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USCG Renewable Energy Resource Assessment

VIEWS: 91 PAGES: 76

									Department of Homeland Security
  Renewable Energy Resource
         Assessment



  Prepared for Paul Fennewald
        Energy Manager
Department of Homeland Security




          Prepared by Robi Robichaud
  Federal Energy Management Program at the
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

               December 28, 2005
                       USCG Renewable Energy Resource Assessment

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 5
Overview ............................................................................................................................. 8
  Background ..................................................................................................................... 9
  Methodology for resource assessment .......................................................................... 11
  Resources not examined at this time............................................................................. 12
  Incentives ...................................................................................................................... 12
  Solar resource assessment ............................................................................................. 13
  Wind resource assessment ............................................................................................ 24
  Geothermal resource assessment .................................................................................. 29
  Biomass resource assessment ....................................................................................... 33
  Conclusions and recommendations............................................................................... 36
Appendix ........................................................................................................................... 40
  Solar resource assessment ............................................................................................. 40
  Wind resource assessment ............................................................................................ 47
  Geothermal resource assessment .................................................................................. 56
  Biomass resource assessment ....................................................................................... 65




                                                                                                                                      2
List of Figures
Figure 1 Annual daily insolation pattern integrated into a yearly average of 5.5 sun-
hours/day ........................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 2 Average daily solar radiation at various tilt angles in Boulder, CO .................. 16
Figure 3 Average annual daily solar radiation per month on a flat plate collector at
latitude tilt ......................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 4 Map of vertical solar resource overlaid with heating degree day requirements . 23
Figure 5 U.S. Annual Wind Power Resource .................................................................. 26
Figure 6 Annual ground temperature profile from mean surface temperature ( Tm ) ....... 29
Figure 7 Seasonal periodic soil temperature variation at the surface and 2, 5, and 12 ft 30
Figure 8 Annual daily insolation pattern integrated into a yearly average of 5.5 sun-
hours/day ........................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 9 National Solar Radiation Data Base Map of Sites.............................................. 41
Figure 10 Annual average daily solar radiation on south-facing vertical wall ................. 45
Figure 11 Average daily solar radiation on south-facing vertical wall in January ........... 46
Figure 12 Percent U.S. land with Class 3 or above wind resource ................................... 50
Figure 13 Seasonal periodic soil temperature variation at the surface and 2, 5, and 12 ft
........................................................................................................................................... 58




                                                                                                                                            3
List of Tables
Table 1 Compilation of USCG renewable energy resources ............................................. 7
Table 2 Average annual daily solar radiation at fixed tilt equal to latitude at active USCG
sites ................................................................................................................................... 18
Table 3 Average annual daily solar radiation at fixed tilt equal to latitude at active USCG
sites ................................................................................................................................... 19
Table 4 Average annual daily solar radiation vertical collectors at active USCG sites .. 20
Table 5 Classes of Wind Power Density.......................................................................... 25
Table 6 USCG sites with Class 4 or better wind resource ............................................... 28
Table 7 USCG sites with high temperature geothermal resource .................................... 32
Table 8 Cumulative biomass resources available at USCG sites within county borders 35
Table 9 Compilation of USCG renewable energy resources ........................................... 39
Table 10 USCG Class 3 wind sites .................................................................................. 52
Table 11 USCG Class 3 wind sites (cont). ...................................................................... 53
Table 12 USCG Class 3 wind sites (cont). ...................................................................... 54
Table 13 USCG Class 3 wind sites (cont). ...................................................................... 55
Table 14 USCG sites with medium temperature geothermal resource ............................ 60
Table 15 USCG sites with medium temperature geothermal resource (cont.) ................ 61
Table 16 USCG sites with medium temperature geothermal resource (cont.) ................ 62
Table 17 Landfill gas emissions available within county borders of USCG sites ........... 67
Table 18 Wastewater treatment methane available within county borders of USCG sites
........................................................................................................................................... 68
Table 19 Primary mill residue available within county borders of USCG sites ............... 69
Table 20 Secondary mill residue available within county borders of USCG sites .......... 70
Table 21 Urban residue available within county borders of USCG sites ........................ 71
Table 22 Forest residue available within county borders of USCG sites ........................ 72
Table 23 Crop residue available within county borders of USCG sites .......................... 73
Table 24 Livestock methane emissions available within county borders of USCG sites 74
Table 25 Dedicated energy crops available within county borders of USCG sites ......... 75




                                                                                                                                            4
Executive Summary
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) requested the Federal Energy
Management Program (FEMP) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
conduct a broad renewable energy resource assessment targeting all U.S. Coast Guard
(USCG) facilities. This work was undertaken as the initial phase in a multi-phase plan to
incorporate on-site renewable energy projects to facilitate DHS meeting their renewable
energy goals. The DHS has developed a 10-year plan, Renewable Energy Plan (REP) to
move the department forward ahead of targets for renewable energy consumption for
Federal agencies established by Public Law 109-58, aka the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

The objective of this assessment is to identify, within each renewable energy resource
category, USCG sites that have the best available renewable energy resources to enable a
prioritization process to begin to take advantage of sites with the most promising
renewable energy resources.

NREL's analysis has clearly shown that there are a sizable number of USCG sites with
significant renewable energy resources, in many cases there is a multiplicity of these
resources. There are dozens of sites across the southern third of the country with an
excellent solar resource for photovoltaic and solar hot water applications with average
annual daily insolation of 5.7-6.5 kWh/m2/day. For transpired solar collectors that are
typically mounted on vertical south-facing walls, there were sites in wide range of states
in both northern and southern regions that could reduce heating loads considerably from a
solar input in the range of 4.3-5.1 MMBtu/m2/year

Wind analysis revealed 69 sites with Class 4 wind or better within one mile. The
economics of on-site wind projects with a Class 4 wind site can be competitive with
utility electricity rates in many parts of the country and could potentially be suitable for
wind farm development. Over 270 Class 3 or better wind sites were identified that hold
economic promise for on-site generation and subsequent load reduction.

Geothermal resource assessment revealed potential opportunities to generate electric
power at 59 high temperature sites. There were 245 sites identified with medium
temperature resource suitable for process loads such as fish farming, crop drying, etc.
Additionally, ground source heat pumps can save money and energy at virtually every
USCG site with appropriate site/load criteria.

Biomass opportunities exist at numerous sites in reasonable proximity to landfill and
wastewater treatment gas, and with mill, urban, agricultural, or forest residues all located
within county borders.

The wide variety of potential across a handful of renewable resources speaks to the wide
range of opportunities for the USCG to meet multiple agency objectives by diversifying
its energy production and consumption profile to include a broad range of renewable
energy resources and technologies. Additionally, it will increase agency energy security,



                                                                                               5
reduce vulnerability to price spikes and supply shortages, and reduce overall emissions
associated with the agency.

The next critical phase of reaching its REP goals involves matching the identified
renewable energy resources with on-site loads and the appropriate technology to create
cost effective, energy saving projects. The FEMP group at NREL has extensive
experience working with federal agencies implementing on-site renewable energy
projects and can provide direction and assistance to USCG in screening resources with
available technologies for detailed feasibility studies, selecting those projects with the
best overall economics, writing RFP specifications, evaluating submitted proposals, etc.
Detailed site specific data regarding loads, load profiles, energy sources and costs, etc.
will need to be obtained in the next phase to optimally match the resource with the load
and most appropriate renewable energy technology.

A wide range of conclusions and recommendations can be seen beginning on page 35.
Given its aggressive RE goals, DHS must begin initial phases of feasibility studies and
create replicable processes across renewable resources and technologies for project
initiation, development, implementation and commissioning.

To assist DHS and the USCG in identifying sites with multiple renewable energy
resources available, an arbitrary ranking has been applied across the multiple renewable
energy resources analyzed for this report. The results can be seen in Table 1 on the
following page. For scoring purposes, twenty points represents the top tier of a particular
resource, and the score was reduced by 4 points within each of 5 intervals (20-16-12-8-4),
with the exception of geothermal which only had 3 intermediate intervals (16-12-8). The
detailed rankings with the actual resource quantity can be seen in tables throughout the
body of the report and with further details and resource delineation in the appendix.




                                                                                             6
Table 1 Compilation of USCG renewable energy resources

Active USCG sites ranked for overall renewable energy resource availability
                 Active                                                                                                                                        Total Renewable
  ATU_     NREL     _                                                                                  Solar        Solar       Solar                             Resource
 OPFAC     Recno Station              NAME           Latitude Longitude      City     State   Wind   fixed tilt   horizontal   vertical   Biomass Geothermal     Assessment
14-30143   3759     Y    CG STA MAUI                  20.8     -156.5 WAILUKU          HI      20       16            16          0           0        8              60
08-40115   2442     Y    CG LORSTA LAS CRUCES         32.1     -106.7 LA MESA          NM       0       20            16          8           0       16              60
11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT        35.5     -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT      NV       0       20            16         12           0       12              60
46-68160   2917     Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE       35.1     -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE      NM       0       20            16         12           0       12              60
46-68174   3065     Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5     -112.1 PHOENIX          AZ       0       20            16         12           0       12              60
08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY         36.6     -102.8 FELT             OK       4       16            12          8           0       12              52
11-30670   3752     Y    CG STA LAKE TAHOE            39.2     -120.1 TAHOE CITY       CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
11-40139   2434     Y    CG LORSTA FALLON             39.5     -118.8 FALLON           NV       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
11-40141   2445     Y    CG LORSTA MIDDLETOWN         38.8     -122.6 MIDDLETOWN       CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
21-32460    524     Y    CG CAMSPAC SAN FRAN          38.1     -122.8 PT REYES STA     CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
33-51252   2819     Y    378 WHEC MAT-ALAMEDA         37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
33-53740   1326     Y    CG ESD PETALUMA              38.2     -122.7 PETALUMA         CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
58-34360   3919     Y    CG PACIFIC STRIKE TEAM       38.1     -122.5 NOVATO           CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
01-33130   2521     Y    CG MIO NEW YORK              40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
01-36222   1462     Y    CG GROUP NEW YORK            40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
01-41855   4329     Y    CG VTS NEW YORK              40.7      -74.0 GOVERNORS ISL    NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
32-45000   4037     Y    CPRO GOVERNORS ISLAND        40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
44-68129   3044     Y    CG RUITOFF NEW YORK          40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
47-77103    692     Y    CGIS DET NEW YORK            40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
11-30462   3705     Y    CG STA BODEGA BAY            38.3     -123.1 BODEGA BAY       CA       8       12             8          4           0       16              48
14-31250    497     Y    CG BASE HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
14-37340   3305     Y    SEC HONO ADMIN/PERS DIV      21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
14-40301   2865     Y    CG OMSTA HAWAII              21.5     -157.9 KANEOHE          HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
14-41990    213     Y    CG ANT HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
21-34268   2791     Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU          21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-47810   2102     Y    CG ISC HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-51228   1369     Y    CG EMD ALAMEDA               37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA       0       12            12          8           0       16              48
33-51230   1370     Y    CG EMD HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-51254   2820     Y    378 WHEC MAT-HONOLULU        21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-53500   1411     Y    ESU Honolulu                 21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
47-77100    693     Y    CGIS DET PETALUMA            38.2     -122.7 PETALUMA         CA       0       16            12          4           0       16              48
11-20170    140     Y    AIRSTA SAN DIEG PERSRU       32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-20253    160     Y    CG AIRSTA LOS ANGELES        33.9     -118.4 LOS ANGELES      CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-30888   3792     Y    CG STA SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-33255   2710     Y    CG MSO SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-36261   1557     Y    Group San Diego              32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-37250   3545     Y    SEC SAN DIEGO ADMIN/PERS DIV 32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-41982    241     Y    CG ANT SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-73135    112     Y    CG ACTIVITIES SAN DIEGO      32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-34269   2793     Y    MSST 91109 SAN DIEGO         32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-34301   4100     Y    CG PACAREA TACLET            32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-34404    520     Y    CG UNIT C3I CTR WEST         33.9     -117.3 MARCH AFB        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-83101   1600     Y    NCWGRU ONE                   32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-83110   1590     Y    CGRU HDCU 110                32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
33-53720   1360     Y    ESD SAN DIEGO                32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
46-68175   3097     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN DIEGO         32.8     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
46-68176   3081     Y    CG RUITOFF RIVERSIDE         34.1     -117.3 COLTON           CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
47-77100    687     Y    CGIS DET LA/LB               33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
47-77100    683     Y    CGIS DET HONOLULU            21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       0       16            16          8           0        8              48
Overview
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) requested a detailed renewable energy
(RE) resource assessment by undertaken by the Federal Energy Management Program
(FEMP) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) targeting the U.S. Coast
Guard (USCG) facility sites in support of the DHS Renewable Energy Plan (REP)1.

The DHS REP is a 10-year plan with measurable intermediate and long-term goals. The
plan states that RE resources will provide 7.5% of the Department‟s total annual energy
requirements by 2010, which is even more aggressive than the goals of EPACT 2005.
By 2015, 15% of the department‟s total energy requirements will come from renewable
sources. Presently, renewable resources supply only 0.009%, or about 60 MWh, of
DHS‟s annual energy consumption2. Clearly, there is much work to be done to meet the
RE goals of the REP. This renewable energy assessment by FEMP NREL helps to lay the
groundwork for subsequent phases of work to enable implementation of on-site
renewable energy projects to meet DHS‟s multiple goals.

DHS has identified several objectives as they progress to meeting the goals of the REP,
including:
     Enhance energy security while minimizing vulnerability to energy supply and
       infrastructure disruptions through use of RE systems
     Pursue all viable opportunities for RE acquisition including implementing
       renewable energy technologies, such as wind turbines, solar electric and thermal,
       biomass electric and thermal, geothermal, and wave energy systems; or
       purchasing renewable energy power or certificates
     Enhance organizational excellence objectives through effective energy
       management, energy efficiency, and source supply

The DHS REP outlines five strategies for meeting the plan‟s goals:
    Enhance agency awareness of RE potential
    Identify RE opportunities
    Advance RE acquisitions
    Maximize use of RE technologies
    Secure funding and resources

The DHS desires to become a leader among Federal agencies by demonstrating how RE
technologies can help reduce dependence on conventional energy sources while
improving departmental energy security. In the process, they will be able to reduce
energy bills overall and their susceptibility to price fluctuations; reduce greenhouse gas
emissions associated with their operations (i.e., the department is responsible for the
emissions generated from electricity they purchase from a utility)



1
    Draft – DHS RE Strategic Implementation Plan, May 9, 2005
2
    Draft – DHS RE Strategic Implementation Plan, May 9, 2005
This renewable energy resource assessment has been undertaken to meet the first two of
the five goals listed above. The assessment examined every USCG site and matched the
site with locally available renewable energy resources. FEMP compiled information
from a variety of resource databases at NREL and available through the Platts database3.
The data was sorted to identify the most viable resource among the top USCG sites
within each resource category. The intent was to target the top 50 sites, but due to the
screening data resolution, there often were a lot of sites with approximately the same
resource level available. Rather than arbitrarily cutting a particular list off at 50 sites, the
list includes roughly the top 50 sites and all others at that same resource level. The
ultimate goal in the use of this assessment is to match the renewable energy resource with
the appropriate technology and appropriate site loads to maximize the utilization of the
renewable resource within a cost effective framework.

All discussion of the particular resource will be oriented towards the eventual application,
so caveats developed, assumptions made, and choice of particulars aspects of a resource
for evaluation are all derived from the expected requirements of the eventual installed
system.


Background
The U.S. Government is the world‟s largest consumer of energy and the DHS ranks in the
top ten in energy consumption among Federal agencies. Established legislation and
executive orders direct Federal agencies to better manage their energy use and utilize
cost-effective alternative fuels and renewable energy (RE) resources. The Executive
Order (E.O.) 13123, “Greening the Government through Energy-Efficient
Management4,” directs agencies to “strive to have the equivalent of 2.5 percent of
facilities‟ electricity consumption come from new renewable energy sources by 2005.”
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (aka EPACT 2005, though officially known as Public
Law 109-58) establishes the goal for Federal agencies to incrementally increase their use
of renewable energy such that at least 7.5% of their energy come from renewable sources
by 20135.

As outlined above, the DHS intends to exceed the requirements of EPACT 2005. This
assessment is the necessary first step in meeting both their intermediate and long-term
renewable energy goals. The objective of the assessment was to assemble all the RE
resource information for all USCG sites and then to determine, RE resource by RE
resource, those sites that hold the most promise for the development of on-site renewable
energy projects at some point in the future. These sites were then rank ordered (with
differing criteria due to the differing nature of the resource availability, normal
quantifying practices for that resource, and the appropriate technology applications) to
provide guidance to DHS in prioritizing the best opportunities for meeting the goals of
their REP.

3
  Platts, web site: http://www.platts.com/Analytic%20Solutions/POWERvision/
4
  Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy Management, Executive Order 13123 of June 3,
1999. Web page: http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/eo13123.pdf
5
  Aug. 8, 2005, Public Law 109-58, Title I, Subtitle A, § 105


                                                                                                  9
When viewing renewable energy resources, the assumption is often to find that one
renewable energy resource that will meet all of the electrical power needs for a facility or
all of the heating and cooling loads. And if a renewable resource comes up short, it has
often been viewed as proof that we need to rely on fossil fuels because „renewable
technologies are not reliable enough‟ or „renewable technologies just don‟t work‟. This
represents a relatively naïve and imbalanced view of energy sources in general. The
source of electricity for most facilities, businesses, etc. is a utility. The utility typically
has several fuel or electricity-producing sources – i.e., coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro.
The multiple fuel sources and technology applications enables the utility to most
optimally deploy the technologies and fuel sources necessary to meet their fluctuating
loads. The multiple energy sources afford them the greatest flexibility in cost effectively
meeting customer demand and loads. This same multiple energy source perspective can
be and should be incorporated into facilities management practices and will provide
added flexibility, reliability and improved cost stability in meeting energy loads.

