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					                                  Part Two

                          The Strategy Workshops

Introduction: Aims and Learning outcomes of the workshop sessions
The strategy workshops aim to give trade union education tutors the
opportunity to review and sample some strategies which have proved effective in
“basic skills” provision and to identify ways in which these might be incorporated
into their trade union education work contexts.

The strategy workshops have been taken from a BSA pack designed for
vocational tutors called „Supporting Basic Skills In Vocational Contexts‟.
Trainers will need to consider carefully which will be most useful to course
participants, taking into account the needs and likely relevance to the
participant group. For maximum impact, the workshops need to be clearly seen
to be:

      of interest / relevance to trade union education tutors and trainers and
       the programmes they deliver e.g. content negotiated and/or the result
       of needs analysis
      useful to trade union education tutors i.e. will result in new / extended
       knowledge, practice, strategies and approaches
      adapted to address the different kinds of needs in the groups taught by
       the participants (the trade union education tutors attending the course)
      used to review, evaluate and develop materials used in trade union
       education training programmes as much as possible
      useful to the participants in the training themselves personally, in terms
       of pointing to approaches they might like to use to enhance own skills
       where appropriate



The workshops will enable participants to:
    evaluate their own responses to strategies used to develop literacy and
      numeracy skills
    suggest ways in which these might be used in their own teaching and
      learning contexts
    strengthen and develop working partnerships which can contribute to the
      effectiveness of delivery and achievement in trade union education
      contexts

The workshop sessions are quite short and it is unlikely that every workshop will
be included in the programme. They have been designed to be used on a „pick and
mix‟ basis.




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Each of the workshops begins with a reminder (for trainer reference, as
appropriate) of the overall aims and learning outcomes of the workshops. It is
not intended that this is reviewed at every session. Where workshops are
delivered as a day‟s training event it would be appropriate to introduce them in
the morning and then reflect on them at the end of the day. Where the
workshops are delivered as one-off sessions (perhaps added to short days)
trainers will need to consider such things as order and the need, if any, for
reminders to participants about the purpose of the workshops.

The choices: This pack includes six workshops. Each workshop takes
approximately one and a half hours to complete. Trainers can select which
they use – and how many. They can be delivered as a one-day option, as
half-days or as single add-on sessions to a short day / half-day session
from the main programme. Trainers are advised to:

       involve delegates in the selection of workshops early in the course

       consider how to “sell” specific workshops to groups if they are seen as
        particularly appropriate

       ensure that participants attend no more than 4 workshops in any one day

       ensure that at least one numeracy workshop is included – unless the
        programme audits completed in Session 2 suggest of little relevance

       include the spelling workshop – it is usually a very good first activity as
        spelling is an issue on many learning programmes

       plan the way they will organise workshop groupings beforehand, based on
        their knowledge of the participants

    The following table lists each of the workshops and gives a brief summary of
    its purpose and content.

        Title                            Summary
1       How we tackle spelling           Examines ways people tackle spelling.
                                         Suggest strategies for supporting the
                                         development of spelling skills on trade
                                         union education programmes.
2       Supporting   writing     skills: Introduces a range of writing frames
        Writing Frames                   and considers how they might be used
                                         to support learning in trade union
                                         education courses .




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3     Understanding        and using Examines a structured approach to
      textual information: DARTS     developing reading with understanding
                                     (DARTS). Suggests ways it might be
                                     used to increase effective and efficient
                                     reading in trade union education.
4     Supporting reading and writing Explores the use of text analysis as a
      skills: text analysis          tool to be used to develop relevant
                                     reading and writing skills at different
                                     levels in trade union education contexts.
5     Supporting numeracy skills: Considers the integration of numeracy
      Problem Solving                development in trade union education and
                                     work-based contexts,. Identifies useful
                                     approaches and strategies and highlights
                                     the importance of language when
                                     developing number skills.
6     Supporting numeracy: Using Explores the use of calculators as a
      Calculators                    learning and teaching aid on trade union
                                     education programmes. Debates the
                                     value of directly teaching calculator
                                     skills and considers implications for
                                     trade union education tutors.




Introduction and tips for Trainers sheets
Each of the workshops in the pack begins with a one-page introduction sheet.
The sheet includes tips for contextualisation and lists some of the issues which
may arise. Where appropriate, possible responses / preparatory activities have
been suggested and / or “health warnings” included. The content of these pages
are a result of feedback from trainers who have contributed to the design /
delivered the workshops and from the pilot course.

Most of the workshops will be more effective if participant groups do the
suggested preparation work. For some workshops this is essential and this is
highlighted in the sheets – alongside suggestions about back-up material when
appropriate.

Trainers who have not undergone the process of using the strategies addressed
(or who have used the strategies in more general contexts) are strongly advised
to complete the activities themselves – so that they can “experience” what
they are asking participants to do.

The tips have been included to support trainers – and are not meant to be used
as an extension to the workshops themselves.




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Feedback options
Each workshop offers opportunities for different kinds of feedback. How this is
organised will vary according to such things as the number of workshops
offered, the training environment(s) and the delivery models used. Trainers
should feel confident about changing the suggested feedback activities to
reflect the different experience levels / issues and preferred learning modes of
the people in the group. Options might include:

      group presentations – with groups presenting to each other and drawing
       out key features pertinent to the training context(s)

      displays of materials created e.g. draft worksheets, ideas lists –
       encouraging others to view and comment

      discussion of key findings and how the principles applied could be further
       put into practice / developed in the organisation or context represented

Summarising the session
    At the end of workshop programme trainers should review the aims of
     the workshops session and comment on whether the intended learning
     outcomes have been achieved
    Relate to training programme aims and outcomes – in particular the focus
     on exploring ways in which the strategies and approaches can be used or
     integrated into trade union education programmes or contexts.

Personal Development Journal: Workshop sessions
The journal relating to the workshops is a shortened version of the one used for
the core sessions but the intention remains the same – to provide a focus for
participants to reflect on what they have experienced and learned in the session
and to consider how they can use this in their future teaching. This includes
consideration of their own support needs and the implications for their work in
trade union context.




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     Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
     Personal Development Journal: Strategy Workshop sessions
    Workshop        How can I use or support Any support I need to
 & date attended    use in my own contexts   do this & people I
                                             need to work with
 1 Spelling




      Date:
 2    Writing
      Frames


      Date:
 3    DARTS




      Date:
 4    Text
      Analysis




      Date:
 5    Number
      problem
      solving

      Date:
 6    Use of
      calculators



      Date:
Implications for me, my work and TUC contexts.




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              Workshop One: How we tackle spelling

                     Introduction and tips for trainers
This workshop gives participants the opportunity to look at what they already
know (and may not know they know) about spelling. It examines the ways we
tackle spelling problems and unknown words. It will add to participant‟s
knowledge about spelling and suggest strategies for supporting the development
of spelling skills on trade union education programmes.



Tips for contextualisation:

      Emphasise the importance of transferability of these skills into other
       areas of life, especially work-based situations and trade union activities
       and responsibilities.
      Stress the role adequate spelling plays in portfolio work
      Discuss the importance of accuracy and “fit for purpose”
      Support „whole organisation‟ approaches to the teaching and support of
       spelling skills – strengthening relationship between different staff when
       appropriate
      Draw out ideas for changes in current practice which will enable spelling
       improvement to be incorporated into new initiatives
      Make sure the discussion about the results of the “spelling tests”
       includes focus on how these kinds of activity can help learners (at
       whatever level) identify their individual “weak spots” and ways forward
       which suit them

      Trainers may wish to ask participants to list common spelling errors in an
       earlier session in the course. This could help them ensure that the
       resources they suggest can be linked with the kinds of words needed.

Health Warning: Section 4 provides a platform to introduce the debate about
organisational issues but take care not to get sidetracked at this point. The
activity should clearly focus on spellings in context.




