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					Before Reading
  1. English Song -- Teach Your Children
    Introductory Remarks
    Teach Your Children
    Questions and Answers
    Crosby, Stills and Nash
  2. About Education
     A Survey
     A Practical Experiment
     Education in the West
  3. Warm-up Questions
             Introductory Remarks




                          II   ■


“Ways of learning” is the topic of this unit. It is also the
topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach
Your Children sung by Crosby, Stills and Nash.
                   Teach Your Children
Listen to the song and fill in the blanks with what you hear.
                on the road
You, who are ___________ ,
       have a code
Must ___________ that you can live by.
And so, become yourself,
Because -- ________ is just a goodbye.
             the past
Teach your children well,
Their father’s hell did slowly go by.
                  on your dreams
And feed them ______________ ,
The one they pick’s, the one you’ll know by.
Don’t you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry,
So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.

     II   ■
                   Teach Your Children
Listen to the song and fill in the blanks with what you hear.
And you, of tender years,
Can’t _____________ that your elders grew by.
       know the fears
And so please help them with your youth,
      seek the truth
They ____________ before they can die.
Teach your parents well,
Their children’s hell will slowly go by.
                  on your dreams
And feed them ______________ ,
The one they pick’s, the one you’ll know by.
Don’t you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry,
So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.
               Questions and Answers

1. What is a code that you can live by?
  A set of rules to guide you on the road of life.
2. Is the song only about how parents should teach their
   children?
   No. The first part of the song is about how parents can
   teach their children through sharing with them their
   dreams. And in the second part, we are told that
   children also have something to teach their parents --
   help them with your youth.
3. Do you know anything about the singers?
Crosby, Stills and Nash
       The musical partnership of David Crosby (b. Aug. 14,
1941), Stephen Stills (b. Jan. 3, 1945), and Graham Nash (b.
Feb. 2, 1942), was not only one of the most successful
touring and recording acts of the late 1960s, 1970s, and
early 1980s -- with the colorful, contrasting nature of the
members' characters and their connection to the political and
cultural upheavals (动荡,剧变) of the time -- it was the only
American-based band to approach the overall societal (社会
的 ) impact of the Beatles. The resulting trio ( 三人组 ) was
characterized by a unique vocal blend and a musical
approach that ranged from folk to pop to hard rock. CSN's
(initials of Crosby, Stills and Nash) debut album (首张唱片),
released in 1969, was perfectly in tune (合拍) with the times,
and the group was an instant hit.
     II   ■
Song-list :

Teach Your Children

      Southernman

               Ohio

         Woodstock
Song-list :

Teach Your Children   II   ■




      Southernman

               Ohio

         Woodstock
Song-list :

Teach Your Children

      Southernman     II   ■




               Ohio

         Woodstock
Song-list :

Teach Your Children

      Southernman

               Ohio   II   ■




         Woodstock
Song-list :

Teach Your Children

      Southernman

               Ohio

         Woodstock    II   ■
                       A Survey

  Do you agree with the following statements?
1. Play is the best way to learn.
2. Children develop life skills best through formal programs.
3. Children are naturally curious, inspired, motivated
   learners, but enjoyment of learning can get lost in the
   pressure to “succeed” in formal education.
4. Parents are the most important instructors to the
   children, so they should give as much guidance as
   possible.
                   A Practical Experiment
  Two children are given hula hoops, a toy they are unfamiliar with.




Angela is given a hula hoop with instructions on how to use it.
Jonathan is given a hula hoop but no instructions.
What kind of outcomes do you expect?
                  A Practical Experiment
 Two children are given hula hoops, a toy they are unfamiliar with.




Angela learns to keep the hula hoop in motion by moving
her body in certain ways.
Jonathan explores the hoop and discovers it's big enough to
step through. He then balances the hoop between two
objects and practices kicking a ball through the hoop.
How do you comment on these two outcomes?
                  A Practical Experiment
 Two children are given hula hoops, a toy they are unfamiliar with.




Both outcomes are good.
Angela learns a useful play skill.
Jonathan uses his hoop in a different, but equally playful way.
Which one do you think is better in developing the children’s
creativity?
                   A Practical Experiment
 Two children are given hula hoops, a toy they are unfamiliar with.
Angela, because she followed the directions given, will have a skill
she can use anytime she wants to move her body in that specific
way. The outcome is limited to having followed directions and
mastered a particular skill.
Jonathan, on the other hand, had the experience of exploring and
discovering an item he was unfamiliar with. He used what he
learned about this circular-shaped object to solve a problem of his
own and incorporated (结合) the hula hoop as an innovative solution
to help him do something that he wanted to do -- kick a ball through
a target. Jonathan learned he could use his own observation and
exploration to learn about new objects.
What conclusion can you draw from this experiment?
                 Education in the West
     Much of the current debate over education surrounds the
extent to which learning should be teacher-based or student-
based. Which of the two should decide what should be
learned, how it should be learned, and when it should be
learned? Comparing Western and Asian methods of learning
it is generally true that Western methods are more student-
centered, expecting students to discover things for
themselves rather than relying on their teachers to tell them.
An extreme version of the student-centered approach can be
seen at Summerhill, a school in England established by the
educationalist A. S. Neill. There children have complete
freedom to decide what they are going to learn and which
     II   ■
                 Education in the West

lessons they will attend. If they wish they need not attend
any at all. Mainstream education in England is far more strict,
demanding that children attend lessons and follow a national
curriculum. This curriculum and the importance of achieving
good exam results tend to reinforce a more teacher-centered
approach, as both teachers and students find the pressure
of time leaves less opportunity for an exploratory approach
to learning.
                  Warm-up Questions

1. If you find a two-year-old boy is trying to put a key
   into a box, will you help him immediately?

2. Can you recall how your parents taught you in your
   childhood? Did they like to teach you by holding
   your hand?

3. Which way did you prefer when you were in trouble
   with one of your toys in your childhood, turning to
   your parents for help, or exploring by yourselves?
Global Reading

  1. Scanning
  2. Part Division of the Text
  3. Further Understanding
      For Part 1 Questions and Answers
      For Part 2 Questions and Answers
      For Part 3 Multiple Choice
                         Scanning
 Scan Text A and decide whether the following statements are
 true or false.
1. Benjamin was worried that he couldn’t put the key into the
   box. ( F )
     Benjamin was not bothered at all.
2. In the Chinese staff’s opinion, the parents should guide
   Benjamin to insert the key. ( T )
3. The author and his wife didn’t care whether Benjamin
   succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. ( T )
4. For the Westerners, learning should take place by continual
   careful shaping and molding. ( F )

     The Chinese think that learning should take place by
     continual careful shaping and molding.


