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									                                    Introduction to Sociology

There is no single agreed upon answer or definition of sociology.

Sociology is neither classified as a science or a philosophy.

“Sociology is the scientific study of human social life, groups and societies.”

C. Wright Mills=Sociological imagination=personal troubles are public issues.

What holds society together?

Social control, societal standard

How do we live today?

We are becoming more solitary

How are the times in which we are living different than the times that came before?

We are a global society,

How do the fundamental features of a social system affect the existence of other social conditions?

How are the things we take to be natural actually socially constructed?

Male behavior vs. Female behavior
people respond to different sexes

How can we understand individual lives by seeing their connection to larger societal conditions?

People are becoming independent which are leading to divorce, teen pregnancy, children, things are
more accepted
Micro vs. Macro
micro is lawyers the process of a divorce here.
Macro is divorce at large throughout the world.

How does the fact that individuals are located in groups and networks affect social outcomes?

Groups=your friends
Networks=friends friends
the strength of weak ties-getting jobs through network connection.

How does society work in ways that are different from the official versions of how it works?

You’re supposed to drive 30mph down the road but people actually drive 50mph
                                 Introduction to Sociology

How can race, class, and gender be understood to work separately and together producing social

Women who were black were interviewed all the time on whether they would want Hillary or O’bama

How determined is our life? Do individuals make a difference?

In what ways does society need changing, and how a those changes be brought about?

Ask yourself “what kind of positive changes can we make for society

How can sociology help us in our lives?

Awareness of cultural differences
Assessing the Effects of policies
The sociologist’s role in society

Sociology of coffee

A ritualized activity
A symbolic value: social interaction and the enactment of rituals”
Used as a drug: an extra “lift”
Social and economic relationships-interdependency among regions

what about a sociology of shoes?

The types of shoes people are wearing
status by what people purchase to wear
flip flops vs. high heels
social acceptance of certain shoes.

The development of sociological thinking

No grand theory
Not everyone agrees
Not just about describing what happened, but rather WHY it happened.
Theories tested and supported by research

Sociology’s Beginnings

The systematic study of society didn’t come about until the late 1700’s and early 1800’s
French Revolution and Industrial Revolution
Science replaced Religion
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Early sociologist

Auguste Comte
         scientific evidence
         Improve human welfare by predicting and controlling human behavior

Emile Durkheim
       Social changes and the division of labor
      Mechanic (predates organic, everyone operates solitarily in their own small groups) vs. organic
       Harmony=specialized institutions

Karl Marx
      “all human history thus far is the history of class struggles”
      Economic Inequality-class struggles
       Ruling class vs. working class
      Goals: working class eliminates exploitation; a classless society

Max Weber
   social values and ideas (think science and religion) can shape society
   rationalization (technology and bureaucracy)
   sociology of religion

(Neglected Founders)

W.E.B. Du Bois
     1st African American to earn doctorate at Harvard
     Historical experiences and society circumstances shape one’s sense of self and identity

Harriet Martineau
     Women’s rights and Emancipation
     Do more than observe; benefit society
     Looked at previously ignored issues

Milgram Experiment

There is a “teacher” and a “student” whenever the “student” gets an answer wrong they are shocked,
the shock can be up to 450 volts (starting at 15 volts and going up)
the point of the experiment is to see how long the people will continue
There is a scientist in the room who encourages the contestants to continue
65% of people would deliver a death shock
no one stopped before 300 volts
                                   Introduction to Sociology

Experiment protections

There are now human protections
        if the subject wants to quit the experiment then it will be stopped.

Modern Theoretical Approaches
      symbolic interactionism- interested in Micro studies
                      How these relate to the Milgram experiment

       if an institution exists because it is functional
       Institutions function to maintain society
       if an institution exists, it is because it’s functional
       biological model
       manifest vs. latent
       society is harmonious
       change through evolution, not revolution
       common value system
       institutions are good for everyone
       institutions are necessary: shouldn’t be changed
                Why it works? Why is it functional

Marxism (conflict)
                look at the societal influence
       society consists of groups with conflicting interests and values
       power of disruption and protest (for the oppressed)
                May form social movements
       change through revolution
       may assume more conflict than there really is

       feminine equality
       push for an understanding that gender is socially structured
       why weren’t there women involved

Rational Choice
        everyone is interacting rationally all of the time
        people are looking for their own interests
        people are looking for how choices will benefit them
        Why are they doing this?

      highly pluralistic
      crisis of representation –things aren’t what they seem-
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       what’s happening on T.V. vs. what is happening in real life(talking to a person like their T.V.
       Is the “teacher “ able to realize the difference b/w the reality or the make believe

<-In the Textbook->
      standardized questions
      open-ended questions”

      in-Depth Interview

      control and observe a specific variable(s) in a highly controlled environment

The Scientific Method
       Public about procedures
       Be clear about uncertainties
       Goal is generalization
       Systematic in the accumulation of facts

CHAPTER 3: Culture and Society
The Nacirema (Americans)
      Body Ritual among the Nacirema(Horace Miner)
             The Shrine-bathroom
             Holy Mouth Men & the Mouth Rite-dentist
             The Latipsoh-hospital
      “stranger’s view” on American Society
       cultural relativism not ethnocentrism
Culture-societies personality-
       Society-systems of relationships-organized and structured
       Values-abstract ideals-
       Norms-concrete definite principles/rules that people are expected to observe
       Material Conditions-Things that help design a culture(clothes, shoes, cars)
                                Introduction to Sociology

Cultural Universals
       Prohibitions against incest
       Institutions of marriage
       Property rights

Cultures in society
       cultural composites-group of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds-

Types of Societies
       Industrialized-towns and cities, class inequalities, political states and cities-
       Developing- based on agriculture, free enterprise-
       Newly Industrialized-economy is becoming based in industry-

Impact of Globalization
       Greater Interdependence
       Greater exposure to cultural diversity
       No society is completely isolated

T.V. brings eating disorders to Fiji- T.V. arrived in 1995- eating disorders were unheard of before
T.V. arrived but afterwards there was a large increase in anorexia and bulimia in the women.

Concept quiz

   1. Most inclusive definition of culture?
      a. Culture consists of the values norms and material goods of the people(a toolkit for
   2. What is the level of inequality that characterizes this form(hunter and gatherer) of
      a. Little inequality
   3. The definition of nationalism?
      a. a sense of identification with one’s nation that is expressed through a common set of
      strongly held beliefs
   4. What is not a cultural universal
      a. The idea of a teenager

Big Question: In what ways does culture serve as a society’s glue?
                               Introduction to Sociology

“Growing up is harder to do”

       What is adulthood?
              Marriage, finish with schooling, maturity

       Early adulthood
               highschool, college

                change in financial support
                cost of living, relying on parents to help pay for housing, crappy job market
                these thing vary by social class

       Key U.S. cultural values and Disney
                1. Equal Opportunity-everyone has the same options whether they use them or
                2. Achievement and success-everyone has and equal opportunity to
       compete(success is defined by merit)
                3. Material comfort-wealth
                4. Activity and work-everyone that is recognized in society are “doers” -our
       culture values actions vs. talking
                5. Practicality and efficiency-value practical over theoretical
                6. Progress- the present is better than the past
                7. Science- expect scientist to solve our problems/ valued
                8. Democracy and Free Enterprise- we have rights that our gov’t can’t take away,
       respond to choices of consumers
                9. Freedom- people should be free to pursue their personal goals
                10. Racism, Sexism, and Group Superiority- despite our beliefs of 1. And 9. We
       still judge people on gender, race, and class

       persistence (finding Nemo), freedom (The Little Mermaid), 10. (Pocahontas), 9. 10.
(Aladdin), 4. (Dumbo)


       The lifelong Social Experience by which people develop their human potential and learn
       Social reproduction-the same values and norms are transmitted from one generation to
       the next; is a matter of nurture rather than nature; how you become who you are;
                               Introduction to Sociology

       Agents of Socialization:
               The Family- the first setting of socialization, ethnic and religious background,
       influences and changes the individual, gender is first learned from birth in the family, 3-
       5 years with just the family
               Schools-first step out of the family, expose children to social diversity, reinforce
       ideas about gender
               Peers- take children a step away from family(adolescence and pre-adolescence)
       frees kids from adult supervision, age-grades(specific ceremonies or rituals that move
       kids from one stage to another)
               Media- children spend the same amount watching TV. as they spend in school
       and with their parents, TV. reinforces stereotypes of gender,
               Work- even as you make it through child and teen years you will still be
       socialized through work, you are socialized into the culture of that work environment.

Unsocialized Children
        The Wild boy of Aveyron, Genie, Anna, Isabelle
-All were children who were Unsocialized because they were deemed retarded or useless by
their family, they were all found at toddler stage or later and were unable to learn to function

Theories of Childhood Development
       Human Beings are Self-Aware
       Infants don’t have a sense of self- don’t understand, mom=human, crib=material
       I, me, You- kids don’t use this until 2-3 and even then not correctly.
       Cognition- How children learn to think about themselves and those around them.

George Herbert Mead

Development of self
      Social Self- basis of self consciousness in individuals, your visual identity is a product of
the way others see you
      Self- Consciousness- aware of your own social identity outside you parents
      Generalized Other- general values and morals and rules of culture become important.