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           Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

  Workshop One: How we tackle spelling                          (1hr 30mnts)

Notes for trainers
1.Introduction to session aims and outcomes                              10mnts
If appropriate, remind people about the aim and learning outcomes of the
workshops
   Aim of workshops: To give trade union education tutors an opportunity to
   review and sample some strategies which have proved effective in basic skills
   provision and to identify ways in which they could be incorporated in their
   trade union education work.

   The workshops will enable participants to:
       Evaluate their own responses to strategies used to develop literacy
         and numeracy skills
       Suggest ways in which these could be used in their own teaching and
         learning contexts
       Consider ways in which stronger working partnerships can be
         developed to support the use and development of these and other
         strategies, in order to contribute to the effectiveness of delivery
         and achievement in trade union education contexts

      Review the aim and outcomes of the spelling workshop             OHT 1
      Emphasise the practical approach / consideration of how this session
       might be useful for trade union education tutors
      Explain that on other courses many participants have found these
       strategies useful one to try out / adopt to make own approaches to any
       spelling difficulties more effective

2.First reactions activity                                               10mnts
Explain that you are going to give participants a couple of spelling tests – ask for
one word / phrase to describe how this makes them feel.
Write responses on flip chart and discuss such things as:
    why they had these responses
    what memories they have about learning how to spell – or not
    how do they think they learnt how to spell new words – after school
    how do they handle any spelling issues now e.g. using a dictionary?

Ask participants what kind of responses they would expect to get if they
asked the learners on trade union education programmes to do the same
activity
    note these down on the same flip chart – using a different colour pen




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Briefly summarise the perceptions – e.g. similarities and differences in the
reactions and the reasons / evidence / justification for how people feel about
spelling.

3.The impact of poor spelling                                         20mnts
                                                            Activity 1 Task 1
Introduce activity and purpose and organise groups to complete Task 1.
    Give clear instructions about the time frames
    Make sure that people remember to start collating a list of words for
      these contexts (will be used later in the session)

Take very brief feedback and lead into the spelling test activities – an
opportunity to check out and reflect on our own spelling skills.



4. Spelling awareness activities                                      20mnts
Spelling test 1
Instruct participants to prepare to write some spellings on a plain sheet of
paper. They should close their eyes / look away from the paper when writing i.e.
they will not be using any visual cues. Ask them to:
    Sign their signature
    Print their full name beneath the signature
    Open their eyes / look and check how they did.
Discuss:
    Were there any problems with spelling? Why not?
    Were there any differences when they were asked to print, such as lack
       of flow, forgetting where they got to, formation of letters or neatness

Spelling test 2
Again – ask them to close their eyes or look away. Warn them that you will only
say the word once, so they will have to listen carefully. The word is:
                              chrysanthemum
Check how people did. What made it easy? What made it difficult? Should raise
the issue of phonics and combinations of letters which make sounds.

      Briefly define „phonics‟ – using the definition in the glossary of the
       Literacy core curriculum (page 140) as a starting point
      Give the final word in the same way – haemorrhage
      Discuss the results. What made it easy? Were some parts easier than
       others? Why? What made it difficult?
      Finally, ask them when they last needed to write either of the last two
       words – relate to the importance of relevance in spelling.




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Spelling test 3
Explain that this test should show participants how they approach the spelling
of known and unknown words.
     Explain that some of the words in this test are non-words – but they use
       common spelling patterns
     Suggest that first attempts (without thinking too much) are usually the
       best / most accurate
     Ask them to think about how they decide how to approach / spell the
       word – what approaches / strategies do they use?
     Tell them that you will repeat each word twice – but will not give any
       additional information e.g. context
     Dictate the words in the following box - one by one - and, if
       appropriate, speak quickly and/or exaggerate your own accent to
       make this test a little more „challenging‟

   rhythm              sabbing             Worcester           parliament
   carburettor         quinkle             medicine            hydrometric
   bliving             currant             gauge              liaise
   pyrotechnics        stationary          maintenance         engineer



 Give answers using the handout.                                Handout 1
 Take feedback on the strategies people used – consciously and unconsciously.

5. Strategies for spelling                                           20mnts
                                                           Activity 1 Task 3
Review purpose of the activity.
    Ask them to see if the words can be grouped in ways similar to those
      suggested on Handout 1 – according to pattern / complexity or links etc
    Explain how often, the strategy used depends on the word pattern as well
      as the preferred approach or learning style of the learner
    Direct to one or two particularly useful strategies in the core curricula
      and, if they have time, ask them to see if they can identify more

Feedback: Discuss the results and respond to any issues

6. Review workshop                                                   10mnts
      Re-visit aims and learning outcomes
      Signpost to other sources of help / information
      See tips for contextualisation and draw out appropriate issues – from
       these or others which have arisen
      Give short time / direct to completion of PDJ




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                    Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop One                    How we tackle spelling                             OHT 1

Aim: To examine attitudes to spelling, identify the strategies we use to spell and to suggest
practical ways to improve the spelling skills of learners on trade union education courses.

Outcomes: By the end of this session participants will have:
   identified some of the social, cultural and personal factors which influence attitudes
    and responses to spelling “challenges”
   identified situations when spelling is important in the workplace, in the work of a trade
    union activist and on trade union education programmes
   explored how they approach the spelling of unknown words – what language cues and
    strategies they use
   considered some approaches, strategies and resources which can be accessed by trade
    union education tutors to support the development of spelling skills.




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              Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
                    Workshop One: How we tackle spelling
                    Activity 1 The impact of poor spelling

You will be allocated to a group to focus on one of the following contexts.


Group A. Spelling challenges in the workplace.
Group B. Spelling challenges working as a trade union representative
Group C. Spelling challenges on trade union education courses

Task 1
When is spelling important and which words commonly cause problems?

Purpose: To identify situations when spelling is important – and to collate a list
of “problem” words – or types of words in given contexts.

      Discuss examples of when spelling is likely to be important in the context
       you have been allocated


As a group identify up to 20 words which you consider cause difficulties,
from your own learning and teaching experiences.
    consider, particularly, the kinds of situations which require “on-the-spot”
       spelling accuracy
      share knowledge and experiences of learners on trade union education
       courses and reasons given for “poor” spelling skills
      share own perceptions about the social, cultural and personal factors
       which influence an adult‟s attitudes and responses to spelling challenges.




Task 2 (to be completed AFTER the spelling awareness activities)
After completing the spelling awareness activities, use the handout to group the
words (and others you think of at this point) you identified into likely spelling
development categories.




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Handout 1




            139
 Workshop Two: Supporting Writing Skills: Writing Frames

                     Introduction and tips for trainers
This workshop gives participants the opportunity to consider how „writing
frames‟ can be used in ways that are appropriate in trade union education
courses. It demonstrates how they can be used in different ways and at
different levels.

To gain maximum value from this workshop it is essential that the main activity
is based on the kinds of writing needed for knowledge / skills development on
the trade union education courses taught by the people attending the training
course. The focus should be on relevant formats and the level of support / skills
needed.

Trainers may find themselves involved in debates about the tradition of “peer
support” on trade union education programmes and / or strategies for
differentiation. A response might be to stress that this strategy supports the
development of skills to underpin and develop independence.

Trainers are strongly advised to add one or more examples of scaffolds which
are clearly of relevance to the contexts in which the participants work /
replacing examples in the pack if necessary. Going through this process
beforehand will help trainers prepare for issues which may arise in the sessions.