5. Chinese teachers hold the opinion that skills should be
   acquired as early as possible, while American educators
   think that creativity should be acquired early. a
    ( T )a
              Part Division of the Text
Parts Lines                 Main Ideas

               An anecdote: the Chinese staff
 1    1~32     helped Benjamin to place the key.

               The author’s thoughts about different
 2    33~97    approaches to learning in China and
               the West.

               In the form of a question, the author
 3   98~102    gives a suggestion of a more rational
               approach to fostering creativity and
               basic skills.
                 Questions and Answers

1. How does the author introduce the topic in Text A?
     In this text, the author introduces the topic by the key-
     slot anecdote (轶事).
     There are several ways to introduce a theme.

       1. Stating the topic directly.
       2. Posing a question.
       3. Quoting a famous saying.
       4. Relating an anecdote or an incident.
2. Sum up the contrast between the attitude of the couple and
   that of the hotel staff toward Benjamin’s efforts in inserting
   the key into the slot.

     1) The couple: let him explore and enjoy himself.

     2) The hotel staff: held his hand and taught him how
                         to insert the key correctly.
     Contrast and comparison:
     A contrast brings out the differences between two or
     more things of the same kind, while a comparison the
     similarities between them.
                Questions and Answers

1. Read the first sentence of both Para 6 and Para 7, and
   decide what method of comparison and contrast is used
   here.
     One-side-at-a-time method.
   Comparison and contrast can be organized in two major
   ways:
 1. One-side-at-a-time method: examine one subject
    thoroughly and then start the other.
 2. Point-by-point method: examine two subjects at the same
    time, discussing them point by point.
2. Sum up the contrast between Chinese and Western ways to
   learn to fulfill a task.

     The Chinese: show a child how to do something, or
     teach by holding his hand.
     The Westerners: teach a child to rely on himself for
     solutions to problems.


3. Read from Para 11 to Para 13. Which method of comparison
   and contrast is used here?

     Point-by-point method.
4. The following are two types of attitudes toward creativity and
    basic skills. Which one belongs to the Chinese and which
    one belongs to the Westerners?

A) Giving priority to developing skills at an early age, believing
   that creativity can be promoted over time.

      The Chinese.
B) Putting more emphasis on fostering creativity in young
   children, thinking that skills can be picked up later.

      The Westerners.
                   Multiple Choice

There are many ways to conclude an essay. How does the
author end this text? (  )

A) Restating the main points previously mentioned.

B) Proposing a solution.

C) Quoting from some book or person.

D) Predicting future developments.
E) Making a suggestion in the form of a question.
                   Multiple Choice

There are many ways to conclude an essay. How does the
author end this text? ( A )

A) Restating the main points previously mentioned.

B) Proposing a solution.

C) Quoting from some book or person.

D) Predicting future developments.
E) Making a suggestion in the form of a question.
                   Multiple Choice

There are many ways to conclude an essay. How does the
author end this text? ( B )

A) Restating the main points previously mentioned.

B) Proposing a solution.

C) Quoting from some book or person.

D) Predicting future developments.
E) Making a suggestion in the form of a question.
                   Multiple Choice

There are many ways to conclude an essay. How does the
author end this text? ( C )

A) Restating the main points previously mentioned.

B) Proposing a solution.

C) Quoting from some book or person.

D) Predicting future developments.
E) Making a suggestion in the form of a question.
                   Multiple Choice

There are many ways to conclude an essay. How does the
author end this text? ( D )

A) Restating the main points previously mentioned.

B) Proposing a solution.

C) Quoting from some book or person.

D) Predicting future developments.
E) Making a suggestion in the form of a question.
                   Multiple Choice

There are many ways to conclude an essay. How does the
author end this text? ( E )

A) Restating the main points previously mentioned.

B) Proposing a solution.

C) Quoting from some book or person.

D) Predicting future developments.
E) Making a suggestion in the form of a question.
          LEARNING, CHINESE-STYLE