Jean Piaget

Stages of Cognititve Development
       Senorimotor Stage- 0-2 looks for anything shiny, picks things up and touches
       Preoperational Stage- 2-7 able to use words to call for and name objects
                               Introduction to Sociology

        Egocentric Stage-(no particular age) tendency to intrperate society as “how does it
relate to ME”

       Concrete Operational Stage- recognize that things are related
       Formal Operational Stage- 11-15 realize that there are consequences of actions.

Social Roles
        Socially defined expectations that a person bonds to

       Social Identity-what people say you are
       Self Identity-how you develop your own unique sense of self

Gender Socialization
         learning to do gender-social roles that are assigned to each gender, knowing what they
mean in society are important-it is not a natural thing it is construed from society-
         role of storybooks and television- Disney movies, dolls,
         raising an androgynous child-difficult if not impossible, outside influences
                 Freud-biologically bases, having or not having a penis, naturalization to gender
                 Chodorow-girls are okay to stay attached to their mother boys must attach to
their mother.
                 Gilligan-builds on Chodorow, women are the focus of relationships, men devalue
those traits as weaknesses, men stick to abstract moral codes, women think of their actions and
its effect.

Socialization through the Life Course
        Childhood-grounded in culture not in biology but influenced due to biology
        Teenager-emotional and social turmoil between being treated like a child vs. an adult
extended period of childhood-social construction-
        Young Adulthood-read in book- extended period compared to other societies,
        Mature Adulthood- most accomplishments take place, personality is already formed but
will continue to change,
        Old Age-the only stage besides childhood that is rooted in biology, older and respected,
usually known as having to deal with it and sometimes put into a home-in the U.S.

Social Stucture-social paterns in society that guide our behaviors in every day lives.
        status-social condition
                Ascribed status-statuses that are involuntary(orphan, middle class)
                Achieved Status-what you earn yourself(pilot, thief, student, activist, reader)
                               Introduction to Sociology

               Master Status- main status that has this signifigant for you it can be either
Ascribed or Achieved (student)
       role-expectations that society has for certain behaviors associated with your status,
people hold a status but perform a role
               Role conflict- both a mother and a CEO these roles conflict
               Role strain-tension that is associated with multiple roles within the same status

Social interaction
        The process by with we act and react to those around us
        Nonverbal communication- body language and facial expressions
        Civil inattention-recognizing that someone exists but you are not paying attention to
        Staring-at someone for a long time=active aggression; familial, partner=love, loving;
socially and culturally defined

Nonverbal Interaction-body language, facial
        Example: Annie Hall
        What is Woody Allen’s character communicating? Frustration, anger
        What is Woody Allen’s character communticating? “ “
Facial Expressions
        example: texting and IMing
        emotional expression in New Guinea (human Universals)-all labeled happy or sad
        cultural differences-length of each facial reaction is different to culture
        Inadvertent Expressions- a brief look on your face, true emotions or things that you are
trying to hide

   1.   Angry
   2.   Surprised
   3.   Hatefull
   4.   Shocked
   5.   Happy
   6.   Sad/depressed/tired

Rules for Interaction
Ethnomethodology-a sense of social context
                                Introduction to Sociology

Example: the Close Talker-
Interactional Vandalism (talking to Women)-not respecting space, verbal harassment, where
people purposefully violate culture norms.
Focused vs. Unfocused Interaction-how you behave at a party-house party-focus attention to
the actual group but you are also paying attention to what is going on around you.
Civil Inattention –knowing that someone is there but purposefully ignoring what is happening

Impression Management
Saving Face-people not saying things that happened to someone, not making a big deal about
someone falling or stumbling
Goffman’s “Presentation of self”-how we conduct ourselves in everyday environments
           Front Regions-how someone acts, plays their roles
           Back Regions- how someone gets themselves ready, talking to themselves,
“backstage behavior”

The Social Construction of Reality
The Thomas Theorem “Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences” how you define
things as real whether there is another viewpoint or opposing idea
Culture and Class Differences-short walk-3 blocks/a few miles

Mirco-Macro Link
Women and Men in Public- cat calls, gender privilege is given to men in public places
Blacks and Whites in Public-peoples street knowledge from the street, someone who is
dangerous vs. someone who is fine. White people have privilege over black people in public.
Saints and Roughnecks
        Boys getting in trouble at school-upper class-able to hide their activities, money to buy
lawyers and therapists to get out of trouble
        or….class inequality-working class-more obvious about their activites-no money to hire
lawyers or therapists in case they would get caught

Legalize it? The Debate…
3 groups: prohibition, Decriminalization, harm reduction
Make your case
        should drug use be legalized
        Why? (Sociological explanation
        What consequences does the war on drugs have
        what consequences would legalization have?

Deviant Behavior
deviance-just about everyone has sped on the highway etc…sometimes conforming to the law is
considered deviant
sanctions-social concepts to reinforce social norms, can be both positive and negative
                                  Introduction to Sociology

        formal-prison, tickets, etc…
        informal-punishment by parents, teasing, dirty looks, etc..
laws –legal norms
crimes-things done that are protected by laws

Theories of Crime and Deviance
biological view: genes=crime
Psychological view: personality defects=crime
Sociological: learning and Social context=crime

Sociological theories of Deviance”
Learned Deviance (differential association theory)-taken from the people you are around, family
Functionalism (Durkheim) deviance affirms cultural values and norms, responding to deviance defines
moral boundries, brings people together, deviance can also encourage social change
Strain theory (Merton) is an imbalance in societal roles and legal means –cannot explain crimes of
passion-        legal social
conformists accepts accepts
innovators rejects accepts
retreatists rejects rejects
rebels       rejects rejects
ritualists    accepts rejects
Labeling Theory (symbolic-interactionist)
Conflict theory- the rich get richer the poor get prison, white collar crimes usually come with less severe
Rational Choice and Situational Crime-idea that people will maximize their own self interest-crimes of
Broken Windows-people are unwilling to commit a crime if somebody cares but if people do not care a
crime is more likely to happen

Crime, Deviance & Social Order

Do Prisons Prevent Crimes?
They can become schools for crimes
crime is more likely to happen in areas of social inequality

Big Questions?
Why is deviance found in all societies? Challenging the status quo, it is going to happen, all people are
deviant at some point, people of lower social classes are treated differently that people of the upper
classes, double standard
How does who and what are defined as deviant reflect social inequality?
What effect has punishment had in reducing crime in the U.S.?
                                 Introduction to Sociology

How do groups affect how we behave?
Why can who you know be as important as what you know?

People as “group animals”
       Social group-
       Not social groups-
                Social aggregate-
                Social category-

Types of Groups
        in-groups(belong to, loyalty to) vs. out-groups(“those people”)
        primary(family, significant other, core friends) and secondary groups(large, impersonal)
        reference groups(makes you able to define other groups
                Cooley’s “looking glass self”

        Transformational leaders-less about achieving a specific goal, instill mission or purpose
        Transactional leaders-about accomplishing a specific task or goal
        charismatic leaders-can be either though they are usually more transformational, are able to
establish themselves and convince people of their greatness

       most of us are compelled to follow social norms
       most people work to maintain social order
       example: Asch Experiment
       groupthink-think with what the group wants, not your own thinking
       forced conformity
               example: West Point Military Academy

The People’s Temple Movement
founded in 1970 by Rev. Jim Jones

Organisational Structure
       communal living
                Jones & his lieutenants were white
                majority of followers were black

Commitment Mechanisms
      Jones’ charisma
      lack of privacy
      creation of “evil” outside world
      Beatings and public humiliation
                                 Introduction to Sociology

        breakdown of marriage/family ties
        Mock suicide

How it Ended
        Congressional Investigation
        Jones talked over 900 people into suicide/murder (9/18/1978)
        People weren’t crazy-caught up in an inescapable situation
        social structures have tremendous power over people

      people you know directly and indirectly
      Granovetter’s “strength of weak ties”
      Erickson’s “Social networks: the value of variety” health can be affected by variety
      Wellman “connecting communities: on and offline”

Review, advantages and disadvantages that the internet have played and how
people have social relationships!!!
Romantic relationship in high school
      network study
      sexual and romantic relations at a high school
      sharing partners are rare, instead indirectly linked through long chains
      Important for looking at the transmission of STIs/STDs

gender and class differences in occupational networks
digital divide

Study for midterm!

Factual research, theory
theories of deviance contends that signs of social disorder in a community encourages more serious
crime to flourish, broken windows theory
Short Answer
Who are the nacirema(2-3sentences) give 4 examples of values norms or material conditions that are
important to this culture(3-5 sentences) what important concept to the nacirema illustrate about how
sociologists should study sociology (3-5 sentences)

What was studied in the tearoom trade study (2-3 sentences) give two methods that were used to
complete this study (1-3 sentences) Give one strength and one weakness for each of these methods(4-5
sentences). In what way was the tearoom trade study unethical (2-3 sentences)

^! Won’t be on exam just questions like this! ^
                                   Introduction to Sociology

Look back on status in notes!