Too many facilities and businesses have relied upon a single source for supplying their
electrical or thermal loads. And when a power outage, energy supply shortage or price
spike hits, these businesses/facilities have come to realize the hard way just how
vulnerable they are to these price or supply fluctuations. Back-up uninterrupted power
supply (UPS) systems have become the common answer for the most critical loads (i.e.,
computers, networks, etc.). However, a large portion of the business, facility or
organization is usually impacted significantly by these events.

Federal agencies are particularly vulnerable to price and/or supply fluctuations in that
their energy and O&M budgets tend to be fairly stable or fixed and cannot easily
accommodate rapid price increased for energy. Sane, measured approaches to reducing
an agency‟s vulnerability include:

      Reducing energy consumption overall through conservation (i.e., not using energy
       if you don‟t need to – turn off the lights if no one is using them)
      Increasing the energy efficiency of all energy uses (higher efficiency motors,
       pumps, lights, etc.)
      Reduce loads through efficiency combined with renewables (e.g., incorporating
       daylighting that reduces electric lighting loads which reduces cooling loads)
      Substituting renewable energy sources for conventional energy sources for at least
       part of their energy requirements (solar hot water, transpired solar collectors, etc.)

In introducing renewable energy technologies into the energy infrastructure of a
particular site, the multiple incentives to do so can include a desire to:
     Reduce energy bills by using available free (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) or cost
        effective (i.e., biomass) renewable sources
     Reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and the by-product emissions
     Reduce the supply interruption and security risk of single or small number of
        energy or fuel sources
     Improve overall system reliability


                                                                                             10
Many of the technologies that are discussed in this report are best viewed as
‘opportunities to reduce utility bills by providing a portion of the energy required at
lower costs than the existing system by taking advantage of locally available renewable
sources’. Typically, regardless of the size of the renewable energy resource, the
opportunities available that will provide the greatest economic benefit are those that are
optimally sized for the existing loads for maximum utilization.

Sizing a renewable system to meet the entire load every hour of the year often leads to
systems that are oversized and must stand idle or have their available energy otherwise
dissipated for significant portions of the year as a system designed for maximum load has
excess capacity at normal loads. Better utilization of the renewable resource is often
achieved by sizing systems so that all of the renewable energy produced, when the
system is producing its maximum, is utilized and there is never any excess capacity. This
system will only meet a portion of the load, but the renewable energy will always be used
with no excess or wasted energy. Though the concept of excess capacity holds some
appeal, the current economics of it point to maximizing overall systems efficiency.

Using renewable energy systems, with adequate renewable resource, to meet part of the
facility heating load, part of the hot water load, and part of the electricity load with
multiple renewable energy technologies will improve energy security and provide a
hedge against fossil fuel price increases. Agency-wide, there is no single resource that
can adequately meet the DHS multiple goals and casting a wider net taking advantage of
all opportunities is the overall recommended strategy.


Methodology for resource assessment
Detailed site information was provided that listed every building on every USCG site.
For purposes of this report, the USCG sites were consolidated such that each site is
considered as a single entity, whether that entity consists of one small building or four
hundred large and small buildings. This reduced the number of sites assessed from 4,350
to 1,223 specific sites. Also, only those 850 sites listed as active in the supplied database
were counted in the final screenings. Those not active, however, are still present in the
renewable energy assessment database and can be „re-activated‟ readily at USCG‟s
request.

At subsequent (future) phases of the DHS REP implementation, building specific data
will be used to establish resource appropriate and technology specific recommendations
for projects that merit a site-specific feasibility study.

For this report for each listed site, renewable energy resources databases were utilized in
conjunction with the latitude and longitude coordinates for site to determine the extent of
the available resource for solar, biomass, wind and geothermal resources. For solar and
geothermal, the resource listed is essentially that available on-site. The wind resource is
characterized by Class 4 and above wind resource within one mile of the site. The
various biomass resources were characterized by tonnage available within the county.


                                                                                           11
Resources not examined at this time
The DHS REP identifies hydrogen (assumed to be hydrogen fuel cell technology) and
wave energy as resources to be analyzed for meeting the departmental renewable energy
goals. The technologies that utilize these resources are considered to be emerging
technologies in the developmental stage at this time. The decision was made to not
include these technologies in this assessment as the requisite initial system costs and
O&M combined with operational issues and reliability concerns make them considerably
more expensive than other available technologies. The time frame for rolling out these
technologies in cost effective applications appears to extend beyond the REP time frame.
It is expected that significant progress will be made over the next decade or two
regarding both cost and performance and these technologies should be re-visited
periodically as more cost effective opportunities emerge.

As hydrogen is not an energy source, it is merely an energy storage medium, the method
for generating it essentially determines whether it can broadly be considered for inclusion
as a renewable energy resource. Hydrogen can be separated from various compounds,
most notably water (for fossil fuel conservation purposes), using both fossil-fueled or
renewable energy systems. It currently is not considered cost effective, compared to other
energy storage devices, to make and store hydrogen for later use with either fossil fuel or
renewable energy systems. With the requisite multiple energy transformations, the overall
efficiencies are quite low. There is considerable research underway on all aspects of
hydrogen production, storage and use and it is expected that both technologies for doing
so will be refined and improved and overall costs will be reduced in the coming years. In
later years of the DHS REP, hydrogen may be considered an economically viable
technology for the DHS, however, at this time, any projects that include hydrogen should
be viewed as demonstration projects with a different set of economic and performance
expectations.


Incentives
Financial incentives in the form of rebates, tax credits, renewable energy certificates
(REC‟s), renewable energy premium payments, or cost sharing for renewable energy
projects vary by technology, state, or type of entity (i.e., business, homeowner, state or
federal agency, etc.). Incentives, such at the production tax credit (PTC) for wind or
rebates of $xx/W for installed PV systems, are often critical to the economics of a
renewable energy project. Incentives are generally tied to specific technologies and have
system size requirements and limits.

There are other important factors, such as renewable energy system ownership, to
consider with utilization of incentives. One factor is that tax credits are sometimes
available, however, federal agencies are tax exempt so they are excluded from this
benefit, unless an alternative form of system ownership is developed. For example, in the
wind industry, the 1.5 cents/kWh PTC has a limited life (10 years) and a company with a
large enough tax liability will often own the wind farm while the PTC is available, then
ownership will revert to another party in the transaction after the PTC has been
exhausted.


                                                                                        12
In the new energy bill, there is a 30% business solar investment tax credit and a 5-year
depreciation allowance (vs. normal equipment life of 10, 20 or 25 years). Again, these
financial incentives do apply to a private or commercial enterprise, but not to a federal
agency. Developing new, unique partnerships with the private or commercial sector can
open the door to more attractive economics provided the cost savings are passed on to the
federal agency.

As the incentives and possible partnership opportunities are items that should be explored
in detail when specific renewable energy technologies are matched with the available
renewable energy resources at a particular site, and broad generalizations do not lend
themselves to enhanced opportunities, they will not be addressed further in this
assessment. It is expected that in subsequent phases of the REP, site specific feasibility
studies will be developed that consider all of the available incentives, partnership
opportunities and the technologies to which they apply.


Solar resource assessment
The solar resource available outside the Earth‟s atmosphere is collectively immense and
it always available. The amount of power delivered by the sun to space just outside the
Earth‟s atmosphere is referred to as the solar constant. Technically, it is the solar power
flux that passes through the mean Earth orbit.6 The currently accepted value is 1,367
W/m2. The solar radiation that gets filtered through the atmosphere with its
accompanying clouds, moisture, pollution, etc. is still enormous, though availability
follows daily and seasonal patterns occasionally interrupted by weather events. Even still,
the sun radiates 1.7 x 1017 Watts of power to the earth every hour! The challenge in
working with the solar resource for electricity generating applications is that the resource
is relatively diffuse and unconcentrated.

For making electricity, only bands of the solar spectrum within the visible light
wavelengths are utilized and the objective for PV researchers and manufacturers is to
utilize as much of that available energy as possible. For heating applications, whether for
space (air) or materials (mass), the light energy is transformed into heat energy as it
strikes a surface and is absorbed.

On earth, even in the sunniest, driest climates, the amount of solar radiation is lower than
the solar constant due to atmospheric attenuation. In the continental U.S., the intensity of
solar radiation during the middle 6-8 hours of the day is usually in the 500-1000 W/m2
range. A daily pattern of insolation intensity can be seen in the graph below.

To facilitate climate comparison and predict system performance, the amount of solar
radiation that falls on a collector throughout the day has been integrated to determine the
area under the curve. The conventional level of intensity is 1,000 W/m2 (1kW/m2)
termed peak sun-hours. The solar resource at a site is often reported in sun-hours/day

6
    http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/glossary/gloss_s.html


                                                                                         13
which equates to kWh/ m2/day. There have been extensive weather data collection efforts
throughout the U.S. for number of years and with a wide variety of data collectors, end
users and end uses in mind.




Figure 1 Annual daily insolation pattern integrated into a yearly average of 5.5 sun-hours/day
Source: http://www.solarexpert.com/grid-tie/system-performance-factors.html

The solar radiation resource data that was selected for resource analysis for USCG with
particular solar technology applications in mind were chosen for three primary
application purposes:

       Solar hot water or photovoltaic (PV) systems that are most commonly operated at
        a fixed tilt angle that corresponds to the local latitude
       Transpired solar collectors that mostly commonly are added on to or affixed in
        front of vertical south-facing exterior walls
       Horizontal roof-mounted PV systems that have gained popularity due to relative
        installation simplicity

The data is reported as average annual daily solar radiation (aka insolation) on the
selected surface in units of kWh/m2/yr. The data selected is most useful for estimating
annual system performance.

It should be noted that the difference in solar resource from one location to another
nearby, especially on an annual basis, tends to be minimal except for differences caused
by viewable, topographical features such as large buildings or trees that may shade a
particular location for a significant part of the day or for seasonal times of the year. On a
slightly larger scale, proximity to mountains/mountain ranges or large bodies of water
can result in larger variations for sites within relative proximity to each other. The coast


                                                                                                 14
of California is one such place where the fog near the coasts tends to scatter the direct
beam solar radiation significantly which would lead to proportionately lower system
performance.

An important point to note, and an advantage of solar compared to other renewable
resources, is the fact that the variation of the solar resource from best-to-worst locations
varies by roughly a factor of two. This means that a solar project can be done essentially
anywhere, though twice as many square feet of PV or solar collector might be needed for
a location with a low solar resource vs. a location with a high solar resource. The key
parameters for determining cost effective applications will be highly influenced by other
site specific factors beyond solar resource alone. Some of the relevant factors include:

      Federal, state and local incentive programs can impact on overall economics
      Source of project funds or type of financing impact overall economics and
       payback
      Price paid per kWh for electricity or per Btu (m3 or therm) for natural gas or other
       heating fuel source
      Peak and off-peak demand charges for electricity or natural gas

These same factors, that apply to other renewable energy resources/technologies as well,
combined may have more influence on the feasibility of a solar energy system at a
particular site than the extent of the resource itself, so with this particular resource, the
gathering of more site specific information is the critical next step.

For this first overview resource evaluation, the three types of solar resource data that
were selected and sorted are:

Average annual solar radiation at latitude tilt
The average annual solar radiation at latitude tilt, measured in kWh/m2/yr, is most often
used for sizing and modeling annual performance for PV systems and solar hot water
systems. For PV systems, the fixed latitude tilt angle typically maximizes annual
performance without having to adjust the angle of the collectors during the year. With no
moving parts to the system, they are the simplest and most often recommended as their
slightly lower annual performance, compared to tracking systems, is typically more than
offset by the reduced need for monitoring and O&M.

Average annual solar radiation on a horizontal surface
The average solar radiation on a horizontal surface is most often used for sizing and
estimating annual performance for PV systems that lay flat on the roof. The advantages
of these systems include:

      Relatively simple install – lay out across the roof and connect pre-wired junctions
      Provide shading for the roof itself from the harmful and damaging effects of
       ultraviolet (UV) radiation
      No added ballast or structural system is required to attach to the roof
      Wind loading is minimized


                                                                                            15
These types of systems tend to be among the largest commercial PV installations at this
time. It should be noted that though it is reasonable that this system structure would
reduce the UV degradation associated with many roofs, no independent studies or data
have been located that substantiate this claim.

Average annual solar radiation on a vertical surface
The average solar radiation on a vertical surface is most often used for sizing and
estimating annual performance for solar pre-heat ventilation systems (aka transpired solar
collectors). This data is for a south-facing vertical wall. It should be noted that for this
application, though south-facing is typically optimal, other orientations can still cost
effectively deliver sizable quantities of inexpensively pre-heated ventilation air. The
performance parameters for wall orientation are as follows:

       Within +/- 20° of south gives 96-100% of the annual energy of true south
       Within +/- 45° of south gives 80-100% of the annual energy of true south

The differences in energy delivered based on the orientation angle of the collector surface
can be seen graphically in Figure 3 below. Though the graph pertains to average daily
solar radiation, simple integration yields the annual solar radiation on the various
surfaces. One point to note from the graphic is that the vertical surface receives more
solar radiation in the winter months, due to the sun‟s low altitude angle in the sky, which
makes it an effective source for pre-heat ventilation air in the winter when heating loads
are the greatest.

This assessment is focused on determining the solar resource available for power
generation, hot water and hot air generation. Other types of solar radiation data can be
provided for other types of applications (e.g., daylighting, window shading, heating of
thermal mass, etc.) at USCG‟s request.




Figure 2 Average daily solar radiation at various tilt angles in Boulder, CO



                                                                                           16
The figure below provides a broad graphically representation of the average daily solar
resource across the U.S. and its territories. Of importance to note is that the range from
best to worst in the continental U.S. is roughly 2-to-1.




Figure 3 Average annual daily solar radiation per month on a flat plate collector at latitude tilt
Source: NREL Resource Assessment Program

Average annual solar radiation at latitude tilt
Below is the listing, ranked in order, of the active USCG sites with an average daily solar
insolation of 5.66 kWh/m2/day or greater on a fixed tilt collector whose tilt angle is equal
to the latitude of the site. The vast majority of these sites are in California and Hawaii,
but there are sites in 6 states overall plus Puerto Rico that have an annual average daily
solar resource that meets this criteria. Not unexpectedly, these states are located in the
southern third of the U.S. Overall, the numbers speak for themselves regarding the
magnitude of the resource, but the economics and feasibility of a project depend on a
wide variety of other factors previously mentioned.

This level of solar resource equates roughly (not counting system losses) to a maximum
input of 2,373 kWh/ m2/year and a minimum of 2,066 kWh/ m2/year of solar electricity
from PV that would be generated per square meter of collector area. Typical systems
might range from a few square meters to a few hundred square meters and the expected
output would be proportional. The actual expected system output is a function of PV
module efficiency, inverter efficiency, wire losses, etc.

For solar hot water, the expected system input would be a maximum of 8,094,970 Btu/
m2/year and a minimum of 7,048,851Btu/ m2/year. Expected output would be a function
of the type of solar hot water system used, its efficiency, water delivery temperatures, etc.