Tips for contextualisation: this section lists some of the issues which may arise
and possible responses

      Emphasise the opportunities in trade union education programmes for
       developing skills as well as demonstrating achievement
      When examining the writing frames guidance box in the literacy core
       curriculum (Section 2) consider how these skills are demonstrated
       currently – and common areas needing support (in participants own
       contexts)
      Incorporate these links into the spidergram / list recommended in
       this section, if appropriate
      Stress the value of providing “transferable skills” and strategies in
       terms of motivation
      Encourage participants to be “up front” about the strategies they are
       using and the ultimate goal – to develop learners abilities to work
       without the scaffold
      Draw out suggestions for more inter-organisational approaches as
       appropriate, e.g. suggesting that this approach is useful in other
       areas – not just literacy




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            Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Two: Supporting writing skills: Writing Frames

Notes for trainers
1. Introduction to workshop                                            20mnts
If appropriate, remind people about the aim and learning outcomes of the
workshops
   Aim of workshops: To give trade union education tutors an opportunity to
   review and sample some strategies which have proved effective in basic skills
   provision and to identify ways in which they could be incorporated in their
   trade union education work.

   The workshops will enable participants to:
       Evaluate their own responses to strategies used to develop literacy
         and numeracy skills
       Suggest ways in which these could be used in their own teaching and
         learning contexts
       Consider ways in which stronger working partnerships can be
         developed to support the use and development of these and other
         strategies, in order to contribute to the effectiveness of delivery and
         achievement in trade union education contexts

      Review workshop aims and outcomes                               OHT 1
      Emphasise the practical approach / consideration of how this session
       might be useful to trade union education tutors

   What are writing frames?
   Use / refer to the Adult Literacy Core Curriculum to ensure common
   understanding about what writing frames are – and how they can be used to
   help learners develop reading and writing skills.
    Review glossary definition (page 143 in the Literacy core curriculum)
    Ensure understanding of the scaffold analogy – temporary support – to be
      taken away / reduced as skills develop or achievement occurs
    Direct to page 115 in the Literacy Core Curriculum – Guidance Box on
      Writing Frames – encourage participants to read and to check out any
      unknown/unclear terms / definitions
    Review the content of the box and clarify understanding – including
      specialist terms such as connectives, salutation, closure when writing
      letters; continuous text, writing genres, formal registers

Draw up a list / spidergram of examples taken from the group about when
writing frames may prove useful in trade union education contexts.




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2. Reviewing examples                                          10mnts
                                            Writing Frames: Example Pack
Introduce the handout pack. Explain:
    Includes examples of different kinds of writing frames which may be
      used in vocational training (source vocational training course)
    Show how texts can be scaffolded to give the learner clues about how to
      plan, provide guides about what to write and where
    Check that they can see how this happens in the examples

If you have other examples (see Introduction) add these to the pack and /
or alter activity as appropriate

      Return to the list generated in section one and consider if examples
       would be useful / appropriate as models


3.Workshop activity: Application to own contexts                   40mnts
Participants works in pairs / small groups to produce one or two writing
frames that could be used in a trade union education course they deliver,
demonstrating how they can be used to give different levels of support to
learners.
     Encourage the use of the materials brought by participants to the
       workshop
     Explain that the writing frames they develop / draft can support any skill
       area or level but should clearly show the different levels of support
     They should clearly / directly support an activity in a trade union
       education course – either working towards an assessed activity OR the
       development of an underpinning skill / key skill
     Encourage the use of the core curricula to check skill levels / national
       standard of the skill being developed

As they do the activity, ask participants to discuss:
    How they would justify the use of writing frames to learners /
      colleagues
    When they might need specialist support if using this strategy

Participants should display work so other groups can view their work before
the end of the activity (feedback in next section) e.g. flip charts, posters
on wall, table displays.

Trainers need to remember to ensure this activity ends in time to give
participants to look at each others work and, ideally, swap comments /
ideas e.g. 30 minutes activity / 10 minutes viewing,




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4. Plenary                                                      10mnts
      Revisit the list / spidergram and add to / amend as appropriate as a
       result of the activity
      Ask for feedback on how the use of writing frames such as those they
       have developed could be introduced / justified to:
          o Learners
          o Other colleagues (who?)
      Identify when they may need specialist support e.g. when looking at
       sentence structure, grammar, language development, support for dyslexia
       type difficulties



5. Review workshop                                              10mnts
      Re-visit aims and learning outcomes                      OHT 1
      Signpost to other sources of help / information
      See tips for contextualisation and draw out appropriate issues
      Give short time to complete PDJ




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                    Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Two                                                                  OHT 1
                         Supporting writing skills: Writing Frames


Aim: To identify ways in which writing frames can be used to support and extend the skills of
learners on trade union education programmes

Outcomes. By the end of this session participants will:

   Have identified ways in which writing frames could be used to help learners develop
    writing skills in trade union education programmes
   Designed / drafted writing frames which could be used in own teaching contexts
   Suggested occasions when specialist support would be useful
   Reflected on own contexts and identified any actions in relation to this session




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             Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
                               Workshop Two
                    Activity 1 Designing Writing Frames

Purpose: To explore ways in which writing frames could be used in trade union
education contexts and to create / draft one or two frames for own use.




Task. Ideally, using or referring to the material you have brought with you:

Use the examples as models, as appropriate.

The frame(s) you draft can support any activity on a trade union education
course – either one which can help learners develop skills needed for an
accredited activity or one which can help develop underpinning skills.

Don‟t forget – you can use the core curricula to check skill components and
levels – you may even find some ideas.




      Work in 2s/3s to produce a writing frame which could be used on the
       course(s) you teach.

      If you have time, and if it is appropriate, draft another writing
       frame which supports the same area of work but which gives a
       different kind or level of support.

      As you do this, consider how you would introduce the writing frame
       to learners on your course.

      Consider when you might need support if using this strategy.

      Be prepared to give feedback on the use and value of this strategy
       on the programmes you teach and issues the activity has raised.




                                                                           145
Handout 1a




             146
Handout 1b




             147
Handout 1c




             148
Handout 1d




             149
Handout 1e




             150
 Workshop Three: Understanding and Using Textual Information
                                   (DARTS)

                     Introduction and tips for trainers
This workshop gives participants the opportunity to examine a structured
approach to developing reading with understanding skills (DARTS). It should
result in the identification of different ways in which relevant reading skills can
be identified and developed. It demonstrates a strategy that can be used in
different ways and at different levels and gives participants an opportunity to
consider its use in trade union education contexts.

To gain maximum value from this workshop it is essential that participants have
the opportunity to relate the strategy to actual (preferably own) examples of
the kinds of reading materials learners are expected to use and work with to
achieve their trade union education accreditation. Trainers are likely to find it
useful to bring in examples of their own to demonstrate the strategy in trade
union education contexts.

Trainers will need to ensure that the focus remains on reading purposefully
to obtain information in specific contexts, to maintain a pragmatic approach.

Tips for contextualisation:
    Relate to the different accreditation requirements (as appropriate)
       for Stage 1 and Stage 2 courses
    Discuss / draw out how the underpinning skills related to reading and
       understanding are reinforced and / or developed in their own contexts
       (construction / deconstruction / lines of reasoning)
    Make sure there is focus on both analysing and reconstructing texts
    Encourage participants to be “up front” about the strategies they are
       using currently when learners have difficulties - and why
    Compare the DARTS approach to any others they may have used, if
       appropriate
    Bring in / relate to examples from the context area including both
       texts used for the development of skills and those used for
       accreditation

Health warning:     Encourage a pragmatic approach to participant‟s own
developing knowledge and acquisition of new strategies.           Encourage
reflective trial on a small scale and very focused, if appropriate.   Check
out links with the Text Analysis Workshop, if considering both.




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            Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Three: Understanding and using textual information: DARTS

Notes for trainers
Organisational note
In most situations participants will have been asked to bring in samples of
relevant materials and resources used in their own teaching contexts. Some of
these will be used in this session. However, trainers are advised to ensure that
other examples are available, ideally ones which can clearly demonstrate
relevance to the range of teaching and learning contexts of trade union
education tutors.