     For a month in the spring of 1987, my wife Ellen and
I lived in the bustling eastern Chinese city of Nanjing
with our 18-month-old son Benjamin while studying arts
education in Chinese kindergartens and elementary
schools. But one of the most telling
lessons Ellen and I got in the
difference between Chinese and
American ideas of education came
not in the classroom but in the lobby
of the Jinling Hotel where we stayed
in Nanjing.
    The key to our room was attached to a large plastic
block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel,
a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by
handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot
into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had
to be positioned carefully to fit into it.
     Benjamin loved to carry the key around,
shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to
place it into the slot. Because of his tender
age and incomplete understanding of the
need to position the key just so, he would
usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered
in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the
sounds the key made as he did those few times when the
key actually found its way into the slot.
    Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his
lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
hold onto Benjamin’s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it
                     directly toward the slot, reposition it as
                     necessary, and help him to insert it.
                     The “teacher” would then smile
                     somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
                     as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
                     occasion would frown slightly, as if
                     considering us to be neglecting our
                     parental duties.
    I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
my discussions with Chinese educators.
  TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
     With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
 displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
 Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
 slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
 slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
 enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
 possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
    He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
modeled for him as well.
    We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
solve a problem effectively by oneself.
    Such self-reliance is a principal value of
child rearing in middle-class America. So
long as the child is shown exactly how to do
something -- whether it be placing a key in a
key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a
misdeed -- he is less likely to figure out
himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more
generally, he is less likely to view life -- as Americans do
-- as a series of situations in which one has to learn to
think for oneself, to solve problems on one’s own and
even to discover new problems for which creative
solutions are wanted.
  TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND
     In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident
was indeed key -- and key in more than one sense. It
pointed to important differences in the educational and
artistic practices in our two countries.
     When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came
to Benjamin’s rescue, they did not simply push his hand
down clumsily or uncertainly, as I might have done.
Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and
gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to
realize that these Chinese were not just molding and
shaping Benjamin’s performance in any old manner: In
the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao –
“teaching by holding his hand” -- so much so that he
would happily come back for more.
     The idea that learning should take
place by continual careful shaping and
molding applies equally to the arts.
Watching children at work in a classroom
setting, we were astonished by their
facility. Children as young as 5 or 6 were
painting flowers, fish and animals with the skill and
confidence of an adult; calligraphers 9 and 10 years old
were producing works that could have been displayed in
a museum. In a visit to the homes of two of the young
artists, we learned from their parents that they worked
on perfecting their craft for several hours a day.
  CREATIVITY FIRST?
    In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
point equally original.
    One way of summarizing the American position is to
state that we value originality and independence more
than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
    American educators fear that unless creativity has
been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other
hand, skills can be picked up later.
    However, I do not want to overstate my case. There
is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific,
technological and artistic innovations past and present.
And there is a danger of exaggerating creative
breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is
examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements
is all too apparent (the “Standing on the shoulders of
giants” phenomenon).
    But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes
this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
extremes, a superior way to approach education,
perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
creativity and basic skills?
                             The key to our room was attached to a large plastic
                        block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel,
                        a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by
                        handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot
                        into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had
                        to be positioned carefully to fit into it.
                             Benjamin loved to carry the key around,
Paraphrase the sentence.shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to
                        place it into the slot. Because of his tender
   Because he was so young and didn’t quite
                        age and incomplete understanding of the
   know that he should position the key carefully to
                        need to position the key just so, he would
   fit into the narrow key slot, he would usually fail.
                        usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered
                        in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the
                        sounds the key made as he did those few times when the
                        key actually found its way into the slot.
                            The key to our room was attached to a large plastic
                       block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel,
                       a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by
                       handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot
1. Paraphrase the sentence. a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had
                       into
                       to be positioned carefully to fit into it.
     Benjamin was not bothered at all.
                            Benjamin loved to carry the key around,
                       shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to
                       place it into
 2.Translate the sentence into Chinese.the slot. Because of his tender
                       age and incomplete understanding of the
     本杰明一点也不在意。        need to position the key just so, he would
                       usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered
                       in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the
                       sounds the key made as he did those few times when the
                       key actually found its way into the slot.
                          I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                    our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                    early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
                    throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
Paraphrase this part of the sentence.
                    before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
                    my discussions with Chinese educators.
    And to help explain Chinese attitudes toward
    creativity.        TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
                           With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
                     displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
                     Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
                     slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
                     slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
                     enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                     possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                          I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                      our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                      early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
                      throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
1. What does the desired action refer to?
                      before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
    Positioning the key carefully to fit into the slot.
                      my discussions with Chinese educators.
                        TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
                           With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
2. In your opinion, what possible gain can be achieved by
   having Benjamin struggle?
                       displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
                       Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
                       slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
                       slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
                       enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                       possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                              He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                         desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                         be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
1. Paraphrase the sentence.
                         and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
                         opening and door
       He is likely to get frustratedthe angry. or asking for the key -- both of which
                         accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
2. You use “may well” when you are saying what you
                         modeled for him as well.
   think is likely to happen.
                              We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
                         explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
                         Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
                         was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                         that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                         process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                         solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                         He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                    desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                    be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
1. What do the two and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
                    activities refer to?
                    opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
                     time and exploring.
    Having a good accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
                    modeled for him as well.
2. Paraphrase “two activities that did mattersuch explanations sympathetically and
                         We listened to to us”.
                    explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
    Tow activities that were important to us.
                    Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
                    was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                    that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                    process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                    solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                        Such self-reliance is a principal value of
                   child rearing in middle-class America. So
1. Paraphrase the long as the child is shown exactly how to do
                   sentence.
                   something -- whether it be placing a key in a
   No matter whether it is placing a key in a
                   key slot, drawing a
   key slot, drawing a hen or making up for hen or making up for a
   some mistakes.misdeed -- he is less likely to figure out
                   himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more
2. Analyze the structure of the sentence.
                   generally, he is less likely to view life -- as Americans do
                   -- as is used here.
    The subjunctive mooda series of situations in which one has to learn to
                   think for oneself, to solve problems on one’s own and
   Whether he be present or absent, we shall
                   even to discover new problems for which creative
   have to do our part.
                   solutions are wanted.
                         CREATIVITY FIRST?
                            In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                      reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
                      boldest departures mean?
1. What does making their boldest departuresfirst and then gradually mastering the
                      tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
     Doing sth. different from an established rule or
     tradition.       from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
                      point equally original.
2. Translate this part into One way of summarizing the American position is to
                            Chinese.
                      state that we value originality and independence more
      西方的年轻人先是大胆创新,然后逐渐深谙传统。
                      than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
                      cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
                      harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
                      acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                      the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                       But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
                  valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
                  both worthwhile goals,
Can you analyze the structure of this sentence? the important question becomes
                  this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
    assuming + that-clause: 假定„„
                  extremes, a superior way
    You use assuming that when you are considering to approach education,
                  perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
    a possible situation or event, so that you can think
    about the consequences. and basic skills?
                  creativity
  Assuming that we all work at the same rate, we
  should be finished by January.
                           But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
                      valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
                      both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes
1. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
                      this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
     我们能否从中美两个极端中寻求一种更好的教育方式,它或
                      extremes, a superior way to approach education,
     许能在创造力与基本技能这两极之间获得某种较好的平衡?
                      perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
                      creativity and basic skills?
2. Do you think that we can find a better way to approach