                                                                                                     17
Table 2 Average annual daily solar radiation at fixed tilt equal to latitude at active USCG sites
Source: Ray George, NREL Resource Assessment Team
               Active USCG Sites ranked by solar insolation resource for collectors
                            at fixed tilt angle equal to the latitude
                                                                                              Average
                                                                                             Annual Daily
   ATU_    NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                          Solar
  OPFAC    Recno Station          Station Name        [°N]      [°W]        City      State [kWh/m2/day]
46-68174   3065     Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5    -112.1 PHOENIX           AZ       6.50
46-68160   2917     Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE       35.1    -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE       NM       6.40
11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT        35.5    -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT       NV       6.28
08-40115   2442     Y    CG LORSTA LAS CRUCES         32.1    -106.7 LA MESA           NM       6.26
08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY         36.6    -102.8 FELT              OK       5.85
21-34404    520     Y    CG UNIT C3I CTR WEST         33.9    -117.3 MARCH AFB         CA       5.85
46-68176   3081     Y    CG RUITOFF RIVERSIDE         34.1    -117.3 COLTON            CA       5.85
07-33239    875     Y    DD - PONCE, PR               18.1     -66.6 PORT PONCE        PR       5.81
14-30143   3759     Y    CG STA MAUI                  20.8    -156.5 WAILUKU           HI       5.80
11-20170    140     Y    AIRSTA SAN DIEG PERSRU       32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
11-30471   3765     Y    CG STA MORRO BAY             35.4    -120.9 MORRO BAY         CA       5.70
11-30888   3792     Y    CG STA SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
11-33255   2710     Y    CG MSO SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
11-36261   1557     Y    Group San Diego              32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
11-37250   3545     Y    SEC SAN DIEGO ADMIN/PERS DIV 32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
11-41982    241     Y    CG ANT SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
11-73135    112     Y    CG ACTIVITIES SAN DIEGO      32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
14-20255    145     Y    CG AIRSTA BARBERS PT         21.3    -158.1 KAPOLEI           HI       5.70
14-30144   3741     Y    CG STA HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
14-31250    497     Y    CG BASE HONOLULU             21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
14-33275   2686     Y    CG MSO HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
14-36280   1539     Y    Group Honolulu               21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
14-37340   3305     Y    SEC HONO ADMIN/PERS DIV      21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
14-40158   2441     Y    CG LORSTA KURE ISLAND        21.3    -158.1 BARBERS PT        HI       5.70
14-40301   2865     Y    CG OMSTA HAWAII              21.5    -157.9 KANEOHE           HI       5.70
14-41990    213     Y    CG ANT HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
14-71114    920     Y    DD-INTEL SUPT TEAM HONOLULU 21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
21-32480    794     Y    CG COMMSTA HONOLULU          21.5    -158.0 WAHIAWA           HI       5.70
21-34268   2791     Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU          21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
21-34269   2793     Y    MSST 91109 SAN DIEGO         32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
21-34301   4100     Y    CG PACAREA TACLET            32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
21-83101   1600     Y    NCWGRU ONE                   32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
21-83110   1590     Y    CGRU HDCU 110                32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
33-47810   2102     Y    CG ISC HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
33-51230   1370     Y    CG EMD HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
33-51252   2829     Y    CG MAT SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.1 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
33-51254   2820     Y    378 WHEC MAT-HONOLULU        21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
33-51292    663     Y    CEU Honolulu                 21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
33-53500    912     Y    DD-CGD14 C3/IRM STAFF        21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
33-53500   1411     Y    ESU Honolulu                 21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
33-53501   1336     Y    CG ESDD BARBERS POINT        21.3    -158.1 BARBERS PT        HI       5.70
33-53720   1360     Y    ESD SAN DIEGO                32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
46-68175   3097     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN DIEGO         32.8    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
46-68179   2980     Y    CG RUITOFF FRESNO            36.8    -119.8 FRESNO            CA       5.70
46-68196   2998     Y    CG RUITOFF HONOLULU          21.4    -157.9 AIEA              HI       5.70
47-77100    683     Y    CGIS DET HONOLULU            21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.70
47-77100    698     Y    CGIS DET SAN DIEGO           32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA       5.70
07-20235    146     Y    CG AIRSTA BORINQUEN          18.5     -67.1 AGUADILLA         PR       5.66




Average annual solar radiation on a horizontal surface
Following that table, there is one that lists the Global Horizontal Solar Resource. These
figures would be used to determine the expected annual output of a flat, horizontally


                                                                                                      18
mounted roof-top PV system. This level of solar resource equates roughly to a maximum
of 2,081 kWh/ m2/year and a minimum of 1,851 kWh/ m2/year of solar electricity from
PV that would be generated per square meter of collector area.

The majority of these sites are in Hawaii due to its proximity to the equator and how
much of the year, during the middle hours of the day, the sun is nearly directly overhead.
However, there are sites in 8 states overall plus Puerto Rico that have an annual average
daily solar resource that meets this criteria.

Table 3 Average annual daily solar radiation at fixed tilt equal to latitude at active USCG sites
Source: Ray George, NREL Resource Assessment Team
              Active USCG Sites ranked by solar insolation resource
                           for horizontal collectors
                                                                                              Average
                                                                                             Annual Daily
   ATU_    NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                          Solar
  OPFAC    Recno Station          Station Name        [°N]      [°W]        City      State [kWh/m2/day]
46-68174   3065     Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX          33.5     -112.1 PHOENIX           AZ       5.70
08-40115   2442     Y    CG LORSTA LAS CRUCES        32.1     -106.7 LA MESA           NM       5.63
46-68160   2917     Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE      35.1     -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE       NM       5.60
11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT       35.5     -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT       NV       5.52
14-30143   3759     Y    CG STA MAUI                 20.8     -156.5 WAILUKU           HI       5.50
14-20255    145     Y    CG AIRSTA BARBERS PT        21.3     -158.1 KAPOLEI           HI       5.40
14-30144   3741     Y    CG STA HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
14-31250    497     Y    CG BASE HONOLULU            21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
14-33275   2686     Y    CG MSO HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
14-36280   1539     Y    Group Honolulu              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
14-37340   3305     Y    SEC HONO ADMIN/PERS DIV     21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
14-40158   2441     Y    CG LORSTA KURE ISLAND       21.3     -158.1 BARBERS PT        HI       5.40
14-40301   2865     Y    CG OMSTA HAWAII             21.5     -157.9 KANEOHE           HI       5.40
14-41990    213     Y    CG ANT HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
14-71114    920     Y    DD-INTEL SUPT TEAM HONOLULU 21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
21-32480    794     Y    CG COMMSTA HONOLULU         21.5     -158.0 WAHIAWA           HI       5.40
21-34268   2791     Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU         21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-47810   2102     Y    CG ISC HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-51230   1370     Y    CG EMD HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-51254   2820     Y    378 WHEC MAT-HONOLULU       21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-51292    663     Y    CEU Honolulu                21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-53500    912     Y    DD-CGD14 C3/IRM STAFF       21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-53500   1411     Y    ESU Honolulu                21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
33-53501   1336     Y    CG ESDD BARBERS POINT       21.3     -158.1 BARBERS PT        HI       5.40
46-68196   2998     Y    CG RUITOFF HONOLULU         21.4     -157.9 AIEA              HI       5.40
47-77100    683     Y    CGIS DET HONOLULU           21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI       5.40
21-34404    520     Y    CG UNIT C3I CTR WEST        33.9     -117.3 MARCH AFB         CA       5.32
46-68176   3081     Y    CG RUITOFF RIVERSIDE        34.1     -117.3 COLTON            CA       5.32
07-20235    146     Y    CG AIRSTA BORINQUEN         18.5      -67.1 AGUADILLA         PR       5.30
07-30299   3796     Y    CG STA SAN JUAN             18.5      -66.1 SAN JUAN          PR       5.30
07-31170    504     Y    CG BASE SAN JUAN            18.5      -66.1 SAN JUAN          PR       5.30
07-33239    875     Y    DD - PONCE, PR              18.1      -66.6 PORT PONCE        PR       5.30
07-37120   3575     Y    SEC SAN JUAN ADMIN/PERS DIV 18.5      -66.1 SAN JUAN          PR       5.30
32-54400   1413     Y    ESU Miami                   25.8      -80.1 MIAMI             FL       5.30
08-40505   2458     Y    LORSTA RAYMONDVILLE         26.5      -97.8 RAYMONDVILLE      TX       5.20
46-68179   2980     Y    CG RUITOFF FRESNO           36.8     -119.8 FRESNO            CA       5.20
11-30471   3765     Y    CG STA MORRO BAY            35.4     -120.9 MORRO BAY         CA       5.14
07-30314   3758     Y    CG STA MARATHON             24.7      -81.1 MARATHON          FL       5.13
07-30323   3751     Y    CG STA KEY WEST             24.6      -81.8 KEY WEST          FL       5.10
07-34501   2462     Y    CG MAPDET KEY WEST          24.6      -81.8 KEY WEST          FL       5.10
07-36298   1497     Y    GP KEY WEST PERSRU          24.6      -81.8 KEY WEST          FL       5.10
07-37140   3336     Y    SEC KEY WEST ADMIN/PERS DIV 24.6      -81.8 KEY WEST          FL       5.10
32-54460   1315     Y    CG ESD KEY WEST             24.6      -81.8 KEY WEST          FL       5.10
47-77106    685     Y    CGIS DET JACKSONVILLE       30.4      -81.4 MAYPORT           FL       5.10
08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY        36.6     -102.8 FELT              OK       5.07




                                                                                                      19
Average annual solar radiation on a vertical surface
The next table lists the USCG sites with the best solar insolation on a vertical wall
associated with transpired solar collectors. For a transpired solar collector, the expected
system input would range from 4,259,200 - 5,106,058 Btu/ m2/year at the listed sites.
Expected output would be a function of the other system variables including outside air
temperature, building ventilation loads and flow rates, delivery temperatures, etc.

Table 4 Average annual daily solar radiation vertical collectors at active USCG sites
Source: Ray George, NREL Resource Assessment Team




                                                                                          20
                    Active USCG Sites ranked by solar insolation resource for
                             vertical collectors at 90° fixed tilt angle
                                                                                            Average
                                                                                           Annual Daily
   ATU_    NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                        Solar
  OPFAC    Recno Station          Station Name        [°N]     [°W]          City   State [kWh/m2/day]
11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT        35.5    -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT     NV       4.10
46-68160   2917     Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE       35.1    -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE     NM       4.10
46-68174   3065     Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5    -112.1 PHOENIX         AZ       4.00
08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY         36.6    -102.8 FELT            OK       3.96
08-40115   2442     Y    CG LORSTA LAS CRUCES         32.1    -106.7 LA MESA         NM       3.95
46-68115   2966     Y    CG RUITOFF DENVER            39.9    -105.0 THORNTON        CO       3.80
11-40139   2434     Y    CG LORSTA FALLON             39.5    -118.8 FALLON          NV       3.75
11-30670   3752     Y    CG STA LAKE TAHOE            39.2    -120.1 TAHOE CITY      CA       3.73
21-34404    520     Y    CG UNIT C3I CTR WEST         33.9    -117.3 MARCH AFB       CA       3.72
46-68176   3081     Y    CG RUITOFF RIVERSIDE         34.1    -117.3 COLTON          CA       3.72
46-68181   3092     Y    CG RUITOFF SALT LAKE CTY     41.1    -112.0 LAYTON          UT       3.69
11-30465   3764     Y    CG STA MONTEREY              36.6    -121.9 MONTEREY        CA       3.68
11-36268   1461     Y    CG GROUP MONTEREY            36.6    -121.9 MONTEREY        CA       3.68
09-40133   2453     Y    LORAN Station Baudette       48.7     -94.5 BAUDETTE        MN       3.67
21-32460    524     Y    CG CAMSPAC SAN FRAN          38.1    -122.8 PT REYES STA    CA       3.63
33-53740   1326     Y    CG ESD PETALUMA              38.2    -122.7 PETALUMA        CA       3.63
47-77100    687     Y    CGIS DET LA/LB               33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO       CA       3.63
58-34360   3919     Y    CG PACIFIC STRIKE TEAM       38.1    -122.5 NOVATO          CA       3.63
13-40119   2438     Y    CG LORSTA HAVRE              48.6    -109.8 HAVRE           MT       3.60
08-40300   2867     Y    CG OMSTA NORTH DAKOTA        46.4     -98.3 LAMOURE         ND       3.59
11-30796   3718     Y    CG STA CHANNEL ISL HRBR      34.2    -119.2 OXNARD          CA       3.57
33-51228   1369     Y    CG EMD ALAMEDA               37.8    -122.3 ALAMEDA         CA       3.57
33-53730   1357     Y    ESD OXNARD                   34.2    -119.2 OXNARD          CA       3.57
46-68154   3123     Y    CG RUITOFF VENTURA           34.2    -119.2 OXNARD          CA       3.57
13-40143   2435     Y    CG LORSTA GEORGE             47.2    -119.9 QUINCY          WA       3.55
46-68183   3103     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN JOSE          37.3    -122.0 SAN JOSE        CA       3.53
11-40141   2445     Y    CG LORSTA MIDDLETOWN         38.8    -122.6 MIDDLETOWN      CA       3.52
11-20170    140     Y    AIRSTA SAN DIEG PERSRU       32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
11-20253    160     Y    CG AIRSTA LOS ANGELES        33.9    -118.4 LOS ANGELES     CA       3.50
11-30888   3792     Y    CG STA SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
11-33255   2710     Y    CG MSO SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
11-36261   1557     Y    Group San Diego              32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
11-37250   3545     Y    SEC SAN DIEGO ADMIN/PERS DIV 32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
11-41982    241     Y    CG ANT SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
11-73135    112     Y    CG ACTIVITIES SAN DIEGO      32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
21-34269   2793     Y    MSST 91109 SAN DIEGO         32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
21-34301   4100     Y    CG PACAREA TACLET            32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
21-83101   1600     Y    NCWGRU ONE                   32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
21-83110   1590     Y    CGRU HDCU 110                32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
33-51252   2848     Y    MAT SAN PEDRO                33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO       CA       3.50
33-53720   1360     Y    ESD SAN DIEGO                32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
46-68175   3097     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN DIEGO         32.8    -117.2 SAN DIEGO       CA       3.50
47-77100    693     Y    CGIS DET PETALUMA            38.2    -122.7 PETALUMA        CA       3.50
11-30470   3715     Y    CG STA CARQUINEZ             38.1    -122.2 VALLEJO         CA       3.49
11-30464   3774     Y    CG STA NOYO RIVER            39.4    -123.8 FORT BRAGG      CA       3.46
11-30890   3788     Y    CG STA RIO VISTA             38.2    -121.7 RIO VISTA       CA       3.45
13-41907    217     Y    CG ANT KENNEWICK             46.2    -119.2 KENNEWICK       WA       3.42


One aspect to note in the table above is that now states such as Washington, Montana,
Minnesota and North Dakota have entered the list. Their northern latitudes provide more
hours of the year when the sun is at relatively low altitude angles (i.e., winter, some early
spring and late fall) and strike a vertical, south-facing wall more frequently. But, more
importantly, due to the length and severity of their heating season, they are better
positioned to make use of this inexpensively available heat energy. This can best be seen
in the map on the next page where the vertical solar resource, broken into 5 categories, is
overlaid with heating degree days, broken into 9 categories, to give an approximation of
how usable this solar resource can be for actual USCG sites. There are lots of potential


                                                                                                    21
opportunities along the Great Lakes and in New England in states such as: Illinois,
Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
etc.

It should be noted that expanding the data set slightly to be a solar resource greater than
3.0 kWh/m2/day results in a wide cross section of states in all latitudes with this
magnitude of resource. It is important to match the facility load with this solar resource
that can provide a significant fraction of pre-heated ventilation air.




                                                                                          22
Figure 4 Map of vertical solar resource overlaid with heating degree day requirements
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Wind resource assessment

The uneven heating of the earth‟s surface creates wind energy. Warmed surfaces warm
the air which rises and cooler air rushes in to take its place and the result is wind. The
earth‟s rotation causing day and night are responsible for one aspect of the
heating/cooling cycle. Other factors, such as orientation or slope of a surfaces or surfaces
with different rates of reflectivity, absorptivity, and transmissivity, also contribute to
uneven heating. Also, wind can be affected (accelerated, decelerated, increased
turbulence) by other factors, such as terrain, bodies of water, buildings and vegetative
cover.

Wind is air with high kinetic energy that can be transformed into useful work via wind
turbine blades, generator, etc. Roughly 1-2% of the sun‟s energy that strikes the earth is
transformed into wind7. Overall, wind, both worldwide and in the U.S., has to be
considered a diffuse resource. However, it does have a significant number of regions and
areas where there is considerable wind resource that can generate electricity cost
effectively and competitively.


Wind characteristics
Windiness varies with the season and time of day and, of course, weather events.
Collected wind data focuses on two primary considerations – average annual wind speed
and a frequency distribution of the wind at various speeds. The wind speed at any given
time determines the amount of power available in the wind.

The power available in the wind is given by:
      P = A V3/2

           where
           P = power of the wind [Watts]
           A = windswept area of the rotor (blades) = D2/4 = r2 [ m2]
            = density of the air [kg/m3] (at sea level at 15°C)
           V = velocity of the wind [m/s]

As shown, wind power is proportional to velocity cubed (V3). Why this matters is that if
wind velocity is doubled, wind power increases by a factor of eight (23 = 8)!
Consequently, a small differences (e.g., increase) in average speed cause significant
differences (e.g., increase) in energy production. Examining ways to increase the wind
velocity at a particular site should be considered. Normally, the easiest way to accomplish
this is to increase the height of the tower. The wind industry has been moving towards
ever higher towers and the industry norm has increased from 30 m to 80 m over that last
15-20 years. Research is currently underway examining feasibility of tall towers in the
range of 100-120 m with some in this range having already been installed in Germany.

7
    Danish Wind Industry Association, web page: http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/geostro.htm
Another point worth noting in the wind power equation is the windswept area of the
rotor, A, is derived from the formula for area of a circle (A = r2). As the length of the
rotor, r, is increased, the area increases as a square of r, which means more windswept
area to intercept the wind which translates into more power generated. This is the
impetus behind the wind industry drive to develop larger and larger wind turbines. The
more windswept area, the more wind power a wind turbine‟s rotor intercepts.


Wind classifications and wind maps
There is a wind classification system that has been developed to quantify wind resources.
The definition of each wind class is due to the wind power available per m2 of windswept
rotor area.

Table 5 Classes of Wind Power Density
Source: http://www.nrel.gov/wind/wind_potential.html
                Wind            Speed,            Wind      Speed,         Wind           Speed,
  Wind
                Power                            Power                    Power
 Power
               Density                          Density                   Density
  Class               2      m/s (mph)                2    m/s (mph)                     m/s (mph)
               W/m                            W/m                           W/m2
            10 m (33 ft)                    30 m (98 ft)                 50 m (164 ft)

    1           100          4.4 (9.8)          160        5.1 (11.4)        200         5.6 (12.5)
    2           150          5.1 (11.5)         240        5.9 (13.2)        300         6.4 (14.3)
    3           200          5.6 (12.5)         320        6.5 (14.6)        400         7.0 (15.7)
    4           250          6.0 (13.4)         400        7.0 (15.7)        500         7.5 (16.8)
    5           300          6.4 (14.3)         480        74.4 (16.6)       600         8.0 (17.9)
    6           400          7.0 (15.7)         640        8.2 (18.3)        800         8.8 (19.7)
    7          1000          9.4 (21.1)        1600        11.0 (24.7)      2000         11.9 (26.6)

Below, in general terms, the wind resource availability in the U.S. is shown in map form.
The regions of the country with greater and lesser wind resource can be readily identified
though it should be noted that this map represents the broadest of views of a resource that
can have extremely high local variability. The map does point to, for instance, the
difficulties in developing economic wind projects in the southeastern part of the country.