Personal trouble/public issue
drug legalizations
internet benefit/bad
mechanic(more traditionalized, country living) vs. organic(produces everyone’s needs for everyone, city
life) solidarity, functualism, Durkheim’s view of society!
Micro(smaller individual level) Macro(gender and class inequality)
30 multiple choice, 4 short answer

Big questions
What are organizations and institutions and how are they different?

Formal Organizations
types of formal organizations
        Utilitarian-you are being paid to do things or accomplish a goal
        Normative-do things to accomplish worth-while goals, voluntary organizations-you want to
participate, not paid
        coercive (Total)-forced to join large formal organizations, not compensated
Organizational Environment-
        Physical setting has strong influences over Social features (important people it top of building,
average workers on bottom)
        Surveillance- things should be arranged that the major people should be able to see what is
going on at all times.

complex social forms that reproduce themselves
structures of relationship, obligation, role, and function
         sexism-institutionalized: how at a larger social level, where people live, informal but still exists,
the glass ceiling,

Total Institutions
A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by and administrative
staff- the staff controls all aspects of their lives, standardized, same food, and same activities.
Purpose: resocialization- trying to radically change someone’s attitude and life style so that they may
interact with society again, no personal possessions, invasive medical examinations, fingerprinted, serial
numbered, total institution becomes their entire world, trying to make them better fit society.
College as a total institution?

specialization-Weber, handle specific tasks
                                 Introduction to Sociology

Hierarchy of offices- when you go in you talk to the person at the lowest level, first line of deffence,
Rules and regulations required to be filled out and finished before something may be accomplished, very
Technical competence
Formal, written communications
Problems; they don’t talk personal problems into considerations, forms to be filled out/ time exhaustive,
complicated, no communication

Bureaucratic Alienation
assign you a number, or code
inefficiency and ritualism- sticking to rules and regulations to a fault
bureaucratic inertia- they continually perpetuate themselves.
Oligarchy- a few people make decisions and everyone else has to follow it out.

McDonaldization & Taylorization
         efficiency- quick
         Calculability-same way every time
         uniformity- all of it looks the same
         control through automation-little to do with actual human being participating as possible
         Scientific management- dictates to how people should do their work, would study the most
efficient worker and would lecture other workers on how to become quicker and more efficient.

Social Capital
the knowledge and connections that enable people to cooperate with one another for mutual benefit
and extend their influence.

Sociology Notes 2

Race and Ethnicity
take personal experiences and ideals and go with ideas based on fact.

Big questions
What are race and ethnicity, and how are they created by society?
How are race and ethnicity important dimensions of social inequality today?
Why does the U.S. have so much racial and ethnic diversity? Book!

    1. Race vs. Ethnicity
       A. Race-constructed by society
              1.Racailization-how society categorized certain biological traits
                           Introduction to Sociology

   B. Ethnicity-the social construction of categories of people based on cultural traits.
             1. Situational ethnicity-choosing to make a certain aspect of your ethnicity
   apparent (Oh, I’m ______ too!)
             2. Symbolic ethnicity- immerse yourself in dominant culture, choose to celebrate
   certain things and not others
   C. Minority- people who have less power, prestige, money, or resources simply based on
   their ethnic groups
   ************They’re social constructions’!*************
2. Key Concepts
   A. Prejudice- rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people(based on
   little to no information about the people) can be positive or negative
              1. Social distance scale
                       a. Student opinion shows a trend towards greater social acceptance
                       b. People see fewer differences among various minorities
                       c. Terrorist attacks of September 11,2001 might have reduced social
   acceptance of Arabs and Muslims
   B. Stereotype- an idea of a certain person or group of people, however gross in effect
   C. Discrimination-unfair treatment of people due to a category that a group of people fall
   into, the other races are inferior
   D. Racism
             1. Old racism=biological- people were considered inferior due to race
             2. New racism=cultural- cultural belief different races have different cultures and
             some are seen as superior or inferior to others
   E. Institutional racism- racism is constructed in the culture of our country, is embedded in
   the building of society
3. Theories of Prejudice
   A. Scapegoat Theory
                1. Disadvantaged people who unfairly blame minorities for their own problems
   B. Authoritarian Personality Theory
                 1. Rigid moralists who see things in “black &white”
   C. Culture Theory
               1. Everyone has some prejudice because it’s embedded in culture.
   D. Conflict Theory
                 1. Self-justification for the rich and powerful in the U.S.
                 2. Minorities might cultivate climate of race consciousness in order to win
   greater power and privileges.
4. Examples of Institutionalized racism
   A. Educational Attainment- the leading people in education are Asian
   B. Employment and Income- managerial positions not being spread out etc…
   C. Health- large gaps in life expectancy, health care
                                Introduction to Sociology

      D. Residential Segregation- housing segregation, blocks away yet different worlds
      E. Political power
   5. Structural Functionalist Perspective
      A. 3 Functions of racial prejudice for the dominant group are:
                  1. Justification for an unequal society
                  2. Discourage subordinate groups from questioning their status
                  3. Support for the existing social order and status quo
   6. Conflict Perspective
      A. Exploitation(Karl Marx)
      B. By forcing minorities to accept low wages, capitalists can restrict wages of all
      C. Workers from the dominant group wanting higher wages can be replace by minorities
      who must accept lower wages.
   7. Symbolic Interationist Perspective
      A. Interracial contact between individuals of equal status in certain work circumstances
      will cause them to become less prejudiced

************White Privilege*********** Peggy McIntosh*************

   8. Intersections of Race and…
      A. Gender- women, men- men are more privileged in society
      B. Class- income gaps, there is a wage gap between whites, blacks, and Hispanics
   9. “Forty Acres and a Mule”
      A. Blacks overrepresented in America’s poor
      B. Slavery as the foundation of America’s current wealth (especially for whites)
      C. Wealth gap between blacks and whites
                1. White net worth 7x greater than black net worth
      D. Parental Wealth/ education-linked to life chances”
      E. The myth of meritocracy-the idea that there is very little movement in the status

American Dream and Meritocracy

      Earnings stalled

      Income gap widening

      More jobs that pay less

      Young adults can’t move out

Why do we believe in the American dream?
                                 Introduction to Sociology

       Social Mobility

                 Intragenerational social mobility- in my lifetime

                 Intergererational social mobility- throughout several generations

                 Upward mobility-moving up the social higherarchy

                 Downward mobility-moving down the social higherarchy

Dimensions of class

       Income- the money you make

       Wealth- the stuff you have

       Power- using money and stuff to influence others

       Occupational prestige- the rate at which your occupation is set at, in prestige

Social Classes

       The upper class- top 20% of wealth, very elite affluent group of people

       The upper-middle class- professional class, significant wealth, doctors, lawyers…

       The middle class-the largest group, less prestigious but white collar jobs,

      The working class (lower-middle)-30-35% blue collar jobs, really reliant on the paycheck
work paycheck to paycheck only 30% has gone to college

       The lower class (underclass)-living below poverty line 50% don’t complete college, only
–about- half complete highschool.

Big questions

What is meritocracy and why is it a myth?
How are income and wealth divided within the US population?
What Factors place people in different social classes?
Why are some of the world’s countries so rich and others so poor?
How do rich nations affect global poverty?
                                Introduction to Sociology

Intersection of Race and Ethnicity- whites have more income and wealth, combined class and
race power, poverty race tends to be higher among poverty groups

Intersection of class and gender-women are not equal, more children living in poverty than any
other industrialized countries in the world, divorce, single motherhood,

The difference class makes
Health- the rich tend to live longer due to better health care

Values and attitudes- the people who are affluent tend to have more education and financial

Politics- whether or not you think your vote counts, the affluent are better served in political
system, socially liberal,

Family and Gender- lower classes= more traditional gender roles, knowledge passed on to learn
how to play the system, family passes on resources and cultural capital, affluent families have
larger cultural capitals

Opportunities and Live Chances- more likely to go to college, to know someone in a good
network and get a job,

Extent of Poverty
Relative Poverty- a lack of resources in comparison to everyone else’s recources

Absolute Poverty- lacking material resources to an extent of becoming life threatening

Poverty line- each year based off of census data, if you don’t make this much money you are in
poverty, based on –to buy food for a year x 3- lots of people making less than the projected line

Extent of U.S. poverty-

Demographics of Poverty
Age- children and the elderly-more likely to be poor, social security was made to alleviate this

Race and ethnicity-21% of Latinos are living in poverty, a greater % of minorities living in

Gender- 61% of the poor are women, when women are the heads of their household the
likeliness of poverty increases, it does not mean you are not working

Working poor- 18% of the heads of poor families work 50 weeks/year to 52 weeks/year, there is
an increase in jobs in the service sector= minimum wage,
                               Introduction to Sociology

The homeless- people who can be educated, clear skills and education, due to changes in the
middle/working classes, there are 3/4 of a million people every night homeless, ¼ are mentally
ill, ¼ are substance abusers.