  education, which strikes a better balance between the
  poles of creativity and basic skills?
    The key to our room was attached to a large plastic
block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel,
a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by
handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot
into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had
to be positioned carefully to fit into it.
     Benjamin loved to carry the key around,
shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to
place it into the slot. Because of his tender
age and incomplete understanding of the
need to position the key just so, he would
usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered
in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the
sounds the key made as he did those few times when the
key actually found its way into the slot.
                                The key to our room was attached to a large plastic
                           block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel,
                           a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by
                           handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot
attach: vt. fasten or join (one thing to another)
                           into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had
     She attached an antenna to the radio. carefully to fit into it.
                           to be positioned
                                Benjamin loved to carry the key around,
          A tag was attached to each article.
                           shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to
 Pattern:                  place it into the slot. Because of his tender
                           age and incomplete understanding of the
          attach sth. to sth.
                           need to position the key just so, he would
                           sth.
          be attached to usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered
                           in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the
                           sounds the key made as he did those few times when the
                           key actually found its way into the slot.
    Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his
lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
hold onto Benjamin’s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it
                     directly toward the slot, reposition it as
                     necessary, and help him to insert it.
                     The “teacher” would then smile
                     somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
                     as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
                     occasion would frown slightly, as if
                     considering us to be neglecting our
                     parental duties.
                                Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
                            Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
                            behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
                            an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
initial: adj. of or at the beginning; first
                            nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his
     最初的会谈是后来达成协议的基础。
                            lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
     The initial talks were the base ofBenjamin’s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it
                            hold onto the
     later agreement.                            directly toward the slot, reposition it as
      the initial letter of a word
                                                 necessary, and help him to insert it.
      一个词的首字母                                    The “teacher” would then smile
                                                 somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
                                                 as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
                                                 occasion would frown slightly, as if
                                                 considering us to be neglecting our
                                                 parental duties.
                         Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
                    Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
                    behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
await: vt. wait for an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
                    nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his
   He was anxiously awaiting her reply.
                    lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
   他早就期待着这个时刻了。 onto Benjamin’s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it
                    hold
                                         directly toward the slot, reposition it as
    He has long awaited this moment.
                                         necessary, and help him to insert it.
                                         The “teacher” would then smile
                                         somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
                                         as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
                                         occasion would frown slightly, as if
                                         considering us to be neglecting our
                                         parental duties.
                             Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
                       Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
                       behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
 on occasion: now and an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
                        then
                       nearby would
    It has, on occasion, created trouble come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his
    for the bank.      lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
    你有时使人们感到诧异。        hold onto Benjamin’s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it
    You have on occasion surprised people.   directly toward the slot, reposition it as
CF:                                          necessary, and help him to insert it.
    on occasion & on the occasion of         The “teacher” would then smile
    这两个词组非常相似,但意思不同。
    on occasion     有时,间或                    somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
    on the occasion of 在„„之际                 as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
    on the occasion of sb.'s wedding
                                             occasion would frown slightly, as if
                                             considering us to be neglecting our
                                             parental duties.
                                 Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
                            Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
                            behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
neglect: vt. give too littlean interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
                             attention or care to
                            and sleep
   neglect one’s meals nearby would come over to watch Benjamin and, noting his
   离开时别忘了锁门。 lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
   Don't neglect to lockhold onto Benjamin’s hand and, gently but firmly, guide it
                             the door when
   you leave.
 CF:                                              directly toward the slot, reposition it as
    neglect, ignore & omit 这几个词都有忽略、遗漏之意。         necessary, and help him to insert it.
    neglect 指对职责、义务或应做的事没有给予足够的注意。
    这种忘记可能是有意的,也可能是无意的。例如:
                                                  The “teacher” would then smile
                                                  somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
    Those who neglect their duties should be punished.
                                                  as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
     玩忽职守者应受惩罚。
                                                  occasion would frown slightly, as if
    Why do they always neglect the traffic regulation?
     他们为什么老是不注意遵守交通规则呢?                           considering us to be neglecting our
                                                  parental duties.
                               Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow
                           Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory
                           behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed
 ignore 指疏忽、不顾,强调对某人或某物故意不理会,有时还带有固
                           an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member
         执地拒绝的意味。例如:
                           nearby would but he over to
   When I saw Tom, I stopped to greet him,come ignored watch Benjamin and, noting his
   me and walked on. lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would
                           hold onto Benjamin’s hand
   当我看到汤姆时,我停下来和他打招呼,但他没有理我继续往前走。 and, gently but firmly, guide it
   The teacher ignored my difficult questions.
                                               directly toward the slot, reposition it as
   老师对我的难题置之不理。
omit 指因专注或疏忽而忘记某事,这种失误可能是有意或无意的。该词
                                               necessary, and help him to insert it.
     还可指删除不利或不必要的东西。例如:                        The “teacher” would then smile
    She should not omit to visit the museum.   somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me,
    她不应忘了去参观博物馆。
                                               as if awaiting a thank you -- and on
    The third part of the book may be omitted. occasion would frown slightly, as if
    该书的第三部分可以删掉。                               considering us to be neglecting our
                                               parental duties.
    I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
my discussions with Chinese educators.
  TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
     With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
 displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
 Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
 slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
 slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
 enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
 possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                             I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                         our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                         early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
relevant: adj. directly connected with the subject
                         throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
                         before whether he's a to lawyer.
      His color is not relevant tolong I begangoodintroduce the key-slot anecdote into
                         my discussions with Chinese educators.
     该证据与此案有关。
                           TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
                              With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
     The evidence is relevant to the case.
                          displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
 Pattern: be relevant to  Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
                          slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
                          slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
                          enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                          possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                                 I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                            our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                            early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
investigate:
                            throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
 1. vt. try to find out information about
                            before long plane crash occurred.
    Scientists are investigating how the I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
                            my investigate it thoroughly.
    If you hear such a rumor,discussions with Chinese educators.
                              TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
 2. vi. make a detailed inquiry
     investigate into an affair
                                  With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
     investigate into a rumor
                             displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
                             Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
 CF: investigate, examine & inspect
       这几个词都有调查、检查之意。        slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
                             slot, and since the child is
       investigate 较正式,指有条不紊地进行调查研究以发现事实真 neither old enough nor clever
       相,更常用于调查案件、情况、背景来历等。例如:
                             enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                             possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                              I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                         our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                         early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
  They investigated the cause of the accident.
                         throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
   他们调查了事故的原因。
                         before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
  The police are investigating the murder.
                         my discussions with Chinese educators.
   警方正在调查这件谋杀案。
                           TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO
examine 是普通用语,指仔细地检查某人或物。该词还指官方主持的检 LEARN
                               With a few exceptions
         查或医生进行的诊察,也表示对某种观点的讨论研究,更指考 my Chinese colleagues
         试。例如:
                          displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
   They examined our passports very carefully.
                          Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
   他们仔细检查了我们的护照。
                          slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
   An optician is qualified to examine your eyes and
                          slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
   prescribe glasses.
                          enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
   眼科医生有资格来检查你的眼睛并给你配眼镜。
                          possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                              I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                         our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                         early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
inspect 较正式,用得不如examine广泛,指对某人或某物进行检
                         throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
        查、查问,带有揭示其差异或缺陷的意思。常指官员们对
                         before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
        于下属单位的视察,还指检阅军队。例如:
                         my discussions with Chinese educators.
      The firemen were inspecting the warehouse for
                           TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
      potential fire hazards.
      消防人员正在检查仓库以防火灾。 a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
                               With
                          displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
      Every length of cloth is inspected before it
      leaves the factory. Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
                          slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
      出厂之前每寸布匹都检查过。
                          slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
                          enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                          possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                            I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                       our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                       early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
                       throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
throw light on: help understand