More detailed state wind maps have been developed by both NREL and various state
wind energy groups that use state-of-the-art interpolation combined with detailed
topographical mapping techniques. These updated and validated wind resource maps are
very useful in outlining the general wind resource of a region. However, no decisions on
siting wind turbines should be made on the basis of information contained in the wind
maps, rather, the maps should be used to ascertain the best opportunities further studying
the wind in greater detail through the use of a meteorological tower (MET tower).




                                                                                           25
Figure 5 U.S. Annual Wind Power Resource
Source: NWTC Wind Potential: http://www.nrel.gov/wind/wind_potential.html



On-site wind data
Regardless of the wind classification shown on a wind map, for any wind farm project or
even a single large turbine (500 kW – 5 MW), a year‟s worth of on-site wind data at the
expected turbine hub height correlated to long term wind data to verify economic
projections is considered the industry norm. A MET tower is typically installed at the
specific site and at the expected hub height of the wind turbine(s). At a minimum, a 20 m
(66 ft) MET tower with an anemometer and vane should record wind speed and direction.
Wind speed and direction is often sampled every second with 10 or 15 minute averages
recorded. Two years is considered an ideal time frame to correlate with other local data.
For large developments, preferred MET tower heights are in the 60-100 m range.

The same is true regarding gathering MET tower data for any on-site wind projects that
involve wind turbines in the 20-500 kW range. For turbines smaller than 20 kW, the
economics of installing a MET tower are such that more money may be spent validating
the on-site wind than will be saved by generating wind electricity on-site. In those
instances, alternatives to installing a MET tower can be pursued with professional
guidance.




                                                                                      26
Wind resource class at the site

Originally, the goal of this portion of the assessment was to identify all Class 3 or better
sites within 1 mile of the latitude and longitude coordinate of each USCG site. However,
analysis revealed there were 274 such sites. So the data below represents a further
filtering to Class 4 or better wind resource within 1 mile of USCG sites. There are 69
sites identified. This represents a significant resource well worth further exploration at
roughly 8% of the 850 active USCG sites.

It should be noted that though there were not enough site details provided for this phase
of assessment (to know if there are x acres of developable land, e.g.) to outline specific
possibilities, but it appears that there may be some subset of these sites that are suitable
for wind farm development in the multi-megawatt range. With 69 potential Class 4 or
better wind sites, there are several types of wind development possibilities that USCG
could consider at some point in the future, including:

      Own and operate the turbine(s) and offset site loads, sell excess to the grid
      Sell bulk electricity to the grid
      Lease the land to a wind developer who owns and operates the wind turbine(s),
       but USCG purchases electricity directly from developer at a discounted rate
      Lease the land to a wind developer who owns and operates the wind turbine(s),
       USCG receives a lease payment but purchases their electricity elsewhere

Do note that 274 Class 3 or better wind sites represents slightly over 32% of the 850
active USCG sites which, of itself, speaks to tremendous opportunity within the wind
resource arena, especially for on-site generation projects to offset existing load. These
sites are listed in the Appendix.




                                                                                            27
Table 6 USCG sites with Class 4 or better wind resource
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Active USCG Sites ranked by Wind Speed Class that are Class 4 or higher
                                                                                             Best Wind
   ATU_     NREL Active_                            Latitude Longitude                     Class on site or
  OPFAC     Recno Station            Station Name     [°N]      [°W]        City     State    < 1 mile
 14-30143   3759     Y    CG STA MAUI                20.8     -156.5 WAILUKU          HI          7
 17-40196   2450     Y    CG LORSTA ST PAUL          57.1     -170.3 ST PAUL ISLAND   AK          7
 01-30109   3708     Y    CG STA BRANT POINT         41.3      -70.1 NANTUCKET        MA          6
 01-40106   2446     Y    CG LORSTA NANTUCKET        41.3      -70.0 SIASCONSET       MA          6
 01-30107   3812     Y    CG STA WOODS HOLE          41.5      -70.7 WOODS HOLE       MA          4
 01-30108   3838     Y    STA MENEMSHA               41.3      -70.8 CHILMARK         MA          4
 01-30126   3786     Y    CG STA PROVINCETOWN        42.0      -70.2 PROVINCETOWN     MA          4
 01-30133   3665     Y    CG STA MENEMSHA            41.3      -70.8 CHILMARK         MA          4
 01-30141   3747     Y    CG STA JONESPORT           44.5      -67.6 WEST JONESPORT ME            4
 01-30147   3701     Y    CG STA (SM) EASTPORT       44.9      -67.0 EASTPORT         ME          4
 01-30154   3778     Y    CG STA POINT ALLERTON      42.3      -70.9 HULL             MA          4
 01-30157   3688     Y    STA(SM) BLOCK ISLAND       41.4      -71.5 NARRAGANSETT     RI          4
 01-30162   3840     Y    STA SOUTHWEST HARBOR       44.3      -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME           4
 01-30199   3728     Y    CG STA FIRE ISLAND         40.6      -73.3 BABYLON          NY          4
 01-30223   3763     Y    CG STA MONTAUK             41.1      -71.9 MONTAUK          NY          4
 01-30244   3746     Y    CG STA JONES BEACH         40.6      -73.6 FREEPORT         NY          4
 01-30612   3790     Y    CG STA ROCKLAND            44.1      -69.1 ROCKLAND         ME          4
 01-36215   1445     Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT    41.5      -70.7 WOODS HOLE       MA          4
 01-36217    890     Y    DD - STA ROCKLAND          44.3      -68.3 ROCKLAND         ME          4
 01-41948    254     Y    CG ANT WOODS HOLE          41.5      -70.7 WOODS HOLE       MA          4
 05-30187   3689     Y    Station (SM) Beach Haven   39.8      -74.1 BARNEGAT LIGHT   NJ          4
 05-30190   3660     Y    CG STA BEACH HAVEN         39.6      -74.2 BEACH HAVEN      NJ          4
 05-30229   3663     Y    CG STA GREAT EGG           39.3      -74.6 OCEAN CITY       NJ          4
 05-30271   3693     Y    Station (SM) Ocracoke      35.2      -75.7 HATTERAS         NC          4
 05-30272   3873     Y    Station Hobucken           34.7      -76.6 HOBUCKEN         NC          4
 05-30278   3852     Y    Station Cape Charles       37.3      -76.0 CAPE CHARLES     VA          4
 05-30289   3889     Y    Station Oak Island         33.9      -78.0 OAK ISLAND       NC          4
 05-30292   3828     Y    STA (SM) INDIAN RIVER      38.3      -75.1 OCEAN CITY       MD          4
 05-30295   3666     Y    CG STA OCRACOKE            35.1      -76.0 OCRACOKE         NC          4
 05-30298   3891     Y    Station Oregon Inlet       36.0      -75.6 NAGS HEAD        NC          4
 05-30624   3690     Y    Station (SM) Fortescue     38.9      -74.9 CAPE MAY         NJ          4
 05-36230   1479     Y    GP CP HAT ELEC SHOP        35.2      -75.5 BUXTON           NC          4
 05-37530   3651     Y    SFO CAPE HATTERAS          35.3      -75.6 BUXTON           NC          4
 05-41906    191     Y    ANT Hatteras Inlet         35.2      -75.7 HATTERAS         NC          4
 08-40300   2867     Y    CG OMSTA NORTH DAKOTA      46.4      -98.3 LAMOURE          ND          4
 09-30367   3863     Y    Station Erie               42.2      -80.1 ERIE             PA          4
 09-30370   3864     Y    Station Fairport           41.8      -81.3 GRAND RIVER      OH          4
 09-30375   3848     Y    Station Bayfield           46.8      -90.8 BAYFIELD         WI          4
 09-30405   3897     Y    Station Portage            47.2      -88.6 DOLLAR BAY       MI          4
 09-30929   3882     Y    Station Marblehead         41.5      -82.7 MARBLEHEAD       OH          4
 09-30975   3858     Y    Station Cleveland          41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH          4
 09-33253   2738     Y    MSO Cleveland              41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH          4
 09-33259   2801     Y    MSU CLEVELAND              41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH          4
 11-30462   3705     Y    CG STA BODEGA BAY          38.3     -123.1 BODEGA BAY       CA          4
 13-30475   3713     Y    CG STA CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT 46.3     -124.0 ILWACO           WA          4
 13-30481   3739     Y    CG STA GRAYS HARBOR        46.9     -124.1 WESTPORT         WA          4
 13-30499   3810     Y    CG STA UMPQUA RIVER        43.7     -124.2 WINCHESTER BAY   OR          4
 13-30678   3720     Y    CG STA CHETCO RIVER        42.0     -124.3 HARBOR           OR          4
 13-40119   2438     Y    CG LORSTA HAVRE            48.6     -109.8 HAVRE            MT          4
 14-31250    497     Y    CG BASE HONOLULU           21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 14-37340   3305     Y    SEC HONO ADMIN/PERS DIV    21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 14-40301   2865     Y    CG OMSTA HAWAII            21.5     -157.9 KANEOHE          HI          4
 14-41990    213     Y    CG ANT HONOLULU            21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 20-93307   2889     Y    PSU 309                    41.5      -82.9 PORT CLINTON     OH          4
 21-34268   2791     Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU        21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 32-51261   2849     Y    MAT SAULT STE MARIE        46.5      -84.3 SAULT STE MARIE  MI          4
 32-51282    668     Y    DET ELIZ CITY, NC          36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY   NC          4
 32-54050   1302     Y    CG ESD BUXTON              35.3      -75.6 BUXTON           NC          4
 32-54200    913     Y    DD-CGD9 C3/IRM BRANCH      41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH          4
 32-54220   1307     Y    CG ESD CLEVELAND           41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH          4
 32-54241   1347     Y    CG ESDD PORTAGE            47.1      -88.5 DOLLAR BAY       MI          4
 33-47810   2102     Y    CG ISC HONOLULU            21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 33-51230   1370     Y    CG EMD HONOLULU            21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 33-51254   2820     Y    378 WHEC MAT-HONOLULU      21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 33-53500   1411     Y    ESU Honolulu               21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI          4
 44-68170   2976     Y    CG RUITOFF EAST MEADOW     40.7      -73.6 EAST MEADOW      NY          4
 52-40305    629     Y    NAVIGATION CENTER          38.8      -77.1 ALEXANDRIA       VA          4
 55-40600   2456     Y    LORAN Support Unit         39.0      -74.9 WILDWOOD         NJ          4
 77-67100   3147     Y    RECRUIT BASIC TRAINING     38.9      -74.9 CAPE MAY         NJ          4




                                                                                                              28
Geothermal resource assessment
There is a tremendous amount of geothermal energy or heat available in the earth‟s crust.
It is a widely dispersed resource, similar in some sense to the nearly uniform spread of
the solar resource (varies by only a factor of roughly two from best to worst in the
continental U.S.), but there are numerous pockets of highly concentrated geothermal
resources (unlike the solar resource).

The earth itself is our geo (earth) + thermal (heat) resource and there are variable
amounts and quality of geothermal resources throughout the planet. The Earth‟s core,
4,000 miles (6,437 km) below the surface, has temperatures as high as 9,000°F
(4,982°C).8 The heat constantly flows outward towards the earth‟s surface heating the
overlaying rock and pockets of water. The spread of this resource can be seen in the
upper 10-15 feet of the earth‟s surface maintaining a nearly constant temperature between
50-60°F (10-16°C) as depicted in the graph at right. Interestingly, the surface mass
within the upper 10 feet or so is heated by the sun and there are periodic seasonal
variations that affect how much of this heat is stored, at what depth, and for how long.
The Earth tempers the sun‟s thermal input.

Also worth noting when dealing with low temperature resources at or near the Earth‟s
surface is that the solar resource comes into play in providing thermal energy to this
resource as it heats the surface mass. The surface composition, ground and ambient air
                                               temperatures determine how much of the
                                               thermal energy gets stored, at what depth
                                               and for how long. For moist soil, for
                                               instance, there is a consistent, periodic time
                                               lag between the ground surface annual
                                               maximum and minimum temperatures and
                                               those in the 5-15 ft. of depth range. The
                                               graph below shows that the ground
                                               temperature of moist soil at a depth of 12 ft.
                                               is below its annual mean temperature during
                                               the cooling months of April, May, June, and
                                               most of July. Likewise, at the same depth,
                                               the moist soil temperature is above its
                                               annual mean during the heating months of
                                               October, November, December, and most of
                                               January. This represents a significant
                                               potential to capture inexpensive heating or
                                               cooling at times in the year when it is most
                                               needed.

Figure 6 Annual ground temperature profile from mean surface temperature ( Tm )
Source: John Schonder, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2003 FEMP presentation.



8
    Geothermal Today, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, August 2001.


                                                                                                      29
Figure 7 Seasonal periodic soil temperature variation at the surface and 2, 5, and 12 ft
Source: John Schonder, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2003 FEMP presentation.

Geothermal energy can provide heat how and power that is clean (emitting little of no
greenhouse gases), reliable (average system availability of 95%), and domestic (keeping
more energy dollars at home). The resource can be at or near the surface or miles-deep
wells can be drilled to bring it up to the surface. When temperatures are not high enough
for producing electricity, geothermal systems are designed to use the available heat in a
way that can be broadly thought of as heat movers. That is, geothermal systems are
designed to move the earth‟s heat to a location where it can be used more efficiently. In
direct use applications, the available heat is used in a process requiring specific amounts
of heat on a regular or continuous basis. In other systems, the earth is used as a heat
source in the winter and a heat sink in the summer.

Matching the available geothermal resource with the appropriate technology and loads is
the key to effective utilization of this resource. Most of the hydrothermal resources -
reservoirs of steam or hot water - in the U.S. are in the western states, Alaska and Hawaii.

Geothermal resources make a significant contribution to national renewable energy
production as is ranks third overall, behind biomass and hydro, and ahead of wind and
solar in annual energy production. With many of the existing high temperature
geothermal resources being located on Federal lands, it is not too surprising that 46% of
the geothermal electricity generated is from resources located on Federal lands.9 Overall,
geothermal electric power generation totals approximately 2,200 MW10 and it accounts
for 0.4% of the electricity generated in the U.S.11

9
  http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/geothermal/geothermal.gif
10
   http://geoheat.oit.edu/whatgeo.htm
11
   http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/geothermal/geothermal.gif


                                                                                           30
In the geothermal resource assessment, the terms low, medium and high temperature
geothermal resource are used broadly. These resources are often classified by
temperature as follows12:

        Low temperature (less than 194°F or 90°C)
        Moderate temperature (194 - 302°F or 90°C - 150°C)
        High temperature (greater than 302°F or 150°C)

These temperature classifications point towards potential applications, but it should be
noted that the applications are not defined by these temperature bands. The application
categories, in order from lower temperature to higher, are:

        Geothermal or ground source heat pumps (GHP or GSHP)
        Direct use
        Power plants

The details for each of the applications can be found in the Appendix.

GHPs are an energy saving renewable technology as they can reduce the energy required
for space heating, cooling and service water- heating in commercial/institutional
buildings by as much as 50%. GHPs replace the need for a boiler in winter by utilizing
heat stored in the ground; this heat can be upgraded by a vapor-compressor refrigeration
cycle. In summer, heat from a building is rejected to the ground. This eliminates the need
for a cooling tower or heat rejector, and also lowers operating costs because the ground is
cooler than the outdoor air.13 A GHP system still requires electricity for pumps and fans
for moving fluids and there may be an increase in electricity use, but in a well-designed
system there will be an overall decrease in energy consumed heating and cooling a
building(s).

In almost all latitudes of the U.S., GHPs or GSHPs are an effective technology for
heating and cooling. The primary criteria is having the air and surface temperatures vary
enough (i.e., seasons) so that the system loads can take advantage of the earth‟s steady
temperature for exchanging heat energy. It is estimated that there are over 450,000 GHPs
operating in the U.S. currently and representing a capacity of approximately 3,400
MWt.14

Essentially every USCG site has at a low temperature thermal resource and all are
reasonable candidates for GHPs based on the resource alone, so there is not a prioritized
list. The characteristics that make one site preferable over another have more to do with
the loads that would be served and the costs of alternatives than with the specific ground

12
   http://geoheat.oit.edu/whatgeo.htm
13
   Cane, D., Caneta Research for Advanced Buildings, www.advancedbuilding.org
14
   Lund, J., Boyd, T., Sifford, A., BLoomquist, R. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States –
2000, Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Fall, Oregon. Note: MWt = MegaWatt
thermal.


                                                                                                     31
temperature at a specific site. In future phases of REP implementation, when site
characteristics are more clearly defined, loads delineated, and energy costs are factored
in, site specific feasibility can be addressed.