1. Introduction to workshop                                              10mnts
If appropriate, remind people about the aim and learning outcomes of the
workshops
   Aim of workshops: To give trade union education tutors an opportunity to
   review and sample some strategies which have proved effective in basic skills
   provision and to identify ways in which they coule be incorporated in their
   trade union education work.

   The workshops will enable participants to:
       Evaluate their own responses to strategies used to develop literacy
         and numeracy skills
       Suggest ways in which these could be used in their own teaching and
         learning contexts
       Consider ways in which stronger working partnerships can be
         developed to support the use and development of these and other
         strategies, in order to contribute to the effectiveness of delivery and
         achievement in trade union education contexts

      Introduce workshop aims and outcomes and DARTS                   OHT 1
      Emphasise the practical approach / consideration of how this session
       might be useful to trade union education tutors
      Obtain feedback on the kinds of material brought in by participants
       and re-organise grouping as appropriate

An introduction to DARTS                                                Handout 1
Review the handout and ensure understanding. Emphasise the following points:
    The aim of all the strategies is to increase the independence of learners
    „receptive reading‟ is as much a feature of adult learning as school
       learning – often adults appear to be “stuck” at a particular stage




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      being able to read “reflectively” is often the key to be able to use the
       text i.e. to retrieve and work with the information it contains
      It underlines the importance of relevance and context to the learner – it
       answers the question „Why am I being asked to read this / about this?‟



2. Strategies for analysing texts                                   30mnts
                                                Handout 2 & Activity sheet

   Trainers should identify beforehand which group(s ) they will support/
   observe and report back on the feedback session. Each trainer will need to
   report back on “their” groups behalf with observations on:
       Strategies which appear to be of use in many/several situations
       Strategies which seem to be allied to specific levels / subject areas
       Resource / support needs identified

Instructions for the activity.
In mixed groups to complete Task 1 on the activity sheet using Handout 2.
    As they go through the examples, ask them to share experiences and
      list examples of use (actual or possible) on a flip chart (trainers will
      use these in the feedback session) [NB Feedback takes place at the
       end of Section 3]
      Discuss which examples would clearly be of use / applicable to trade
       union education contexts, significantly in their own situations – encourage
       people to list examples
      Ask people to refer to their own examples, as appropriate
      Identify any examples which are clearly not applicable to trade union
       education contexts – and why
      Which might need the support of specialists to implement – what kind
       of support are they likely to need?



3. Reconstructing texts                                               30mnts
                                                                    Handout 3
Ask groups to complete Task 2 on the activity sheet using Handout 3.

Feedback for BOTH sections take place in the session. Trainers / group
spokesperson should give feedback on the use of these approaches to trade
union education programmes, as appropriate.



4. Plenary                                                         10mnts
                                                                 Handout 4
Review the main points in Handout 4. Conclude with a brief discussion on:


                                                                              153
     The implications for trade union education tutors and programmes
     Any likely changes or development in the relationship between trade union
      education tutors and specialist basic / key skills teachers


5. Review workshop                                              10mnts
     Re-visit aims and learning outcomes                      OHT 1
     Signpost to other sources of help / information
     See tips for contextualisation and respond to any issues
     Give short time to complete PDJ




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                    Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Three                                                                 OHT 1
                        Understanding and using textual information


Aim: To increase knowledge about the range of strategies trade union education tutors can
use to ensure that learners can increase their own independent study / learning skills.

Outcomes. By the end of this session participants will:

   Have identified and used some of the strategies advocated by the „Reading for Learning‟
    project (targeted at adult learners on vocational programmes)
   Suggested ways in which these strategies could be used in own teaching contexts
   Identified some of the resource implications of these strategies, for both themselves
    and their learners
   Reflected on own contexts and identified any actions in relation to this session




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             Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
                              Workshop Three
               Activity 1 Analysing and Reconstructing Texts

Purpose: To explore ways in which DARTS approaches can be used in trade union
education contexts.

Task 1: Analysing texts
In this activity, focus on identifying strategies which could be used to help
learners on trade union education programmes develop the skills needed to
analyse texts quickly and effectively.
     Review the examples in Handout 2 as a starting point
     As you discuss these, share experiences and start to compile a list of
       example situations and uses (actual and possible) on a flip chart
       (trainers/ group spokesperson may use these in feedback)
     Refer to examples of texts group members have brought to the
       workshop
     Identify which approaches / strategies are clearly of use to trade union
       education teaching and learning contexts
     Discuss any which are clearly not applicable and why
     Consider if there are times when you may need support to implement
       these kind of strategies and what kind of support this might be.

Task 2. Reconstructing texts.
Focus on identifying strategies which could be used to help learners develop
the skills needed to reconstruct texts. Repeat the process used in Task 1
but use Handout 3.




Feedback
Feedback will take place after both activities have been completed.
Trainers will be circulating / guiding groups, as appropriate. They (or
group members) will give feedback on the use of these approaches and /
or strategies in trade union programmes.




                                                                            157
Handout 1




            158
Handout 2




            159
Handout 2




            160
Handout 2




            161
Handout 3




            162
Handout 4




            163
Handout 4




            164
  Workshop Four: Supporting Reading Skills: Text Analysis

                   Introduction and tips for trainers

This workshop gives participants the opportunity to examine ways in
which participants can encourage their learners to understand the key
features of different kinds of texts.          It should result in the
identification of different ways in which relevant reading and writing
skills can be developed in trade union education programmes, at different
levels.

To gain maximum value from this workshop it is essential that
participants have the opportunity to relate the strategy to examples of
the different kinds of “texts” learners are expected to read (and write)
in their roles as trade union workers effectively to achieve most from
their trade union education training.

Trainers will need to ensure that they address the issues of reading and
writing effectively and efficiently and support the overt use of
strategies to improve reading and writing for specific purposes.

Tips for contextualisation:
    Emphasise the role of trade union education training as a
      vehicle for developing skills as well as demonstrating
      achievement
    Support all the activities in the workshop, as much as possible, with
      actual examples of reading and writing obtained from the
      participants (obtained at an earlier stage if you need tine to
      review and / or relate to the strategy).
    Trainers can select / add to / replace the sample activities in
      the pack with ones with more relevance to the contexts in
      which participants work
    Make sure there is focus on both reading and writing, including
      both texts used for the development of skills and those used
      for accreditation.

In some cases, it may be that the range of texts used in a particular
context is not wide ranging. In these situations, trainers may wish to use
them to just to ensure understanding of the concept. Check out links with
the DARTS Workshop – and make sure they do not overlap if the
programme includes both workshops.



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Workshop Four: Supporting reading and writing skills: Text Analysis

Notes for trainers
Organisational note
In most situations participants will have been asked to bring in samples of texts
used in their own teaching contexts. These will be used in this session. However,
trainers are advised to ensure that other examples are available, ideally ones
which can clearly demonstrate relevance to the range of teaching and learning
contexts of trade union education tutors.


1. Introduction to workshop                                             10mnts
If appropriate, remind people about the aim and learning outcomes of the
workshops
   Aim of workshops: To give trade union education tutors an opportunity to
   review and sample some strategies which have proved effective in basic skills
   provision and to identify ways in which they could be incorporated in their
   trade union education work.

   The workshops will enable participants to:
       Evaluate their own responses to strategies used to develop literacy
         and numeracy skills
       Suggest ways in which these could be used in their own teaching and
         learning contexts
       Consider ways in which stronger working partnerships can be
         developed to support the use and development of these and other
         strategies, in order to contribute to the effectiveness of delivery and
         achievement in trade union education contexts

      Introduce workshop aims and outcomes                             OHT 1
      Emphasise the practical approach / consideration of how this session
       might be useful to trade union education tutors
      Obtain feedback on the kinds of material brought in by participants
       and organise grouping as appropriate

Why do we need to read effectively                     Literacy Core Curriculum
Ask participants to read page 54 (the introduction to the Reading section) of
the Adult Literacy Core Curriculum. Conduct a brief discussion on the
importance of effective and efficient reading skills when undertaking trade
union training and working as a trade union representative. Cover such topics as:
     Is the ability to read today as important as it ever was?
     How have technological advances influenced the need for efficient
       reading skills?