“As American as Apple Pie”
Most Americans will fall below the poverty line and collect assistance at some time in their
lifetime- not counting children-

U.S. social policy vs., Other Industrial Countries

“The Compassion Gap in American Poverty Policy”

“Compassion Gap”- we feel one thing and do another, -want to help but don’t-
       Idea that help “hurts” the poor- to give help would spoil them and make them not work so
we do not provide enough aid for people to get back on their feet, therefore people remain stuck
in poverty
       Becomes a self fulfilling prophecy
Dream line and the Dream Divide- the difference b/w a 2 parent 2 children minimum wage jobs
and the “American dream” owning their own home and being able to support their children

Blaming the poor vs. blaming society- lazy, not working, ets….

How people become poor
Labor market events- people in upper class- upper middle class who are now out of work,
minimum wage and low paying jobs

Minimum wage- $6.55 or $13,000 a year

Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) in Indiana
$288/month for a family of 3
Max per year $3,456
Eligible for a max of 2 years

Food Stamps (SNAP)
$399 for a family of 3
Eligible every 3 months for 3 years unless working 20 hours/ week
Income must be less than $1500/month

TANF and Food Stamps
$687/month or $8,248/year for a family of 3
Half (47% of the poverty line ($17,600 for a family of 3)

Welfare for the Middle Class
tax deduction for mortgage
                                Introduction to Sociology

Average yearly benefit $7,300
higher if house costs more
In contrast to welfare, this is considered a “right”


The miniature Earth-100 people, who would have things, who would not, power, wealth, how
people would live.

Global Inequality
        1 billion at risk-poor nutrition
        15 million- mostly children- die each year from diseases related to poverty
        Women more likely to be poor- gender bias strongest in poor societies
        200 million people (3% of world population) live in conditions that can be described as
        Debt bondage- housed and fed yet not paid enough to be able to leave
        Marriage slavery- women are married off to get them out of the home “for one less mouth
to feed”

Causes of Global Poverty
       Digital Divide
       High Birth Rates
       Traditional cultural patterns- some people are resistant to change
       Extreme social inequality- unequal distribution of wealth
       Extreme gender inequality- limits women’s opportunities
       colonialism(then, and now); neocolonialism(now)

The Big Questions?
       Why are some of the world’s countries so rich and others so poor?

Sexuality and Sexual Orientation

The Big Questions
       What is the sexual revolution, and how did it change U.S. society?
       Why do societies control people’s sexual behavior?
       How does sexuality play a part in social inequality?

Some questions to think about…
      What do you think caused your heterosexuality?
      When and how did you first decide you were a heterosexual?
      Is it possible that your heterosexuality is just a phase you may grow out of?
                               Introduction to Sociology

      Could it be that your heterosexuality stems from a neurotic fear of others of the
same sex?
      If you’ve never slept with a person of the same sex how can you be sure you
wouldn’t prefer that?

sex research
Sexual continuum, 0-6 scale of heterosexuality and homosexuality, most fall b/w a 1 and a 5 not
many extremes.

Key Terms
       Sex-the biological traits, male or female
       Gender-cultural or behavioral acts that are associated with male of female
       Sexuality-the study of sexuality and sexual behavior across the board- homo, hetero, bi,
       Sexual Orientation- linked to sexuality, the specific preference for another person,- not
necessarily a choice-
       Homophobia- the fear of/aversion to/disdain of homosexuals.

After the Sexual Revolution-
        Sexual revolution vs. a Counterrevolution-
        Declining rates of teen sex- sex rates are going down poss. Due to STI’s and more
knowledge about sexual activities and the dangers
        Indicates Conservativism-
        More sex within “Relationships”-some sort of relationships, from teen 2 week dating to
adult-like monogamous relations
        Teen sexuality not necessarily problematic-more common than people probably want to
believe, with the knowledge that is had not more caution is used during sex
        Continuation of gender revolution-older generations are claiming that abstinence needs to
be taught to children and teens.

Controlling Sexuality
         Incest Taboo-the idea that sex with a close relative is socially unacceptable
         Teen Pregnancy-number of pregnancies vary from state to state due to laws that force
facilities to inform parents
         Pornography-vary greatly from state to state
         Sexual Violence-rape
         Abortion- seen as bad
                               Introduction to Sociology

      Laws about sexual acts- laws that are designed to effect sexual activities, typically for
homosexual sex.

Sexuality and Inequality
        Homophobia & Heterosexism- look at how queer people are treated or looked at the
inequalities between the two people. Hate crimes, Suicide rates larger in homo, bi, gay, and
lesbian populations
        Civil rights issues-sautomy,
        Gender & the “Double Standard”- there is a difference b/w promiscuity in men/boys and
in women/girls


Big Questions?
What is a family?
How are families in the U.S. changing?
Why is there a debate over the future of the family?

What is a family?
Definitions of the Family: a group of people together through kin connections
        Kinship- connections of individuals due to blood or marriage
        Marriage-the socially acknowledges and approved sexual relationship between two
        Nuclear family-Immediate family- parents and children
        Extended family- aunts and uncles, grandparents, etc… the family you are born into=
orientation; the family you choose= procreation
        Cohabitation- living together yet not married sometimes with children, better seen now
        Gay-Parent families- some states are now legally recognizing these families, having
children through surrogates or artificial insemination. Adoption by gay families is only restricted
in 2 states
        One- parent Families- single motherhood, single fatherhood
        Singlehood- involves the issue of delaying marriage and staying single longer than
typical, 90% of people will eventually marry, yet they usually get married later in life. Some
women choose to get pregnant and raise them on their own without a man.

Families in the U.S. today-
       Cohabitation increasing- more socially accepted
       Women in the labor market-making marriage unnecessary
       Delaying Marriage-using singlehood
       Divorce increasing- however is starting to decline because of marriage happening later in
                               Introduction to Sociology

U.S. Families: Race, Class, and Gender
        Race- how people are raised or how people are taught, discrimination, tv families, Native
Indians, African Americans, Latinos, all living away from their “norm” of life.
        Class-wealth is transmitted within families, determines the families financial stability,
impacts the opportunities that people have.
        Gender-families often enforce gender roles, marriage is a lot better for men than women
that are in marriage, men tend to remarry quicker than women, quickly change class status

Theories of the Family
        Functionalist-people work together to create a functioning society, Families as a
structural system, help families by regulating sexual activity, give kids a social identity
        Conflict (& feminist)-different groups, competing values, competing resources, look at
families and how they perpetuate social inequality, wealth gaps and income gaps, women take on
majority of household labor, people marry people who are like them, similar race, class, and
education backgrounds.
        Symbolic Interactionist-the micro levels, how individuals shape and experience family
life. Change the lifecourse, shifts of interactions, how social and emotional bonds are built in our

UnMarried With Children

Have Impoverished mothers abandoned the marriage norm? claim that people with lower income
balances care less about marriage, they actually really care about marriage and they don’t want to
get stuck with a dud so they wait for someone who will appreciate them.
What value do they place on having children? On marriage? They really value having children,
feels special because “he wanted to have children WITH HER! Not any of the other women he
men” Marriage is very important to her, she wants to be loved

The Future of the Family:
Judith Stacey:
        Traditional family oppressive- outdates, oppressive, and not plausible
        Postmodern family- all sorts of families, the new versions of the family are better suited
to deal with issues families face.
        The economy- work issues need to be addressed to deal with unemployment
David Popenoe
        Decline since the 1960’s- seen as the “perfect family” we keep getting further and further
away from it
        Changes the harmful to children- doesn’t make males necessary
        Biological Fathers-need to be involved in their child’s lives
                              Introduction to Sociology

Common law marriages, only 11 states and Washington D.C. living together and seeing each
other as husband and wife only under these conditions may they have a common law marriage.

Midterm 2-
Monday November 10th
        30 multiple choice
        4 short answer
        1 short essay
office hours
          Monday 1-2
         Tuesday 11-noon
         Friday 1-5
Questions by email until Sunday Nov. 9 @ 5pm

Know the Different Families and their structures!

The Mass Media & Education

Big Questions

How does the media both reflect and create society?
How are the media and education connected?
What role does education play in social inequality?

Media Effects
       Global Village- everyone gets along better, more communication, the idea that the world
is now a small village connected through electric communication
       Media Imperialism-

The Media and Education
       Local knowledge- Global Information
Information poverty & the “computer underclass”- people who have little to no access to
computers or internet
E-learning & Lifelong learning

Purposes of Education
Socialization- gender roles, discipline, organization, time-management ( hidden curriculum)
Great Equalizer- credentialism, used to reinforce class and inequality
                               Introduction to Sociology

Feeling of Nationalism-nation state
Economic gain for the nation- teach skills to children

Kozol’s Savage Inequalities
East St. Louis, IL- impoverished, school had to be shut down due to sewage, rodents, pollution,
the school was shut down multiple times due to hazards, no technology, lacking basic resources
Westchester County, NY- ^opposite^ changed rates of graduation and college rates.
Sociological Criticisms of Kozol’s work- he went to schools where he knew people, the picked
schools at opposite ends of the spectrum

Trading Schools: from an inner city school with a 40% rate of graduation while a suburban
school with a 99% graduation rate.
comparison of curriculum
scores of state standards are drastically different

*look through doing gender again*

Social Reproduction

Kinsey’s scale- 0-6 most people fall in between on the scale. Not exclusively homo or hetero.


