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					 Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan
Baseline report and recommendations for action



                                March 2006


                                 Prepared by:
                  Transport for Quality of Life
                                                        Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                              Baseline report and recommendations for action




This report is based on the findings of a travel plan survey, site assessments and
discussions with Gwynedd Council staff, carried out by Lyn Owen, Nat Taplin, Ian
Taylor and Lynn Sloman for Transport for Quality of Life.

We thank the members of the Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan steering group,
and especially Sustainability Co-ordinator Dewi Wyn Jones, for their assistance in
gathering data and preparing the report.



Contact: Lynn Sloman
lynnsloman@merrygoround.fsnet.co.uk

Transport for Quality of Life
Bwlch Y Maen
Cwm Einion
Ffwrnais
Ceredigion SY20 8TD

01654 781358




                                          2                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                       Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                             Baseline report and recommendations for action

                                     Contents
                                                                                   Page
       Executive Summary                                                              4

1      Introduction                                                                   8
1.1    Benefits of a green travel plan                                                8
1.2    How this travel plan was developed                                             9

2      Baseline data on travel in Gwynedd                                             10
2.1    Travel to and from work                                                        10
2.2    Business travel                                                                11

3      The potential for change                                                       12
3.1    Trips to and from work                                                         12
3.2    Working from home or an office close to home                                   15
3.3    Business travel                                                                15

4      Evidence on which actions will support green travel                            17

5      Recommended travel plan measures                                               19
5.1    Walk and Bike to Work Campaign                                                 20
5.2    Improving cycling facilities                                                   21
5.3    Promoting bus use                                                              22
5.4    Car-sharing scheme                                                             26
5.5    Telephone-conferencing                                                         28
5.6    Package of quick wins for green business travel                                29
5.7    Communications to promote green travel                                         31
5.8    Teleworking                                                                    31
5.9    Pool cars                                                                      32
5.10   Public transport service enhancements                                          35
5.11   Parking management                                                             37
5.12   Actions for consideration in the future                                        40

6      Encouraging other organisations to develop travel plans                        41

7      Recommended targets for the Gwynedd green travel plan                          42

8      Monitoring and review                                                          43

9      The business case                                                              45

10     Conclusions                                                                    46



                                         3                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                         Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                               Baseline report and recommendations for action

Executive Summary

Gwynedd Council has a commitment to produce a Green Travel Plan by March 2006.
This is a package of practical actions that will enable the council to reduce single
occupancy car use for the journey to and from work and for business travel, through
greater use of car-sharing, public transport, cycling and walking, as well as more
efficient working practices, such as telephone-conferencing in place of travel to
meetings.

In order to identify the measures that will be most effective in Gwynedd, a Green
Travel Plan steering group has commissioned work including a travel survey, site
assessments and discussions with staff. This has found that:

 At present, 81% of travel to and from work is as a car driver. Over 90% of
    business travel is as a car driver, mostly in employees’ own cars.
   Business mileage claims represent a substantial cost to the council – £2.6 million
    per year – but this could be reduced through the travel plan.

There is good potential to reduce car use. Roughly a third of employees at the four
offices say that they would be willing to use their cars less, can identify alternative
travel options that would be easy for them, and do not identify any insuperable
barriers to using these options (such as having to take young children to school on the
way to work). The focus of the travel plan is on measures to make green travel easier
for these ‘already willing’ employees. It does not try to force change in the travel
habits of people for whom this would be difficult.

One interesting finding from the travel survey is that a high proportion of employees
live fairly close to their work. About 40% of employees live less than five miles away
from their offices, and at the Meirionnydd and Dwyfor offices about a fifth of
employees live less than a mile away. This suggests that, although Gwynedd is a rural
county, actions to facilitate walking and cycling are likely to be just as important as
actions to encourage bus travel and car-sharing.

The Green Travel Plan will deliver the following benefits:

Benefits for staff
The travel plan will help achieve one of the three Local Development Themes of
‘fulfilling staff potential’. It will benefit staff by:
 Making it easier to stay fit and healthy, by providing facilities and support for
     those who would like to walk or cycle.
 Possibly enabling some staff to work from home or offices closer to their homes,
     reducing commuting time.



                                           4                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                        Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                              Baseline report and recommendations for action

 Saving money, for example through sharing the costs of travel via a car-sharing
    scheme.
   Cutting ‘parking stress’– that is, reducing the problem of finding a parking space
    in a crowded car park in the mornings.

Benefits for the council
Benefits to the council will include:
 Financial savings, due to lower business travel costs.
 Greater efficiency, due to savings in staff travel time during the working day.
 Less pressure on scarce office space, due to flexible working practices, such as
   working from home or offices close to home.
 Less pressure on parking, and a lower risk that the council will have to secure
   additional parking space in the future.
 A positive image, as the travel plan will demonstrate that the council is leading
   the way amongst local authorities in Wales in reducing the impact of its own
   operations on the environment.

Benefits to the environment
Finally, a travel plan offers environmental benefits. It will:
 Reduce CO2 emissions from traffic.
 Improve local air quality, reducing emissions of NOx and particulates which cause
   health problems including asthma.
 Reduce noise and visual intrusion from traffic.
 Reduce the pressure for land to be tarmacked for car parks, and free up space for
   more valuable uses such as houses, shops, and green space.
 Reduce car dependency, which will in turn encourage more sustainable lifestyles
   (e.g. shopping locally rather than in a superstore on the way home).
 Reduce road danger.

The recommended measures that make up the travel plan are summarised in the table
below. The short-term measures are relatively straightforward, with practical
outcomes which can be achieved fairly quickly. We recommend that the council
should start to implement these measures in 2006, with the aim of achieving all of
them by the end of 2007. The medium-term measures either require further feasibility
work before they can be introduced, or are more complex, or logically should only be
implemented after the short-term measures have delivered wider choice to employees.
Although the results of the medium-term initiatives will not be felt straight away,
work should start on them now. We recommend that the council should begin
feasibility work on the medium-term measures in 2006, with the aim of introducing
them in 2009.




                                          5                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                           Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action

Short-term           Walk and Bike to Work campaign
                     Improving cycling facilities
                     Promotion of bus use
                     Car-sharing scheme
                     Telephone-conferencing
                     Package of quick wins for green business travel
                     Communications to promote green travel

Medium-term          Promotion of tele-working and development of tele-centres
                     Pool car scheme
                     Public transport service enhancements
                     Parking management



Taken together, these measures would enable the council to meet the following targets
for Pencadlys and the three area offices:

 Reduce car driver trips to and from work from 81% to 70% by 2009. This would
    reduce employee car mileage by 723,000 miles per year.

This target would represent 14% less car use, which is equivalent to the median result
achieved across 40 public and private sector organisations whose travel plans have
been evaluated in detail.

 Reduce car mileage for business by 10% by 2009. This would represent a saving
    of 242,000 miles per year.

This target could be achieved if one-third of business trips between the four offices
were replaced by telephone-conferencing and 8% of business car trips were replaced
by a car-share. It does not take into account the potential to replace business car trips
by public transport or cycling, although there is also potential here.

Taken together, the achievement of these two targets would reduce car mileage from
the council’s operations by nearly one million miles per year (965,000 miles).

Once the council has established its travel plan, it will be able to apply the lessons it
has learned in order to support other organisations in the county in developing their
own travel plans – for example, through a Gwynedd Green Travel Club which could
co-ordinate joint incentives like discount public transport fares. This would be a
significant contribution towards achieving the aims set out in the WAG / WLGA
Wales Statement on Climate Change and Energy Saving.




                                            6                      Transport for Quality of Life
                                                         Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                               Baseline report and recommendations for action

To be successful, the travel plan will require high level leadership and commitment. It
will be important that at least some senior managers and councillors are willing to
‘lead by example’, using sustainable travel options at least some of the time. It will
also be important that the council appoints a travel plan co-ordinator, with an
adequate budget for them to implement the travel plan measures. This is a ‘spend to
save’ strategy – that is, money invested up-front in the travel plan will deliver
financial savings once the travel plan measures take effect.




                                           7                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                               Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                     Baseline report and recommendations for action

1.      Introduction

1.1     Benefits of a green travel plan
A green travel plan is a package of practical actions that enables an organisation to
reduce single occupancy car use. It may involve greater use of car-sharing, public
transport, cycling or walking, as well as more efficient working practices, such as
telephone conferencing in place of travel to meetings, or staff working from offices
closer to their homes.

Most travel plans focus on the commute to and from work, but in Gwynedd we are
also looking at the potential to reduce car use for business travel. Initially, the travel
plan is focussed on Pencadlys and the three area offices, although some elements of
the plan will also be of benefit to staff based in other council offices.

A well-implemented travel plan will help meet many of the council’s priorities, and
will also offer benefits to staff.

It will help achieve one of the three Local Development Themes of ‘fulfilling staff
potential’. The benefits to council staff of the travel plan are:
 It helps employees keep fit and healthy, by making it easier to walk or cycle to
    work (e.g. by providing cycle parking and lockers).
 It may enable some staff to work from home or offices closer to home, reducing
    commuting time and enabling staff to be more active in their community1.
 Cash savings, for example through car-sharing schemes which reduce the cost of
    car travel to work.
 Less ‘parking stress’ – that is, fewer problems finding a parking space in a
    crowded car park in the mornings.

For the council, there are efficiency and PR benefits:
 Financial savings due to reduced business travel costs.
 More efficient use of staff time, with less time spent unproductively in travel
   between offices.
 Less pressure on scarce office space, due to flexible working practices, such as
   working from home or offices close to home.
 Less pressure on parking, and a lower risk that the council will have to secure
   additional parking space in the future.
 A positive image, as the travel plan will demonstrate that the council is leading the
   way amongst local authorities in Wales in reducing the impact of its own
   operations on the environment.

