South African restaurant. In addition, it will
                offer its clientele more traditional service. The plan is to call the restaurant De Waterkant
                Junction. If it is successful, the intention is to open similar restaurants in the city and
                expand to other cities. The company will prefix the name Junction with the location
                wherever the eatery is situated.


                {The rest of the case study would appear here. It needs to give learners enough information
                to allow them to investigate and solve the problems identified in the tasks}.




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Required:
            Prepare a two part formal report for the owner of the business, covering the issues
            described. Tasks 1, 2 and 3 make up part 1 of the report. Task 4 is part two. The two
            parts make up one final report.

            Part 1

            Task 1

        • Appraise the processes and techniques that need to be used to audit the marketing
          environment faced by the Junction. Consider the change that is happening and evaluate
          issues relating to aspects of competing for the future and balancing strategic intent and
          strategic reality.

            (Pass criteria 1a)

            Task 2

        • Using appropriate techniques, conduct an organisational and environmental audit on the
          Junction’s plan to launch operations in Cape Town. This requires:

        • An organisational audit for the Junction.

        • An environmental (PEST) analysis for the fast food market in Cape Town.

            (The audit and analysis are best done using a form. Design and use your own forms).

            (Pass criteria 1b)

            Task 3

        • Identify the main barriers to marketing planning that the Junction faces.

            (Pass criteria 2a)

        • Suggest how the Junction may overcome barriers to marketing planning.

            (Pass criteria 2b)

            Part 2

            Task 4

        • Explain the need for the Junction to be innovative in the fast food market in Cape Town by
          presenting a marketing plan for the business in which you:

        • Make recommendations for pricing, distributing and communicating a product or service.

        • Identify and assess techniques for developing products

        • Specify measures to monitor and review marketing performance.

            (Pass criteria 3a, b, c, d, e)




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Grading
                Pass            All criteria identified in the assignment are met.
                Merit           Suitable marketing techniques have been used to analyse and process the
                                information collected and presented in the environmental audit, the marketing
                                audit and the marketing plan. Reasoned judgements are made about proposals
                                in the marketing plan. The deadline to submit the plan and final report have
                                been met.(M1)
                                A justified choice of the marketing techniques and concepts applied and used
                                to analyse the situation faced by the proposed new business are given. The
                                marketing plan is based on an understanding of the relevant marketing issues
                                faced by the new business.(M2)
                                The environmental and marketing audits are presented in a standard format
                                that uses business and marketing terminology accurately.(M3)
                Distinction The marketing information gathered is checked for accuracy and validity. The
                            marketing plan has justified proposals based on a synthesis of the relevant
                            factors that exist in the local market.(D1)
                                The organisational audit, environmental analysis and marketing plan are
                                interlinked logically and are mutually consistent. Likely problems have been
                                identified and provisions made to overcome them in the marketing plan.(D2)
                                The marketing plan must demonstrate that the full range of marketing ideas
                                and issues have been evaluated and used when making proposals. The
                                proposals must offer a realistic and effective way forward for the business.(D3)




                Notes

          •     Use a standard business report structure.
          •     Word process the report if possible.
          •     Use the Harvard referencing system.
          •     Draft reports for part 1 (tasks 1, 2 and 3) will be discussed at the tutorials in the week
                beginning Monday (insert date). The draft report for part 2 (task 4) will be discussed at
                the tutorials in the week beginning (insert date).
          •     Complete the title page and sign the statement of authenticity.
          •     Use a butterfly or treasury tag to keep the pages of your work together.
          •     Late work will only be marked on the next occasion the unit is taught in semester 2 in
                2010. If the unit does not run again then you will need to pay a late assessment fee in
                line with the requirements of the college’s assessment policy.
          •     Submit the work to Mrs Vong in the faculty office by 19.30 on (insert date) for part 1 and
                by (insert date) for part 2.

Commentary on the assignment brief showing how to support authentic work

The Group
                This work is done by individual learners. If the unit specification requires group work then
                you need to specify this in the assignment. Otherwise, you need to ask yourself why group
                work should be used in this assignment. When group work is used, the assessor has to judge
                whether each group member has met every criterion. That is difficult if there is a single
                piece of word-processed work with four names on it. The assessor may have to have
                meetings / tutorials with each student to question them on their knowledge and


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            understanding. If gaps in knowledge are identified, then more evidence will be required to
            be produced.