Social inequality!-under- education

Social institutions!-under- education, media, etc…

Social Inequality and the myth of Meritocracy

The sociology of Religion

Education and Social Reproduction
Between school effects- reproducing inequality, high resource families kids go to high resource
schools while poor resource families kids go to even poorer resource schools.
Within School Effects-
       Tracking-different curriculums for different students- AP courses vs. regular courses,
ranking people by their ability however tracking is more often racist or biased

Big questions
Why is the U.S. more religious than other high-income nations?
What effect does being religious have on social behavior?
How do religions in the East and West differ?
                       Introduction to Sociology

Religion- a social institution, based on a set of beliefs and passages.
        Sacred vs. Profane- explains beliefs and faiths that are celebrated with rituals
Sociology (science) and Religion (faith)-
Church- try to appeal to everyone highly formal style of worship, formerly train &
ordained leaders, long-established, organizationally stable, attract member of high social
Sect- Hold rigid religious convictions, spontaneous and emotional, Style of worship
Follow charismatic leader, form and a breakaway group, less stable, attract members who
are social outsiders
Cult- a religious organization that is largely outside of societies cultural traditions

Religion in History

Hunting & Gathering societies- animism
Pastoral & horticultural societies- single divine power
Agrarian societies – organized religion
Industrial societies- science and religions

World Religions
       Christianity- the world’s most widespread religions, Charismatic leaders- Jesus,
       Islam- 2nd largest religious organization, Muslims are the followers, Leaders-
Muhammad, Quran
       Judaism-mainly in the U.S. and Israel- 10 commandments, Old Testament
Easter Religions
       Hinduism- world’s oldest religion, Moral, Concepts of Dharma – moral
resocibilities and karma- spiritual progression of the human soul
       Buddhism-350 mill. Based on the life of Siddhartha Guantama,
       Nirvana- enlightenment and peace
       Confucianism-was the official state church of china, lasted until 1945, Jen-
humanness, morality over self- interest

Distinction between rules and moral behaviors and responsibilities

Religion in the U.S.

Most religions

Religiously diverse

“religiosity”- the most religiously diverse, differences in what people think
                               Introduction to Sociology

               85% identify with a religion
               60% firm believe in God & belong to a religious organization
               56% pray at least once a day
               30% attend the religious services weekly

       Tied to class, ethnicity, race-people in higher social standings- catholic, protestant,
       lower= Baptist

       Religion in a Changing Society
       Secularization- decline in the importance it the super natural
       Civil Religion-a mix of loyalty and patriotism
       “New Age” Movement- spiritual devotion outside of religious organizations.
       Fundamentalism- opposes religious accommodations and intellectualism rejects religious

       Theories of Religion
       Functionalist Approach
               People celebrate the power of society through religion
                      Unites people and causes social coercion, encourages people to obey
       cultural norms, give meaning and purpose the life.

       Conflict Approach
              Highlights religion’s support of social inequality
                     religion justifies the status quo, and diverts attention away for injustice,
       promotes gender inequality,

       Symbolic Interactionist Approach
               People use religion to give everyday life sacred meaning
                        Use rituals to separate sacred from profane, prayer, ceremonies, people are
       esp. likely to turn to religion when faces with uncertainties.

       Marx, Weber, Durkheim:
             Modernization- decline in the significance of religion

       Religion and Social Change
       Marx & the Status quo- encourages seperation
       Weber & change- social change in religion
       Liberation theology- a fusion of Christian principles and political activism (Marxist in

The Economy & Work

Roger & Me(movie in class)
                                 Introduction to Sociology

What are the social costs of flint’s 25% unemployment rate? Many other businesses closed, people lost
their houses, increase in rat population, health risks, Crime Rates

What alternatives are available to laid-off workers? Are any viable? Move out, go find jobs elsewhere;
not viable

Was the situation GM faced in Flint, MI primarily a “corporate responsibility” problem or a “public
relations” problem? It can fall on either side, people both have other opinions.

What responsibilities/obligations, if any, do you think a company has towards its workers? Its
shareholders? Its country?


The economy- is a social institution that’s purpose is to organize the production, consumption, and
distribution of goods
        Agricultural Revolution-about 5000 years ago, when economy became a distinct cultural facet
        Industrial Revolution-happened around 1750, where the economy expanded, started factories,
mass production, wage labor, new sources of energy, blue collar working class jobs started here
        Information Revolution- moved countries into(1950’s)Postindustrial economy- computer
technology began taking place of people esp. in factories
        3 Sectors-
                 Primary-Draws raw materials from the natural environment (20% of income in low
income countries)
                 Secondary-Where raw materials are turned into manufactured goods (26-32% of income
                 Tertiary-where services rather than goods are being consumed (49-72% of economy in
ALL NATIONS) secretarial, sales, teaching, medical, law

Economic Systems

Capitalism- greater productivity, higher overall standard of living, greater income inequality, freedom to
act according to self-interest; private ownership, pursuit of profit in a competitive marketplace, freedom
to act on self-interest, Large income gap
(Welfare Capitalism-mostly capitalistic based economy however has a socialistic view of welfare many
corporations are privately owned however is monitored by government(Sweden and Italy),
State Capitalism- companies are privately owned however they work with the government, monitor and
help out countries with money and imports(Japan and Singapore))

Socialism-Less productivity, lower overall standard of living, less income inequality, freedom from basic
want; collective ownership of productive property through Gov. control of the economy, less
productivity, lower overall standard of living, very little social inequality, basic standard of
living(Communism-all people are equal)
                                 Introduction to Sociology

Work In the US Economy:

Jobs--% =of jobs
        Agricultural-1%, Blue Collar-declining, 21%, White-Collar-service work/professional jobs, 78%,
Self-Employment-fall under prev. jobs usually Blue Collar
Dual Labor Marker(Primary & Secondary) Primary- Higher pay, more security, more satisfaction in work
(Medical, Law, Management) Secondary- lower pay, less security, less satisfaction in work (Blue collar)
Unemployment- more typical in young people and African Americans
New Information Technology- deskilling labor, making work more abstract, limiting peoples interaction,
increasing control over workers, allow companies to relocate work
Underground Economy-can be legal work where people don’t report income(baby sitting, pet sitting…)

Corporations and Incorporation- formed the U.S. economy, corporate responsibility and when they step
down and are no longer responsible(incorporation) the corporation turns into a separate entity, protects
the people who are running them
Economic Concentration & Competition
        Conglomerates- corporations that own several different brands that all are unified under an
        Monopoly-prohibited, one corporation has complete control over a certain thing
        Oligopoly-the Market is Dominated through a few corporations
Corporations & the Global Economy- Modernization theorists, All is good, raise the standard of living in
other countries and raise the technology in these places, this creates issues, forces countries to create
goods for exports, Making the poor countries more dependent on larger, better-off countries

Look at last notes page

The Government and Politics

Politics-A major social institution by which society distributes power and organizes decision making

Government-a formal organization that directs political life of society

Big Questions-
How do political systems vary around the world?
Why do critics say that the US society is not truly democratic?
What are the causes of war?

Politics: Power & Authority
Weber: raw power-Legitimate authority
Power- the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance
Authority-power people see as legitimate rather than coercive
                                  Introduction to Sociology

       Traditional Authority-pre-industrial societies rely on tradition for the means of the transition of
power to authority
       Rational-Legal Authority-as societies grew rational thought started to underlie the ways of
bureaucratic decision, and law.
       Charismatic Authority-Leadership through charismatic pull, turned power into authority through
charisma, their extraordinary qualities or believed extraordinary qualities. (Ghandi, Hitler, Jesus)

Politics in the Global Perspective-
Monarchy-most common in agrarian societies, leadership is gained through kinship-divine right
Democracy-most common in modern, industrialized societies, offices, bureaucracy and economy limit
true democracy
Authoritarianism-a political system that deny’s people the rights to participate in their
government(monarchs, juntas?)
Totalitariansim-all of the political power is centralized under one leadership, ruled by fear,

Political Freedom
Political Freedom- certain human rights, civil liberties
    in 2006 193 politically independent nation-states
    90 were politically “free”
    58 were “partially free”
    45 were “not free”

The world Polity
A Global Political System? Yes, to an extent,

        Multinational Corporations & neocolonialism- big corporations that have factories and offices
        that span the globe, economic exploitation of the countries, making smaller nations different
        through placing money into them(factories)
        The information age-control of the internet, controlling what people see to keep them from
        seeking a better life
        Dependency & interdependency-most countries are reliant on the US and the UN to keep them
        afloat, a “you do for me, I’ll do for you” relationship
        The U.N.-human, woman, childrens rights commissions where they try to get other countries to
        follow them, good goals in civil rights issues however the UN does not have much power to
        enforce their ideas

Politics in the US
The rise of the Welfare state- a system of government agencies and programs that provide benefits and
welfare to the population -in the US the welfare is fairly poor and is being worked on to become better-
Political Spectrum-
Special-Interest Groups- groups of people that address a certain issue
                                  Introduction to Sociology

        Political Action Committees- used to advance specific goals

Voter apathy-specifically in the US, based on Who thinks their voice is heard, Who votes.

        60% in 2004
        61% in 2008

“Is Congress Really For Sale?”