1
 Research suggests that each additional 10 minutes commuting time reduces voluntary involvement in
community affairs by 10% (Putnam 2000, Bowling Alone). In a rural county such as Gwynedd, with
dispersed communities, long commuting times to work can make involvement in community activities
much more difficult.

                                                8                      Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                  Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                        Baseline report and recommendations for action

Finally, a travel plan offers environmental benefits. It will:
 Reduce CO2 emissions from traffic, contributing to the aims set out in the WAG /
   WLGA Wales Statement on Climate Change and Energy Saving.
 Improve local air quality, reducing emissions of NOx and particulates which cause
   health problems including asthma.
 Reduce noise and visual intrusion from traffic.
 Reduce the pressure for land to be tarmacked for car parks, and free up space for
   more valuable uses such as houses, shops, and green space.
 Reduce car dependency, which will in turn encourage more sustainable lifestyles
   (e.g. shopping locally rather than in a superstore on the way home).
 Reduce road danger.

1.2      How this travel plan was developed
The work to develop a travel plan has involved three main strands: a travel survey,
site assessments, and discussions with staff2.

An invitation to complete a travel survey was sent to members of staff, concentrating
on office-based staff. The survey was completed via the council’s intranet, but there
was also the option for staff with no computer access to complete a paper
questionnaire. A separate paper-version travel survey was sent to councillors. There
were 654 staff responses and 37 responses from councillors. Analysis of the survey
returns focussed on those from staff based at Pencadlys and the area offices, and the
response rates from these were as follows:
 Pencadlys 43%
 Arfon area office 32%
 Meirionnydd area office 47%
 Dwyfor area office 56%

Site assessments were carried out at Pencadlys and the three area offices. These
gathered information on frequency of public transport services to the sites; ease of
access by cycling and walking; arrangements for car parking; quality of information
on non-car travel options; and other issues.

All members of staff were invited to take part in a lunchtime discussion. The purpose
of these meetings was to obtain ‘local’ expertise and knowledge about access
problems and possible solutions to improve green travel options to the four sites. The
discussion groups were held through the medium of Welsh. Between five and twelve
members of staff took part in each meeting.



2
  Working notes on the four site assessments, four discussion groups, and analysis of the travel surveys
are available.


                                                   9                       Transport for Quality of Life
                                                               Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                     Baseline report and recommendations for action

2.     Baseline data on travel in Gwynedd

2.1    Travel to and from work
The travel survey showed that 81% of journeys to and from work at the four offices
are currently made as a car driver. Table 1 shows the mode split at each office.

Table 1: Mode share for trips to and from work
              Pencadlys      Arfon area Meirionnydd                    Dwyfor                   Average
                                office     area office                area office
 Car driver      77%             89%          86%                        82%                     81%
 Passenger        6%              4%           4%                         5%                      6%
   Walk           9%              2%           4%                         7%                      7%
    Bus           5%              3%           3%                         2%                      4%
   Cycle          2%              0%           0%                         3%                      2%
   Train          0%              0%           0%                         0%                      0%
 Motorbike        0%              0%           0%                         0%                      0%
 Telework         1%              1%           2%                         2%                      1%

Table 2 summarises the distances staff travel to work. Typically, about 40% of
employees live fairly near to the office where they work (less than five miles away).
At most offices, a significant proportion of staff live less than a mile away. Despite
this, the proportion of trips to work made on foot or by bike is generally low. This is
most pronounced at the Meirionnydd area office (see figure 1), where 24% of staff
live less than a mile from work, but only 4% of trips to and from work at the time of
the survey (the peak of summer) were by foot. This suggests that there is
unexpectedly good potential to encourage more walking to work.

Table 2: Distances employees travel to work
                                                                                  Meirionnydd



                                                                                                    Dwyfor area
                                                                 Arfon area




                                                                                  area office
                                                Pencadlys




                                                                 office




                                                                                                    office




Less than a mile (walking distance)             14%               5%              24%               19%
1-5 miles (cycling distance)                    26%              29%              11%               22%
5-10 miles                                      19%              21%              14%               32%
10-20 miles                                     17%              31%              31%               17%
More than 20 miles                              24%              14%              20%               10%




                                           10                             Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                    Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                          Baseline report and recommendations for action

Figure 1: Meirionnydd area office
How staff travel to work          How far they travel
                             Cycle 0%                               Over 40 miles
                   Walk 4%              Bus 3%                           1%                      Up to a mile
          Telew ork                                   20-40 miles                                    24%
             2%                             Car          19%
                                         passenger
                                            4%

                                                                                                          1-2 miles
                                                                                                             3%


                                                                                                      2-5 miles
                                                                                                         8%
      Car driver                                     10-20 miles
        86%                                             31%                                  5-10 miles
                                                                                                14%




Flexible working hours allow employees to arrive at any time between 8am and 10am
in the morning, and to leave at any time between 4pm and 6pm. However, most
employees (between 72% and 82% at different offices) arrive between 8am and 9am.
Most leave between 4.30pm and 5.30pm.

2.2      Business travel
Business travel is very car-dependent, with 85% of business trips being made as a
driver, in employees’ own cars, and a further 6-11% of business trips from the
different offices being made as a driver in a council fleet vehicle. In the 12 months to
July 2005, Gwynedd council staff claimed for a total of 6.1 million miles driven in
employees’ own cars. Business travel appears to be on a rising trend, having increased
5% in the previous two years. Mileage travel claims currently cost the council £2.6
million per year, an average of 42p per mile. 40% of business mileage arises from
staff based at Pencadlys and the three area offices.

The vast majority of business trips (97%) were within Gwynedd, or in north or mid-
Wales. For example, the main destinations for Pencadlys staff were Bangor (11% of
trips); Pwllheli (11%); Dolgellau (8%); and Porthmadog (6%). For Meirionnydd area
office staff, the main destinations were Caernarfon (22% of trips); and Pwllheli (6%
of trips).




                                                     11                             Transport for Quality of Life
                                                           Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action

3.     The potential for change

3.1    Trips to and from work
The results of the staff travel survey suggest that there is good potential for change to
more sustainable modes of travel (i.e. car-sharing, public transport, walking and
cycling) for employees’ journeys to and from work.

The survey asked three questions which enable an assessment of potential for change.
It asked:
 Whether respondents were willing to use green travel options some of the time;
 How easy it would be to walk, cycle, take public transport or car-share for their
     own journey to work;
 Whether there were any barriers to their using green travel options.

For someone to switch from driving to travel by green modes, all three things must be
right. That is, they must be willing to change; they must have an easy alternative
option; and there must be no insoluble barrier to the use of this alternative option. An
example of an insoluble barrier would be an employee who had to deliver three young
children to nursery and school on the way to work – nothing the council can do is
likely to make it possible for this employee to take the bus. An example of a soluble
barrier would be an employee who was willing to cycle to work, but said that the lack
of shower facilities deterred them. This is a barrier that the council can do something
about.

Based on employees’ own judgements, as recorded in their responses to the travel
survey, the percentage of drivers for whom all of these conditions are met is:

Pencadlys                            37%
Arfon area office                    35%
Meirionnydd area office              32%
Dwyfor area office                   27%

This is very encouraging, as it suggests that despite the rural nature of Gwynedd and
the long distances that some employees travel to work, there are still a lot of
employees who would be willing and able to use green travel options if given the right
support.

Figures 2-5 show the detailed breakdown of the potential for change at each office.
These figures illustrate that the travel options with greatest potential differ from office
to office. At Pencadlys and the Arfon area office, bus and car-share have the greatest
potential, although cycling is still significant. At the Meirionnydd area office, car-
sharing, walking and cycling all have roughly equal potential. At the Dwyfor area
office, bus and cycling have the most potential, but car-sharing is still significant.

                                            12                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                         Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                               Baseline report and recommendations for action

Figure 2: The potential for Pencadlys drivers to leave the car at home




                                          not willing                                     SOLUTIONS

                                                                                   ‘very easy’ or ‘quite easy’
                                                                                    alternatives (according to
                   willing, but no easy alternative                              respondents’ own judgement)

       willing, easy alternative, but a barrier that
                                   can’t be solved                            walk        cycle        bus     car-share

        willing, easy alternative, there’s a barrier        11%
                                that can be solved                                                                31%
                                                                                                       23%
   willing, with easy alternative and no barriers           26%                            15%
                                                                               8%



                                                          ALL                    ‘WILLING TO CHANGE’
                                                        DRIVERS                        DRIVERS
                                                                               NO INSOLUBLE BARRIER TO
                                                                                       CHANGE

Note: bars on right side of diagram are to the same scale as those on the left. Thus, 31% of all drivers at Pencadlys
were willing to change, had no insoluble barrier, and said car-sharing would be very or quite easy for them. The
figures on the right side of the diagram (8%, 15%, 23%, 31%) add to more than those on the left side (11%, 26%)
because some survey respondents identified more than one travel option which would be easy for them.