The Feedback column
            When the work is marked, the teacher gives the learner feedback against the assessment
            criterion. It is where the assessor can question work that has not been identified as
            authentic.


The Assessor’s decision column
            The a, b, c and so on show which assessment criteria are being assessed. The criteria
            appear as bullet points in the unit specification and it is helpful to identify them using this
            system. The blank space next to the criterion is where the teacher records the marking
            decision. It is either or x. If there is invalid or there is incomplete evidence of
            achievement in the work then a x is used to show the learner has not met the criterion.
            Advice should be given to the learner on what needs to be done.


The Lecturer’s additional feedback and comments box
            The box allows teachers to provide learners with any feedback in addition to that given
            against the assessment criteria. It allows feedback on how to improve work and avoid any
            malpractice issues.


The I confirm that this is all my own work box
            This is the learner’s statement of authenticity. It is a requirement that learners make this
            declaration on all assessed work they submit. The learner is acknowledging that the work is
            their own and can be held to account.


The Scenario
           This is the case study or stimulus provided by the teacher for the learners. The expertise of
           the teacher is used in devising realistic vocational problems that require the learner to
           apply what they have learned. The problems need to be realistic but not necessarily real.
           Some of the information in the scenario is accurate. South Africa will host the World Cup in
           2010 but some information is made up in order to add further variables to the problem. For
           example, there are imagined government offices that are nearby. This item of information
           is included so that an alert student will realise there is a lunchtime demand for modestly
           priced food for 5 days a week all year.

            It is unlikely that commercially provided case studies, newspaper articles and material
            provided by businesses will be 100% suitable. The teacher can take this as base material
            and then amend it to ensure it allows the outcomes to be achieved. Using the approach of
            a realistic scenario, imagined by the teacher with relevant problems added, will result in
            learner answers to problems that cannot be found in any textbook or on the internet.


The Required section and the tasks
            These are the questions asked by the teacher of the learners. The tasks use as much of the
            wording of the assessment criteria as possible. The tasks are linked to the realistic case
            study.
            As already noted there is no way of finding the answers to these questions in a textbook or
            from an internet source.

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The Notes
                The notes are guidance for learners. A standard citation and referencing system is
                required. By discussing work in tutorials, it will be possible for teachers to establish
                whether work is authentic and establish that good academic practices are being followed.
                Being firm about the hand in date avoids the problem of marked work being returned to
                the punctual learners and being seen by the unpunctual ones.


Conclusion
                It helps if all assignments in all units look the same.
                It helps learners because they become confident about producing BTEC style work when
                faced with a consistent way of presenting information with tasks based on case studies,
                scenarios and stimulus material for which there is no existing published answer.
          •     It helps internal and external verifiers to do their jobs and helps them to confirm the
                validity and authenticity of learner work.
          •     It creates a positive impression about the quality of the course, the quality of the course
                team and the quality of the centre.




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9        Assessing and annotating work

         When giving the assignments to the students, you can give a verbal briefing, in addition to
         the assignment. In the verbal briefing, you can remind learners about integrity,
         authenticity, plagiarism, citation, referencing and the requirement to sign the statement
         of authenticity on the front of the assignment. Remind learners about the consequences of
         not adhering to the rules.