What role to special interests play?
       campaign contributions
What political ties to corporations & wealthy business people?
What about Party Ideology?
How much does public opinion matter?

Theoretical Analysis of Power

Pluralist model
         Linked to functionalism-sees power as spread among lots of different interest groups
Power-Elite Model
         Linked to Conflict Theory-(Mills) sees power as concentrated among the rich. (Elite people hold
all of the power)
Marxist Political-Economy Model
         Linked to Conflict Theory-political system is directly linked to the economy.(capitalism- true
democracy is impossible because of strong links to capitalism)

Big Questions-
How do political systems vary around the world?
Why do critics say that the US society is not truly democratic?

Health and Healthcare
Health is related to social change but we talk about healthcare as a social institution
Big Questions-
How are health and healthcare social issues?
What categories of the US population have the best health and healthcare?
What specific health issues are people in the US facing today?

What is Health?-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
Social Issue-Personal wellbeing depends on societies advances in technology and resources(inequality of
Cultural definitions of health-culture shape definitions of health and they change over time
Technology’s effects-studies and news reports, medical tests
                                  Introduction to Sociology

Social inequalities’ effects- people’s health, people in the upper class live longer than lower class and
below lower class, life expectancy

Health: A Global Perspective

Low-income countries
        Inadequate sanitation hunger other problems linked to poverty
        low life expectancy-about 20 years younger than in the US
        High infant mortality 1/3 die during birth, ½ don’t make adulthood.
High income countries
        Industrialization improved health
        Most people die in old age- chronic illnesses- were contained and people were inoculated for

Health in the US

Epidemiology-sociologist are interested in the social basis of health, distribution of illness within the
         Age: ¾ of US children will live to be 65
         Gender: women live longer than men, aggressive and individualistic behaviors, as well as taking
risks/violence contribute to men’s’ smaller life expectancy
         Class: people of high social class are healthier than the poor, better living conditions, healthcare,
better working conditions, food
         Race: poverty among African Americans explain why there are higher rates of infant mortality
and suffer side effects of drug abuse and violence among them.(link b/w poverty and race)
Stigma: any characteristic that sets an individual or group apart that are treated with suspicion and
hostility (lepersy and leper colonies, AIDS, Mental illness)

Big Questions: Why do social movements arise?
How do social movements bring about change?

What role have college students played ion social movements? What role do they continue to have?

Anti-Sweatshop Movement:
“sweating for a t-shirt”
many colleges are not using sweatshop apparel due to college protests

Video- Sweating for a T-shirt
wages are not enough to feed or support their families or even buy the things they are making
going back and forth between workers and owners of the factories
                                  Introduction to Sociology

they are not allowed to form unions-are threatened with jail time and violent acts

Big Questions:
What are the different types of globalization and how do they affect our global society?
What role does globalization play in social change?
How does globalization impact global inequality?

Types of Globalization:
Economic Globalization- the increasing economic integration between nation states and the emergence
of a global marketplace
Political Globalization-Nations don’t operate completely independently anymore
Cultural Globalization-Driven by increasing communicative technology and a worldwide marketing of
western culture

Where does sweatshop labor fall? In all of these catagories

Economic Globalization
The U.S. at a time of global conflict: Challenges we face beyond war”
         Hyperindebtedness in the global south(developing countries)
         Contradictions in global immigration
         Growing interdependence between the global north and south
Why should rich countries worry?
1. debt is increasing which is now reaching middle income countries
2. Debt makes a fragile system even more fragile, increase in trafficking of drugs, people, etc…, countries
who close their borders are getting older than most, spread of infectious disease.
*****Multinational corporations & Neocolonialism- *****
The information age-can communicate with people and buy things from around the globe

Political Globalization
The world Polity- a global political system?
Dependency and interdependency
the U.N. and other global organizations

What day is the first day of the year?
January 1st 12:01

Cultural Globalization:
Is there a world culture?
         Gregorian Calendar & the standardization of time
                                  Introduction to Sociology

      Blood types
The McDonaldization of Society-the way things are organized, standardized, and homogenized;
McDonalds, Hospitals, Airports, Universities

Cultural Imperialism
Global Village
Media Imperialism-Fiji women with eating disorders-they had nearly no eating disorder until television
went to fiji

Social Change:

Big Questions:
What are the different types of globalization and how do they affect our global society?
What role does globalization play in social change? Physical environment, Political Systems, Cultural
How does Globalization impact global inequality? Globalization is widening the gap of rich and poor
What role can you play in social change? Volunteer etc… (In the article for class 12- 8)

John Mayer; Waiting for the world to change

Discontent & Apathy
The song’s theme centers on the singer and his generation’s inaction in regard to current world

However, he attributes this inaction to a lack of power:

Now we see everything that’s going wrong
With the world and those who lead it
We just fell like we don’t have the means
To rise above and beat it

He also laments the corruption among leaders:

It’s not that we don’t care
We just know that the fight ain’t fair

Hope for the future
Will things change when the younger generations come to power?
Have they already? YES, African American President.
                                 Introduction to Sociology

What is the most depressing social problem? Intergenerational/Intragenerational Mobility: Lack of

What can we do about it? The U.S. could put in better schools, I could write notes to congress/my

Look at Myth of Meritocracy!

A Sociology of Gloom
“The sense that our collective glass is half empty and probably leaking”
Social progress and 4 paradoxes that keep sociologists from acknowledging this progress
        The paradox of perfectionism-a sense or value towards perfectionism-creates a pessimistic idea
        The paradox of proportion-solved big problems, but now the small problems are HUGE
        The paradox of proliferation- we solved big problems and a MILLION little problems to fix
        The paradox of paranoia-social collapse, globalization, technology, people are afraid of the
world being destroyed by nuclear warfare

“Sociologists need to acknowledge social progress and stop fearing that acknowledgement will
somehow make things worse”

Globalization in a Changing world;
Social Change- transformation over time of the institutions and culture of society
3 Main Factors
        The Physical Environment- ocean, rivers, mountains, snowing, rain… how they change peoples’
lives around them
        Political Organization- the way leadership and politics and government in an environment
        Cultural Factors- communication, religion, popular culture; how they influence the people who
view them

A New Social Order
Information Society- not based on production of material goods but the production of knowledge
Knowledge Society- ^SAME ^ Based on production of knowledge
Service Society- based on service occupations instead of material occupations
Postindustrial Society- ^SAME^-- know argument for postindustrial society

Postmodernism- belief that society is no longer governed by history or progress, highly
pluralistic/diverse no grand narrative, or theme to guide society in its development

The Globalization Debate-- is it happening, is it a big deal?
Skeptics- Overated, no global society or global village, more of regionalism/ companies/countries have
large trading blocks but nations still have much of the power
Hyperglobalizers- it needs to be happening everywhere!!! It’s if affecting everyone everywhere! New
Global Order
                                 Introduction to Sociology

Transformationalists- Globalization is a central force, major social patterns stay the same—middle
What do they think?
         Are the social changes we’ve observed in the world Globalization?
         What is the driving force behind globalization?
         What patterns of social stratification has emerged?
         What are the consequences of globalization?

Globalization & Inequality
Hyperindebtedness of the global south-> Increasing gap between rich and poor countries
     Role of the expansion of global trade

Global Inequality
1 Billion at risk—Poor nutrition
15 milion- mostly children- die each year from diseases related to poverty
Women are more likely to be poor-> gender bias strongest in poor societies
200 million people (3% of the world populations)

What can we do
“ The problem is privilege and the power that maintains it”
        A feature of social systems, not individuals
So what can we do?
        Acknoledge that the trouble exists
        Pay attention
        Little risks : do something

Sociology Movie 2

“Holding Ground: The Rebirth of Dudley Street”

People were poor and powerless, but they banded together to clean up the area and improve their
housing and schools.

Fires were commonplace, and usually because the houses were so close together there were multiple
houses burned down.

It used to be a large Irish American and Italian population but the young people moved out with
marriages, using mortgage program to move out to the country, this mortgage program did not help
African Americans or Mexicans/pacific islanders.

Buildings couldn’t be sold and banks refused to give out loans to fix up the houses, so people would
burn their houses so that they could make a profit, they would even burn the houses while people were
in them. They would tear the houses down and they would become vacant lots
                                 Introduction to Sociology

There was a process to help rebuild the neighborhood but the people in charge never spoke to the
residence, due to the outcry they restarted the program including the residence, people voted for new
people every 2 years. 3 seats for each ethnicity, business owners, church officials etc…

Dumping was found to be the most difficult and most abhorred issue. the Mayor came out and claimed
that he would provide the money for the cleaning up of the dumping. He did this because he had a bad
name due to his lack of support for bussing; he provided tools to clean up the area

They decided that they were going to march through the town and said that if there is nothing done,
they would dump the trash on city hall. The Mayor came out and they were allowed to padlock the gate
of an illegal dumping area that a company was using.

Planners then went in and decided that they would buy houses, evict the residents, tear down the
buildings, and then build their own buildings. They called this Negro removal.

In response the residents hired urban planners that would rely on the residents’ ideas. Over 200 people
were part of the process.

The council gained 30 acres of vacant lots in the middle of the area to allow housing; they gained an ally
in Gus Newport, a former politician from California.