Figure 3: The potential for Arfon area office drivers to leave the car at home




                                                                                       SOLUTIONS
                                         not willing
                                                                                ‘very easy’ or ‘quite easy’
                                                                                alternatives (according to
                                                                                respondents’ own judgement)
                   willing, but no easy alternative

      willing, easy alternative, but a barrier that
                                  can’t be solved                            walk        cycle        bus     car-share

       willing, easy alternative, there’s a barrier         15%
                               that can be solved
                                                                                                                  27%
                                                                                                      21%
                     willing, with easy alternative         20%                           15%
                                                                              8%
                                    and no barriers

                                                          ALL                   ‘WILLING TO CHANGE’
                                                        DRIVERS                       DRIVERS
                                                                              NO INSOLUBLE BARRIER TO
                                                                                      CHANGE




                                                         13                          Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                     Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                           Baseline report and recommendations for action

Figure 4: The potential for Meirionnydd area office drivers to leave the car at home




                                    not willing                              SOLUTIONS


                                                                        ‘very easy’ or ‘quite easy’
                                                                         alternatives (according to
              willing, but no easy alternative                         respondents own judgement)

   willing, easy alternative, but a barrier that                    walk      cycle       bus     car-share
                               can’t be solved
                                                     10%
   willing, easy alternative, there’s a barrier
                           that can be solved
                                                     22%                                              15%
                willing, with easy alternative                        13%       13%
                                                                                           8%
                               and no barriers

                                                     ALL                ‘WILLING TO CHANGE’
                                                   DRIVERS                    DRIVERS
                                                                      NO INSOLUBLE BARRIER TO
                                                                              CHANGE



Figure 5: The potential for Dwyfor area office drivers to leave the car at home




                                                                               SOLUTIONS

                                    not willing
                                                                          ‘very easy’ or ‘quite easy’
                                                                          alternatives (according to
              willing, but no easy alternative                          respondents’ own judgement)


   willing, easy alternative, but a barrier that
                               can’t be solved                       walk      cycle      bus    car-share
   willing, easy alternative, there’s a barrier      8%
                           that can be solved                                             19%
                                                     19%                        17%                   15%
        willing, with easy alternative and no                         10%
                                      barriers

                                                     ALL                 ‘WILLING TO CHANGE’
                                                   DRIVERS                     DRIVERS
                                                                       NO INSOLUBLE BARRIER TO
                                                                               CHANGE




                                                     14                      Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                  Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                        Baseline report and recommendations for action

It is worth mentioning here the main soluble barriers to change that were identified in
the survey. At the area offices, by far the most frequently mentioned barrier to using
green travel options was the need to have a car at work for site visits during the day.
At Pencadlys and the Arfon and Dwyfor offices, lack of a shower, lockers for storing
cycling clothes, and secure cycle parking were also frequently mentioned as barriers
to sustainable travel.

3.2    Working from home or an office close to home
In addition to the potential for staff to use more green travel options, there is also
potential for occasional teleworking – that is, for staff to work from home, or an office
close to home, on some days. Table 3 shows what proportion of employees currently
work from home, and what proportion feel that they could do so. The staff travel
survey asked specifically about the possibility of working from home, but it would be
reasonable to assume that employees who felt they could work from home would also
feel that work from an office close to their home might be viable.

Some posts in the council are less suitable for home-working than others, and a proper
management framework would need to be set in place for teleworking to be
successful. Nevertheless, it is clear that management structures that allowed staff to
work from home or from a ‘hot desk’ at, say, an area office close to their home, could
significantly reduce staff travel. At the Caernarfon offices, such a change would also
have the benefit of lessening the pressure on office space.

Table 3: The potential for telework
                                                                                    Meirionnydd




                                                                                                    Dwyfor area
                                                                 Arfon area




                                                                                    area office
                                            Pencadlys




                                                                 office




                                                                                                    office


Already work from home once a              5%                     4%                 4%              4%
month or more
Could work from home between              49%                    37%                30%             30%
once a month and once a week
Could work from home 3-5 days             12%                    20%                22%             24%
per week

3.3    Business travel
The travel survey asked employees for information about up to four business trips
they had made in the previous month, including whether they felt that the trip could
have been made by more sustainable means (public transport, car-sharing,
videoconferencing or cycling). Table 4 shows the proportion of car business trips that
staff at each office felt could have been made in one of these ways. For some trips, the
respondent felt that there was more than one alternative. The table shows that:


                                           15                                 Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

   Public transport is the most often mentioned alternative, followed by car-sharing.
   Cycling is only an alternative for a small proportion of trips.
   Videoconferencing is also only an alternative for a small proportion of trips. This
    reflects the lack of adequate facilities at the council’s offices.
Taken overall, staff at the two Caernarfon offices were able to identify a green
alternative for 23% and 24% of their trips. The potential at the Meirionnydd and
Dwyfor area offices was lower, at 15% and 9% of trips respectively.

Table 4: The proportion of business car trips for which a green alternative is viable




                                                                               Meirionnydd




                                                                                              Dwyfor area
                                                             Arfon area




                                                                               area office
                                                Pencadlys
Alternative travel option




                                                             office




                                                                                              office
Public transport                                12%          10%                7%             3%
Car-sharing                                      8%           8%                9%             1%
Cycling                                          4%           5%                3%             5%
Videoconferencing                                4%           1%               10%             1%
Car driver trips for which there was at         24%          23%               15%             9%
least one non-driving alternative




                                           16                       Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

4.      Evidence on which actions will support green travel

Taken together, the travel survey, discussion groups and site assessments provide the
evidence base for our recommendations of the most effective actions Gwynedd
Council could take to support green travel. The recommended package of actions is
set out in section 5. Here, we summarise one part of the evidence base: the responses
by employees to a set of questions in the travel survey on specific actions to support
green travel.

The survey invited respondents to indicate which of a range of possible changes
would be most effective in encouraging them to walk or cycle to work; to use public
transport; or to car-share. The ‘top 3’ options that received the most support are
identified in tables 5-7 below. The tables show that:

    Showers and changing rooms, secure bike parking, and lockers or drying rooms
     for cycling clothes are seen by staff as the most important improvements to
     encourage cycling.
    The most important actions to encourage public transport use are re-timed or more
     frequent bus services. However, it should be noted that some of the respondents
     who identified this as a priority lived on bus routes where the service was already
     good (e.g. in places such as Bontnewydd). This was particularly true of staff based
     in the Caernarfon offices. It suggests that for staff who live on good bus routes,
     personalised public transport information would be helpful in raising awareness of
     the options available.
    In the Caernarfon offices, vouchers towards the cost of public transport were also
     seen as a priority.
    A car-sharing database on the intranet was seen as the top priority to encourage
     car-sharing in all four offices.

Table 5: Actions to encourage walking and cycling
                                                                                           Meirionnydd


                                                                                                         Dwyfor area
                                                                              Arfon area




                                                                                           area office
                                                             Pencadlys



                                                                              office




                                                                                                         office




Showers and changing rooms at work                            1                  1            2             3
Secure bike parking                                           2                  2                          2
Lockers or drying rooms at work                               3                  3            3
A small incentive each day you did not drive                                                  1             1
Help finding a good walking / cycling route to work
‘Return to cycling’ on-road cycling course
Construction of dedicated cycle tracks




                                           17                            Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

Table 6: Actions to encourage public transport use




                                                                                            Meirionnydd


                                                                                                          Dwyfor area
                                                                              Arfon area




                                                                                            area office
                                                             Pencadlys



                                                                              office




                                                                                                          office
Existing buses re-timed to depart from a location                               2=             2             1
near the workplace at a better time in the evening
More frequent bus service on existing route                                     2=             1            3=
Existing buses re-timed to arrive at a location near         2                                 3             2
the workplace at a better time in the morning
Vouchers towards the cost of public transport                1                   1
A small incentive each day you did not drive                 3                                              3=
Better quality bus waiting facilities
Easy to use timetable information
Other bus or train improvements

Table 7: Actions to encourage car-sharing




                                                                                            Meirionnydd


                                                                                                          Dwyfor area
                                                                               Arfon area




                                                                                            area office
                                                              Pencadlys



                                                                               office




                                                                                                          office
A car sharing database on the intranet to find a               1                  1            1             1
partner with similar work patterns
A free taxi home if let down by the car driver                 2                  3            3             3
A small incentive each day you did not drive                                                   2             2
Reserved car parking in a prime spot for sharers               3                  2




                                           18                             Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

5.     Recommended travel plan measures

This section sets out the measures that in our judgement will be most effective in
reducing car use, and that we therefore recommend to be taken forward as part of the
travel plan. Table 8 summarises the recommended measures, and distinguishes those
which may be thought of as ‘short-term’ and those which are more ‘medium-term’.

The short-term measures are relatively straightforward, with practical outcomes which
can be achieved fairly quickly, although the initiative may continue to develop and
expand. We recommend that the council should start to implement these measures in
2006, with the aim of achieving all of them by the end of 2007.

The medium-term measures either require further feasibility work before they can be
introduced, or are more complex, or logically should only be implemented after the
short-term measures have delivered wider choice to employees. Although the results
of the medium-term initiatives will not be felt straight away, work should start on
them now. We recommend that the council should begin feasibility work on these
measures in 2006, with the aim of introducing public transport enhancements, pilot
schemes for tele-working and pool cars, and parking management in 2009.

The travel plan is linked to and supports other initiatives which are already a priority
for the council. For example, tele-working is already being explored by Human
Resources as part of the council’s Work-Life Balance Strategy.

Table 8: Recommended travel plan measures
Short-term      Walk and Bike to Work campaign
(by end 2007)   Improving cycling facilities
                Promotion of bus use
                Car-sharing scheme
                Telephone-conferencing
                Package of quick wins for green business travel
                Communications to promote green travel

Medium-term          Promotion of tele-working and development of tele-centres
(start now;          Pool car scheme
implement by         Public transport service enhancements
2009)                Parking management




                                           19                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

5.1    Walk and Bike to Work Campaign
At the Meirionnydd and Dwyfor area offices, a high proportion of staff live less than a
mile from work, and yet only a small percentage of trips to work are made on foot. At
all four offices, about 40% of staff live within easy cycling distance.

Employees who live close to their office should be encouraged to start walking or
cycling to work, through a Walk and Bike to Work campaign. This would emphasise
the health and fitness benefits of active travel. For staff based in the Dolgellau and
Pwllheli offices, the campaign should mainly focus on walking, and should target
staff who live within a mile of the office. For staff based in Caernarfon it should focus
on cycling, and should target employees who live within five miles of the office, in
settlements along good cycling routes. A similar campaign, called ‘Walk in to Work
out’, was successfully run in a university and a health trust in Glasgow.