                        new light on the began
    These facts throwbefore long I matter. to introduce the key-slot anecdote into
                       my discussions with Chinese educators.
                         TWO
     这些事实使人进一步了解此事。 DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
                             With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
                        displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
                        Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
                        slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the
                        slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
                        enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                        possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                              I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to
                         our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of
                         early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to
exception: n. sb./sth. that a comment or statement does
                         throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so
              not apply to
                         before long I began to
       There is an exception to this grammatical rule. introduce the key-slot anecdote into
   这是那项规定的一个明显的例外。       my discussions with Chinese educators.
                            TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
   This is an apparent exception to the rule.
 Pattern: an exception to With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues
 Collocation:             displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling
                          Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key
  with many/few exceptions 有很多/很少例外
  without exception              which is
                          slot, 毫无例外,一律 the ultimate purpose of approaching the
                                 and since the child is neither old enough nor clever
  with the exception of slot, 除„„之外
  make an exception of enough to realize the desired action on his own, what
                                把„„作为例外
  make no exceptions possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?
                               不容许有例外;一视同仁
    He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
modeled for him as well.
    We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                              He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                         desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                         be as by being will learn how to
desirable: adj. worth havinghappy, he useful, advantageous,accomplish the task sooner,
                or pleasing; worth achieving proceed to more complex activities, like
                         and then he can
                         desirable location
  Main Street is a very opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
  for a large department store.
                         accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
                         modeled for him as well.
  It is most desirable that he should
  attend the conference.      We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
 NB:                     explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
                         Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
       antonym: undesirable
                         was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                         that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                         process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                         solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                           He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                       desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                       be do (sth.)
accomplish: vt. manage tohappy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
                       and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
    She's accomplished a great deal in the last few weeks. for the key -- both of which
                       opening the door or asking
                       accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
    这项任务不是在一代人的时间里所能完成的。
                       modeled for him as well.
    The task will not be accomplished in one generation.
                           We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
  Collocation:
                       explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
                                         达到目的
    accomplish one's Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
                       object/goal
    accomplish one's was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                       mission           完成使命
                       that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                       process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                       solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                               He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                         desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                         be happy,
CF: accomplish, complete & finish he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
     这三个词都含“完成”的意思。
                         and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
    accomplish 通常接task, aim, journey, voyage等名词,有
时兼有取得效果之意。例如:            opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
                         accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
     I don't feel our visit really accomplished anything.
                         modeled for him as well.
     我不认为我们的访问真正取得了什么结果。 to such explanations sympathetically and
                               We listened
 complete 比 accomplish 具体,可接建筑、工程、书籍等名词, did not much care whether
                         explained that, first of all, we
              指按预期目的把未完成的工作经过进一步的努力使之完
                         Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
              成,主要涵义是补足缺少的部分。例如:
                         was having the end time and was exploring, two activities
     The building will be completed bya goodof this month.
     这座楼于本月底建成。          that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                         process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                         solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                            He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                       desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                       be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
finish 在许多情况下可与complete换用, 但不及complete正式,
                       and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
常含有认真仔细地完成工作的最后阶段的精工修饰,使之完美的意
思。例如:                  opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
                       accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
     Finish the work off before you leave for your holiday.
                       modeled for him as well.
     你去度假前应先把工作做完。 listened to such explanations sympathetically and
                            We
                       explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
                       Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
                       was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                       that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                       process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                       solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                             He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                        desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
                        be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
in due course: at the proper time; eventually
                        and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
                        opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
     Be patient. You'll get your promotion in due course.
                        accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
        Your book will be published in due course.
                        modeled for him as well.
                             We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
                        explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
                        Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
                        was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                        that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                        process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                        solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                                He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                          desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
critical: adj.
                          be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
  1) very important and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
                          is critical to the door or asking
      A second income opening the family's well-being. for the key -- both of which
                          accomplishments
      接下来的两个礼拜对于公司来说是至关重要的。 can (and should) in due course be
                          modeled for him as well.
      The next two weeks will be critical for the company.
                                We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
 Collocation :            explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
      a critical decision Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He
                                       重大的决定
      a critical moment was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                                       紧要关头,关键时刻
                          that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                          process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                          solve a problem effectively by oneself.
                               He may well get frustrated and angry -- certainly not a
                         desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will
critical: adj.
                         be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner,
                         and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like
  2) very serious or dangerous
                         opening the door or asking for the key -- both of which
      严重短缺食物             accomplishments can (and should) in due course be
      a critical shortagemodeled for him as well.
                          of food
                               We listened to such explanations sympathetically and
 Collocation:
                         explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether
                                  危险状态
      critical condition Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He

