BRAIN LAB! Purpose: In this activity, you will learn the location of some of the different brain structures. You will also learn about the functions of each of these structures. Directions: On your brain chart, locate each of the numbered areas and color it in with the appropriate color as indicated below. After you color a particular area, read the description of that areas function in the brain. Once your entire brain chart has been color coded, you will answer the questions on the “Brain Lab Worksheet” handout. This handout will check for your understanding on the different areas of the brain. You will be responsible for the information contained in this lab. Cerebrum of the Brain Provides us with the ability to read, write and speak; to make calculations and compose music; to remember the past and plan for the future; and to create 1. lt. red frontal lobe One of the four visible lobes of the cerebrum 2. dk. red motor area Area of the frontal lobe that activates muscles of the body; initiates movements 3. yellow Broca’s area Important motor area in the left frontal lobe involved in articulating words when speaking 4. lt. blue parietal lobe One of the four visible lobes of the cerebrum 5. dk. blue sensory area Area of the parietal lobe that produces sensations such as pain, touch and pressure; involved in perception- temperature, itch, tickle; the conscious awareness of sensation . 6. lt. green occipital lobe One of the four visible lobes of the cerebrum 7. dk. green visual area Area in the occipital lobe that receives and interprets sensory information from the eyes. 8. lt. brown temporal lobe One of the four visible lobes of the cerebrum 9. dk. brown auditory area Area of the temporal lobe that receives and interprets sensory information from the ears. 10. black fissure of Sylvius A landmark of the cerebrum that separates the frontal lobe (above) from the temporal lobe (below) 11. black fissure of Rolando A landmark of the cerebrum that separates the frontal lobe (front) from the parietal lobe (back) ** Wernicke’s area A broad region in the left temporal and parietal lobes; interprets the meaning of speech by recognizing spoken words; it is active as you translate words into thoughts Brain Structures Other Than the Cerebrum 12. orange cerebellum Working with the cerebrum it coordinates muscles to produce movement; compares intended movements with what is actually happening; regulates posture and balance; coordinates complex sequences of skeletal muscle contractions 13. purple pons Plays a role in synchronizing sight, sound, and muscle movement; bridge that connects parts of the brain with one another 14. gray medulla oblongata considered the most vital part of the entire brain for keeping us alive! It controls heart action, respiration, and blood vessel diameter; and contains reflex centers for swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and hiccupping 15. yellow spinal cord An extension of the brain giving rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves. **behind #8 diencephalon one of the four major parts of the brain (others= cerebrum, (internal) cerebellum, brain stem); diencephalon consists of hypothalamus, thalamus, and pineal gland hypothalamus- controls many important brain activities, most involved with homeostasis; ex: control ANS, body temperature, pituitary gland and production of hormones, regulates emotional (such as feelings of rage, aggression, pain, and pleasure) and behavioral patterns such as those related to sexual arousal; regulates eating and drinking; regulates circadian rhythms thalamus- contributes to motor functions by acting as a relay station for sensory impulses pineal gland- size of small pea; secretes melatonin which promotes sleepiness and contributes to setting the body’s biological clock Name ________________________________ Period _______ Date ___________ Brain Lab Worksheet 1. Identify and label the four main structural parts of the brain on the following brain. a. Brainstem 1. Medulla oblongata 2. Pons 3. Midbrain b. Diencephalon 1. Thalamus 2. Hypothalamus c. Cerebrum d. Cerebellum 2. Which particular part of the brainstem would you miss if you were in a dust storm if you couldn’t sneeze? What other reflexes would you also miss if this part of the brainstem sustains damage? 3. List some of the emotional and mood relationships for which the hypothalamus is important. Why do you think the hypothalamus is sometimes called the “autonomic nervous center”? 4. Which part is the largest portion of the brain? 5. Name the 4 lobes of the cerebrum and describe the main functions of each lobe. What are the left and right hemispheres of the Cerebrum divided into? 6. Locate the speech areas of the brain. Which area is important for understanding speech? Which area is necessary for actually speaking? Which area is an ape lacking? (To answer this one, think about Koko the gorilla. If you don’t know who Koko is, ask the teacher!) 7. Why might a hard blow to the back of the head or upper neck be fatal? 8. a) Describe the function of the cerebellum. b) List 3 things you would have a difficult time doing if your cerebellum was damaged. c) Damage to a particular part of the brain where muscle coordination is disrupted is called ataxia. People with ataxia cannot touch the tip of their nose with a finger if they are blindfolded. What area of the brain has been damaged? d) Why can’t they touch their nose with their finger? e) Alcohol is an inhibitory drug; why do people who are intoxicated show signs of ataxia? 9. After suffering a stroke, a patient finds that his speech is seriously affected and the right side of the mouth is partially paralyzed. Where would the injury be located if it is in the cerebral cortex of the brain?