Elements of the campaign might include:
 generic publicity (email messages, posters etc)
 events such as walkers’ and cyclists’ breakfasts
 ‘dress-down Fridays’ when staff are encouraged to wear informal clothes, suitable
   for active travel
 free pedometers / cycle mileometers for staff who join the campaign, with prizes
   or vouchers for those who walk or cycle most
 launch of a loan scheme for purchase of cut-price bikes (what is sometimes known
   as a ‘salary sacrifice’ scheme), such as that provided via Booost. This type of
   scheme is already being investigated by Human Resources.
 targeted mailings to staff who live within a mile of the office, highlighting that
   walking is ‘real’ exercise and can make a difference to weight, health, fitness and
   energy levels.
 targeted mailings to staff who live close to good cycle routes (e.g. Lôn Las Menai,
   Lôn Eifion and the route from Waunfawr), highlighting their cycling options and
   good reasons to take up cycling, such as the council’s new bike purchase loan
   scheme and new cycle parking.

Key messages would be the potential to lose or manage weight, unwind and relax at
either end of the working day, feel fit and keep healthy through active travel. The
campaign should ideally be launched in spring or early summer.




                                           20                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                                            Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                                                  Baseline report and recommendations for action




Example: Walking to work in Buckinghamshire
Nearly half of the reduction in car use achieved by Buckinghamshire County Council was due
to more employees walking to work. Walking was promoted with messages such as: ‘Pretty
straightforward this one – if you don’t live too far away, walk to work. Spice up your journey a
bit by smiling at queueing motorists when you pass them and while they wait for you at
pedestrian crossings, and saying ‘good morning’ to passers by’.

Feedback from staff was published in the Travel Choice newsletter, for example: ‘Dear Travel
Choice, I have tried walking to work for over a year now, and have lost over a stone in
weight...whilst still eating and drinking the same...so that’s a result! Thanks for introducing me
to a positive change in my life...I feel fitter and I don’t need the car for every trip!’

Car and walk mode shares at Buckinghamshire County Council
                          80


                          70


                          60
  mode share (per cent)




                          50

                                                                                 Car driver
                          40
                                                                                 Walk

                          30


                          20


                          10


                          0
                                1998     1999   2000   2001   2002   2003




                          5.2          Improving cycling facilities
                          At all four offices, the need for better showers and changing facilities at work ranked
                          top or near-top amongst the actions people felt would encourage them to cycle.
                          Although there are showers at some offices, there is a perception that these are for the
                          use of some employees only (for example, people believed that the showers in the
                          Trading Standards office at Penrallt were for Trading Standards staff only).

                          Showers and changing rooms, together with lockers for storage of outdoor clothing
                          and space for hanging wet outdoor clothes should be installed at Pencadlys. A
                          possible location for these facilities has already been identified, in the old jail.




                                                                            21                      Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

At the Arfon and Meirionnydd area offices, new facilities should be installed close to
the main office entrance.

At the Dwyfor office, it should be clarified that the shower in the Environmental
Health Department is for the use of all staff; more lockers should be provided (larger
than the three that are presently available as these are not sufficient for bulky gear)
and a space should be provided for hanging wet outdoor clothes.

There is also a need for good cycle parking at all four offices. This should be designed
so that it makes a positive statement about the support that the council offers to
cyclists. It should be:
 under cover
 secure (e.g. with a keypad entry system)
 well-lit (e.g. with movement activated lighting)
 well-designed
 sited in a prominent position, close to the main office entrance, and more
    convenient than the location for car parking.

At Pencadlys, an alternative to siting a cycle shelter immediately outside the front
entrance would be to improve the existing cycle parking under the town wall by
installing Sheffield cycle stands, removing ‘junk’ that is stored there, replacing the
present chain and padlock with a keypad, and installing movement-activated lighting.

The need for showers and cycle parking is already being pursued by Human
Resources as part of their Staff Welfare Strategy. Grants may be available from the
Sports Council for Wales towards their cost.

5.3    Promoting bus use
From the travel survey, it is clear that a lot of employees currently drive to work but
would find it easy to travel by bus (about 20% of drivers at Pencadlys, Arfon and
Dwyfor offices). Comparison of bus timetables with the postcode maps of employees’
home locations (figures 6-8) suggests that many staff live close to bus routes that have
frequent services and short journey times.

Experience elsewhere suggests that car drivers are frequently unaware of bus travel
options – there is an information and awareness gap. The council could tackle this by
offering ‘personalised journey planners’ to employees who live along good bus
routes. These are pocket-sized easy-to-understand summaries of the bus departure
times and travel time from the nearest bus stop to the employee’s house to their office.

The routes where personalised journey planners would be worthwhile include:
Caernarfon – Y Felinheli / Bangor
Caernarfon – Llanrug / Llanberis


                                           22                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                           Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action

Caernarfon – Bontnewydd / Penygroes
Pwllheli – Criccieth / Porthmadog
Pwllheli – Efailnewydd / Nefyn / Morfa Nefyn / Tudweiliog
Dolgellau – Llanuwchllyn / Y Bala
Dolgellau – Barmouth / Harlech

The offer of a personalised journey planner should ideally be accompanied by an
incentive to try the bus, such as a free bus pass for a fortnight.

A review of the X94 service between Y Bala and Dolgellau is planned for autumn
2006, and this may provide an opportunity for service improvements which could then
be publicised and promoted to staff.

Gwynedd is currently supporting a trial project to deliver credit-card-sized
personalised bus timetables to residents of villages along an Arriva bus route in the
south of the county (with the involvement of a local public transport users group in
Machynlleth). If successful, this might offer a useful model. Alternatively, Traveline
Cymru offers a personalised journey planning service called Modus, and TAITH
offers one week’s free travel to employees who use this service.

In the medium-term, the council could negotiate with bus operators to provide travel
discounts for council staff. For staff, cut- price public transport travel would be
perceived as a valuable benefit, comparable to the existing ‘perk’ of free car parking.
Staff at the Caernarfon offices rated it ‘top’ of a range of possible improvements that
would encourage them to travel by bus. There are however two difficulties with travel
discounts: first, for staff who work in Caernarfon (which has the best bus services and
the greatest potential for car drivers to shift to bus travel), there are six bus operators,
and negotiation is therefore complex. Second, some concern has been expressed that
council staff should not be given ‘special treatment’ in comparison to other people
living in Gwynedd. This second difficulty might be overcome if the council was to
combine with other large employers as part of a Green Travel Club to negotiate deals
with bus operators. This is further discussed in section 6.




                                            23                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                 Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                       Baseline report and recommendations for action



 Example: Public transport discounts at Glan Clwyd hospital
 Conwy and Denbighshire NHS Trust has negotiated with Arriva for its staff to be
 able to buy special weekly tickets on the bus, on showing their security pass to the
 driver. The weekly ticket costs £7 for travel from an inner zone, or £10 for travel
 from an outer zone. This represents a substantial discount – for example, someone
 travelling from Rhyl to Glan Clwyd hospital pays £10 for the special ticket,
 whereas daily travel for a week would cost £21. This deal was negotiated at no
 cost to the hospital trust, on the basis that it would attract new passengers and
 therefore be of benefit to Arriva. The hospital has 2000 staff, and is therefore an
 attractive potential market for the bus company. Gwynedd Council employees also
 represent a significant potential market to bus operators.




Figure 6: Home locations of employees who work in Caernarfon




Note: data is for 84% of Caernarfon-based staff




                                                  24                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                      Baseline report and recommendations for action

Figure 7: Home locations of employees who work in Dolgellau




Note: data is for 88% of Dolgellau-based staff

Figure 8: Home locations of employees who work in Pwllheli




Note: data is for 90% of Pwllheli-based staff


                                                 25                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action



5.4    Car-sharing scheme
Between 15% and 31% of staff at the four offices said they were willing to use more
sustainable travel options and felt that car-sharing would be ‘very easy’ or ‘quite
easy’ for their own journeys. To enable car-sharing, the council should set up a car-
sharing database accessed via the intranet. This could use an internet-based scheme,
such as Liftshare. TRaCC has already established a car-sharing database
(www.doitwithdai.org.uk) using Liftshare, and the cost of setting up a closed group
within ‘Doitwithdai’ (DilynwchDai) would be of the order of £600.

To back up the car-sharing scheme, employees should be promised a ‘guaranteed ride
home’ if their car-sharing arrangement falls through – for example, if the driver has to
go home early in an emergency. This could involve the council paying for the cost of
a taxi home, or, if pool cars were introduced, allowing car-sharers to drive a pool car
home.

At offices where there is already pressure on car parking, provision of dedicated
parking spaces for car-sharers in a convenient location will help make car-sharing
more attractive. Some of the parking spaces that are presently allocated to an
individual senior member of staff or councillor should be re-designated as car-sharing
spaces: this would send a strong positive signal to all employees that the council is
committed to the travel plan at a senior level, and would be the single most effective
action that senior officers and councillors could take to guarantee its future success. In
Caernarfon, there are 26 reserved parking spaces at the rear of Block J for Heads of
Service, Directors and Councillors (generally those who are on the Board). Another
six spaces at the rear of Block B are reserved for Heads of Service. Similarly, the 12
parking spaces that are reserved for senior managers and heads of service on the
ground floor of the multi-storey car park adjacent to the Penrallt office could be
turned into spaces for car-sharers.

The council should designate parking spaces for car-sharers immediately outside the
front entrance to the Meirionnydd area office. It could consider doing the same
outside the front entrance to the Dwyfor regional office (although this may be of less
benefit than at other offices, as there is less parking pressure here).