      a critical illness was having a good time and was exploring, two activities
                                  重病
                         that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the
                         process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that one can
                         solve a problem effectively by oneself.
    Such self-reliance is a principal value of
child rearing in middle-class America. So
long as the child is shown exactly how to do
something -- whether it be placing a key in a
key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a
misdeed -- he is less likely to figure out
himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more
generally, he is less likely to view life -- as Americans do
-- as a series of situations in which one has to learn to
think for oneself, to solve problems on one’s own and
even to discover new problems for which creative
solutions are wanted.
                               Such self-reliance is a principal value of
                          child rearing in middle-class America. So
principal adj. main; chief
                          long as the child is shown exactly how to do
     the principal food of the people of India
                          something -- whether it be placing a key in a
                           of Europe
     the principal rivers key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a

 CF: principal & principlemisdeed -- he is less likely to figure out
      principal和principle的意思完全不同,但常常被混淆。
                          himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more
 principle                generally, he is less likely to view life -- as Americans do
      仅作名词用,其主要意义指基本的东西或规则和标准。
                          -- as a series of situations in which one has to learn to
 principal
                          think for oneself, to solve problems on one’s own and
     既是名词又是形容词。作为名词,它一般指居于高位或担任重要
                          even to discover new
     角色的人。例如:a meeting among all the principals in problems for which creative
     the transaction。作为形容词,它有主要的或首要的的意思。
                          solutions are wanted.
                                Such self-reliance is a principal value of
                           child rearing in middle-class America. So
rear:
                           long as the child is shown exactly how to do
   1. vt. bring up and educate; look after (animals)
       rear children
                           something -- whether it be placing a key in a
        饲养家禽
                           key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a
       rear poultry        misdeed -- he is less likely to figure out
                           himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more
   2. n. back part
                           generally, he is
       The kitchen is in the rear of the house. less likely to view life -- as Americans do
                           -- as
       停车场在这建筑物的后边。 a series of situations in which one has to learn to

       The parking lot is at the rear of oneself, to solve problems on one’s own and
                           think for the building.
                           even to discover new problems for which creative
                           solutions are wanted.
                            Such self-reliance is a principal value of
                       child rearing in middle-class America. So
                       long as the child is shown exactly how to do
make up for: repay with sth. good; compensate for
                       something -- whether it be placing a key in a
   I didn't travel much when I was younger, but I'm
                       key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a
   certainly making up for lost time now.