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      What kinds of texts do trade union representatives need to read?
      What kinds of texts do learners on trade union education courses need to
       be able to read – and under what conditions e.g. independently, research,
       instructions, work manuals and guides, accreditation / assessment
       material
      What would be considered „efficient‟ and „effective‟ reading in the
       programmes they teach [A suggestion is that „efficient‟ = can read in a
       reasonable time and/or way; „effective‟ = reading results in an
       appropriate level of understanding and use of the information]. Ask for
       concrete examples – drawn from the programmes they teach
      Discuss how „effective‟ and „efficient‟ are the reading skills of learners
       who attend their programmes
      Discuss why increasing our own knowledge about the ways texts are
       constructed and organised can place participants in a better position to
       help those we teach.



2. Structures and features of non-fiction texts                     15mnts
                                                             Handouts 1a-1c
Review the handouts with the participants.
    As you go through each text type ask for examples used by participants
      in their own teaching contexts
    The trainer not conducting the activity should scribe these on to pre-
      prepared flip chart or OHT
    Ensure „general‟ understanding of the specialist terms used such as simple
      present tense, temporal connectives, causal connectives, logical
      connectives, thesis, generic, imperative, participles
    Reassure participants that the course does not intend to convert them
      into English teachers, if appropriate – exploring what non-specialist staff
      can do / how they can respond to “jargon” / unfamiliar terms



3. Text analysis activity                                           25mnts
                                                           Activity sheet 1
Organise groups into randomly mixed groups of 3-4 people. Ask them to use
Handouts to look at the sample texts in Activity 1. Ask them to:
    Identify which text type they think each text is
    Mark the structures and features which lead them to that conclusion
    Be prepared to discuss the reasons for any differences of opinion
    Make a note of any other features which might help or hinder reading

Feedback on the bullet points. Summarise the findings by re-visiting the flip-
chart / OHT started in section 2 and adding more examples to the lists, as
appropriate.




                                                                             167
4. Use of text analysis in trade union contexts         30mnts
Re-organise groups so that people teaching similar subjects / with
similar interests work together.
      Ask them to share and review the samples of texts they have brought
       with them (or have been given) and to identify text types
      They should discuss how they might integrate text analysis into trade
       union education programmes
      Give them the task of identifying 1-3 strategies for the introduction
       of text analysis (remind them about the activities in the core curriculum
       and suggest they look in the curriculum for ideas, as appropriate)
      If they identify barriers e.g. time / specialist knowledge, they should
       suggest ways in which these can be overcome

Feedback. Ask groups to feedback on the strategies identified and the ways to
overcome any barriers identified.


5. Review workshop                                               10mnts
      Re-visit aims and learning outcomes                      OHT 1
      Signpost to other sources of help / information
      See tips for contextualisation and respond to any issues
      Give short time to complete PDJ




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                    Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Four                                                                    OHT 1
                    Supporting reading and writing skills: Text Analysis

Aim: To suggest ways in which a thorough understanding of the range and variety of texts
used in trade union contexts can help trade union education tutors support the development
of reading and writing skills needed by people attending their courses.

Outcomes. By the end of this session participants will:

   Have listed the range of text types learners need to work with in trade union contexts
   Explored different text types and identified key structures and language features in a
    range of non-fiction text types used in their own teaching contexts
   Identified ways in which this approach to reading skills development could be introduced
    and used in trade union education programmes
   Reflected on own contexts and identified any actions in relation to this session




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             Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
       Workshop Four: Supporting reading and writing skills: text analysis
                         Activity 1 Analysing Texts

Purpose: To explore ways in which text analysis could be used in trade union
education contexts.

Task   1: Analysing texts
       Identify the text type of each of the sample texts
       Mark the key structures and features
       Discuss the reasons for any differences of opinion
       Make a note of any other features which might help or hinder reading of
        these kinds of texts


Feedback on the bullet points.



Task 2: Use of text analysis in trade union education contexts
Review the samples of texts brought from own contexts / examples given
    Discuss how a text analysis approach could be integrated into the trade
      union education programmes they teach
    Identify 1-3 strategies to introduce text analysis (remember you can
      look in the core curriculum for ideas)
    If you identify barriers e.g. time / specialist knowledge, suggest ways in
      which these might be overcome

Feedback. Feedback on the strategies identified for introducing to trade union
education programmes and the ways to overcome any barriers identified.




                                                                               170
171
172
173
174
175
Handout 1a




             176
Handout 1b




             177
Handout 1c




             178
    Workshop Five: Supporting Numeracy: Problem Solving

                     Introduction and tips for trainers

This workshop considers the integration of numeracy and vocational contexts
and the implications when learners are required to manipulate numbers in
problem-solving situations. It will examine the strategies we use ourselves and
increase awareness of the importance of language in these situations. It will
enable participants to explore ways of analysing problems and recognising their
component parts.

Trainers need to be clear about the difference between underpinning number
skills and application – and the relationship between these in specific
contexts.

Tips for contextualisation:

      Link this workshop to the Audit Activity in Session 2, if appropriate e.g.
       if there were useful examples in the lists generated

      Collate examples of when the learners attending trade union courses use
       their numeracy skills in the workplace and / or as part of their union
       activities

      Remind participants that developing skills requires looking at and
       analysing the underpinning skills in application of number – and encourage
       reference to the Numeracy core curriculum to check / confirm these
       (components and levels, as appropriate)

      Trainers may want to replace the examples in the pack with ones more
       relevant to the contexts in which participants work.



Trainers may need to adjust the timing and organisation of these activities
to suit “same context” groups. When doing this:
    Make sure the different numerical areas are addressed i.e. the ones
       needed to develop skills and provide evidence of both achievement of key
       skills and to support application to vocational context(s).

Health warning: This is a very full session and trainers are strongly advised to
use their own knowledge of the participants (and that of their co-trainers) to
determine and consolidate approaches.




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Workshop Five Supporting numeracy skills: Problem Solving                1.5hrs

Notes for trainers
Note: Trainers will need to be aware of, check and clarify the understanding of
specialist / alternative terms used in this session, particularly those which have
been italicised in bold. Taking the opportunity to discuss these terms can draw
out issues relating to the language of maths. When appropriate refer
participants to the glossary in the Numeracy Curriculum, which gives
definitions of words such as „simple‟ and „familiar‟ as well as mathematical terms.

1. Introduction to session aims and outcomes                                5mnts
Explain that people are often required to solve problems involving numerical
operations. These problems may involve straightforward algorithms e.g. 24 + 64,
or they may involve more complex operations such as those needed to interpret
and compare complex data. This workshop will look at some strategies and
processes that adults often need in order to handle problems which involve
“maths” with confidence. It will also examine ways in which trade union education
tutors may be able to assist in the development of these skills.