There are 245 USCG sites out of the 850 active sites that have potential direct use
applications. These sites are listed in the Appendix. In the table below, USCG sites with
high temperature geothermal resources are listed. High temperature sites have the
potential to become electricity generation power plants, though there are a number of
other site factors to consider as well.

Table 7 USCG sites with high temperature geothermal resource
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL

Active USCG sites with electricity-generating potential from geothermal energy
                  Active                                                                           Geothermal
   ATU_     NREL     _                                                                       Qualitative Estimate of
  OPFAC     Recno Station             NAME           Latitude Longitude      City     State          Potential
 08-40115   2442     Y    CG LORSTA LAS CRUCES        32.1     -106.7 LA MESA          NM Possible Electric Generation
 11-20180    169     Y    CG AIRSTA SAN FRANCISCO     37.6     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-30462   3705     Y    CG STA BODEGA BAY           38.3     -123.1 BODEGA BAY       CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-30467   3737     Y    CG STA GOLDEN GATE          37.8     -122.5 SAUSALITO        CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-30470   3715     Y    CG STA CARQUINEZ            38.1     -122.2 VALLEJO          CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-30670   3752     Y    CG STA LAKE TAHOE           39.2     -120.1 TAHOE CITY       CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-30885   3793     Y    CG STA SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-33260   2646     Y    MSD CONCORD                 37.8     -122.2 CONCORD          CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-36269   1511     Y    GP SAN FRANCISC PERSRU      37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-37270   3560     Y    SEC SAN FRAN ADMIN/PERS DIV 37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-37270   3572     Y    SEC SAN FRAN PREVENTION CMD 37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-40139   2434     Y    CG LORSTA FALLON            39.5     -118.8 FALLON           NV Possible Electric Generation
 11-40141   2445     Y    CG LORSTA MIDDLETOWN        38.8     -122.6 MIDDLETOWN       CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-41875   4331     Y    CG VTS SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-41984    243     Y    CG ANT SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-81107   2893     Y                                37.8
                          CG RES CNTR MGMT SUPRT ACTVTY        -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 11-81112   2896     Y                                37.8
                          CG RESERVE TRACEN YERBA BUENA        -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 21-32460    524     Y    CG CAMSPAC SAN FRAN         38.1     -122.8 PT REYES STA     CA Possible Electric Generation
 21-34264   2788     Y    MSST 91105 SAN FRAN         37.8     -122.3 Alameda          CA Possible Electric Generation
 21-64130   4150     Y    CG TRNG TEAM ALEMEDA        37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 21-75150    263     Y    85' FAST PATROL CRAFT       37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 21-83111   1591     Y    CGRU HDCU 111               37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 21-93312   2890     Y    PSU 312                     37.6     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-47500   2124     Y    ISC ALAME CMD STAFF(C)      37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-51228   1369     Y    CG EMD ALAMEDA              37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-51252   2819     Y    378 WHEC MAT-ALAMEDA        37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-51290    666     Y    CEU Oakland                 37.8     -122.2 OAKLAND          CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-53700    860     Y    DD - MSO SAN FRANCISCO      37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-53740   1326     Y    CG ESD PETALUMA             38.2     -122.7 PETALUMA         CA Possible Electric Generation
 33-75160    418     Y    CGMLO SAN DIEGO             37.8     -122.3 SAN DIEGO        CA Possible Electric Generation
 46-68181   3092     Y    CG RUITOFF SALT LAKE CTY    41.1     -112.0 LAYTON           UT Possible Electric Generation
 46-68195   2995     Y    CG RUITOFF HELENA           46.6     -112.0 HELENA           MT Possible Electric Generation
 47-77100    693     Y    CGIS DET PETALUMA           38.2     -122.7 PETALUMA         CA Possible Electric Generation
 47-77100    709     Y    CGIS PACIFIC REG            37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 58-34360   3919     Y    CG PACIFIC STRIKE TEAM      38.1     -122.5 NOVATO           CA Possible Electric Generation
 69-33600    122     Y    CGHO- DET DUTY ALAMEDA      37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation
 74-61200   3168     Y    ET A SCHOOL                 38.3     -122.8 PETALUMA         CA Possible Electric Generation
 94-33685    119     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD SAN FRANCISCO37.8      -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA Possible Electric Generation




                                                                                                                32
Biomass resource assessment

Biomass energy is fuel, heat, or electricity produced from organic materials such as
plants, agricultural residues, forestry by-products, and municipal or industrial wastes.
Biomass has its energy stored within the chemical structure of the organic substance
itself. Consequently, it is very different from the other resources examined thus far.

Solar and wind cannot be stored as is. The energy from these sources must be
transformed into electricity (typically) and the electricity stored for later use with energy
transformation losses. Once it is stored, it could be transported for use later and
elsewhere.

Much of the plant-based biomass resource is already in a form that is readily
transportable and dispatchable, with no energy transformation necessary, though ensuring
the fuel has the required moisture content if often critical. There are costs associated with
moisture removal/regulation, storage and transport. And, maintaining the energy quality
(i.e., moisture content) of the fuel may require some environmental controls and
consideration for a shelf life that is not indefinite.

The use of biomass for generating electricity, heat and fuel has been increasing over the
past two decades. Biomass supplanted hydropower in 2004 as the largest U.S. source of
renewable electricity with about 7 GW of capacity, or about 1% of the total U.S.
generating capacity.15 A majority of the energy production is at combined heat and power
(CHP) plants most commonly deployed in pulp and paper mills and paperboard
manufacturers. Some timber companies use wood waste to fuel the kilns to dry their
useful product. The biomass fuel comes largely from what would otherwise be part of the
waste stream of the forest products industry, urban wood waste, and construction and
demolition wood waste.

Another successful biomass conversion technology involves the utilization of landfill gas
(methane) that is created as part of the decomposition process that landfills continuously
undergo. Landfill methane has historically has been either released to the atmosphere or
flared to reduce methane gas build-up and explosion potential. USCG Yard in Baltimore
in engaged in a project, implemented by the Department of Energy‟s Biomass &
Alternative Methane Fuel (BAMF) Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC), to
utilize landfill gas from the City of Baltimore‟s Quarantine Road Landfill. Negotiations
are underway with the City of Baltimore, but when complete, this on-site co-generation
project will be able to supply the entire load of the Yard, potentially export excess green
power to the local grid.

Biomass, itself, can take many different forms, unlike the other renewable energy
resources in this assessment, and can have an even wider a variety of applications. In


15
     Overview of Biomass Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, DOE.


                                                                                                33
many cases, it lends itself to being stored, transported and dispatched to create electricity
or heat as needed. Biomass can take the form of:

       Landfill gas
       Mill residues (timber, paper, furniture, etc. industries)
       Wastewater treatment plants
       Woody biomass from forest thinning
       Urban/suburban waste
       Agricultural residues from crops – typically corn stover or wheat straw
       Animal waste
       Dedicated energy crops
       Aquatic plants

The feedstocks are very diverse in: physical, chemical, and thermochemical
composition; and the types of processing required to deliver its energy as heat or power;
and, geographic availability.

The applications can range from:
    Direct firing to produce electricity
    Co-firing with other fuels (fossil) for electricity
    Direct firing of boiler for heating
    Direct firing for combined heat and power (CHP)
    Gasification for CHP
    Converted into liquid fuel stocks

This widespread diversity creates a tremendous wealth of opportunity as overall
nationwide fuel supply is enormous. However, significant portions of this fuel supply is
relatively diffuse and dispersed and there is currently a lack of sufficient infrastructure to
efficiently and cost effectively deliver much of the available fuel to potential
applications. That said, the infrastructure is improving along with the conversion
technologies and more cost effective opportunities are appearing in each of the resource
and technology areas.

Several important points should be noted regarding this biomass assessment and the
potential to be misled by the data. One, the data indicates what is available or what is
produced within the county, but it does not speak to how much of that resource is already
involved in energy production and hence not available, or not without a premium
attached to the price. So the size of the resource is independent of how much of that is
currently idle and waiting to be used. Second, even if the relative magnitude of the
available resource is small, if it is larger than a local USCG load and available at a
reasonable cost, then a feasible project may be possible. Third, in some cases, the
biomass is targeted for deposit in a landfill at some cost. Diverting it from the landfill
can result in modest payments for using the biomass which has a positive effect on
overall project economics.




                                                                                            34
In the table that follows, the Cumulative Biomass Resource available within the county
borders of specific USCG is shown. Please refer to the Appendix, under the Biomass
Resource section, for more details on the various types and amounts of biomass available
at USCG sites.

Table 8 Cumulative biomass resources available at USCG sites within county borders
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL
   Biomass resources in tonnes available per year per km 2 within county borders

                                                                                             Cumulative
                                                                                               Biomass
  ATU_   NREL Active_                            Latitude Longitude                           Resources
 OPFAC Recno Station            Station Name       [°N]     [°W]         City      State   [tonnes/yr/km2]
01-33130 2521    Y    CG MIO NEW YORK             40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5
01-36222 1462    Y    CG GROUP NEW YORK           40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5
01-41855 4329    Y    CG VTS NEW YORK             40.7      -74.0 GOVERNORS ISL     NY          2403.5
32-45000 4037    Y    CPRO GOVERNORS ISLAND       40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5
32-45000 4040    Y    SPRTCEN NY PUBLIC WORK      40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5
44-68129 3044    Y    CG RUITOFF NEW YORK         40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5
47-77103 676     Y    CGIS DET CAPE COD           41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB         MA          2403.5
98-02117 1957    Y    DD-NEW YORK                 40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5
01-30232 3667    Y    CG STA ROCKAWAY             40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
01-37040 884     Y    DD - SANDY HOOK             40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
01-73136  76     Y    ACT NY ADMIN DIV            40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
20-34265 2790    Y    MSST 91106 NEW YORK         40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
32-47000 2402    Y    ISD S PORTLAND              43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND    ME          1660.4
32-54101 1352    Y    CG ESDD VTS NEW YORK        40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
32-54160 1324    Y    CG ESD NEW YORK             40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
32-66144 4035    Y    CG SUPRTCEN NEW YORK T      40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4
09-30931 3849    Y    Station Belle Isle          42.3      -83.0 DETROIT           MI          1192.9
32-51255 2818    Y    CG MAT KITTERY              42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          1192.9
11-30885 3793    Y    CG STA SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA           767.1
11-36269 1511    Y    GP SAN FRANCISC PERSRU      37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA           767.1
11-37270 3560    Y    SEC SAN FRAN ADMIN/PERS DIV 37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA           767.1
11-41875 4331    Y    CG VTS SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA           767.1
11-41984 243     Y    CG ANT SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA           767.1
11-81112 2896    Y                                37.8
                      CG RESERVE TRACEN YERBA BUENA        -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA           767.1
01-30105 3661    Y    CG STA BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
01-30131 3835    Y    STA BOSTON                  42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
01-33200 2682    Y    CG MSO BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
01-37010 3215    Y    SEC BOSTON ADMIN/PERS DIV   42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
01-81114 2904    Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN BOSTON 42.4         -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
20-34266 2794    Y    MSST 91110 BOSTON           42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
32-51221 1294    Y    CG EMD BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
32-51255 2830    Y    CG WLB MAT NEWPORT          43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND    ME           501.4
32-54100 827     Y    CG ESD WOODS HOLE           42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
32-54100 859     Y    DD - CGD1 - C3/IRM          41.8      -71.4 E PROVIDENCE      RI           501.4
32-54110 1300    Y    CG ESD BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
44-68103 2932    Y    CG RUITOFF BOSTON           42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA           501.4
47-77103 691     Y    CGIS DET NEW LONDON         41.4      -72.1 NEW LONDON        CT           501.4
05-33223 2681    Y    CG MSO BALTIMORE            39.3      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
05-37060 3200    Y    SEC BALTIMORE ADMIN/PERS DIV39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
05-41908 178     Y    ANT Baltimore               39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
05-73133  55     Y    ACT BALT ADMIN SUPPORT      39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
32-54020 1299    Y    CG ESD BALTIMORE            39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
35-52100 3974    Y    CG SUPCEN BROOKLYN          39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
37-52700 3975    Y    CG SUPCEN CURTIS BAY        39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
47-77105 671     Y    CGIS CHESAPEAKE REGI        36.8      -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA           495.9
88-33635 113     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD BALTIMORE     39.3      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD           495.9
07-30313 3754    Y    CG STA LAKE WORTH INLET     26.8      -80.0 RIVIERA BEACH     FL           461.6




                                                                                                       35
Conclusions and recommendations

The DHS has numerous renewable resources to consider at a wide range of USCG sites.
There are literally hundreds of viable renewable energy opportunities to save energy and
budget dollars, reduce emissions, increase security, reduce energy cost volatility, etc. that
will enable DHS to progress towards the renewable energy goals of the REP.

DHS has aggressive renewable energy goals. A strategy of meeting most of the 15% of
agency energy from renewables by 2015 through purchase of Renewable Energy
Certificates (RECS) will not reduce energy costs, enhance energy security, nor reduce
vulnerability to price spikes and supply shortages. Developing numerous on-site USCG
renewable energy projects is the only way DHS can achieve its multiple goals by 2015.

Examining the extremes, to achieve 15% of agency energy from renewables could be
accomplished by having 15% of the sites (roughly 128 „average‟ sites of 850 active
USCG sites) get 100% of their energy from renewables or, at the other end on the
continuum, having 100% of the USCG sites achieving 15% of their energy from on-site
renewables. However, the number of installed projects will most likely be somewhere on
the continuum between these extremes. It is expected that the most cost effective
renewable energy projects will meet part of a site load, not the entire load. Consequently,
a large number of USCG sites will need to have at least one renewable energy project.
Some sites may have 2-10 projects – it will depend on the size of the site and its loads,
and the amount of and types of renewable energy resources available. There are several
USCG sites that have literally hundreds of facilities.

Given the RE goals of DHS, it would seem reasonable that USCG will need to implement
in the range of 2-400 on-site renewable energy projects over the next 10 years. Using 300
as an intermediate number, this translates roughly to 30 projects per year for each of the
next 10 years. Though there is a learning curve associated with doing these projects and
developing an institutional memory on the process can certainly increase the rate of
deployment of later projects over early projects and the timeline from project
identification to commissioning should shrink noticeably. However, there is still a great
need to USCG to begin in earnest immediately to sow the seeds for successful project
implementation to reach these goals by 2015. Initiating at least 10-20 projects for FY06
would serve to get the ball rolling. Gradually increasing the number of projects per year
over the next 3-5 years would put USCG in a reasonable position to meet DHS
objectives.

Though USCG can purchase Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) to reach its 15%
renewable energy goal, that strategy alone will not satisfy the multiple goals of its REP.

NREL has several recommendations to facilitate reaching the goals that include a broad
range of near- and intermediate-term steps, including:




                                                                                           36
   Begin collecting detailed, site specific load data from as many USCG sites as
    possible – often at least a year‟s worth of data is necessary so starting now lays
    critical groundwork – date should include (this is not an exhaustive list):
         o Average hourly, daily, and monthly loads
         o Hourly, daily and monthly peak loads
         o Energy and demand charges and rate structure
         o Identify avoidable or postponable loads

   Identify 30-60 sites that have not had an energy audit within the last 10 years and
    select 8-10 sites for an energy audit in FY06, select the next 8-10 sites for FY07 –
    energy efficiency opportunities should always be exploited before implementing
    renewable energy projects

   Provide renewable energy project implementation training to facility managers so
    they can work proactively to identify preliminary technology matches with locally
    available renewable energy resources

   Select 30-40 sites, from among those with Class 4 or better wind resource to
    install a MET tower to collect wind data – install 5-10 MET towers in FY06 and
    rotate MET towers to next 5-10 sites in FY07 and ensuing years to create a
    pipeline for on-site wind development – the Federal Anemometer Loan Program
    managed by FEMP NREL can facilitate MET tower loans

   Select 30-40 sites along Great Lakes region and Northeast coast for feasibility
    study of transpired solar collectors – pre-screen these sites for high outside air
    ventilation requirement and available space on south-facing wall so 8-10 sites can
    be identified for FY06 feasibility studies, select the next 8-10 sites for FY07
    feasibility studies

   Select 30-40 sites in states with good incentives for solar hot water and PV for
    feasibility of studies - be mindful of incentive expiration and give priority to sites
    that have finite timeline and can get projects installed before incentives expire or
    available funds depleted – select 8-10 for FY06 feasibility studies and the next 8-
    10 for FY07

   Select 30-40 sites that have need for HVAC retrofit and have basic criteria for
    GSHP applications, select 4-6 for feasibility studies in FY06, select the next 4-6
    sites for feasibility studies in FY07

   Select 15-20 sites that have a continuous biomass supply involving 3 or 4 of the
    biomass resource streams identified, select 3-5 sites in each resource for
    feasibility studies in FY06, select the next 3-5 sites in each resource category for
    further studies in FY07




                                                                                         37
      Identify on-site champions at as many USCG sites as possible, as they are often a
       critical link in initiating feasibility studies and projects, and ultimately getting
       projects in the ground


USCG should prioritize these opportunities and develop a project process such that
multiple projects can be ongoing, albeit in different stages, in parallel. The FEMP group
at NREL has extensive experience working with federal agencies implementing on-site
renewable energy projects and can provide direction and assistance to USCG in screening
resources with available technologies for detailed feasibility studies, selecting those
projects with the best overall economics, writing RFP specifications, evaluating
submitted proposals, etc. or other areas that USCG would like expert assistance in.