With this land they also wanted to build 2 new community centers.

The new issue became drug dealing in the only local park, the only problem was that they realized that if
they kicked the drug dealing out of the park it would move to other places.

It took 4 years after winning the land through imminent domain before they could build on the area,
when they finally received loans sufficient to build land. (38-40 homes that people could be able to buy)

The group had everything but a developer but they ended up having to do it themselves.

They got the houses built and got people to buy homes, unfortunately after this the drug dealing etc…
started again.

The kids got involved and started working in the community, painting a mural on a few buildings,
planting trees, etc…

Doing Gender

What is Gender? Sex?-
                                  Introduction to Sociology

        Sex is defined as an individual’s biology, male or female, chromosomes, hormones, secondary
        sex characteristics.
        Gender- Physical, behavioral, or personality traits that are normal for males and females. What
        it means to be masculine or feminine.
        Masculine-strong, stoic, aggressive, logical, analytic, independent, daring, dominant
        Feminine- emotional, passive, nurturing, soft, weak,

What are the 2 main perspectives of gender?

        The essentialist-sex, biologically or genetically based, argue that gender cannot be changed,
argue that because gender is due to gender or biological make up.
        Constructionist- believe that notions of gender are socially determined, the meaning of
femininity and masculinity differs in different societies and times, it would be poss. To classify people
into other things that primarily gender.

What does “doing gender” mean?

        Falls under constructionist Gender isn’t only an identity; it is what we do in our environments or
interactions with others. We do things to let others know whether we are men or women, our behavior,
looks, and the way that we talk
        Transgender people must learn how to “do” the other gender, or the gender of their choice.

How do we learn to do gender?

From socialization, gender role socialization- a life-long process, learning to be masculine or feminine,
done through primary agents of socialization:
         Family, Schools, Media, Peers- the primary agents of gender role socialization.
         Mainly learned by children some argue before birth
         within 24 hours of a child’s birth parents are already setting up stereotypes for their children
         Schools-use terms such as “lady-like”, in the classroom boys are more likely to be called on by
their teacher and girls tend to be given easier questions
         Peers-guys play football, girls go shopping, name-calling related to gender roles/rebelling
against society and sexuality components,
Consequences in the way we act and react around others

How do gender expectations affect our lives?

         The creation of stereotypes- based on preconceived generalizations about groups(dividing male
and female) judgments of others not based on the people themselves but about their gender.
         Women being nurturing- insinuating that women are the only people that can properly raise a
child-this has made traditional gender structures/ roles
         Education, occupation, income, and housework- only a few main points where sexism takes
         Poverty- women are more likely to be living in poverty than men are, more single mothers than
                                  Introduction to Sociology

           Housework-women are still doing the majority of housework, women’s “second shift”(book)

1)I collected dolls but played with rocks and just about any critter I could get my hands on, that or I
would blow up my boy-neighbors G.I. Joes with cat bombs

2)I was discouraged in my actions as a child

   Quiz                                                                                           11/24
        o   Industrial revolution- people are doing industrial work and learning mass production instead
            of just simple work and agricultural
       o Information revolution- doing service work instead of industrial work
       o Power-
       o Authority- power viewed as legitimate
       o In politics raw power is converted to legitimate authority
       o Three aspects of social class that affect health
                  People living below poverty line, middle class, lower class,
   Health and healthcare
       o Is a social institution and health is a social issue, roles culture technology play in people’s
       o Specific health issues in the us
                  Cigarette smoking
                          Targeting children kids can tell the characters of Marlboro
                          Second hand smoke, social situations exposed to is
                          Making laws to go against them, no smoking in bars
                          Peer pressure to smoke
                          Smoke to control stress
                          Men working class divorced unemployed military all smoke higher rates
                  Eating disorders and obesity
                          TV shows portray people to be skinny (Fiji)
                          Most are women
                          Obesity is linked to an unhealthy life styles
                          US is very unhealthy when comes to obesity
                          Leads to heart disease stroke
                  Sexually transmitted disease
                          Not a concern till sexual revolution, had sex with more partners
                          Has turned people away from casual sex because scared
                  Ethical issues surrounding death
                          Medical technology, that is being recently added
                          Do people have the right to choose to die
       o Medical establishment- health care as a social institution
                  The rise of scientific medicine
                          Trained specialists in the medical establishment have actual scientific
                             evidence on how the body works
                  Holistic medicine
                        Introduction to Sociology

                   The prevention of illness concerned with health not illness, treating the
                    whole body and preventing illness weather just helping when they already
         Healthcare
                 Socialized medicine
                         o Government owns and operates most medical businesses and
                            employs all the doctors, universal health care
                 Direct fee system
                         o Patience pay directly for what they are having done, pay to the
                            doctors or to the hospitals, what we have in the US but is buffered
                            by HMO
                 Health maintenance organization (HMO)
                         o Provide medical care to prescribers for a fee, health insurance, pay
                            monthly then won’t have to pay the whole thing every little part
o   Paying for medical care
         A global survey
                 Socialist societies
                         o Provide services equally to everyone, medical care is a right,
                            government offers it equally to everyone
                 Capitalist societies
                         o Medical is a commodity to be purchased most health governments
                            help pay for healthcare through socialized medicine
         In the US
                 Direct fee system
                         o Pay for services as you go
                 Private or government health insurance
                 47 million people uninsured
                 Nursing shortage
                         o Jobs are unfilled, fewer women seeking nursing programs due to
                            expanding job opportunities, increased benefits and pay to get
                            more men into this job
o   Theories of health and healthcare
         Functionalist approach
                 Actually see as dysfunctional…more here didn’t get
                 Talcott parsons
                         o Sick role
                                 Excuses person from actually having to go to routine social
                         o Physicians role
                                 Use specialized knowledge to take care of the persons
                                    health and recovery
                 Symbolic interactionist approach
                         o Health constructed by peoples everyday interaction, how people
                            define their illness and it affects their sickness
                         o Social construction of health and healthcare
                 Conflict approach
                                 Introduction to Sociology

                                o   Unequal distribution of health and healthcare, criticize the
                                    healthcare for an over reliance on surgery and medicine, looking
                                    more for profit then for actual health
        o   Big questions
                 How are health and healthcare social issues?
                 What categories of the US population have the best health and healthcare?
                 What specific health issues are people in the US facing today?
   Social movements
        o Big questions
                 Why do social movements arise?
                 How do social movements bring about change?
                 What role have college students played in social movements? What role do they
                    continue to have?
        o social movement- exercise we did in class
                 integration
                         sit n tactics to achieve what they wanted, sort of were successful
                         a way to show power
        o social movements
                 collective behavior and its different from group behavior
                         collectivities contained people with little or no social activity, no social
                           bounders, generate weak or unconventional norms
                 social movements
                         promote or discourage change is the goal
                         process of claim making
                                o trying to get the public to join in their cause or to believe in it
                         collective attempts to further a common interest secure a common goal
                           through action outside established institutions
        o types of social movements
                 alterative
                         seek very limited change in specific individuals
                         example is promise keepers
                                o designed to encourage men to spend time with their families
                 redemptive
                         seeks radical change in specific individuals
                         example is alcoholics anonymous
                 reformative
                         seeks limited change in the entire society
                         example the environmental movement
                 revolutionary
                         radical change in the entire society
                         example communist party
        o why do social movements occur
                 only worry about the ones my book covers
        o Are you willing to take a stand?
                 What would you change about society?
                 General pessimism going on in the society
                         People in charge don’t care
                               Introduction to Sociology

                         2/3 US adults think the average person’s situation is getting worse not
                        ¾ US adults think most governments officials not interested in the average
                          person’s problem
                Lack of involvement and apathy
                        13% US adults attended a public meeting organized to protest government
                          action of policy
                        9% have taken part in a protest march or demonstration
                        Majority of people are unhappy with situations but few people actually take
                          a stance
       o   College students and political apathy
                What does age got to do with it?
                        1960s activist you can’t trust anyone over 30
                              o Students were actually the ones who cared about change
                        2006 survey college students less interested in political issues than their
                              o 27% participating in community action programs as an important
                Why not join?
                        Risks making enemies, losing jobs physical injury
                        Cultural norms of personal responsibility and individualism
                              o The American dream and the myth of meritocracy
                Sociology as a counterpoint to individualism
                        C Wright mills individual problems caused by the structure of society
                        Solution collective effort
       o   Student movement
                Students for a democratic society
                        Protesting the Vietnam war
                        Late, the invasion of Cambodia
                              o Kent state shooting
                        Campus antiwar network
                Students nonviolent coordinating committee
                        Freedom rides and freedom summer
                              o Bus lines were not integrated, college students boarded busses
                                  together and refused to follow the segregation laws
                              o Getting out to vote in southern states
                        United students against sweatshops
       o   The anti sweatshop movement
                Sweating for a t-shirt


   Globalization-movement towards interdependence or inter connectedness, no longer are countries
    truly independent because of the economy
        o For exam most known urbanization and the environment
        o Quiz
                        Introduction to Sociology