      Review the aim and outcomes                                      OHT 1
      Emphasise the practical approach / consideration of how this session
       might be useful for trade union education tutors
      Explain that they themselves might find some of the strategies useful,
       particularly if they lack confidence about own numerical skills


2. How to solve a problem                                               20mnts
                                                                Activity sheet 1
The purpose of this activity is to encourage participants to analyse the
different layers and stages of problem solving.
    In small groups, look at the problem on the activity sheet
    Identify the different knowledge, skills and processes required to solve
       the problem
    Allow approximately 10 minutes before taking feedback

Feedback                                                            OHT 2
Take feedback on the replies to the questions on the sheet. By the end of the
feedback your should have a list (on the flipchart) that includes reference to
things such as:
     Language / words / terminology / decimal notation / concepts
     The selection of appropriate operations
     The ability to perform appropriate operations
     The use of such things as rounding and estimating



                                                                                180
      Judging whether an answer is reasonable
      Keeping information “in your head” versus organising on paper etc

Summarise using OHT 3                                               OHT 3
Participants may want to discuss problems concerning assumptions made about
the underpinning skills levels learners have before attending trade union
education courses have when they start courses and the limited time they have
to help them improve.
     Allow a limited discussion of this, reminding participants about the key
       messages including the importance of a whole organisation approach to
       support learners who need to develop underpinning skills.
     Asking for examples of good practice e.g. access to ICT support
       packages.

3.Problems Workshop                                                 30mnts
                                                  Activity sheets 2and 2 (a)
                                                  Activity sheets 3 and 3(a)
Half the group should work on Activity sheet 2 and 2a and half should work on
Activity sheets 3 and 3 (a). It is recommended that people work in 3s/2s.

Activity sheet 2 participants should:
    Use the grid to analyse the process for solving these problems
    List on a flipchart what sort of errors learners might make doing these
       exercises

Activity sheet 3 participants should:
    Use the grid to analyse the process for solving the problems
    List on a flipchart the kind of difficulties learners might have when
       identifying the operations needed to solve the problems

The following boxes give trainers advice and guidance to help them support
these activities:

Activities 2 and 2a are likely to include / draw out reference to such things as:
    Recognising that they have to add six months to the answer they obtain
       by multiplying 23 by 12
    Identifying the correct operation or procedure
    Knowing how to round up to give the cost per entire metre
    Knowing how to deal with unnecessary zeros – especially if using a
       calculator
    Recognising that you have to add on the price of the underlay and fitting
    Working out fractions of quantities.




                                                                             181
Activities 3 and 3a are likely to include / draw out reference to such things as:
    Learners having difficulty in deciding whether to divide or multiply in
       question 1, or to add or subtract in question 4
    Some learners not recognising the cue word „left‟ as a signal to subtract
    200 divided by 7 does not result in a whole number, so learners need to
       recognise that the logic of the question demands that the answer is
       expressed in terms of three whole boxes, (similarly with 100.000 divided
       by 180)
    learners not recognising in Question 5 that they need to reverse the
       operations and sequence in order to tackle the problem.




Feedback. Ask groups to feedback using the flip charts. Draw out the common
issues and refer back to OHT as appropriate.

Summarise the key points, such as:
    the use of key words to decode a problem
    identifying starting points – known and unknown
    which operations to use
    identifying which operations work most effectively and efficiently for
     learners ( this may differ in relation to preferred learning styles)
    the use of approximation and estimation – the role of confidence
    thinking about how „reasonable‟ an answer might be
    highlighting the value of carefully planned question and answer and the
     role of whole group discussion in problem solving.

4. Numeracy development in trade union education programmes 15mnts
Directed discussion. The purpose of this discussion is to highlight the
importance of relevance when integrating underpinning skills in trade union
education programmes.
Ask for examples where and when this might happen. Use some of the
questions below as prompts for a short discussion, if necessary.
    When do teaching / supporting numeracy skills and activities in trade
       union education programmes combine?
    Are there times the numeracy skills are essential?
    What might be the advantages of incorporating numeracy skills
       development into trade union education programmes – for learners and
       tutors?
    How can trade union education tutors be supported when trying to
       integrate skills (e.g. systems to share good ideas/practice)?
    How can learners on trade union education programmes be supported,
       motivated, directed to support outside (and after?) the course?




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5.Language and Numeracy                                                15mnts
                                                              Activity sheet 4
The purpose of this activity is to underline the variety of words used in
numeracy to describe the same thing – and to discuss the implications – for
tutors and learners.

     Participants should work in groups of two or three to complete the grid
     They have to complete the grid as fully as possible within the time limit
      (recommended 5 minutes)
Take feedback, using additional trainer notes to support as necessary

Draw   out the importance of being aware of:
       The language we use when using these terms
       The language learners use (including ESOL learners)
       The language used in the resources we use

Ask for tips and suggestions to make sure that we use the same or similar
language. These may include such things as:

      Language audits of materials and resources (including assessments)
      Direct discussions about terms used between tutors and learners
      Agreeing (with learner groups) to „limit‟ words used
      Providing crib cards / sheets for words used
      Providing displays which reinforce the language being used

NB – tips don‟t only apply to language of maths

6, Review workshop                                                      5mnts
      Re-visit the aims and outcomes
      Signpost to other sources of help / information
      See tips for contextualisation and respond to any issues
      Give short time for completion of PDJ




                                                                            183
Problem                               Operations                  What a student has to do            What a student has to know


   1. How many months are there             x (23 x 12)           Recognise which operations to use   Number of months in a year
      in 23 and a half years?               ÷ (12 ÷ 2)
                                            + (276 + 6)           Perform calculations as indicated   Halving quantities means
                                                                                                      divide by 2

   2. (a) You wish to carpet a room         x (3 x 4.75)          Recognise which operations to use   Decimal multiplication and addition
      measuring 3m by 4.75m.
      Work out the cost of                 x (15 x 12.8)          Perform calculations as indicated   Unnecessary „0‟s
      carpeting the room if carpet
      costs £12.80 per square                                     Recognise that 12.80should be Use of calculator
      metre (assume that this is                                  entered as 12.8 on the calculator
      for each whole square                                       if used                           Rounding two decimals to whole
      metre).                                                                                       numbers
                                                                  Round 14.25 up to the nearest
    (b) Underlay will cost an               + (3 + 1.5)           pound                             Understanding that you have to
    additional £3 per square               x (4.5 x 15)                                             round up to work out cost per
    metre and fitting an extra             (add answers)                                            square metre
    £1.50 per square metre.
                                      Alternatively add 12.8 to
                                       4.5 and multiply by 15




                                                                                                                                   185
Problem                                                      Solution    Operation    Possible Difficulties


Single Step Operations                                                                Students might have difficulty in deciding
                                                                                      whether to divide or multiply in question 1 or
1. A box holds 70 components                                                          add or subtract in question 3.
   How many components are left if you sell 17 components?         53        -
   How many teams can have 5 components each?                      14        ÷        Some students might not recognise the cue
   How many components are there in 6 boxes?                      420        x        work „left‟ as a signal to subtract.
   How many boxes are needed to hold 200 components?                3        ÷
                                                                                      200 divided by seven does not result in a
2. Use a calculator or a written method.                                              whole number.
   A full box has 180 pins.
   How many full boxes can be made from 100,000 pins?             555        ÷        Students need to recognise that the logic of
                                                                                      the question demands that the answer is
Multi-step operations                                                                 expressed in terms of 3 whole boxes.

3. There are 129 files on the top shelf.                                              Similarly with 100,000 divided by 180.
   There are 87 files on the bottom shelf.
   I remove 60 of the files.
   How many files are there left on the shelves?                  156    -,- or +,+   Students may not recognise in question 4 that
                                                                                      they need to reverse the operations and
4. I think of a number, add 3.7 and multiply by 5.                                    sequence in order to tackle the problem – i.e.
   The answer is 22.5. What was my number?                         0.8      ÷,-       divide by 5 first, then subtract 3.7.




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                Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training (Pilot)

Workshop Five                                                                 OHT 1
                  Supporting Numeracy Skills: Numeric Problem Solving

Aim: To consider how learners in trade union education contexts can be helped to
understand and improve underpinning skills related to numeric problem solving.