To assist DHS and the USCG in identifying sites with multiple renewable energy
resources available, an arbitrary ranking has been applied across the multiple renewable
energy resources analyzed in the previous pages of this report. The results can be seen in
Table 9 on the following page. For scoring purposes, twenty points represents the top tier
of a particular resource, and the scoring was reduced by 4 points within each of 5
intervals (20-16-12-8-4), with the exception of geothermal which only had 3 intermediate
intervals (16-12-8). The detailed rankings with the actual resource quantity can be seen
in tables throughout the body of the report and with further details and resource
delineation in the appendix.

The DHS desires to become the leader among all federal agencies in reaching aggressive
and admirable renewable energy goals. This study represents a great first step towards
reaching those goals, but will only be meaningful if the necessary subsequent steps are
undertaken in the near future.




                                                                                        38
Table 9 Compilation of USCG renewable energy resources
Active USCG sites ranked for overall renewable energy resource availability
                 Active                                                                                                                                        Total Renewable
  ATU_     NREL     _                                                                                  Solar        Solar       Solar                             Resource
 OPFAC     Recno Station              NAME           Latitude Longitude      City     State   Wind   fixed tilt   horizontal   vertical   Biomass Geothermal     Assessment
14-30143   3759     Y    CG STA MAUI                  20.8     -156.5 WAILUKU          HI      20       16            16          0           0        8              60
08-40115   2442     Y    CG LORSTA LAS CRUCES         32.1     -106.7 LA MESA          NM       0       20            16          8           0       16              60
11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT        35.5     -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT      NV       0       20            16         12           0       12              60
46-68160   2917     Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE       35.1     -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE      NM       0       20            16         12           0       12              60
46-68174   3065     Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5     -112.1 PHOENIX          AZ       0       20            16         12           0       12              60
08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY         36.6     -102.8 FELT             OK       4       16            12          8           0       12              52
11-30670   3752     Y    CG STA LAKE TAHOE            39.2     -120.1 TAHOE CITY       CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
11-40139   2434     Y    CG LORSTA FALLON             39.5     -118.8 FALLON           NV       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
11-40141   2445     Y    CG LORSTA MIDDLETOWN         38.8     -122.6 MIDDLETOWN       CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
21-32460    524     Y    CG CAMSPAC SAN FRAN          38.1     -122.8 PT REYES STA     CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
33-51252   2819     Y    378 WHEC MAT-ALAMEDA         37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
33-53740   1326     Y    CG ESD PETALUMA              38.2     -122.7 PETALUMA         CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
58-34360   3919     Y    CG PACIFIC STRIKE TEAM       38.1     -122.5 NOVATO           CA       0       16            12          8           0       16              52
01-33130   2521     Y    CG MIO NEW YORK              40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
01-36222   1462     Y    CG GROUP NEW YORK            40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
01-41855   4329     Y    CG VTS NEW YORK              40.7      -74.0 GOVERNORS ISL    NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
32-45000   4037     Y    CPRO GOVERNORS ISLAND        40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
44-68129   3044     Y    CG RUITOFF NEW YORK          40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
47-77103    692     Y    CGIS DET NEW YORK            40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY       4        8             4          4          20        8              48
11-30462   3705     Y    CG STA BODEGA BAY            38.3     -123.1 BODEGA BAY       CA       8       12             8          4           0       16              48
14-31250    497     Y    CG BASE HONOLULU             21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
14-37340   3305     Y    SEC HONO ADMIN/PERS DIV      21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
14-40301   2865     Y    CG OMSTA HAWAII              21.5     -157.9 KANEOHE          HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
14-41990    213     Y    CG ANT HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
21-34268   2791     Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU          21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-47810   2102     Y    CG ISC HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-51228   1369     Y    CG EMD ALAMEDA               37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA       0       12            12          8           0       16              48
33-51230   1370     Y    CG EMD HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-51254   2820     Y    378 WHEC MAT-HONOLULU        21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
33-53500   1411     Y    ESU Honolulu                 21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       8       16            16          0           0        8              48
47-77100    693     Y    CGIS DET PETALUMA            38.2     -122.7 PETALUMA         CA       0       16            12          4           0       16              48
11-20170    140     Y    AIRSTA SAN DIEG PERSRU       32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-20253    160     Y    CG AIRSTA LOS ANGELES        33.9     -118.4 LOS ANGELES      CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-30888   3792     Y    CG STA SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-33255   2710     Y    CG MSO SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-36261   1557     Y    Group San Diego              32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-37250   3545     Y    SEC SAN DIEGO ADMIN/PERS DIV 32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-41982    241     Y    CG ANT SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
11-73135    112     Y    CG ACTIVITIES SAN DIEGO      32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-34269   2793     Y    MSST 91109 SAN DIEGO         32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-34301   4100     Y    CG PACAREA TACLET            32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-34404    520     Y    CG UNIT C3I CTR WEST         33.9     -117.3 MARCH AFB        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-83101   1600     Y    NCWGRU ONE                   32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
21-83110   1590     Y    CGRU HDCU 110                32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
33-53720   1360     Y    ESD SAN DIEGO                32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
46-68175   3097     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN DIEGO         32.8     -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
46-68176   3081     Y    CG RUITOFF RIVERSIDE         34.1     -117.3 COLTON           CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
47-77100    687     Y    CGIS DET LA/LB               33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO        CA       0       16            12          8           0       12              48
47-77100    683     Y    CGIS DET HONOLULU            21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI       0       16            16          8           0        8              48
Appendix
Solar resource assessment
The solar resource available outside the Earth‟s atmosphere is collectively immense and
it always available. The amount of power delivered by the sun to space just outside the
Earth‟s atmosphere is referred to as the solar constant. Technically, it is the solar power
flux that passes through the mean Earth orbit.16 The currently accepted value is 1,367
W/m2.

The solar radiation that gets filtered through the atmosphere with its accompanying
clouds, moisture, pollution, etc. is still enormous, though availability follows daily and
seasonal patterns occasionally interrupted by weather events. Sunrise and sunset are
daily events that cause sunlight to pass through much greater lengths of atmosphere, thus
reducing the solar energy that strikes a surface on the Earth. Similarly, the tilted axis of
the Earth results in seasonal variations in the length of atmosphere the sun‟s rays must
pass through to reach the Earth‟s surface. Even still, the sun radiates 1.7 x 1017 Watts of
power to the earth every hour! The challenge in working with the solar resource for
electricity generating applications is that the resource is relatively diffuse and
unconcentrated.

For making electricity, only bands of the solar spectrum within the visible light
wavelengths are utilized and the objective for PV researchers and manufacturers is to
utilize as much of that available energy as possible. For heating applications, whether for
space (air) or materials (mass), the light energy is transformed into heat energy as it
strikes a surface and is absorbed.

                                                                On earth, even in the sunniest,
                                                                driest climates, the amount of
                                                                solar radiation is lower than the
                                                                solar constant due to
                                                                atmospheric attenuation. In the
                                                                continental U.S., the intensity
                                                                of solar radiation during the
                                                                middle 6-8 hours of the day is
                                                                usually in the 500-1000 W/m2
                                                                range. A daily pattern of
                                                                insolation intensity can be seen
                                                                in the graph at left.




Figure 8 Annual daily insolation pattern integrated into a yearly average of 5.5 sun-hours/day
Source: http://www.solarexpert.com/grid-tie/system-performance-factors.html


16
     http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/glossary/gloss_s.html
To facilitate climate comparison and predict system performance, the amount of solar
radiation that falls on a collector throughout the day has been integrated to determine the
area under the curve. The conventional level of intensity is 1,000 W/m2 (1kW/m2)
termed peak sun-hours. This radiation intensity is the standard (part of a set of Standard
Test Conditions (STC) for PV modules) that PV manufacturers use when testing their
modules for direct current (DC) output capacity. The solar resource at a site is often
reported in sun-hours/day which equates to kWh/ m2/day. There have been extensive
weather data collection efforts throughout the U.S. for number of years and with a wide
variety of data collectors, end users and end uses in mind.

As a subset of the weather data is a compilation of solar radiation data that has been
collected at numerous locations throughout the country for at least the past 30 years. The
National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) contains 30 years (1961-1990) of solar
radiation and supplementary meteorological data from 239 NWS sites in the U.S., plus
sites in Guam and Puerto Rico17.

There are numerous formats for this data. One is the Daily Statistics Files (DSFs) that
are part of the National Solar Radiation Data Base. The DSFs contain the average and
standard deviation of the daily total solar energy (direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and
global horizontal) for each station-year-month and each station-year for the years 1961-
1990 for all 239 stations, where available. The 30-year averages and the standard
deviations of monthly and annual means from 1961 through 1990 are also provided. For
the meteorological elements, only monthly, annual, and 30-year averages were
computed.18 The stations are shown in sectionalized maps in Figure 1 below.

This data can be used for a wide range of applications within the energy, architecture,
meteorology, etc. fields. The data can be used to calculate the overhang dimensions for
windows to allow the sun in for x number of months per year, to determine the amount of
mass necessary for passive solar designs, etc.




Figure 9 National Solar Radiation Data Base Map of Sites
Source: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/dsf/

17
     http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/
18
     http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/dsf/


                                                                                         41
The solar radiation resource data that was selected for resource analysis for USCG with
particular solar technology applications in mind were chosen for three primary
application purposes:

      Solar hot water or photovoltaic (PV) systems that are most commonly operated at
       a fixed tilt angle that corresponds to the local latitude
      Horizontal roof-mounted PV systems that have gained popularity due to relative
       installation simplicity
      Transpired solar collectors that mostly commonly are added on to or affixed in
       front of vertical south-facing exterior walls

The data is reported as average annual daily solar radiation (aka insolation) on the
selected surface in units of kWh/m2/yr. The data selected is most useful for predicting
annual system performance. Though there are differences in the annual data vs. the 30-
year long term average, these differences tend to be minimal and the 30 year average is
considered a statistically reliable figure, with a few exceptions.

It should be noted that the difference in solar resource from one location to another
nearby, especially on an annual basis, tends to be minimal except for differences caused
by viewable, topographical features such as large buildings or trees that may shade a
particular location for a significant part of the day or for seasonal times of the year. On a
slightly larger scale, proximity to mountains/mountain ranges or large bodies of water
can result in larger variations for sites within relative proximity to each other. The coast
of California is one such place where the fog near the coasts tends to scatter the direct
beam solar radiation significantly which would lead to proportionately lower
performance for single crystal silicon PV modules, for example. However, the most of
the insolation becomes scattered with the fog, rather than reflected back to space, so an
amorphous silicon PV system would tend to see a much smaller performance reduction as
that technology works best with diffuse insolation.

An important point to note, and an advantage of solar compared to other renewable
resources, is the fact that the variation of the solar resource from best-to-worst locations
varies by roughly a factor of two. This means that a solar project can be done essentially
anywhere, though twice as many square feet of PV or solar hot water collector might be
needed for a location with a low solar resource vs. a location with a high solar resource.
The key parameters for determining cost effective applications will be highly influenced
by other site specific factors beyond solar resource alone. Some of the relevant factors
include:

      Available federal, state and local incentive programs can impact on overall
       economics
      The source of funds for the project and/or type of financing impact overall
       economics and payback
      Amount paid per kWh for electricity or per Btu (m3 or therm) for natural gas or
       other heating fuel source



                                                                                          42
       Peak and off-peak electricity or natural gas demand charge rate structure and
        amount

These factors combined may have more influence on the feasibility of a solar energy
system at a particular site than the extent of the resource itself, so with this particular
resource, the gathering of more site specific information is the critical next step.

For this first overview resource evaluation, the annual solar energy delivered to the
proposed surface is the criteria used to sort sites with greater or lesser available resource.
In subsequent analyses, average daily radiation at latitude tilt or on a vertical surface shall
be used to establish system sizing parameters and predict daily or monthly system
performance capabilities.

The three types of solar resource data that were selected and sorted are:

Average annual solar radiation at latitude tilt
The average annual solar radiation at latitude tilt, measured in kWh/m2/yr, is most often
used for sizing and modeling annual performance for PV systems and solar hot water
systems. For PV systems, the fixed latitude tilt angle typically maximizes annual
performance without having to adjust the angle of the collectors during the year. With no
moving parts to the system, they are the simplest and most often recommended as their
slightly lower annual performance, compared to tracking systems, is typically more than
offset by the reduced need for monitoring and O&M.

Greater annual solar energy can be harvested by using tracking collectors that follow the
sun‟s path from east to west daily (single axis tracking) or that follow the sun‟s path both
east to west daily and seasonally adjusts for higher and lower altitude angles (dual axis
tracking). Tracking systems can be recommended when maximizing the solar resource
given available collector space is critical and routine monitoring and necessary O&M are
readily available. Tracking is not typically done for the other orientations that follow.

Average annual solar radiation on a horizontal surface
The average solar radiation on a horizontal surface is most often used for sizing and
estimating annual performance for PV systems that lay flat on the roof. The advantages
of these systems include:

       Relatively simple install – lay out across the roof and connect pre-wired junctions
       Provide shading for the roof itself from the harmful and damaging effects of
        ultraviolet (UV) radiation
       No added ballast or structural system is required to attach to the roof
       Wind loading is minimized

These types of systems tend to be among the largest commercial PV installations at this
time. It should be noted that though it is reasonable that this system structure would
reduce the UV degradation associated with many roofs, no independent studies or data
have been located that substantiate this claim.


                                                                                              43
Average annual solar radiation on a vertical surface
The average solar radiation on a vertical surface is most often used for sizing and
estimating annual performance for solar pre-heat ventilation systems (aka transpired solar
collectors). This data is for a south-facing vertical wall. It should be noted that for this
application, though south-facing is typically optimal, other orientations can still cost
effectively deliver sizable quantities of inexpensively pre-heated ventilation air. The
performance parameters for wall orientation are as follows:

      Within +/- 20° of south gives 96-100% of the annual energy of true south
      Within +/- 45° of south gives 80-100% of the annual energy of true south

The differences in the daily amount of solar energy striking a collector at various
orientations can be seen graphically in the figure below. A point of interest to note from
the graphic is that the vertical surface receives more solar radiation in the winter months,
due to the sun‟s low altitude angle in the sky, which makes it an effective source for pre-
heat ventilation air in the winter when heating loads are the greatest.

This assessment is focused on determining the solar resource available for power
generation, hot water and hot air generation. Other types of solar radiation data can be
provided for other types of applications (e.g., daylighting, window shading, heating of
thermal mass, etc.) at USCG‟s request. Also worth noting is the emergence of
concentrating solar collectors for power generation. These systems (either parabolic or
multi-sided concentrating reflectors) require that the insolation be predominantly direct
beam with relatively little diffuse radiation. The southwestern states of Arizona, New
Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and parts of California and Colorado are the states most
commonly viewed as having enough direct beam insolation to make concentrating
systems work effectively. It was not examined in detail at this time as there are not
enough installed systems or manufacturers to point to for verifying feasibility at a
particular site.

Also of interest, for transpired solar collector applications, is the solar radiation on south-
facing vertical surfaces, particularly during the heating season or winter months. Figures
citing solar input as annual monthly averages per square foot per day and daily averages
per square foot per day in January can be seen in the following two maps.




                                                                                            44
Figure 10 Annual average daily solar radiation on south-facing vertical wall
Source: U.S. Solar Radiation Resource Maps http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/bluebook/atlas/bwPDFs/156.pdf




                                                                                                                      45
Figure 11 Average daily solar radiation on south-facing vertical wall in January
Source: U.S. Solar Radiation Resource Maps http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/bluebook/atlas/bwPDFs/155.pdf



                                                                                                                      46
Wind resource assessment

The uneven heating of the earth‟s surface creates wind energy. Warmed surfaces warm
the air which rises and cooler air rushes in to take its place and the result is wind. The
earth‟s rotation causing day and night are responsible for one aspect of the
heating/cooling cycle. Other factors, such as orientation or slope of a surfaces or surfaces
with different rates of reflectivity, absorptivity, and transmissivity, also contribute to
uneven heating. Also, wind can be affected (accelerated, decelerated, increased
turbulence) by other factors, such as terrain, bodies of water, buildings and vegetative
cover.

Wind is air with high kinetic energy that can be transformed into useful work via wind
turbine blades, generator, etc. Roughly 1-2% of the sun‟s energy that strikes the earth is
transformed into wind19. Overall, wind, both worldwide and in the U.S., has to be
considered a diffuse resource. However, it does have a significant number of regions and
areas where there is considerable wind resource that can generate electricity cost
effectively and competitively.


Wind characteristics
Windiness varies with the season and time of day and, of course, weather events.
Collected wind data focuses on two primary considerations – average annual wind speed
and a frequency distribution of the wind at various speeds. The wind speed at any given
time determines the amount of power available in the wind.

The power available in the wind is given by:
      P = A V3/2

           where
           P = power of the wind [Watts]
           A = windswept area of the rotor (blades) = D2/4 = r2 [m2]
            = density of the air [kg/m3] (at sea level at 15°C)
           V = velocity of the wind [m/s]

As shown, wind power is proportional to velocity cubed (V3). Why this matters is that if
wind velocity is doubled, wind power increases by a factor of eight (23 = 8)!
Consequently, a small differences (e.g., increase) in average speed cause significant
differences (e.g., increase) in energy production. Examining ways to increase the wind
velocity at a particular site should be considered. Normally, the easiest way to accomplish
this is to increase the height of the tower. The wind industry has been moving towards
ever higher towers and the industry norm has increased from 30 m to 80 m over that last
15-20 years. Research is currently underway examining feasibility of tall towers in the
range of 100-120 m with some in this range having already been installed in Germany.