         When assessing work there are techniques you can use to help assure the integrity of the
         work.
     •   Assessors’ comments must be made against the criteria. This gives a focus to the feedback.
     •   Be clear when you are not awarding a criterion inform the learner of the reason why. This
         work cannot yet be given a pass as it is not clear why your answer is the same as someone
         else’s answer leaves open the possibility that the current work is the original work not the
         copied work.
     •   Use positive comments. Please would you reference your assignment using the conventions
         you were taught in the Referencing Workshop is preferable to Not acceptable – no
         references.
     •   Note in the margins of answers where you think the work has come from an unattributed
         source and ask the learner to rectify the problem before you will complete the marking.
     •   Refuse to mark work that does not use the conventions associated with authentic work.
         Refusing to mark work is not the same as failing it.
     •   Standardise the marking. This can help identify problems with learner work that may not
         be obvious to all. This can be done in various ways e.g. Ask a team of assessors to mark the
         same pieces of work and discuss why there are differences in opinion. This may only work
         when the subject is general rather than specialist in nature.
     •   Blind double assess a sample of work.
     •   Ask assessors to produce an examiner’s report on the assessment of their unit(s).
     •   Have the specialist assessors in a unit discuss a sample of work and identify where there
         are differences of judgement.
     •   Discuss assessment of learner work concerns with the internal verifier.
     •   Discuss assessment of learner work concerns with the external verifier.
     •   Hold centre based workshops on assessment. This and other activities can form part of your
         continuing professional development.




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10                  Using the internal verification system

                The internal verification system is one of your most direct methods to monitor the quality
                of assessment. There is a Specialist Paper on internal verification that you may like to
                read as it contains a great deal of helpful advice.


                The internal verifier must:
            • Check the suitability and the quality of the assignments. If they are not suitable then the
              internal verifier will not approve them for learner use.
            • Give an opinion on whether there are possibilities for plagiarism, collusion etc. and work
              with the author of the assignment to reduce these possibilities.
            • Check a sample of the assessed work from learners.
            • Examine learners’ work for evidence of plagiarism or copying.
            • Provide feedback to assessors on improving their assessment practice. Tell assessors what
              is unsatisfactory, why it is unsatisfactory and how it can be put right.


                Document all this activity. You can design your own forms but there are different Edexcel
                documents you can use and adapt. These can be found on the Edexcel website
                www.Edexcel.com.




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11      Finding anti-plagiarism software

     There is a range of anti-plagiarism software available and some of it is identified here.
     There are of course other products available. Please note that they are not endorsed by
     Edexcel/BTEC and no claims are made for their effectiveness.


     Turnitin
     http://www.turnitin.com/static/home.html


     Ingentaconnect
     http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/cher/2006/00000025/00000002/art000
     07


     Glatt Plagiarism Services Inc
     http://www.plagiarism.com/


     WCopyfind
     http://plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/Wsoftware.html


     Antiplagiarist
     http://www.winappslist.com/education/antiplagiarism.htm


     Note that learners can also obtain software that will allow them to monitor their own
     writing and help them establish whether what they have written is sufficiently
     differentiated from the source material. Here are two examples.
     http://www.acumenenterprise.com/
     http://www.essayrelief.co.uk/


     Some of this information is based on the guidance at:
     http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/4_resource/plagiarism.html




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12              Locating information about academic
                integrity

                The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) Internet plagiarism Advisory Service can
                be found at:
                http://www.jiscpas.ac.uk


                A much used and popular site on plagiarism matters from the University of Virginia can be
                found at:
                http://plagiarism.phys.virginia.edu/home.html


                Clemson University produces an Academic Integrity Guide that can be ordered from:
                http://www.academicintegrity.org/assessment_guide/index.php


                The Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development provide a survey of sources relating
                to academic integrity. Some of the material cited above is also mentioned by the Oxford
                Centre for Staff and Learning Development. The survey can be found at:
                http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/4_resource/plagiarism.html




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13   Finding references

     Edexcel references
     Top ten tips for centres This is a short, helpful and annually updated guide on how to
     improve the support centres give their learners.
     Malpractice A guide on Malpractice and how centres can manage the associated issues.
     Specialist Paper The Use of Time Limited Assessment Activities Within the NQF Higher
     National Assessment Process
     Specialist Paper: Group Work


     Other references
     Athabasca University Learner Handbook at:
     http://www.athabascau.ca/handbook/glossary.htm


     Commentary and resources on authenticity issues
     http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/4_resource/plagiarism.html




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14             Answering frequently asked questions

                BTEC says that working with others and team working are good. So what is wrong with
                putting learners into groups and allowing them to produce one piece of work and to get
                the same marks?