Enforcement of these priority spaces for car-sharers would require a simple
windscreen permit system, and would also require a designated member of staff to
check that all cars were showing valid permits once a day.

To be successful, the car-sharing scheme will require active promotion and publicity.
This includes:
 A regular stall in the office reception area to sign people up on the car-sharing
   database

                                           26                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                           Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action

     Fliers on drivers’ windscreens in the car park
     Car-share ‘postcode coffee clubs’ to which staff based at the same office and
      living in the same area are invited. These offer a chance to staff to speak to
      someone about the scheme, and to meet other employees who would be potential
      partners.

The idea of designated car-share interchanges or hubs across the county has been
suggested by council officers and members of the steering group. For Caernarfon-
based staff, suitable locations might include Bryncir, Llanaelhaearn and Four Crosses.
Staff would be able to park their cars all day at no charge, and share vehicles to travel
into work together. These hubs should also offer good public transport connections
and secure cycle storage.

Car-sharing for business travel is discussed in section 5.6.


    Example: How the car-sharing scheme is enforced at Worcestershire County Council

    Employees who register on Worcestershire’s car-sharing database are given a numbered
    blue plastic token. At least two of the tokens must be displayed in the windscreen when a
    car is parked in one of the preferential car-sharers parking spaces. The council has had some
    difficulties with other drivers parking in the car-share spaces when the car park is full.
    Enforcement is relatively ‘soft’ at present, with a member of staff carrying out periodic
    checks of the cars to make sure that tokens are displayed. If a car parked in a car-share
    space is not displaying two tokens, the driver is sent a reminder letter. If a driver commits
    the same offence three times, it becomes a disciplinary offence. The green travel co-
    ordinator feels that this system relies on people being honest. At present it is working
    satisfactorily, but she suggested that the council could introduce clamping of cars in future
    if the abuse of the system grew.

    Worcestershire has set aside 42 parking spaces for car-sharers. About 12 of these are
    regularly used at present, and this is expected to grow as more people register on the
    scheme. To encourage employees to join the scheme, the council is planning a monthly
    prize draw, with small prizes such as a rucksack or lights. The council is in discussion with
    Revenue and Customs about whether such items can be deemed as ‘trivial benefits’ and
    therefore not subject to tax. The council’s Head of Property services donated a bottle of
    wine as a prize for the 250th employee to register on the database, and has promised a bottle
    of champagne for the 350th person to register.




                                            27                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

5.5    Telephone-conferencing
There is currently little culture of telephone- or video-conferencing at any of the
offices. As a result, a lot of staff time is wasted driving between council offices for
meetings. For each two-hour meeting in Caernarfon, a Dolgellau-based employee will
have about three hours of wasted ‘down-time’ driving, parking their vehicle, and
walking from the car park to the council offices – in other words, every two-hour
meeting consumes five hours. We estimate that Pencadlys and area office staff waste
the equivalent of 4.5 full-time staff posts (7800 hours per year) driving between
Caernarfon, Dolgellau and Pwllheli for meetings with their colleagues. This is
equivalent to £149,000 per year in salary costs (based on the average salary of a
sample of employees who travel between council offices). This travel also incurs
significant business costs of over £100,000 per year in reimbursement of business
mileage. It is therefore clear that greater use of telephone-conferencing could reduce
mileage, save time, and save money.

The council has video-conference facilities in Pencadlys, but these are located in a
room which doubles as a general meeting room. There is an informal arrangement for
staff at the Meirionnydd and Dwyfor offices to use video-conference facilities at
Coleg Meirion Dwyfor, but in practice these facilities are little used and staff may not
be aware of them.

Telephone-conferencing is a more flexible option than video-conferencing, because it
does not require access to dedicated rooms. Individual participants at remote locations
simply require access to a phone. Groups of people at the ‘main’ location for the
meeting require relatively inexpensive table-top equipment, which can be plugged
into any phone line.

The council should strongly encourage staff in the four offices to use telephone-
conferencing, and should seek to develop a culture which supports this. This will
require:
 Purchase of table-top telephone-conference equipment.
 Training sessions for managers and other staff, explaining how to use the
   equipment, and telephone-conference ‘etiquette’ i.e. how to run an effective
   meeting using telephone-conferencing.
 A campaign to encourage employees to try telephone-conferencing.

Of course, some staff meetings need to be face-to-face: for example when complex or
sensitive issues are being discussed. Telephone-conferencing is more suitable for
routine meetings between members of staff who already know each other. However,
evidence from other organisations which use telephone- and video-conferencing
suggests that it can potentially replace up to a third of meetings.




                                           28                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                           Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action


    Example: cost-savings from tele-conferencing at Countryside Council for
    Wales
    CCW has vigorously promoted tele-conferencing between its seven offices,
    mainly using video links rather than telephones. In the nine months from January
    to September 2004, the CCW headquarters office avoided an estimated 81,920
    miles travel, reducing business mileage claims by £32,800. This is equivalent to
    a saving of £160 per annum per employee.



5.6      Package of quick wins for green business travel
Staff at Pencadlys and the three area offices drive over 2.4 million miles per year in
the course of their work. Some of this is for site visits – for example by environmental
health officers or housing officers. Some of it is for meetings with colleagues, or
conferences and training events with other organisations. Travel for meetings,
conferences and training is likely to offer the most potential to shift towards more
sustainable options.

To encourage staff to adopt more sustainable travel options where this is possible, the
council should introduce the following changes:

     Good practice guidelines for business travel
     Car-sharing allowances
     A business travel ticket booking service
     Changes in subsistence rules for those travelling by public transport
     A quick reference guide to bus times
     Remove the requirement to have a driving licence and vehicle from the criteria for
      job applicants, except where absolutely necessary.

Good practice guidelines for business travel
These would set out the criteria to be considered when deciding how to travel to
meetings. The guidelines might include a checklist of questions, both for those
arranging meetings and for those attending them.

For those arranging meetings, the checklist would include:
 Can the meeting be by telephone-conference?
 Can the meeting be at a location which is accessible by public transport, and
   scheduled to fit with public transport times? If so, has information about public
   transport options been sent to those who have been invited to the meeting?
 Have attendees been informed of who else will be attending, to make it easy to
   arrange to car-share?

For those attending meetings, the checklist would include:

                                            29                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

   Do I need to be at this meeting at all?
   Could I join the meeting by telephone-conference?
   Could I travel by public transport? (with guidelines e.g. trips over 50 miles should
    normally be made by train; short journeys on good bus routes such as Caernarfon
    – Bangor should normally be by bus)
   Have I logged the trip on the car-share database to find someone travelling to the
    same destination?

Car-sharing allowances
Staff could be encouraged to car-share for business trips by paying a business mileage
allowance for passengers. Drivers might be paid 5p per mile for each passenger
carried, with passengers also being paid 5p per mile for car-sharing rather than driving
their own car.

The Welsh European Funding Office makes an allowance of 5p per mile to drivers
who carry a passenger, and the WDA offers an allowance of 2p per mile. We are not
aware of any employer that offers an allowance to passengers. Nevertheless, this
measure would send a positive signal to employees, and give an early boost to car-
sharing for business. Such an allowance for passengers might be introduced for a
limited period (e.g. one year).

Employees should be required to log all business journeys for which they plan to
travel by car on the car-share database, to check whether anyone else is making the
same trip. Expenses claims forms could include the question ‘Did you log your trip on
the car-share database? If not, why not?’

Business travel ticket booking service
This could be provided via a co-ordinator in each directorate. It should offer a
guarantee of getting tickets on your desk within 48 hours. The service would reduce
the hassle of booking train tickets and reclaiming expenses, and would save money
for the council due to ticket advance purchase.

Subsistence rules for public transport travel
These should be changed to allow staff to claim for subsistence (e.g. for the cost of a
sandwich and cup of tea) when travelling by public transport.

Quick reference guide to bus times
A quick reference guide to bus times to common destinations should be posted on the
council’s intranet. For example, this could cover bus times for travel from Caernarfon
to Bangor, Pwllheli, Dolgellau, Porthmadog, Llandudno and Bethesda (the most
common destinations from Pencadlys). For destinations which are served by several
bus routes, this would be easier than checking each individual timetable in the
Gwynedd public transport guide.


                                           30                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                         Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                               Baseline report and recommendations for action



Review standard job application form
The standard job application form includes a question about driving. This means that
applicants who do not drive, but who could nevertheless carry out a particular job
effectively, are discouraged from applying to work for Gwynedd Council. Human
Resources plans to change this as soon as possible.

5.7    Communications to promote green travel
Regular ‘feel-good’ communications are important to raise awareness of the travel
plan and to involve the whole organisation. These should highlight the benefits of
green travel – for example, any incentives such as cut-price bikes; improvements at
individual offices such as showers for cyclists; car-sharing schemes; and the health
and lifestyle benefits of walking and cycling regularly, or working from home.

The style of communication should not be corporate (‘the council blowing its own
trumpet’), but upbeat, informal, saying thank you to staff for travelling green, and
with plenty of news about what the council is doing to make green travel easier. It
should highlight what senior officers and councillors are doing to lead by example.

Communication could be through a newsletter, bulletin for notice-boards or e-mail to
all staff. As an example of good practice, Buckinghamshire County Council produces
an annual Travel Choice newsletter with a positive and informal style.

5.8    Teleworking
Evidence from the staff travel surveys suggests that council employees could usefully
work from home (or offices closer to their homes) more frequently than they do at
present. In the three area offices and Pencadlys, around 4% of employees work at
home at least once a month, yet typically 30-50% of employees at the different offices
believe they could usefully do this between once a month and once a week, and a
further 10-20% believed they might do so more often than this. Enabling staff to work
at home some of the time (typically about once a fortnight or once a week) would
significantly reduce car commuter mileage. Part-time home-working may also be
easier for managers and employees to manage than full-time home-working.