19
     Danish Wind Industry Association, web page: http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/geostro.htm


                                                                                                     47
Another point worth noting in the wind power equation is the windswept area of the
rotor, A, is derived from the formula for area of a circle (A = r2). As the length of the
rotor, r, is increased, the area increases as a square of r, which means more windswept
area to intercept the wind which translates into more power generated. This is the
impetus behind the wind industry drive to develop larger and larger wind turbines. The
more windswept area, the more wind power a wind turbine‟s rotor intercepts.


Availability
The key issue though, is not the power available in the wind, but the power delivered
from the wind turbine. The electrical power that a turbine will be able to deliver depends
upon the efficiency of the wind turbine (gears, shafts, generator, electrical conversion
equipment, etc.) in making that conversion. The term Cp represents the efficiency of the
turbine.

       P = Cp A V3/2

       where
       Cp = the efficiency of the wind turbine

Because power increases as the cube of wind speed, much of the annual power produced
by a wind turbine comes in short bursts during periods of high wind speed. It is only in
high winds that the turbine produces at its rated power. To capture such bursts, the wind
turbine needs large enough generator and strong gearbox that go underutilized most of
the time. Just surviving the strongest gusts requires the turbine to use lots of extra
material in the tower and blades that for the most of the annual operating hours are
unnecessary.

Wind turbines operate 4-7,000 hours per year. Automobiles often operate as much in
their lifetime. Operating a wind turbine is similar to driving your car for 200,000 miles –
in one year! And, wind turbines are designed for a 20 year useful life where they most
often see low wind speeds, but they need to be designed to be robust enough to withstand
the 50-year extreme wind.

Wind turbines are rated by the manufacturer for performance at various speeds. The
average power produced by a wind turbine over time will be a fraction of the peak or
rated power the machine is capable of delivering. Typical utilization rates will be 10-25%
for small wind turbines, 15-35% for larger wind turbines.


Wind Rose
Utilizing the information embodied in a wind rose is extremely useful for siting wind
turbines. The wind rose graphically shows which directions the wind most frequently
come from. The wind rose also displays which direction most of the wind power



                                                                                         48
originates from. These two factors should be considered as critical information in the
siting of any wind turbine.

If a large share of the energy in the wind comes from a particular direction, then it is best
to have as few obstacles as possible, and as smooth a terrain as possible in that direction,
when placing the wind turbines in the landscape. Also, if multiple wind turbines are
being considered for a site, a wind rose can help to determine appropriate orientation of
and spacing between the wind turbines.

Surface roughness
For practical energy purposes, the wind of interest is surface wind up to altitudes of 330
ft (100 m) above the ground at a given location. The roughness of the earth‟s surface
(e.g., mountains, trees, hills, buildings, canyons, plains, water) impacts the wind with
increased roughness tending to extract energy from the wind resulting in reducing the
wind speeds.

Wind turbine and wind farm siting
The siting of wind turbines has proven to be a challenging aspect of wind projects as
proponents know that wind speeds are generally better as you go higher, but opponents
point to visual disturbance for wind turbines in general and more so as they become
higher. There are a number of other issues to consider with siting that include:
environmental impacts of the turbine(s); land ownership; transmission/distribution
availability (for wind farms); etc. All of these should be considered in detail when a
specific site has been identified, number of turbines to be installed identified, and a site
specific feasibility study undertaken.

In the past decade or so, Class 5 and above wind sites have been targeted for the
development of wind farms. The increase from 1,718 MW of wind capacity in 1995 to
7,727 MW by end of September 2005, in increase of over 350% in ten years, speaks to
the attractive economics of wind energy at Class 5 and 6 sites despite siting and
transmission challenges.


Wind research
Also of interest to note, a major recent thrust of DOE‟s Wind and Hydropower
Technologies Program and the National Wind Technology Center‟s (NWTC) research at
NREL has been to bring the economic cost of energy (COE) threshold down to make
wind farms on Class 4 sites economically competitive. The goal is to have wind
electricity at 3 ¢/kWh by 2010. The rationale for this research stems from the vast
difference in number of available sites and their proximity to load centers. The average
distance from Class 6 sites to load centers in the Midwest is 500 miles, but the average
distance from Class 4 wind sites to load centers is 100 miles.20 Also, Class 4 sites



20
     http://www.nrel.gov/wind/about_lowspeed.html


                                                                                               49
represent almost 20 times the developable wind resource of Class 6 sites21, so the
opportunities are there to be developed as the economic goals are attained.

Another DOE goal is to reduce the cost of electricity from distributed wind energy
systems to 10-15 ¢/kWh by 2007.22 It is assumed that most of the opportunity to use
wind for generating electricity as USCG sites will be on-site distributed power for
offsetting utility purchases vs. developing wind farms to sell electricity in the bulk power
market. For almost all USCG sites, that translates into 1-3 wind turbines ranging in size
from 100kW to 1.5MW. The cost of producing wind electricity at Class 3 or better sites
may be less expensive than utility purchases. Future site specific feasibility studies will
address the economics of on-site wind generated electricity vs. local utility purchase. The
map below provides a broad graphic of potential wind energy opportunity. It should also
be noted, that depending upon the local economics of purchasing electricity, Class 2 wind
sites may even present opportunities for particular sites to lower electricity bills or
emissions associated with electricity purchases while increasing the percentage of on-site
renewable energy generation.




Figure 12 Percent U.S. land with Class 3 or above wind resource
Source: NWTC Wind Potential:              http://www.nrel.gov/wind/wind_potential.html


Wind resource class at the site
Wind energy, like most fields of energy, points decidedly toward least cost of generating
electricity balanced by the other available options at a given location. The result is that
wind turbines for making electricity are typically considered in windy, rural,

21
     http://www.nrel.gov/wind/about_lowspeed.html
22
     http://eereweb.ee.doe.gov/windandhydro/wind_research_test.html


                                                                                         50
environments that have a significant wind resource, favorable terrain (typically flat or
rolling hills with relatively few significant surface obstructions, i.e., low surface
roughness), and competitive economics dictated by alternatives (utility bulk power from
new or existing coal power plants, RPS requirements for a given utility or state).

Originally, the goal of this portion of the assessment was to identify all Class 3 or better
sites within 1 mile of the latitude and longitude coordinate of each USCG site. However,
analysis revealed there were 384 such sites. So the data below represents a further
filtering to Class 4 or better wind resource within 1 mile of USCG sites. There are 101
sites identified. This represents a significant resource well worth further exploration at
roughly 8% of the 850 active USCG sites.

Currently, the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and U.S. Fish and
Wildlife are all examining policies and procedures for allowing development of
renewable energy resources, such as wind, on their lands. It is recommended that USCG
engage with those agencies to glean information regarding policies developed, preferred
licensing or ownership/leasing requirements, lessons learned, etc.




                                                                                          51
Table 10 USCG Class 3 wind sites
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Active USCG Sites ranked by Wind Speed Class that are Class 3
                                                                                                Best Wind
   ATU_     NREL Active_                               Latitude Longitude                     Class on site or
  OPFAC     Recno Station             Station Name       [°N]      [°W]        City     State    < 1 mile
 09-30355   3856     Y    Station Charlevoix            45.3      -85.2 CHARLEVOIX       MI          3
 09-30379   3868     Y    Station Grand Haven           43.1      -86.2 GRAND HAVEN      MI          3
 09-36257   1489     Y    GP GND HAVEN ADMIN STF        43.1      -86.2 GRAND HAVEN      MI          3
 01-20115    137     Y    AIRSTA CAPE COD PERSRU        41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA          3
 01-30121   3717     Y    CG STA CASTLE HILL            41.5      -71.4 NEWPORT          RI          3
 01-30136   3736     Y    CG STA GLOUCESTER             42.6      -70.7 GLOUCESTER       MA          3
 01-30160   3785     Y    CG STA PORTSMOUTH HB          43.1      -70.7 NEW CASTLE       NH          3
 01-30196   3726     Y    CG STA EATONS NECK            41.0      -73.4 NORTHPORT        NY          3
 01-30200   3773     Y    CG STA NEW YORK               40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          3
 01-31420    507     Y    CG BASE SWEST HARBOR          44.3      -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME           3
 01-33130   2521     Y    CG MIO NEW YORK               40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY          3
 01-36222   1462     Y    CG GROUP NEW YORK             40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY          3
 01-36224   1463     Y    CG GROUP SANDY HOOK           40.4      -74.0 SANDY HOOK       NJ          3
 01-36225   1549     Y    Group Moriches                40.8      -72.7 EAST MORICHES    NY          3
 01-37030   2647     Y    MSD CORAM                     40.9      -73.0 CORAM            NY          3
 01-37500   3653     Y    SFO MORICHES                  40.8      -72.8 EAST MORICHES    NY          3
 01-37540   3654     Y    SFO SOUTHWEST HARBOR          44.3      -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME           3
 01-41116   2416     Y    LIGHT STATION BOSTON          42.3      -70.9 HULL             MA          3
 01-41855   4329     Y    CG VTS NEW YORK               40.7      -74.0 GOVERNORS ISL    NY          3
 01-41946    250     Y    CG ANT SOUTHWEST HBR          44.3      -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME           3
 01-41995    224     Y    CG ANT MORICHES               40.8      -72.8 EAST MORICHES    NY          3
 01-50250   1365     Y    CG ESMT CAPE COD              41.7      -70.5 CAPE COD         MA          3
 01-53102   2869     Y    DIST ORDNANCE SUPPORT FACILITY41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA          3
 01-64116   4182     Y    CG OPERATIONAL TRNG TEAM 41.7           -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA          3
 05-30140   3859     Y    Station Crisfield             38.0      -75.9 CRISFIELD        MD          3
 05-30184   3691     Y    Station (SM) Great Egg        39.4      -74.4 ATLANTIC CITY    NJ          3
 05-30254   3898     Y    Station Portsmouth            36.9      -76.4 PORTSMOUTH       VA          3
 05-30264   3857     Y    Station Chincoteague          37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA          3
 05-30269   3696     Y    Station (SM) Swansboro        34.7      -76.7 ATLANTIC BEACH   NC          3
 05-30270   3827     Y    STA (SM) EMERALD ISL          34.7      -77.0 EMERALD ISLE     NC          3
 05-30277   3877     Y    Station Little Creek          36.9      -76.2 NORFOLK          VA          3
 05-30287   3885     Y    Station Milford Haven         37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS          VA          3
 05-30301   3894     Y    Station Parramore Beach       37.6      -75.7 WACHAPREAGUE     VA          3
 05-30304   3672     Y    CG STA SWANSBORO              34.7      -77.0 EMERALD ISLE     NC          3
 05-30846   3893     Y    Station Oxford                38.7      -76.1 OXFORD           MD          3
 05-30860   3916     Y    Station Wrightsville Beach    34.2      -77.8 WRIGHTSVILLE BC  NC          3
 05-36232   1534     Y    Group Eastern Shore           37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA          3
 05-36234   1481     Y    GP FT MACON ADMIN DIV         34.7      -76.7 ATLANTIC BEACH   NC          3
 05-36235   1442     Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT       36.9      -76.4 PORTSMOUTH       VA          3
 05-37070    835     Y    DD - EASTERN SHORE            37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA          3
 05-37080   3483     Y    SEC N. CAROLINA ADMIN/PERS DIV34.7      -76.8 ATLANTIC BEACH   NC          3
 05-37510   3652     Y    SFO EASTERN SHORE             37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA          3
 05-37520   3650     Y    SFO ATLANTIC CITY             39.4      -74.4 ATLANTIC CITY    NJ          3
 05-40117   2454     Y    LORAN Station Carolina Beach  34.0      -77.9 CAROLINA BEACH   NC          3
 05-41901    184     Y    ANT Crisfield                 38.0      -75.8 CRISFIELD        MD          3
 05-41909    182     Y    ANT Chincoteague              37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA          3
 05-41910    187     Y    ANT Fort Macon                34.7      -76.8 ATLANTIC BEACH   NC          3
 08-20245    154     Y    CG AIRSTA CORPUS CHRISTI      27.7      -97.3 CORPUS CHRISTI   TX          3
 08-30325   3733     Y    CG STA FREEPORT               28.9      -95.3 FREEPORT         TX          3
 08-30331   3781     Y    CG STA PORT ARANSAS           27.8      -97.1 PORT ARANSAS     TX          3
 08-30334   3805     Y    CG STA SOUTH PADRE ISLAND 26.1          -97.2 S PADRE ISLAND   TX          3
 08-30337   3783     Y    CG STA PORT O'CONNOR          28.4      -96.4 PORT OCONNOR     TX          3
 08-33205   2663     Y    MSD NASHVILLE                 37.5      -88.5 NASHVILLE        TN          3
 08-33240   2644     Y    MSD BROWNSVILLE               27.8      -97.4 BROWNSVILLE      TX          3
 08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY          36.6     -102.8 FELT             OK          3
 08-40505   2458     Y    LORSTA RAYMONDVILLE           26.5      -97.8 RAYMONDVILLE     TX          3
 08-41917    235     Y    CG ANT PORT O'CONNOR          28.4      -96.4 PORT OCONNOR     TX          3
 08-41943    205     Y    CG ANT CORPUS CHRISTI         27.8      -97.4 CORPUS CHRISTI   TX          3




                                                                                                           52
Table 11 USCG Class 3 wind sites (cont).
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Active USCG Sites ranked by Wind Speed Class that are Class 3
                                                                                                   Best Wind
   ATU_     NREL Active_                                 Latitude Longitude                      Class on site or
  OPFAC     Recno Station             Station Name         [°N]      [°W]         City     State    < 1 mile
 09-03624   1513     Y    GP SSM DET STA DULUTH           46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN          3
 09-20160    124     Y    Air Facility Waukegan           44.7      -85.6 TRAVERSE CITY     MI          3
 09-30149   3887     Y    Station Muskegon                43.2      -86.3 MUSKEGON          MI          3
 09-30343   3845     Y    Station Ashtabula               41.9      -80.8 ASHTABULA         OH          3
 09-30349   3850     Y    Station Buffalo                 42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO           NY          3
 09-30352   3851     Y    Station Calumet Harbor          41.7      -87.5 CHICAGO           IL          3
 09-30364   3692     Y    Station (SM) North Superior     46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN          3
 09-30391   3876     Y    Station Kenosha                 42.6      -87.8 KENOSHA           WI          3
 09-30394   3878     Y    Station Lorain                  41.5      -82.2 LORAIN            OH          3
 09-30397   3879     Y    Station Ludington               44.0      -86.4 LUDINGTON         MI          3
 09-30406   3883     Y    Station Marquette               46.5      -87.4 MARQUETTE         MI          3
 09-30407   3902     Y    Station Sault Ste Marie         46.5      -84.3 SAULT STE MARIE   MI          3
 09-30412   3886     Y    Station Milwaukee               43.0      -87.9 MILWAUKEE         WI          3
 09-30424   3822     Y    SARDET ALEXANDRA BAY            43.5      -76.5 OSWEGO            NY          3
 09-30433   3896     Y    Station Port Huron              43.0      -82.4 PORT HURON        MI          3
 09-30439   3899     Y    Station Rochester               43.3      -77.6 ROCHESTER         NY          3
 09-30442   3907     Y    Station St Joseph               42.1      -86.5 SAINT JOSEPH      MI          3
 09-30445   3903     Y    Station Sheboygan               43.7      -87.7 SHEBOYGAN         WI          3
 09-30450   3905     Y    Station St Ignace               45.9      -84.7 ST IGNACE         MI          3
 09-30451   3698     Y    Station (SM) Washington Island  44.8      -87.3 STURGEON BAY      WI          3
 09-30454   3910     Y    Station Tawas                   44.3      -83.4 EAST TAWAS        MI          3
 09-30457   3912     Y    Station Two Rivers              44.1      -87.6 TWO RIVERS        WI          3
 09-30460   3915     Y    Station Wilmette                42.1      -87.7 WILMETTE          IL          3
 09-30927   3673     Y    CG STA WASHINGTON ISLAND        45.4      -86.9 WASHINGTON ISLA WI            3
 09-30928   3871     Y    Station Harbor Beach            43.8      -82.7 HARBOR BEACH      MI          3
 09-30934   3866     Y    Station Frankfort               44.6      -86.2 FRANKFORT         MI          3
 09-30938   3888     Y    Station Niagara                 43.3      -79.1 YOUNGSTOWN        NY          3
 09-30950   3904     Y    Station Sodus                   43.3      -77.0 SODUS POINT       NY          3
 09-30952   3900     Y    Station Sacketts Harbor         43.9      -76.1 SACKETS HARBOR    NY          3
 09-30961   3874     Y    Station Holland (AUXOP)         43.0      -86.2 GRAND HAVEN       MI          3
 09-31210    493     Y    Base Sault Ste Marie            46.5      -84.3 SAULT STE MARIE   MI          3
 09-31370    501     Y    CG BASE MILWAUKEE               43.0      -87.9 MILWAUKEE         WI          3
 09-33180   2523     Y    CG MIO ST IGNACE                45.9      -84.7 ST IGNACE         MI          3
 09-33181   2524     Y    CG MIO STURGEON BAY             44.8      -87.4 STURGEON BAY      WI          3
 09-33246   2770     Y    MSO Sault Ste Marie             46.5      -84.3 SAULT STE MARIE   MI          3
 09-33248   2669     Y    MSD STURGEON BAY                43.0      -87.9 MILWAUKEE         WI          3
 09-33254   2661     Y    MSD MASSENA                     42.9      -78.9 MASSENA           NY          3
 09-33262   2802     Y    MSU DULUTH                      46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN          3
 09-33287   2740     Y    MSO Duluth                      46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN          3
 09-36244   1529     Y    Group Buffalo                   42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO           NY          3
 09-37210   3230     Y    SEC BUFFALO ADMIN/PERS DIV 42.9           -78.9 BUFFALO           NY          3
 09-37230    833     Y    DD - DULUTH                     46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN          3
 09-37230   3366     Y    SEC LAKE SUP ADMIN/PERS DIV 46.5          -84.3 SAULT STE. MARIE  MI          3
 09-41914    179     Y    ANT Buffalo                     42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO           NY          3
 09-41958    225     Y    CG ANT MUSKEGON                 43.2      -86.3 MUSKEGON          MI          3
 09-41959    246     Y    CG ANT SAULT STE MARIE          46.5      -84.3 SAULT STE MARIE   MI          3
 09-41962    251     Y    CG ANT ST IGNACE                45.9      -84.7 ST IGNACE         MI          3
 09-41976    186     Y    ANT Duluth                      46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN          3
 09-41979    192     Y    ANT Kenosha                     42.6      -87.8 KENOSHA           WI          3
 11-20180    169     Y    CG AIRSTA SAN FRANCISCO         37.6     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          3
 11-30464   3774     Y    CG STA NOYO RIVER               39.4     -123.8 FORT BRAGG        CA          3
 11-30467   3737     Y    CG STA GOLDEN GATE              37.8     -122.5 SAUSALITO         CA          3
 11-30890   3788     Y    CG STA RIO VISTA                38.2     -121.7 RIO VISTA         CA          3
 13-20276    143     Y    CG AIRFAC NEWPORT               43.4     -124.2 NORTH BEND        OR          3
 13-30478   3674     Y    STA (SM) COQUILLE RVR           43.3     -124.3 CHARLESTON        OR          3
 13-30493   3787     Y    CG STA QUILLAYUTE RIVER         47.9     -124.6 LA PUSH           WA          3