Outcomes: By the end of this session participants will have:
   analysed the different stages and approaches to problem solving
   identified operational features of a range of numerical problems
   recognised and responded appropriately to language of „maths‟ issues in trade union
    education contexts
   considered how they might apply the approaches and strategies to their own contexts
   reflected on own contexts and identify any actions related to this session




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                Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training (Pilot)

Workshop Five                                                                  OHT 2

   A truck driver has to drive across the Channel to make a delivery in Calais.
   The ferry leaves at 14.15 but check-in is 3 hours earlier.
   The journey usually takes 3.5 hours but reports suggest that there may be additional
    delays and the addition of another hour would be advisable.
   Pre-journey activities at the depot usually take 30 minutes.
   What time should the driver be at work?
   The ferry journey takes 1.5 hours and the estimated time of travel from the port to
    the destination in Calais is 1.5 hours (inclusive of departure procedures).
   Estimate how many hours the driver will work in total (including breaks).




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                Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training (Pilot)

Workshop Five                                                                   OHT 3
                                          Summary

Learners should be taught a range of strategies for solving problems. These include:

      breaking down the problem into manageable steps

      Identify appropriate operations

      Identifying the skills the learner will need

      Looking for cues and key terms to help solve the problem




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           Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
     Workshop Five: Supporting Numeracy: Problem solving (numerical)
                     Activity 1 Analysing problems



Purpose: To analyse the different layers and stages in problem solving.

Look at the problem in the box.

   1. What are the different stages needed to solve this problem?

   2. What different skills are needed to solve this problem?

   3. What do learners need to know?

A truck driver has to cross the channel to make a delivery near Calais.

The ferry leaves at 14.15 but check in is 3 hrs earlier.

The journey to the port usually takes about 3.5hrs but road reports
suggest that there may be additional delays and the addition of another
hour onto journey times is advisable.

Pre-journey activities at the depot usually take about 30 minutes.

The ferry journey takes 1.5 hrs and the estimated time to travel to the
delivery destination is an additional 1.5hrs (including departure
procedures at the port).

Problems

1. What time should the driver be at work?
2. Estimate how many hours the driver will have worked in total
   between getting to work and making the delivery.




                                                                          190
Activity Sheet 2



Look at these two problems.

   1. How many months are there in 23½ years?




   2. You wish to carpet a room measuring 3m by 4.75m. Work out the
   cost of carpeting the room if carpet costs £12.80 per square metre
   (assume that this is for each whole square metre). Underlay will cost an
   additional £3 per square metre and fitting an extra £1.50 per square
   metre.




       Use the grid to analyse the process of problem solving.

       What sort of errors might learners make when doing these exercises?




                                                                         191
Activity Sheet 2a

Problem                                 Operations           What a student has to do   What a student has to know



  1. How many months are there in 23         x (23 x 12)
      and a half years?                      ÷ (12 ÷ 2)
                                             + (276 + 6)



  2. (a) You wish to carpet a room           x (3 x 4.75)
     measuring 3m by 4.75m. Work
     out the cost of carpeting the          x (15 x 12.8)
     room if carpet costs £12.80 per
     square metre (assume that this
     is for each whole square metre).

     (b) Underlay will cost an
     additional £3 per square metre
     and fitting an extra £1.50 per           + (3 + 1.5)
     square metre.                           x (4.5 x 15)
                                             (add answers)

                                              multiply by




                                                                                                                192
Activity Sheet 3



Examples of problems

Single Step Operations

1. A box holds 70 components
   How many components are left if you sell 17 components?
   How many teams can have 5 components each?
   How many components are there in 6 boxes?
   How many boxes are needed to hold 200 components?




2. Use a calculator or a written method.
   A full box has 180 pins.
   How many full boxes can be made from 100,000 pins?




Multi-stop Operations

3. There are 129 files on the top shelf.
   There are 87 files on the bottom shelf.
   I remove 60 of the files.
   How many files are there left on the shelves?




4. I think of a number, add 3.7 and multiply by 5.
   The answer is 22.5. What was my number?




     Complete the accompanying grid on Activity Sheet 3a.

     What difficulties might learners have choosing and identifying the
      operations needed to solve these problems?




                                                                     193
   Activity Sheet 3a

Problem                                                      Solution   Operation   Possible Difficulties


Single Step Operations

1. A box holds 70 components
   How many components are left if you sell 17 components?
   How many teams can have 5 components each?
   How many components are there in 6 boxes?
   How many boxes are needed to hold 200 components?

2. Use a calculator or a written method.
  A full box has 180 pins.
   How many full boxes can be made from 100,000 pins?

Multi-step operations

3. There are 129 files on the top shelf.
   There are 87 files on the bottom shelf.
   I remove 60 of the files.
   How many files are there left on the shelves?

4. I think of a number, add 3.7 and multiply by 5.
   The answer is 22.5. What was my number?




                                                                                                            194
            Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
                               Workshop 5
                 Activity sheet 4 The language of maths



Purpose: To identify the range of words and phrases we use when we are
talking about numeracy and maths – and to consider the impact these may
have on teaching and learning.

Task
Write in words or phrases which define or describe the symbols and related
processes.

Symbol

   +




   _




   x




   ÷




   =



       What other definitions (or other symbols) may cause problems?




                                                                       195
   Workshop Six: Supporting Numeracy: Using Calculators

                    Introduction and tips for trainers

This workshop explores the use of calculators as a learning and
teaching aid on trade union education programmes. It emphasises the
importance of directly teaching efficient calculator skills and provides
an opportunity for participants to consider their use (and non-use) in
work based and trade union education / training contexts.

Trainers may need to raise the issue of when (and when not) calculators
can be used in terms of appropriate accreditation regulations or
qualification(s).

Tips for contextualisation:

          All participants will need a calculator for this workshop.
           Trainers are advised to encourage use of the one most often
           used by participants. However, if participants are confident, it
           may be more “fun” and revealing if people swap and try out the
           same activities using a calculator they are not familiar with – or
           use ones on mobile phones, etc

          Link this workshop with the “mental maths” activity in session 4

          Trainers may want to replace / supplement the examples in the
           pack with ones more relevant to the contexts in which
           participants work



Health warning: Do not spend too long on debating issues at the start of
the session. Trainers may want to “ideas-storm” issues, do the activities
and then return to some of the issues at the end of the session.




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            Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Six: Supporting numeracy skills: Using calculators           1.5hrs

Notes for trainers
Organisational note
Trainers should use their own judgement about the most appropriate groupings
for the activities in this workshop. In other contexts, mixed groups appear to be
the most popular. Trainers will need to remember to keep focus on the
relevance of this workshop. There is little direct teaching on how to use a
calculator and its uses.


1. Introduction to workshop                                             15mnts
If appropriate, remind people about the aim and learning outcomes of the
workshops
   Aim of workshops: To give trade union education tutors an opportunity to
   review and sample some strategies which have proved effective in basic skills
   provision and to identify ways in which they could be incorporated in their
   trade union education work.

   The workshops will enable participants to:
           Evaluate their own responses to strategies used to develop
             literacy and numeracy skills
           Suggest ways in which these could be used in their own teaching
             and learning contexts
           Consider ways in which stronger working partnerships can be
             developed to support the use and development of these and other
             strategies, in order to contribute to the effectiveness of
             delivery and achievement in trade union education contexts

           Introduce workshop aims and outcomes
            OHT 1
           Emphasise the practical approach / consideration of how this session
            might be useful to trade union education tutors

Using a calculator                                    Numeracy Core Curriculum
        Refer participants to the role of calculators in the Core Curriculum -
           starting at Entry 1 (N1/E1.7) and quickly track across the levels
           using the progression charts
        Remind participants that more detail can be found in the texts
        Refer participants to the guidance on Using a calculator in the Adult
           Numeracy Core Curriculum (p.33)
        Explain that, although this guidance is situated in the Entry 3
           section, it is intended as general guidance for work at all levels



                                                                               197
          Draw out the key messages from the extract and discuss if and how
           these apply to trade union contexts (including in the workplace)
           and in trade union education contexts e.g. pragmatic use in trade
           union work, use on trade union education courses and in
           assessment activities (if appropriate). List examples on flip chart
           / OHT
          [Add to this list as appropriate during the session]

2. Getting to know a calculator                                      25mnts
                                                            Activity sheet 1
This activity comprises a range of exercises which could be used to teach,
reinforce or develop skills and knowledge about using a calculator. The main
purpose of the activity is to identify the main teaching point in each exercise
and to consider where this might arise (and be used) in trade union contexts.