In the discussion groups, especially at Pencadlys and the Meirionnydd area office,
employees commented that they would like to be able to work at an office closer to
their home, at least occasionally. As well as reducing journey distances (and enabling
some staff to walk, cycle or catch the bus to work), this would reduce the pressure on
office space in Pencadlys. To enable this to happen, the council could establish a
number of pre-bookable ‘hot desks’ at area offices, and at other offices in significant
population centres, for use by employees who live nearby. From the postcode maps of
employees’ home locations (figures 6-8), the two locations where hot desks might
initially be most appropriate are Porthmadog and Pwllheli. An estimated 35 members

                                          31                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                                  Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                        Baseline report and recommendations for action

of staff live in Porthmadog and work at Pencadlys or one of the area offices (based on
travel survey returns and average response rates). An estimated 30 employees live in
Pwllheli and work in Caernarfon.

Some other local authorities have adopted the idea of hot desks. For example, Surrey
County Council has set up hot desks at four local offices as part of its ‘Workstyle’
initiative. Hertfordshire has set up what it calls ‘oases’, which are similar.

In order for work from home or a satellite office to be successful, staff and their
managers will require training. Employees who work from home will require facilities
such as a laptop and internet connection, and IT support.

Wider use of compressed working weeks could also help reduce car travel. This
would involve staff working their full hours in the office, but within a nine-day
fortnight or four day week.

The council is already examining these options as part of its Work-Life Balance
Strategy.

5.9      Pool cars
From the discussion groups and staff travel survey, the need to have a car available
for work is a major barrier to employees travelling to work by sustainable means. A
pool car fleet would offer environmental benefits, both because it could reduce car
commuting to work and because pool vehicles could be selected on the basis of fuel
efficiency, size and other environmental factors, and would be likely to out-perform
employees’ own cars in these respects.

There is also evidence to suggest that a pool fleet would offer substantial cost savings
to the council. At present, employees are paid an average of 42p per mile to use their
own vehicles for business. Analysis performed by the Fleet Unit suggests that the
current cost of running small vans (including purchase / lease costs) is 30-35p per
mile3. The cost of a fleet of pool cars would be expected to be similar.

At present, business mileage by staff at the four offices amounts to 2.4 million miles
per year. Some of this mileage may be made en route between work and home (for
example, making a site visit on the way from work to home in the afternoon), and
hence would not necessarily be replaceable by a pool vehicle. However, even if pool
cars only replaced half of all business car trips from the four offices, the council
would save £109,000 per year.



3
 This calculation was based on a review of the actual capital and revenue costs of ten small vans in the
current fleet.

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                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

The introduction of a pool car system for business travel should be a medium-term
objective, and further work will be needed by the Fleet Unit preparatory to this. Issues
to be resolved include:

   Identifying a secure location for pool cars to be parked overnight. In Caernarfon,
    spaces should be allocated in the multi-storey car parks (where more proactive
    management, described in 5.11, will free up space). In Pwllheli and Dolgellau, a
    fenced compound would probably be required.
   A booking clerk would be required to manage bookings of vehicles.
   Identifying vehicles that are appropriate to users’ needs. The vast majority of
    business trips made by council officers are to destinations within the county. For
    longer trips, staff should in any case be encouraged to travel by train. This
    suggests that small, fuel-efficient vehicles would be preferable to larger vehicles.
    While it may be appropriate to include several models in the pool fleet to cater for
    different needs, the number of different models should be kept to a minimum so
    that employees can become familiar with vehicles.
   Considering the various options of diesel, petrol, biodiesel, LPG, or hybrid
    vehicles. Experience in the Fleet Unit is that LPG vehicles are problematic in
    terms of maintenance. Use of a diesel mix with more than 5% biofuel currently
    invalidates the warranty for most vehicles. Petrol emits more carbon dioxide per
    mile than diesel. These considerations suggest that diesel vehicles are likely to be
    preferable, although hybrid petrol-electric vehicles may also be worth considering.
   Policy on use of pool vehicles. It is recommended that there is a requirement to
    use pool vehicles in preference to private cars, but that there should be flexibility
    to allow staff to use their own vehicles for business travel where this would be
    more cost- and time-efficient (for example, to make a site visit en route from
    home to the office in the morning or evening).
   Management protocols for the pool fleet: maintenance; valeting; health and safety,
    including familiarisation of staff with vehicles prior to use; record-keeping to
    enable monitoring of vehicle utilisation; and monitoring and authorisation of any
    private use, for tax purposes.
   Considering how many vehicles are required to achieve optimum utilisation. Too
    few cars will mean that employees experience difficulty in obtaining a vehicle
    when one is needed, and hence will lead to frustration with the scheme. Too many
    vehicles will mean that money is wasted. It may be helpful to approach CCW to
    discuss their experience of pool fleet utilisation. They operate a pool fleet of over
    100 vehicles, and completed a review of their pool fleet in 2003. Data collected
    from the Gwynedd staff travel survey may also be helpful. This is summarised in
    table 9 below. Based on current staff travel patterns, it suggests that the number of
    pool vehicles likely to be needed is 25 - 28 at Pencadlys (with the lower figure
    assuming reductions in business travel from other measures, such as car sharing,
    public transport travel and telephone conferencing); 15 each at the Arfon and
    Meirionnydd area offices; and 10 at the Dwyfor area office. These estimates

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                                                             Baseline report and recommendations for action

    assume that half of staff business travel will still be made using employees’ own
    cars; that each pool vehicle can on average be used for 1.3 trips per day; and that
    there are no major peaks and troughs in the number of vehicles required according
    to day of the week or time of year. If further work indicates that peaks and troughs
    may occur, it may be more cost effective to meet peak demand by short-term car
    rental (e.g. from Avis or Hertz) rather than to purchase or lease enough cars to
    meet occasional peaks.

Table 9: Calculation of number of pool vehicles required at each office




                                                                                                                    Meirionnydd area
                                                                                                Arfon area office




                                                                                                                                       Dwyfor area
                                                                                 Pencadlys




                                                                                                                    office



                                                                                                                                       office
Calculation of pool vehicle requirement, assuming no increase in public transport use, car-
sharing or telephone conferencing
Survey response rate                                        0.43      0.32      0.47      0.56
Proportion of business trips in employee’s own car          0.88     0.87      0.85       0.85
Business trips by survey respondents in last month           706      295       437        356
Car driver trips by survey respondents in last month*        621      257       371        303
Car driver trips by all staff in previous month+           1445       802       790        540
Car driver trips by all staff per day~                        72       40         40        27
Car driver trips per day for which pool car will be used^     36       20         20        14
Estimated pool vehicle requirement#                           28       15         15        10
Calculation of pool vehicle requirement, assuming business car mileage and trips cut by 10%
through more public transport use, car-sharing and telephone conferencing
Car driver trips by all staff per day~                        65       36         36        24
Car driver trips per day for which pool car will be used^     33       18         18        12
Estimated pool vehicle requirement#                           25       14         14         9
* Car driver trips = business trips x proportion made by driving employee’s own car
+ Car driver trips by all staff = car driver trips by survey respondents / survey response rate
~ Assume 20 working days per month
^ Assume pool cars used for half of all car driver trips (with remainder using employees’ own cars)
# Assume each pool vehicle on average can be used for 1.3 trips per day (in line with CCW average utilisation




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                                                               Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                     Baseline report and recommendations for action



    Example: Use of pool cars at Countryside Council for Wales
    Through the introduction of pool cars, CCW has been able to reduce mileage by employees in
    their personal cars (what CCW refer to as the ‘grey fleet’) from 840,000 miles in 2003/04 to
    an estimated 300,000 miles in 2005/06.

    This has environmental benefits, since pool cars are newer than employees’ own cars, and
    have lower fuel emissions. It also reduces costs, since the cost per mile of a pool car is much
    less than the business mileage allowance for staff to use their own cars.


                    CCW GREY FLEET MILEAGE

       1000000
        800000
        600000                                                                MILES
        400000                                                                Kg CO2

        200000
               0
                       2003-04           2004-05           2005-06

    Note: 2005-06 data based on 9 months; predicted annual reduction ~ 40%


    From April 2006, employees will have to get their line managers’ permission to use their own
    vehicle (rather than a pool vehicle) for work purposes, and will only be paid 23p per mile for
    personal car use, rather than the current 40p, if they fail to do this.




5.10 Public transport service enhancements
Comparison of bus timetables and the postcode maps of employees’ home locations
suggests that there are two particular localities with concentrations of employees,
where there is the potential to enhance services, either by making improvements to
public transport, or by establishing a council ‘works bus’ in some form (open only to
council staff), or by stimulating more car-sharing. These areas are:

       On Ynys Môn, in and near Llangefni, Llanfairpwll and Porthaethwy
       The corridor between Y Bala and Dolgellau.

Enhancing the transport options for staff in these localities would have an ongoing
cost. Part of this could be met by contributions from staff who benefited from the new


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                                                     Baseline report and recommendations for action

service, but some top-up funding would be required from a green transport plan
budget4.