   他们加速进行以补回失去的时间。
                       misdeed -- he is less likely to figure out
                       himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more
                        make up for he is less likely to view life -- as Americans do
   They hurried on togenerally, lost time.
                       -- as a series of situations in which one has to learn to
                       think for oneself, to solve problems on one’s own and
                       even to discover new problems for which creative
                       solutions are wanted.
  TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND
     In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident
was indeed key -- and key in more than one sense. It
pointed to important differences in the educational and
artistic practices in our two countries.
     When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came
to Benjamin’s rescue, they did not simply push his hand
down clumsily or uncertainly, as I might have done.
Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and
gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to
realize that these Chinese were not just molding and
shaping Benjamin’s performance in any old manner: In
the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao –
“teaching by holding his hand” -- so much so that he
would happily come back for more.
                           TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND
                              In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident
                        was indeed key -- and key in more than one sense. It
in retrospect: on evaluating the past; upon reflectiondifferences in the educational and
                        pointed to important
                        artistic practices in our two countries.
     There are some things that you only become totally
                              When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came
     conscious of in retrospect.
                        to Benjamin’s rescue, they did not simply push his hand
                        down done is clearly uncertainly, as I might have done.
       In retrospect, what I have clumsily or absurd.
                        Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and
                        gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to
                        realize that these Chinese were not just molding and
                        shaping Benjamin’s performance in any old manner: In
                        the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao –
                        “teaching by holding his hand” -- so much so that he
                        would happily come back for more.
                             TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND
                                In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident
                          was indeed key -- and key in more than one sense. It
facility: n.              pointed to important differences in the educational and
 1) ability to do sth. easily and well
                          artistic practices in our two countries.
      play the piano with facility
                                When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came
      有学习语言的天赋
                          to Benjamin’s rescue, they did not simply push his hand
      have great facility in learning languagesor uncertainly, as I might have done.
                          down clumsily
 2) (pl.) equipment, aids, etc. which they it guided him with extreme facility and
                          Instead, make easy to do things
      sports facilities   gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to
      There are facilitiesrealize that these Chinese were not just molding and
                           for cooking in
      the kitchen.        shaping Benjamin’s performance in any old manner: In
      娱乐设施                the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao –
                          “teaching by holding his hand” -- so much so that he
      entertainment facilities
                          would happily come back for more.
     The idea that learning should take
place by continual careful shaping and
molding applies equally to the arts.
Watching children at work in a classroom
setting, we were astonished by their
facility. Children as young as 5 or 6 were
painting flowers, fish and animals with the skill and
confidence of an adult; calligraphers 9 and 10 years old
were producing works that could have been displayed in
a museum. In a visit to the homes of two of the young
artists, we learned from their parents that they worked
on perfecting their craft for several hours a day.
                                  The idea that learning should take
                            place by continual careful shaping and
apply: vi.                  molding applies equally to the arts.
 1) be relevant; have an effect
                            Watching children at work in a classroom
  Pattern: apply to sb./sth.setting, we were astonished by their
     What I have said does not apply to you.
                            facility. Children as young as 5 or 6 were
     教授的这条建议只适用于一些大学生。
                            painting flowers, fish and animals with the skill and
     The advice given by the professor only applies to
                            confidence of an adult; calligraphers 9 and 10 years old
     some of the college students.
                            were producing works that sth.
 2) write a letter or fill in a form in order to ask formally for could have been displayed in
                            a museum. In to do sth. to the homes of two of the young
  Pattern: apply (to sb.) for sth.       apply a visit
     We applied to the authorities for assistance.
                            artists, we learned from their parents that they worked
     他决定申请参加学生会。
                            on perfecting their craft for several hours a day.
     He decided to apply to join the Student Union.
  CREATIVITY FIRST?
    In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
point equally original.
    One way of summarizing the American position is to
state that we value originality and independence more
than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                             CREATIVITY FIRST?
                                In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                         reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
                         boldest departures first
priority: n. sth. that one must do before anything else and then gradually mastering the
                         tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
    Study is not on his list of priorities.
                         from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
    道路建设应是予以优先考虑的事。
                         point equally original.
                                One way of summarizing the American position is to
    Road building is a state that we value originality and independence more
                          first priority.
                         than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
                         cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
                         harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
                         acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                         the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                             CREATIVITY FIRST?
                               In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                          reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
evolve: vi. develop gradually
                          boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
  Pattern: evolve into 进化成,发展成,逐步形成
                          tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
            evolve from/out of 由„„演化而成;从„„发展而来 time, possibly evolving to a
                          from the tradition, but, over
   The early fish have evolved into some 30,000 different species.
                          point equally original.
    这一简单的计划逐步形成为一项复杂的规划。 of summarizing the American position is to
                               One way
   The simple plan evolved into a complicated scheme.
                          state that we value originality and independence more
                          than evolved from the do.
    Some people believe that we the Chinese apes. The contrast between our two
    这整个想法是从信口说出的一句话发展而来的。 cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
                          harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
    The whole idea evolved from a casual remark.
                          acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                          the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                              CREATIVITY FIRST?
                                In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                           reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
contrast:
                           boldest departures first and
   1. v. compare (two people or things) so that differences then gradually mastering the
      are made clear       tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
                           from B
   Pattern: contrast A with/andthe tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
                           contrasted the government’s
       In her speech she point equally original. optimistic
       promises with its dismal achievements.
                                One way of summarizing the American position is to
       我忍不住把她的态度和她朋友的态度作了对比。
                           state that we value originality and independence more
       I cannot help contrasting her attitude with that
                           than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
       of her friends.
                           cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
    Collocation:
                           harbor. 形成鲜明的对比
       contrast sharply/strikingly Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
                           acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
       contrast startlingly/strongly    形成惊人的/强烈的对比
                           the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                           CREATIVITY FIRST?
                              In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                        reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
2. n. difference between things compared
                        boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
                         the Second and young Chinese being almost inseparable
    The atmosphere of tradition; World War in London
    was a complete contrast to that of the First.
                        from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
    There is a marked contrast between the group’s
                        point equally original.
    actions and its principles.
                              One way of summarizing the American position is to
  Collocation:
                        state that we value originality and independence more
     constitute/form a sharp contrast to 与„„形成鲜明的对照
                        than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
                        cultures
     intensify/sharpen the contrast can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
                                          加强对比
                        harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
     reveal/show a contrast               显示出差别
                        acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                        the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                            CREATIVITY FIRST?
                              In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                          reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
harbor:                   boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
   1. vt. keep (sth.) secretly in one’s mind
                          tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
                          from a death wish.
       He might be harboring the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
                          point equally original.
       harbor thoughts of revenge
                              One way of summarizing the American position is to
                          state that
   2. n. place of shelter for ships we value originality and independence more
                          than the
       The navy has constructed an Chinese do. The contrast between our two
       artificial harbor. cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
                          harbor. harbor during the storm.
       All the ships stayed in the Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
                          acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                          the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                           CREATIVITY FIRST?
                              In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                        reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
                        boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
promote: vt. help to grow or develop
                        tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
    new efforts to promote the world peace
                        from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a
    促进经济发展
                        point equally original.
    promote economic growth   One way of summarizing the American position is to
    牛奶增进健康。
                        state that we value originality and independence more
                        than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
    Milk promotes health.
                        cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
                        harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
                        acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                        the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
                            CREATIVITY FIRST?
                              In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a
                         reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their
CF: promote & further
                         boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the
    这两个词都可指促使某事物朝着预期的目标发展。
                         tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable
    promote 用于事物发展的各个阶段,包括起始阶段。例如:
                         from the tradition, but, over
       promote the understanding between the two countries time, possibly evolving to a
       促进两国之间的相互了解       point equally original.
                              One way of summarizing the American position is to
       The audiolingual method should be promoted.
                         state that we value originality and independence more
       应当推广听说法。
                         than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two
   further 则用于除了起始阶段以外的各个发展阶段。例如:
                         cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both
       Getting a scholarship will further her education.
                         harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not
       获得奖学金可以使她继续深造。    acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on
                         the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity.
    American educators fear that unless creativity has
been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other
hand, skills can be picked up later.
    However, I do not want to overstate my case. There
is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific,
technological and artistic innovations past and present.
And there is a danger of exaggerating creative
breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is
examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements
is all too apparent (the “Standing on the shoulders of
giants” phenomenon).
                              American educators fear that unless creativity has
emerge: vi. come out
                         been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other
                         hand, skills can be picked up later.
         Eventually the truth of the matter emerged.
                              However, I do not want to overstate my case. There
      Large scale industry emerged gradually as technology
                         is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific,
      evolved.
                         technological and artistic innovations past and present.
 Pattern: emerge from/out of
      太阳从云层背后出现。         And there is a danger of exaggerating creative
                         breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is
      The sun emerges from behind
      the clouds.        examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements
                         is all too apparent (the “Standing on the shoulders of
      New evidence emerged from the investigation.
  It emerges that…       giants” phenomenon).
     It later emerged that the driver of the car
     had been drunk.
    But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes
this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
extremes, a superior way to approach education,
perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
creativity and basic skills?
                              But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
                         valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
                         both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes
valid: adj. based on truth or sound reasoning
                         this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
     This is a valid argument against economic growth. way to approach education,
                         extremes, a superior
                         perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
         They have valid reasons for refusing to do it.
                         creativity and basic skills?
                             But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
                        valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
                        both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes
worthwhile: adj. worth doing; worth the trouble taken
                        this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
     Here is some worthwhile advice to any young
                        extremes, a superior way to approach education,
     businessman.
                        perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
     这本书值得一读。 creativity and basic skills?

    It’s a worthwhile book.
                              But assuming that the contrast I have developed is
                          valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are
                          both than others of the same type
superior: better than average orworthwhile goals, the important question becomes

  Pattern: be superior to this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American
            be superior inextremes, a superior way to approach education,
      敌军在数量上占优势。          perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of
                          creativity and basic skills?
     The enemies were superior in numbers.