          Ask people to work individually or in pairs to do the exercises on
           Activity Sheet 1
          At the same time they should try to identify the main teaching point
           of the exercises and consider when these kinds of skills or kinds of
           activity might be useful in their own contexts
[This activity should take about 10-15mnt.]

Feedback.                                                          Handout 1
       Use Handout 1 to discuss the teaching points
       Stress the value of being able to clearly explain these teaching points
         to learners working on these skills
       Ask for feedback on the uses of these kinds of skills in trade union
         contexts (will continue with this in the next exercise – so keep focus
         on this kind and level of numeracy skill at this point)
       Use OHT 2 to summarise the aspects of teaching learners          OHT 2
         how to use calculators
       Pose the question - where, when and how do adults learn these
         skills when needed?
       Briefly discuss any implications for trade union education tutors.


3. Working with larger numbers                                    20mnts
                                                          Activity sheet 2
Suggest that one of the main advantages of using a calculator is that learners
can work with real data and large numbers but that this might demand more
technical skills. Explain that the purpose of Activity 2 is to explore some
ways of working with large numbers on calculators.
        Ask people to work in pairs to complete the activities
                                                                  Handout 2




                                                                            198
When they have completed the activities use Handout 2 to discuss the
understanding and knowledge needed to work with large numbers on a calculator.
Feedback
       Go through the points on OHT 3 to summarise the main teaching
         points when dealing with large numbers on calculators
       Stress that these are most likely to be addressed / covered as they
         occur in practice i.e. when needed for a specific task
       Discuss what needs to be present in support systems and
         procedures to ensure learners get support at these points – and
         issues for their own contexts.



4. Advantages, disadvantages and implications                          20mnts
Group discussion
         Use OHT 4 as a starting point to review the advantages,          OHT 4
          disadvantages and implications of the numeracy skills expected or
          needed to use calculators efficiently and effectively
         Draw attention to the importance of such things as being able to
          estimate / consider the reasonableness of calculations and how
          strongly this is linked to a sound understanding of place value (refer
          back to mental maths activities in Session Six if appropriate)

Applications to trade union contexts
        Ask for examples in trade union work / trade union education
          programmes where the key messages of this session apply
        Link the issues discussed to the list generated at the start of the
          session, as appropriate
        Discuss the implications for trade union education tutors and
          programmes
        Remind participants about the range of people who can support
          learners developing underpinning skills in their own contexts




5. Review workshop                                                10mnts
         Re-visit aims and learning outcomes                      OHT 1
         Signpost to other sources of help / information
         See tips for contextualisation and respond to any issues
         Give short time to complete PDJ




                                                                               199
Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Six                                                                        OHT 1
                       Supporting numeracy skills: Using calculators

Aim: To explore the use of calculators as a learning and teaching aid on trade union education
programmes and the value of teaching calculator skills.

Outcomes. By the end of this session participants will have:

     identified ways in which trade union education tutors can encourage learners on their
      programmes to use calculators more effectively
     identified features of good practice when teaching / developing calculator skills
     shared information, examples and suggestions for use in own contexts
     Reflected on own contexts and identified any actions in relation to this session




                                                                                           200
Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Six                                                                  OHT 2
                         Learning and teaching calculator skills

How could you (or your learner support programmes) assist learners who needed to learn how
to:
     Use the number and operations keys and the „clear all‟ and „clear entry‟ keys
     Key in and interpret figures e.g. for money and measurement
     Key in fractions
     Interpret negative numbers and recurring decimals in the display
     Select the most efficient key sequence for calculations e.g. percentages
     Use the memory function
     Approximate the outcomes of calculation – check “reasonableness” of an answer
     Check their results by doing inverse calculation, or clearing and repeating the
      calculation




                                                                                       201
                   Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Six                                                                    OHT 3
                          Large numbers and complex calculations

Learning how to deal with large numbers and complex calculations includes knowing:

     How to recognise when a calculation is beyond the capacity of their calculator
     What they might do in such circumstances to obtain a solution
     The limitations of simple calculator logic, especially in calculations involving more than
      one operation
     The need for intermediate steps to be carried out in such a calculation
     The priority taken by multiplication and division over addition and subtraction




                                                                                             202
Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training

Workshop Six                                     OHT 4

Advantage
Calculators allow people to use real data including big
numbers

Disadvantage
There are limits to the size of numbers that the basic
calculators can hold

Implications
The need for learners / users to be aware of the
limitations of calculators and to be able estimate /
consider the reasonableness of the answer




Advantage
Calculators can do a series of calculations

Disadvantage
A calculator may not always do the right calculation!
Try working this out: 5 x 0,26 + 8 x 0.19 = ?
The correct answer is 2.82

Implications
Learners need to record intermediate steps, either on
paper or by using a memory function




                                                          203
             Trade Union Education Tutors: Basic Skills Training
                               Workshop Six
                 Activity 1 Getting to know your calculator

Purpose: To experience a range of exercises which might be used to teach,
develop or reinforce skills and knowledge about the use of calculators and to
consider how these might arise (and be used) in trade union education contexts.

Task 1: Work in pairs or individually complete these activities using either a
calculator with which you are familiar and one you have not used before.

   1. Are you familiar with the “clear all” and “clear entry” keys?
      Suppose you intended to key in 25 + 86 but keyed in 25 + 96 by mistake.
      What is the minimum number of key presses to correct your entry?

   2. Fill the screen with threes. How did you do this? Now fill the screen
      with sixes.

   3. Can you find a way to fill the screen with zeros? How did you do this?

   4. Calculate 56-75. How does a negative number appear on the screen?

   5. Use your calculator to work out the following calculations.

      £6.25 + £9.35 =

      £3.52 + £2.72 =

      £8.47 + 67p      =

      £1.03 + 94p       =

      £0.07 + 8p       =

      A box of 50 notepads costs £9.25. How much does one notepad cost?

      Cleaning liquid is advertised as £3.49 per 1.5 litre pack. How much is that
       per litre?

      127 – (358-185) =

Do the learners on your programmes need these kinds of skills? When? How
do they learn them?




                                                                               204
     Handout 1

     Teaching Points

     1 and 2. Correcting an entry error is a simple but vital skill.

     3. A decimal point will allow the zero screen fill.

     4. The negative sign can easily be overlooked.

     5. The calculator display and written answers should be:


Question 5                Display             Written answer       Teaching points


£6.25 + £9.35             15.6                £15.60               Note the need to write the
                                                                   zero for 60p …



£3.52 - £2.72             0.8                 £0.80 or 80p         … and the zero for 80p



£8.47 + 67p               9.14                £9.14                67p is entered as 0.67



£1.03 – 94p               0.09                £0.09 or 9p          The units must be the same



£0.07 + 8p                0.15                £0.15 or 15p         8p is entered as 0.08



A box of 50 notepads      0.185               £0.185 or 18.5p      Discuss what to do about
costs £9.25. How much                                              digits beyond the second
does one pen cost?                                                 decimal place



Cleaning liquid is        2.3266666           £2.33 to the         Discuss how to round to
advertised at £3.49                           nearest penny        two decimal places
per 1.5 litre pack. How
much is that per litre?



27 – (358 – 185)          -46                 -46                  Work out the brackets
                                                                   first




                                                                                     205
Activity Sheet 2




                   206
Handout 2




            207
208

				
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