Ynys Môn
The main settlements where Caernarfon-based staff live are relatively well served by
public transport for a rural county. However, at least 40 Caernarfon-based staff live on
Ynys Môn, in or near Llangefni, Llanfairpwll and Porthaethwy, and services from
these settlements are poor. (There is one direct service running in the ‘wrong’
direction i.e. Caernarfon to Llangefni in the morning and back in the afternoon, which
is reputed to be poorly used.) Several options for improving public transport from
Môn have been considered. We have concluded that the cost of subsidising a new
public bus service is unlikely to be affordable at present. However, the following
options deserve further investigation:

   Making available a council fleet vehicle, such as a small minibus, for a member of
    staff based on Ynys Môn to drive to and from work each day, picking up other
    Gwynedd council staff en route. Staff would make a contribution towards the cost,
    set at a level which was lower than the cost of petrol for one person driving alone.
    The key constraints on this option are insurance and training of the driver, but the
    Gwynedd public transport co-ordinator feels that these are soluble. An existing
    fleet vehicle might be used, since fleet vehicles are often un-used before 9am and
    after 5pm. If an existing vehicle were used, proper management processes would
    need to be put in place to ensure that the availability of the vehicle to its current
    users was unaffected. This option is widely used in the USA, where it is known as
    a ‘van pool’.

   Agreeing a contract with a local taxi firm to do a daily ‘run’, say from Llangefni
    via Llanfairpwll, picking up staff by prior arrangement en route. This could be
    booked by the council but with staff making a contribution towards the cost, set at
    a level significantly lower than the cost of driving. The service could be made
    available to the general public as well as council staff. A recent trial demand-
    responsive taxi service in Ceredigion has proved to be significantly cheaper than a
    conventional bus service, at about £140 per week (for three daily return trips).
    However, the likely practical constraint on this option is that taxi operators will
    already have their vehicles occupied by the school run at the times the service is
    needed.

   Targeting all staff living on Ynys Môn to join a car-sharing scheme. This option
    would clearly be the simplest for the council, but would probably involve more
    vehicle movements than the first two options.


4
 The business case recommends that a budget of £35,000 per year should be allocated to implementing
green travel plan measures.

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                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action

These options should first be discussed with staff living on Ynys Môn to ensure that
there will be sufficient take-up.

Y Bala – Dolgellau corridor
More than 30 council staff based in Dolgellau live along the Y Bala – Dolgellau
corridor. Bus services along this corridor have recently been improved from a 2-
hourly service to an hourly service. There is now a service arriving in Dolgellau at
8.50a.m. and hourly departures in the evening at 4.20, 5.20 and 6.20p.m. As suggested
in section 5.3 above, the council could promote these new bus services to staff, with a
personalised journey planner and bus pass. However, it would be easier to encourage
use of these services if there was more than one option arriving in Dolgellau before
9a.m. (more than three-quarters of Meirionnydd office staff arrive at work before this
time). This is particularly an issue because the existing service is likely to be fairly
busy with school pupils during term time.

In this part of the county, the Gwynedd public transport co-ordinator’s judgement is
that there are not sufficient taxi operators for a taxibus service to be a likely option.
However, a ‘van pool’ – that is, a council fleet vehicle driven by a member of staff
who lived in Y Bala – would be a possibility. This could operate on the same basis as
suggested for the service from Ynys Môn to Caernarfon.

The alternative to a van pool would be to target all staff living along this corridor to
join a car-sharing scheme.

The first stage should be to make contact with all staff along this corridor and explore
with them whether there is interest in a van pool.

5.11 Parking management
There are several reasons why the council should more actively manage parking
provision at its offices, and especially in Caernarfon:

   There is already acute parking pressure. In Caernarfon, the two multi-storey car
    parks have between them 470 spaces, which means that on any one day only about
    half of the 920 employees based at Pencadlys and the Arfon area office can park
    there before the car parks fill up. Around 1500 staff (including employees at other
    offices) have permits to use the two car parks. Not surprisingly, the car parks are
    often full, and this is a cause of some annoyance and frustration.
   Overspill from the two multi-storey car parks potentially places a burden on other
    car parking in the town, making it unavailable for shoppers and local residents.
   The present system is unfair to staff with childcare or other caring responsibilities.
    These employees are more likely to arrive at work after 9a.m., by which time the
    multi-storey car parks are full. These employees therefore have to park further
    away.

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   The provision of car parking represents a significant cost to the council. The two
    Caernarfon multi-storeys cost £41,000 per year, or an average of £90 per space.
    Effectively, the council is offering a benefit worth £90 per year to staff who drive
    (whether or not they need to do so), but no benefit at all to staff who travel
    sustainably.

It would be damaging to the visual appearance of the town – and very expensive – to
respond to this parking pressure by building more car parks. More parking would also
encourage more employees to drive, which would defeat the aim of the travel plan.
However, there is a lot of potential to use the multi-storey car parks more efficiently.
Nine out of ten of the vehicles parked in the existing car parks have been used to
transport just one person to work. Only one in ten of the vehicles will have carried a
passenger. If just half of the vehicles in the car park carried two people, the number of
spaces would be adequate for all employees who currently drive. No-one would have
to park off-site and there would be enough free space for about 40 pool vehicles. If
every vehicle in the car park carried two people, there would be about 100 free spaces
every day, which could potentially be let to other employers, generating an income
stream for the council.

Given the existing parking pressure and the potential for efficiency savings, we
recommend that the council should introduce changes to car parking arrangements in
Caernarfon. These changes should take place after the council has made some
progress on the actions identified in Stage 1, which will make it easier for staff to
walk, cycle, car-share, use public transport or work from home.

The current permit system should be replaced by a system in which permits are
allocated to the staff who most need them. The shift from the current system to the
new system could, if desired, be gradual – that is, existing members of staff could be
allowed to keep their current permits, but new members of staff would only receive a
permit if they met the eligibility criteria outlined below.

The principles on which the new permit system should be based are as follows:
 Staff who genuinely need to drive to work should be able to do so
 Staff who choose to car-share should receive a guaranteed space
 There should be no preferential allocation of permits according to status, as
   opposed to need (i.e. it should not be easier for senior staff to park).

The suggested eligibility criteria for a permit are set out below. To be eligible, an
employee would have to meet at least one of these conditions:

   The individual car-shares with another employee, and is registered on the car-
    share database (car-sharers would receive a distinctive permit, e.g. a different



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                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

    colour, and at least two of these permits would have to be displayed in the car
    windscreen).
   He or she lives more than two miles from work (i.e. too far to walk / cycle), and in
    a location which has a less-than-hourly direct bus service to the workplace in the
    morning and evening.
   He or she has a disability which makes it difficult to walk, cycle or use public
    transport.
   He or she regularly has to work outside normal office hours.
   The employee has to use their own car for work (if the new permit system is
    introduced in advance of a car pool).
   The employee has childcare or other caring or family responsibilities which make
    walking, cycling, public transport travel or car-sharing impractical.

Permits should be valid for a limited period (e.g. one year), with employees asked to
confirm that they are still eligible each time permits are re-issued.

The current permit system for the multi-storey car parks is not actively enforced, and
this should change. Employees should be required to obtain the signature of their
manager on permit applications, to confirm that they are eligible for a permit on the
grounds stated. Enforcement should be carried out on a daily basis by a designated
member of staff checking that all cars parked in the car parks are showing a valid
permit.

If it becomes apparent that there is significant abuse of the system by non-permit-
holders, an entry or exit barrier could be installed. The cost of this would be of the
order of £5500 - £7500 per car park (covering an entry barrier, exit barrier, separating
island and card reader post), with an additional £1500 per car park for audio intercom
if this was necessary and £1500 for 500 cards.




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                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action


 Example: Fair car park management in the Highways Agency’s travel plan

 The Highways Agency in Manchester cut the number of staff that drove to the office
 from 70 to about 30 over the six years to 2004. Key measures included discounts on
 travel fares, showers and lockers for cyclists, teleworking – and car park management.
 The car park has limited space, so the Agency sees it as important to allocate the spaces
 fairly. Disabled people and car-sharers are guaranteed a space.

 The Agency’s travel plan co-ordinator describes their car park management like this:
 ‘We see car park management as our number one priority to achieve a shift away from
 cars. Before we brought in the travel plan, there was intense pressure on the car park,
 and because we work flexitime it used to be full by 7a.m. – mostly with cars belonging
 to senior male grades with no childcare responsibilities who started work early to ensure
 they got a parking space. By guaranteeing spaces for car-sharers, we have made it easier
 for other staff, particularly women. If you can car-share, you know you’ll be able to
 park. Now, the car park doesn’t fill up till 9.30a.m. Because we already had pressure on
 the car park, people were really into the idea of guaranteed spaces for sharers.’



5.12 Actions for consideration in the future
The actions described in 5.1 – 5.11 should, we believe, be adequate to achieve
significant change in travel patterns, in line with the targets that are recommended in
section 7.

However, a good travel plan should develop over time, and we anticipate that further
measures may be appropriate in the future. For example, if more businesses and
organisations are attracted to work in Caernarfon, parking pressure is likely to
increase. If this happens, it might be cost-effective for the council to offer a cash
incentive to its employees as an alternative to a free parking space. This would release
parking space in the multi-storey car parks, which could be offered to other employers
at a charge. It would generate a modest income for the council, and at the same time
reduce pressure for additional car parking in the town.




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                                                                  Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                        Baseline report and recommendations for action

6.       Encouraging other organisations to develop travel plans

This report focuses on the actions that Gwynedd Council can take to reduce car
mileage arising from its own operations. The next logical step is to apply the lessons
learned within the council to support other organisations in developing their own
travel plans. Wider adoption of travel plans by Gwynedd organisations would be a
significant contribution towards achieving the aims set out in the WAG / WLGA
Wales Statement on Climate Change and Energy Saving.

The experience of local authorities in promoting travel planning to other organisations
was investigated in a report for the Department for Transport, Smarter Choices:
changing the way we travel5. Based on that study, the actions Gwynedd Council can
take to promote travel planning are briefly outlined below:

    Work with the regional (TAITH and TRaCC) travel advisers to build relationships
     with other large organisations that are interested in developing travel plans. Key
     organisations will include hospitals, colleges, and public sector organisations.