     这条地毯在质量上远远比那条好。

     This carpet is far superior to that one in quality.
After Reading
  1. Useful Expressions
  2. Spot Dictation
  3. Problem Solving
  4. Discussion
  5. Comparison and Contrast in Writing
     Definition
     An Example
     Useful Expressions for Comparison and Contrast
     Homework
  6. Proverbs and Quotations
           Useful Expressions


1.被系在„„上                be attached to

2.探索行为                  exploratory behavior

3.偶尔                   on occasion


4.父母的责任                parental duties


5. 揭示,阐明                throw light on
            Useful Expressions

6. 最终目的                  ultimate purpose


7.要做的动作                  desired action


8. 所希望的结果                desirable outcome

9.关键                     critical point

10.育儿观                   value of child rearing
            Useful Expressions

11. 弥补某种错误行为      make up for a misdeed


12.回想起来           in retrospect


13. 善意的           well-intentioned


14.前来帮助某人         come to sb.’s rescue


15. 极其熟练地、温和地     with extreme facility and gentleness
            Useful Expressions

16. 适用于                  apply to


17.发展到                   evolve to


18. 发展创造力                promote creativity


19.值得追求的目标               worthwhile goals
                      Spot Dictation
  You probably think you will never be a              student.
This is not necessarily so, however. Anyone can become a
better           if he or she wants to. It is true that you may
not be                  about everything that you study, but by
using your time properly you may improve your grades
without                 work. Here’s how:
1.                   carefully.
2.Find a good place to study.
3.            before you read.


     II   ■
                        Spot Dictation
4.                        your time in class.
5.Study             .
6.Develop                        about tests.

  There are other             that might help you with your
studying. Only a few have been mentioned here. You will
probably discover many others after you have tried these.
                      Problem Solving

    Imagine yourselves to be slow learners and tell the class
what difficulties you have in your English study. The rest of
the class should be ready to help find out your problems,
offer advice and help to improve your study habits.
                       Discussion
1. What do you think is more important, creativity or basic
   skills?
2. How do you comment on the learning methods you used in
   high school?
3. Are you employing new learning methods helpful to the
   study of college courses? What are they?
4. In your opinion, can we find a better way to approach
   education, which strikes a better balance between the
   poles of creativity and basic skills?
            Comparison and Contrast in Writing
Definition
Comparison and contrast come in three different ways.
1. Comparison: You are asked to explain how two or more things
   are alike.
2. Contrast: You are asked to explain how two or more
   things are different.
3. Comparison and contrast: You are asked to explain how
   two or more things are alike and different.
             Comparison and Contrast in Writing
  An Example
   Here are two different ways (T-Chart and Venn Diagram) to
organize information. As an example, we will look at the
Smilodon and the Caribou -- two animals that lived during the
Ice Ages.
  1.The T-Chart:
             Characteristics   Smilodon        Caribou
             environment        the Arctic     the Arctic
             diet              meat            plants
             weapons           teeth, claw     antlers, hooves
             teeth             sharp, pointed blunt, rounded
             animal group       mammal        mammal
             when it lived      Ice Ages      Ice Ages to present
          Comparison and Contrast in Writing
An Example
2. The Venn Diagram:




   Questions:
1. Compare: How were the caribou and the smilodon alike?
2. Contrast: How were the smilodon and the caribou different?
          Comparison and Contrast in Writing
An Example
2. The Venn Diagram:




     The caribou and the smilodon were both
  mammals. The smilodon lived in the Arctic regions
  during the Ice Ages, as did the caribou. Like the
  smilodon, the caribou was able to protect itself
  from predators.
          Comparison and Contrast in Writing
An Example
2. The Venn Diagram:




   Although the caribou and the smilodon were both mammals,
they were very different in many ways. The caribou was a plant-
eater, unlike the smilodon, which ate meat. The caribou had
blunt, rounded teeth for eating plants, whereas the smilodon
had sharp, pointed ones. The smilodon became extinct at the
end of the Ice Ages, in contrast to the caribou, which still lives in
the Arctic regions today.
    Comparison and Contrast in Writing
Useful Expressions for Comparison and Contrast
 Comparison          Contrast
 like                unlike
 the same as         in contrast to
 alike               different from
 similar             less
 likewise            whereas
 and, as well as     however
 also, too           but
 just as, as do,
 as did, as does     as opposed to
 both                on the other hand
            Comparison and Contrast in Writing
   Homework
   Read the following paragraphs and think about how freezing
rain and sleet are alike and different from each other. Use the
Venn Diagram to compare and contrast them. When you are
finished, write a short paragraph explaining how they are alike
and different.


                         Winter Precipitation:
                         Sleet and Freezing Rain
Sleet
   Sleet is the second type of winter precipitation (降雨). Sleet
is raindrops which freeze into ice pellets (小球) before hitting
the ground. It usually bounces (弹起) off the surfaces that it
hits and does not stick to things. It can, however, accumulate
like snow. This can be dangerous, especially to drivers on the
road.
 Freezing Rain
   Freezing rain is rain which falls onto a surface which has a
temperature below freezing. The rain then freezes when it hits
the surface, such as a road, because the temperature of the
surface is less than 32 degrees Fahrenheit. This is very
dangerous because the freezing rain forms a coating of ice on
the surface it hits. If the surface were a road or sidewalk, it
could cause people traveling on it to slip or have an accident.
                Proverbs and Quotations

1. There is no end to learning.

学无止境。

2. What is learned in the cradle is carried to the grave.

摇篮里学到的东西终身受用。

3. Questioning is the door of knowledge.

提问为通向知识之门。
                 Proverbs and Quotations
4. No man ever yet became great by imitation.
        -- Samuel Johnson, British lexicographer and writer
 模仿不成大器。
        -- 英国词典编纂者和作家 塞缪尔·约翰逊
5.I forget what I was taught, I only remember what I have
  learned.
                          -- Patrick White, British novelist

 我忘了别人教我的东西,我只记得我自己学的东西。
                -- 英国小说家 P. 怀特

				
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