                Teamwork and working with others are desirable work skills. They need to be used
                sparingly as there are many other skills that BTEC values such as improving one’s own
                learning, managing one’s self and taking individual responsibility. The assessor must be
                sure that each group member has achieved all the criteria when giving each member of
                the group the same mark. There needs to be evidence from each learner as individual
                decisions need to be verified both internally and externally. One technique that can be
                used is assessment of group activity is triangulation where a second piece of evidence
                from an individual confirms what is presented in the group work.


                Can work from journals, books and the internet be used in an assignment?
                Yes. It can be used in several ways. It can be:
            • Included in an appendix as supporting material outside the main body of the text.
            • Quoted and cited using a standard referencing system such as the Harvard referencing
              system.
            • Annotated to show the learner is interpreting the information presented.
            • Subjected to further calculation if there is numerical data.


                Aren’t you always going to get the same answers with numerical problems and with
                subjects where this only one right answer?
                In some cases yes. If you are worried about learners working together in a mathematics
                unit then use a time constrained supervised assessment.
                There is no problem with supervising assessments of any type to ensure authenticity. An
                avionics learner can be supervised while being assessed on detecting and rectifying faults
                on an air-to-air missile. A ballet student can have a supervised assessment of
                performance.
                When there are apparent right answers it is useful to ask additional questions about
                interpreting the data since interpretations will differ between learners ‘Assess the
                financial stability of a business based on the results of calculating key performance ratios’
                will lead to different perspectives in the work, as there cannot be one right answer even
                if the numbers are similar. After all the auditors thought the figures showed no financial
                weaknesses at Enron and WorldCom. However, two financial journalists took a different
                view and it is easy to see who had the better understanding of the data.

                Employers (or universities) expect our learners to be assessed with examinations so
                why should we stop using them?
                What evidence is there that employers expect learners to be assessed using examinations?
                Most employers want flexible, personable and competent employees. Competence is
                assessed in many different ways that do not require examinations. How would you assess a
                chef’s practical cooking ability? But examinations can be used. They are good to establish
                authenticity in a learner’s work. However, they do not have to use the ‘Answer 5


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     questions in 3 hours’ format. Providing learners with some preparatory material that they
     can look at before the examination and then asking the some sight unseen questions based
     on the pre-seen material is a common twist on traditional examinations.


     Can we get our assignments checked by the external verifier to ensure they are
     assignments which meet BTEC requirements to minimise malpractice by students?
     It is the centre’s responsibility to make sure assignments are checked using the internal
     verification system. This checking should advise assessors on ways they can improve the
     assignments and to identify ways of encouraging authentic work. It is not part of the
     external verifier’s role to check assignments before they are issued to students although
     many external verifiers will give help, advice and support. For qualifications that use the
     National Standards Sampling approach then the external verifier will be much more likely
     to want to look at assignments before they are used.


     Is it all right to use the plagiarism policy given to us by our support partner in the
     United Kingdom? After all Edexcel has approved it for use.
     Centres are responsible for developing and managing their own policies. A policy devised
     by a support partner may not meet your needs. It may not be suitable. For example, a
     statement such as, ‘“anyone submitting plagiarised work may be barred from the course’
     is both ambiguous and harsh. Is the policy to bar students who are caught? Or not? Is a
     student who inadvertently fails to attribute one sentence in one assignment in one unit
     going to be barred?
     Devise your own centre policy that is clear, unambiguous and fair.


     Why does BTEC not write assignments that promote authentic learner work?
     There is an example in the toolkit. Use it as a model.
     However, the problem of BTEC setting the assignments is that they will not be suitable.
     Again, look at the sample assignment. It is suitable for use in Capetown in South Africa
     but not for centres in other countries.




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References used in the preparation of the
toolkit

                Where there is a clear indication of the references used in different sections of the toolkit,
                these references are not cited again.


            1 The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 8th edition, OUP, Oxford, 1990
            2 Athabasca University Student Handbook at:
                http://www.athabascau.ca/handbook/glossary.htm (accessed on 6th October 2009).
            3 Boud D. This frequently used observation was found at:
                http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/InfoKits/effective-use-of-VLEs/e-assessment/assess-purpose
                (accessed 6th October 2009).




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Authorised by Head of BTEC Assessment
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