    Establish a Gwynedd Green Travel Club to bring together employers who are
     developing travel plans. The purpose of the club would be to share experience and
     to co-ordinate joint initiatives to reduce car use. This would include joint
     approaches to public transport operators to secure travel discounts for staff at
     participating organisations, and co-ordination of car-sharing schemes.

    Work with TAITH and TRaCC travel advisers to promote existing incentives and
     support for organisations to develop travel plans, such as the www.dilynwchdai
     car share database and Modus personalised journey planning service.

    Systematically use the planning system to require businesses to develop travel
     plans as a condition of planning permission. This would require the council to
     scrutinise all planning applications above a certain size; to impose planning
     conditions or obligations that would ensure the adoption and implementation of an
     effective travel plan; to require independent post-opening monitoring; and to carry
     out enforcement.

    Place firm controls on parking provision as part of new developments, since
     without these controls businesses are unlikely to have the motivation to draw up
     travel plans. This should include setting maximum car parking standards (rather
     than minima), in line with draft TAN18, with tougher parking standards at more
     accessible sites.

5
  Smarter Choices: changing the way we travel Cairns, Sloman, Newson, Anable, Kirkbride and
Goodwin for the Department for Transport (2004). Pages 32-35 of the final report summarise the
tactics used by seven case study local authorities to encourage take-up of workplace travel planning.

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                                                           Baseline report and recommendations for action

7.         Recommended targets for the Gwynedd green travel plan

Several factors will influence how much it will be possible to achieve through the
travel plan, and by what date.

On the negative side, the fact that Gwynedd is a rural county is likely to make it
difficult to achieve very low levels of car use, although the evidence from the travel
survey suggests there is still good potential for change.

On the positive side, it is our impression that the council is serious and committed to
implementing a travel plan, and that the council’s employees are willing to ‘do their
bit’ so long as it is part of a team effort with support at every level in the organisation.

Given these factors, we recommend that the council should set targets to reduce car
use by an amount equivalent to the average which has been achieved elsewhere.

For travel to and from work, we suggest that the council adopt a target to reduce car
driver trips from the current 81% to 70%, averaged across Pencadlys and the three
area offices, by 2009. Based on travel survey data on average journey-to-work
distances, this would reduce employee car mileage by 723,000 miles per year6.

The suggested target would represent 14% less car use. This is equivalent to the
median result achieved across 40 public and private sector organisations whose travel
plans have been evaluated in detail. We see this as a moderately challenging but
achievable target, which should be achievable within three years. Beyond this, we
believe that it would be possible to make further gains.

For business travel, we suggest that the council adopt a target to reduce mileage
claimed (or recorded in pool vehicles, as and when these are introduced) by 10%.
Initially, this should be focussed on staff at Pencadlys and the three area offices,
where it would be a saving of 242,000 miles per year. This target could be achieved if
one-third of business trips between the four offices were replaced by telephone-
conferencing and 8% of business car trips were replaced by a car-share. It does not
take into account the potential to replace business car trips by public transport or
cycling, although there is also potential here.

Taken together, the achievement of these two targets would reduce car mileage from
the council’s operations by nearly one million miles per year (965,000 miles).

To achieve these targets, it will be necessary for the council to employ a green travel
co-ordinator with an adequate budget to implement the measures described in section


6
    Average journey to work distance for staff at Pencadlys and the three area offices is 11.9 miles

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                                                         Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                               Baseline report and recommendations for action

5. The targets would be unlikely to be achieved if there was an inadequate budget, or
no green travel co-ordinator.




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                                                          Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                Baseline report and recommendations for action

8.     Monitoring and review

Monitoring of the effects of the travel plan should take place annually.

The next survey of travel patterns for the journey to work should take place in 2007. It
would not be useful to carry out a survey before this because insufficient travel plan
measures will be in place. The baseline survey in 2005 took place in July, which is a
sub-optimal time of year because staff are likely to be away on holiday. Future
surveys should ideally take place slightly earlier in the year, e.g. May or June, and
avoiding bank holidays or half-term weeks.

The wording of future surveys should be consistent with the baseline questionnaire, to
enable comparison to be made. The surveys should be focussed on actual travel
patterns (as opposed to the potential for change). The key questions from the baseline
questionnaire which should be repeated are:

Q1: Which town or village do you live in, or nearest to?
Q2: What is your home postcode?
Q3: Where is your normal place of work?
Q11: Last week, how many days did you work?
Q12: How many of these days last week did you work from home (if any?)
Q13: How many trips to or from work did you make last week by each of the listed
means of transport? [bus, bike, driving a car/van alone, driving a car/van with one or
more colleagues as passengers, as a car/van passenger, walking, motorbike, train,
other]

The annual survey can also be used to solicit feedback from staff about the travel
plan. Respondents should be asked whether they have used specific facilities or
services that have been introduced as part of the travel plan (e.g. cycle parking;
showers; personalised travel information; car-share database), and whether they have
suggestions for improving these.

Monitoring of business travel should use the information already collected by the
Finance Service for business travel claims. For each 12 month period, data should be
reported on the car business mileage claims made by staff, broken down by cost to the
council and vehicle mileage, for Pencadlys and each of the three area offices.

Baseline business mileage data for the 12 months to July 2005 was provided for this
report. Extracting this data was a non-trivial exercise for the Finance Service, because
although the travel claim form includes a space to note office base, this information is
not captured by the computer travel claims system. The Finance Service may
therefore need to investigate how best to obtain this monitoring information in future.



                                           44                     Transport for Quality of Life
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                                              Baseline report and recommendations for action

A review of progress in implementing the travel plan should take place in 2009, three
years after implementation has begun. Based on experience of implementing the
travel plan, the review should set new targets for the period to 2012 and should
identify the priority measures to achieve these.




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                                                    Baseline report and recommendations for action

9.         The business case

In order for the travel plan targets to be met, it will be necessary for the council to set
aside a budget for travel plan measures and appoint a member of staff to implement
them.

There is a clear business case for investment in the travel plan. This is set out in detail
in a separate document. In summary, the recommended option in the business case is
to appoint a full time travel plan co-ordinator at grade SO1, with an annual budget of
£35,000 to implement travel plan measures. This would have the following financial
and non-financial benefits:

       A net financial saving of approximately £113,000 over six years, with net savings
        thereafter of around £55,000 per year7.
       A substantial saving in staff time, as telephone conferencing replaces travel to
        some meetings. In financial terms, this is equivalent to a net saving of
        approximately £251,000 over six years, with net savings thereafter of around
        £54,000 per year (equivalent to 1.5 full-time staff posts).
       It will provide the staff capacity to develop a pool car scheme, which could have
        a further financial benefit of an estimated £245,000 net saving over six years.
       It will help employees keep fit and healthy by making it easier to walk or cycle to
        work, and hence reduce time off work due to ill-health.
       It will help achieve the environmental aims of the Welsh Assembly and Welsh
        Local Government Association expressed in the Wales Statement on Climate
        Change and Energy Saving, by reducing CO2 emissions from traffic.
       It will enable the full range of measures in the travel plan to be taken forward,
        and will ensure that the travel plan targets can be achieved.

Two other options were examined during the development of the business case. The
first of these, to appoint a member of staff at a lower grade and with a smaller budget,
to develop the car-sharing scheme alone (without other travel plan measures), is less
attractive because it is unlikely to achieve the travel plan targets. The final option, to
appoint a travel plan co-ordinator at SO1, but with a constrained budget for
implementation of travel plan measures, delivers lower net savings over six years.




7
    ‘Net’ savings = gross savings less costs

                                               46                     Transport for Quality of Life
                                                           Gwynedd Council Green Travel Plan:
                                                 Baseline report and recommendations for action

10.    Conclusions

There is good potential to reduce car use at Gwynedd Council, both for the journey to
and from work and for business travel. The benefits to Gwynedd include being seen to
lead the way in environmental improvements (demonstrating best practice to other
employers within the county, and to other local authorities in Wales); improving
work-life balance and travel options for staff, and hence making the council an
employer of choice and improving staff recruitment and retention; and cost savings in
business travel.

To be successful, the travel plan will require high level leadership and commitment. It
will be important that at least some senior managers and councillors are willing to
lead by example, using sustainable travel options at least some of the time. It will also
be important that the council appoints a travel plan co-ordinator, with an adequate
budget for them to implement the travel plan measures. This is a ‘spend to save’
strategy – that is, money invested up-front in the travel plan will deliver financial
savings once the travel plan measures take effect.

The measures identified in the travel plan form a complementary package. That is,
each individual measure is more effective as part of the whole travel plan than it
would be if it were implemented on its own. For example, for car-sharing to be
attractive to staff it will be necessary to set aside designated priority car-share parking
spaces, which in turn will require an effective parking management strategy.
Similarly, a pool car system will only be viable if there is space to park the pool cars
in the Caernarfon multi-storey car parks, which again requires effective parking
management to free up parking spaces. Cycle parking and showers will be better used
if they are accompanied by a campaign to encourage staff who live close to work to
cycle.

In developing the travel plan, we have placed a strong emphasis on win-win measures
– that is, measures that reduce car use and help the environment while at the same
time increasing the travel options available to staff, and saving the council money.
The travel plan also places a strong emphasis on fairness – that is, the principle that
everybody in the council, including councillors, senior officers and all other members
of staff, can help to achieve the aims of the travel plan. It is not necessary for anyone
to give up their car completely. The travel plan provides the framework within which
everyone can take the small actions that are possible for them – perhaps cycling or
catching the bus to work once a week, or working from home once a fortnight, or car-
sharing twice a week. Taken together, these small actions will save nearly a million
miles a year of car travel.




                                            47                     Transport for Quality of Life

				
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