           What two structures does Sassen suggest are more important in terms of global
            conflict than the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan?
         What is the debt trap and what are two practical reasons as to why rich countries
            should worry about it?
         Give three examples of social movements that college students have been involved
            in. Were these movements concerned with promoting or discouraging change?
                 Sit ins, and summer thing
o   Anti-sweatshop movement
         Sweating for a t-shirt ‘Video’
                 Many of the clothing we wear are all done in factories
                 Workers are paid at very low wages that cannot even support families
                 Cannot form unions and are threatened if do so
                 The conditions that these people have worked in, came in healthy, left sick
                 Most people don’t care where their clothing is being made
                 Wages, health, and threats
o   Big questions
         What are the different types of globalization and how do they affect our global
         What role does globalization play in social change?
         How does globalization impact global inequality?
o   Types of globalization
         Economic globalization
                 Talking about increase economic integration between nation states and
                     emergence of a global market place
         Political globalization
                 Nations don’t operate completely independent, politics and government,
                     interdependence between nations, reliance between nations on one
         Cultural globalization
                 Increase communicative technology, worldwide marketing of western
                     industries, internet TV shows showing up in other countries
         Where does sweatshop labor fall?
                 Fill in each category
o   Economic globalization
         The us at a time of global conflict challenges we face beyond war- article
                 Hyper indebtedness in the global south( developing countries)
                         o Increasing debt these countries facing
                 Contradictions in global immigration
                 Growing interdependence between the global north and south
         Why should rich countries worry
                         o Everyone is facing debt now not just poor countries
                         o Increase trafficking or people drugs and weapons
                         o Health is being affected by people
         Multinational corporations and neocolonialism
         The information age
         Look at chart on economy rank economy and gdp
         Look at chart of gross national product
                               Introduction to Sociology

       o    Political globalization
                 The world polity- a global political system
                          Colonialism
                          Dependency and interdependency
                                  o On countries of one another
                                  o Pressure to have certain things because of other countries
                          The UN and other global organizations
                                  o Child labor
                                  o Human rights issues
                          Graph of international nongovernment organizations
        o Cultural globalization
                 First day of year is Jan 1
                 Is there a world culture?
                          Gregorian calendar and the standardization of time
                                  o Did not always have same date but now most people use it
                          Passports
                          Postage
                                  o Send mail internationally
                          Blood types
                                  o Are the same all over
                          All make dealing with other countries easier
                 The mcdonaldization of society
                          The way things are standardized, homogenized, organized
                          Things are all starting to look the same
                          Can transfer things easier between each if the same
                 Graphs 20.1
        o Cultural imperialism- imp eating ideas of one cultural being transformed to the image of
            other countries
                 Global village
                 Media imperialism
                          Fiji women
   Social Change (12/8)
        o Big Questions
                 What are the different types of globalization and how do they affect our global
                 What role does globalization play in social change?
                 How does globalization impact global inequality?
                          The widening gap between rich and poor countries
                 What role can you play in social change?
                          Read a book,
        o John mayer –“Waiting on the World to Change”
                 The songs themem centers on the singer and his generations inaction in regard to
                     currents world conditions
                 However, he attributes this inaction to a lack of power
                          Introduction to Sociology

                    No we see everything that’s going wrong, with the world and those who
                     lead it we just feel like we don’t have the means to rise above and beat it
         He also laments the corruption among leaders
                 It’s not that we don’t care, we just know that the fight aint fair
         Hope for the future
         Will things change when the younger generation comes to power?
         Have they already?
o   A sociology of Gloom
         “the sense that our collective glass is half empty and probably leaking”
         Social progress and 4 paradoxes that keep sociologists from acknowledge this
                 The paradox of perfectionism
                 The paradox of proportion- we have solved some major social problems, but
                     now that the big problems are solved, the little problems are popping up
                 The paradox of proliferation- it seems like there are so many more little
                     problems that we need to fix
                 The paradox of paranoia- people being afraid of social progress, for example
                     technology taking over the world
         “Sociologists need to acknowledge social progress and stop fearing that
            acknowledgement will somehow make things worse”
o   “Globalization in a Changing World”
         Social change
                 3 main factors
                         o The physical environment- you environment affects the way you
                              live, pollution, global warming, changes to the physical environment
                         o Political organization- the type of political system that structures
                              society, the way leadership organizes society has changed, pressure
                              from countries in power for other countries to live a certain way,
                         o Cultural factors- communication systems, religions, impact how
                              societies exist, Fiji women
         A new social order
                 Information society- no longer based on production of material goods, but
                     the production of knowledge
                 Knowledge society- society based on the production and consumption of
                 Service society- based on service occupation instead of aggregation service
                 Postindustrial society- we still rely on industrial goods, know the arguments
                 Postmodernism- that society is no longer guided by history or progress,
                     highly pluralistic, no theme that is guiding its development,
         The Globalization Debate- look at table
                 Skeptics- think that glob. Is over rated, no global society or global village,
                     but into the idea that there is a regionalism, trading blocks, national gov still
                     had power
                 Hyperglobalizers- consequences of glob are felt everywhere, cant escape,
                     strong belief in new global order, a global age,
                                  Introduction to Sociology

                           Transfomationalists – middle ground, glob is a central force in some
                            changes, major social patterns stay the same,
                                o Are the social changes we observe in the world globalization?
                                o What is the driving force behind globalization?
                                o What pattern of stratification has emerged?
                                o What are the consequences of globalization?
                                          Global inequality
                   Globalization and inequality
                        Hyperindebtedness of the global south, increasing gap between rich and
                            poor countries
                                o Role of the expansion of glbal trade
                   Global inequality
                        1 billion at risk of poor nutrition, mostly children die each year due to
                            diseases, women more likely to be poor (gender bias strongest in poor
                            societies), 200 million people live in conditions that could be describes as
                   What can we do?
                        “The problem is privilege and the power that maintains it”
                                o A feature of social systems, not individuals, we don’t decide we
                                    have privilege, the way society is structured I have privilege
                        So what can we do?
                                o Acknowledge that the trouble exists
                                o Pay attention
                                o Little risks: do something
                                          Make noise, be seen, volunteering, remove support systems
                                             from the past of least resistance, openly choose and model
                                             alternative paths, promote change

Organic solidarity vs. Mechanic solidarity pg. 14

Inovators-drug dealers, people who try to better themselves through the wrong ways, Ritualists-reject
societies goals but accept societies reasons to achieve these goals, Retreatists-reject both society goals
and societies ways of achieving roals, Rebels- reject both but are trying to achieve different goals,
usually to make their own 186

Stages, concreat operational, etc…pg 95

About Japanese teenagers being more open about sex, MAKE SURE TO READ THE ARTICLES OR “POP

Dyad’s, Triad’s, and Larger Groups pg. 143, 141

Define: Culture, Value, Norm, Material Condition, and Material Goods pg. 56

Which of the following statement would a conflict theorist believe in? pg. 20
                                   Introduction to Sociology

What is Love? It is a social construction. Pg.4

Short Answer:

Sociological Imagination- how the small, individual hardships (personal problems), effect the public().

Status Set- Ascribed Status, Achieved Status, Master Status

Internet’s effects (advantages and disadvantages) to social relationships

American Norms/Values on cheating

Deviance reflecting inequality

Short Answer

Sociological Imagination- personal troubles= public issues C. Wright Mills-founder of <-

Equality-A Social construction (myth of meritocracy)
Ex: think outside of social class, race, gender… black man and white man, equal college educations,
white mat will get paid more.
Idea comes around, if Opra did it, then I can do it.
Glass ceiling, women can see further but cannot get further

Exam questions, on the movies, Roger & ME, The Rebirth of Dudley St.

Social Movements, examples of social movements
freedom rides, freedom summer, college anti-sweatshop movements, womens rights, (more in
textbook, know one particularly well) know how the actual social movement, the social movement
theories, how do the theories explain social movements.

 One comes from a context reader article, know how to answer the review questions, from just the last
section of the class!

Socialism, capitalism- know more than the definition

Stuff that wasn’t in class that is covered in the reading is in the glossary or the index

Types of jobs- white & blue collar jobs

Smart mobbing

Globalization on the economy- where a waitlist economy will develop

Know difference between politics and government, power and authority

Who are the power elite and why are they important

Healthcare, different types of healthcare and who pays for it in diff. countries
                                   Introduction to Sociology

How education impacts health, poverty and other lacks of resources effects life expectancy

People with friends that do X usually do X

Sociological concepts w/I health

Structural strain theory- know it…deff. And the theory

Collective behavior is different from group behavior and how they play into social movements

Types of globalization- economic, political-, cultural-idea of cultural imperialism-fijian women, western
culture is EVERYWHERE

The “players” in the debate- transformationalist, hyperglobalizers, skeptics

Information society knowledge society…sociologists argue that they are a result of post-industrial

Urbanization population in the environment


What is a bad neighborhood, relation b/w quality of life and people who live there, crime rate, labels

Environmental problems- be able to relate problems to globalization

Homelessness- gov’t structures of physical setting in a neighborhood to discourage homeless people,
and crime

Ghetto- holocaust –not a run-down inner city neighborhood

John Mayer- discussion in class

Technology, technological changes- computer, car, cell phone

Social mobility, social structure, between and within schools social inequalities

****************!!!Marx and his views on religion!!!!*************

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