                                                                                                              53
Table 12 USCG Class 3 wind sites (cont).
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Active USCG Sites ranked by Wind Speed Class that are Class 3
                                                                                              Best Wind
   ATU_     NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                     Class on site or
  OPFAC     Recno Station           Station Name       [°N]      [°W]        City     State    < 1 mile
 13-30496   3809     Y    CG STA TILLAMOOK BAY        45.6     -123.9 GARIBALDI        OR          3
 13-30505   3814     Y    CG STA YAQUINA BAY          44.6     -124.1 NEWPORT          OR          3
 13-30511   3686     Y    STA DEPOE BAY               44.6     -124.1 NEWPORT          OR          3
 13-30672   3662     Y    CG STA DEPOE BAY            44.6     -124.1 NEWPORT          OR          3
 13-33270   2727     Y    DET- ASTORIA                46.1     -123.9 WARRENTON        OR          3
 13-36274   1501     Y    GP NORTH BEND PERSRU        43.4     -124.2 NORTH BEND       OR          3
 13-37290   3184     Y    AVIATION ENGINEERING DIV    43.4     -124.2 NORTH BEND       OR          3
 13-37300   3185     Y    SEC ASTORIA ADMIN/PERS DIV 46.1      -123.9 WARRENTON        OR          3
 14-20255    145     Y    CG AIRSTA BARBERS PT        21.3     -158.1 KAPOLEI          HI          3
 14-40158   2441     Y    CG LORSTA KURE ISLAND       21.3     -158.1 BARBERS PT       HI          3
 17-20280    171     Y    CG AIRSTA SITKA             57.0     -135.4 SITKA            AK          3
 17-30520   3748     Y    CG STA JUNEAU               58.3     -134.4 JUNEAU           AK          3
 17-30521   3750     Y    CG STA KETCHIKAN            55.3     -131.6 KETCHIKAN        AK          3
 17-33281   2655     Y    MSD KETCHIKAN               58.4     -134.6 KETCHIKAN        AK          3
 17-33283   2717     Y    CG MSO VALDEZ               61.1     -146.4 VALDEZ           AK          3
 17-40128   2440     Y    CG LORSTA KODIAK            57.7     -152.5 KODIAK           AK          3
 17-40187   2451     Y    CG LORSTA TOK               63.3     -142.9 TOK              AK          3
 17-40189   2449     Y    CG LORSTA SHOAL COVE        55.4     -131.7 KETCHIKAN        AK          3
 17-40191   2427     Y    CG LORSTA ATTU              57.7     -152.5 KODIAK           AK          3
 17-40198   2447     Y    CG LORSTA PORT CLARENCE     64.5     -165.1 NOME             AK          3
 17-41985    193     Y    ANT KODIAK                  57.8     -152.4 KODIAK           AK          3
 17-41992    248     Y    CG ANT SITKA                57.1     -135.3 SITKA            AK          3
 17-64119   4190     Y                                57.7
                          NPRFTC N.PAC REG FIS TRAN CEN        -152.5 KODIAK           AK          3
 17-71117    847     Y    DD - ISC KODIAK, AK         58.3     -134.4 KODIAK           AK          3
 20-66897   4151     Y    LANTAREA LEDET AIRSTA       41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA          3
 20-83201   1595     Y    CGRU HDCU 201               41.5      -71.3 NEWPORT          RI          3
 20-93313   2885     Y    PSU 301                     41.7      -70.5 CAPE COD         MA          3
 21-32490    795     Y    CG COMMSTA KODIAK           57.7     -152.5 KODIAK           AK          3
 21-34270   2795     Y    MSST 91111 ANCHORAGE        61.2     -149.9 ANCHORAGE        AK          3
 21-93312   2890     Y    PSU 312                     37.6     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA          3
 27-47950    745     Y    UDC CAPE MAY, NJ            39.0      -74.8 WOODBINE         NJ          3
 32-45000   4037     Y    CPRO GOVERNORS ISLAND       40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK         NY          3
 32-46800   2399     Y    ISD CHEBOYGAN               45.6      -84.5 CHEBOYGAN        MI          3
 32-47100   2117     Y    CG ISD CAPE MAY             39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY         NJ          3
 32-51255   2845     Y    WLM-MAT BAYONNE             41.5      -71.3 NEWPORT          RI          3
 32-51255   2828     Y    CG MAT SOUTH PORTLAND       44.1      -69.1 ROCKLAND         ME          3
 32-51261   2835     Y    CG NESU CLEVELAND           41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH          3
 32-54040   1306     Y    CG ESD CHINCOTEAGUE         37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA          3
 32-54070   1312     Y    DD - MSO WILMINGTON         34.7      -76.8 ATLANTIC BEACH   NC          3
 32-54071   1349     Y    CG ESDD SOUTHPORT           33.9      -78.1 OAK ISLAND       NC          3
 32-54131   1339     Y    CG ESDD CASTLE HILL         41.5      -71.3 NEWPORT          RI          3
 32-54140   1303     Y    CG ESD CAPE COD             41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA          3
 32-54150   1331     Y    CG ESD SOUTHWEST HARBO      44.3      -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME           3
 32-54180   1321     Y    CG ESD MORICHES             40.8      -72.8 EAST MORICHES    NY          3
 32-54190   1329     Y    CG ESD SANDY HOOK           40.4      -74.0 HIGHLANDS        NJ          3
 32-54230   1301     Y    CG ESD BUFFALO              42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO          NY          3
 32-54231   1345     Y    CG ESDD OSWEGO              43.4      -76.5 OSWEGO           NY          3
 32-54240   1310     Y    CG ESD DULUTH               46.8      -92.1 DULUTH           MN          3
 32-54250   1330     Y    CG ESD SAULT STE MARIE      46.5      -84.3 SAULT STE MARIE  MI          3
 32-54251   1350     Y    CG ESDD ST IGNACE           45.9      -84.7 ST IGNACE        MI          3
 32-54260   1319     Y    CG ESD MILWAUKEE            43.0      -87.9 MILWAUKEE        WI          3
 32-54261   1340     Y    CG ESDD CHICAGO             41.8      -87.9 BURR RIDGE       IL          3
 32-54262   1351     Y    CG ESDD STURGEON BAY        44.8      -87.4 STURGEON BAY     WI          3
 32-54270   1314     Y    CG ESD GRAND HAVEN          43.0      -86.2 GRAND HAVEN      MI          3
 32-54350   1308     Y    CG ESD CORPUS CHRISTI       27.8      -97.4 CORPUS CHRISTI   TX          3
 33-47700   2400     Y    ISD CORDOVA                 60.5     -145.4 CORDOVA          AK          3
 33-51231   1402     Y    CG ESU KODIAK               57.7     -152.5 KODIAK           AK          3




                                                                                                         54
Table 13 USCG Class 3 wind sites (cont).
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Active USCG Sites ranked by Wind Speed Class that are Class 3
                                                                                                Best Wind
   ATU_     NREL Active_                            Latitude Longitude                        Class on site or
  OPFAC     Recno Station         Station Name        [°N]      [°W]        City      State      < 1 mile
 33-51291    664     Y    CEU Juneau                 58.3     -134.4 JUNEAU            AK            3
 33-51292    663     Y    CEU Honolulu               21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI            3
 33-53420   1354     Y    ESD ASTORIA                46.1     -123.9 WARRENTON         OR            3
 33-53500    912     Y    DD-CGD14 C3/IRM STAFF      21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI            3
 33-53501   1336     Y    CG ESDD BARBERS POINT      21.3     -158.1 BARBERS PT        HI            3
 33-53600   1412     Y    ESU KODIAK                 57.8     -152.4 KODIAK            AK            3
 33-53601   1362     Y    ESD VALDEZ                 61.1     -146.2 VALDEZ            AK            3
 33-53602    854     Y    DD - MSO ANCHORAGE         61.2     -149.9 ANCHORAGE         AK            3
 33-53602   1353     Y    ESD ANCHORAGE              61.2     -149.8 ANCHORAGE         AK            3
 33-53610   1356     Y    ESD KETCHIKAN              55.4     -131.7 KETCHIKAN         AK            3
 33-53611   1364     Y    ESDD SITKA                 57.1     -135.3 SITKA             AK            3
 39-64120   4147     Y    CG CITAT-TSI (DTI-12       35.5      -97.5 OKLAHOMA CITY     OK            3
 44-68129   3044     Y    CG RUITOFF NEW YORK        40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY            3
 44-68168   2937     Y    CG RUITOFF BUFFALO         42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO           NY            3
 45-68164   3049     Y    CG RUITOFF NILES           42.0      -87.8 NILES             IL            3
 45-68165   2955     Y    CG RUITOFF CLEVELAND       41.4      -81.9 NORTH OLMSTED     OH            3
 46-68194   2922     Y    CG RUITOFF ANCHORAGE       61.1     -149.9 ANCHORAGE         AK            3
 46-68196   2998     Y    CG RUITOFF HONOLULU        21.4     -157.9 AIEA              HI            3
 47-77101    674     Y    CGIS DET BELLINGHAM        48.7     -122.5 BELLINGHAM        WA            3
 47-77101    695     Y    CGIS DET PORT ANGELES      48.1     -123.4 PORT ANGELES      WA            3
 47-77102    680     Y    CGIS DET DETROIT           42.4      -83.0 DETROIT           MI            3
 47-77102    670     Y    CGIS CENTRAL REG           41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND         OH            3
 47-77103    692     Y    CGIS DET NEW YORK          40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY            3
 47-77103    676     Y    CGIS DET CAPE COD          41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB         MA            3
 47-77104    813     Y    CGIS GULF REG              30.2      -85.8 PANAMA CITY       FL            3
 47-77104    679     Y    CGIS DET BROWNSVILLE       27.7      -97.3 CORPUS CHRISTI    TX            3
 47-77104    690     Y    CGIS DET HOUSTON           30.7      -88.2 MOBILE            AL            3
 47-77104    701     Y    CGIS DET PORT ARTHUR       38.6      -90.2 SAINT LOUIS       MO            3
 53-47400    543     Y    CG PAY & PERS CTR          39.1      -95.7 TOPEKA            KS            3
 53-71237    642     Y    PSC AT HOME SEP MBRS       39.1      -95.7 TOPEKA            KS            3
 55-51210    534     Y    CG LSU WILDWOOD            39.0      -74.8 WILDWOOD          NJ            3
 59-64120   4148     Y    CG CITAT-TSI (DTI-120)     35.5      -97.5 OKLAHOMA CITY     OK            3
 62-61351   3156     Y                               46.3
                          CG NAT MOTOR LIFEBOAT SCHOOL        -124.0 ILWACO            WA            3
 71-62100   2098     Y    CG INSTITUTE OKLAHOMA CITY 35.4      -97.6 OKLAHOMA CITY     OK            3




                                                                                                          55
Geothermal resource assessment
There is a tremendous amount of geothermal energy or heat available in the earth‟s crust.
It is a widely dispersed resource, similar in some sense to the nearly uniform spread of
the solar resource (varies by only a factor of roughly two from best to worst in the
continental U.S.), but there are numerous pockets of highly concentrated geothermal
resources (unlike the solar resource).

The earth itself is our geo (earth) + thermal (heat) resource and there are variable
amounts and quality of geothermal resources throughout the planet. The Earth‟s core,
4,000 miles (6,437 km) below the surface, has temperatures as high as 9,000°F
(4,982°C).23 The heat constantly flows outward towards the earth‟s surface heating the
overlaying rock and pockets of water. The spread of this resource can be seen in the
upper 10-15 feet of the earth‟s surface maintaining a nearly constant temperature between
50-60°F (10-16°C) as depicted in the graph at right. Interestingly, the surface mass
within the upper 10 feet or so is heated by the sun and there are periodic seasonal
variations that affect how much of this heat is stored, at what depth, and for how long.
The Earth tempers the sun‟s thermal input.

Geothermal energy can provide heat how and power that is clean (emitting little of no
greenhouse gases), reliable (average system availability of 95%), and domestic (keeping
more energy dollars at home). The resource can be at or near the surface or miles-deep
wells can be drilled to bring it up to the surface. When temperatures are not high enough
for producing electricity, geothermal systems are designed to use the available heat in a
way that can be broadly thought of as heat movers. That is, geothermal systems are
designed to move the earth‟s heat to a location where it can be used more efficiently. In
direct use applications, the available heat is used in a process requiring specific amounts
of heat on a regular or continuous basis. In other systems, the earth is used as a heat
source in the winter and a heat sink in the summer.

Matching the available geothermal resource with the appropriate technology and loads is
the key to effective utilization of this resource. Most of the hydrothermal resources -
reservoirs of steam or hot water - in the U.S. are in the western states, Alaska and Hawaii.
In almost all latitudes of the U.S., geothermal or ground source heat pumps (GHP or
GSHP) are an effective technology for heating and cooling. The primary criteria is having
the air and surface temperatures vary enough (i.e., seasons) so that the system loads can
take advantage of the earth‟s steady temperature for exchanging heat energy.

Geothermal resources make a significant contribution to national renewable energy
production as is ranks third overall, behind biomass and hydro, but ahead of wind and
solar in annual energy production. With many of the existing high temperature
geothermal resources being located on Federal lands, it is not too surprising that 46% of
the geothermal electricity generated is from resources located on Federal lands.24

23
     Geothermal Today, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, August 2001.
24
     http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/geothermal/geothermal.gif


                                                                                                   56
Overall, geothermal electric power generation totals approximately 2,200 MW25 and it
accounts for 0.4% of the electricity generated in the U.S.26

In the geothermal resource assessment, the terms low, medium and high temperature
geothermal resource were used broadly. These resources are often classified by
temperature as follows27:

        Low temperature (less than 194°F or 90°C)
        Moderate temperature (194 - 302°F or 90°C - 150°C)
        High temperature (greater than 302°F or 150°C)

These temperature classifications point towards potential applications, but it should be
noted that the applications are not defined by these temperature bands. The application
categories, in order from lower temperature to higher, are:

        Geothermal or ground source heat pumps
        Direct use
        Power plants


Geothermal heat pump applications
A geothermal heat pump is a heat pump that uses the ground, groundwater, or surface
water as a heat source and heat sink, as opposed to ambient air. Typical resource
temperatures are in the range of 40°-100°F (4°- 38°C). The technology has a number of
different names, though they all essentially refer to the same type of system:

        Ground source heat pumps (GSHP)
        Ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP)
        Geothermal heat pumps (GHP)
        GeoExchange
        Earth energy systems

Also of interest to note when dealing with low temperature resources at or near the
Earth‟s surface is that the solar resource comes into play in providing thermal energy to
this resource as it heats the surface mass. The surface composition, ground and ambient
air temperatures determine how much of the thermal energy gets stored, at what depth
and for how long. For moist soil, for instance, there is a consistent, periodic time lag
between the ground surface annual maximum and minimum temperatures and those in
the 5-15 ft. of depth range. The graph below shows that the ground temperature of moist
soil at a depth of 12 ft. is below its annual mean temperature during the cooling months
of April, May, June, and most of July. Likewise, at the same depth, the moist soil

25
   http://geoheat.oit.edu/whatgeo.htm
26
   http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/geothermal/geothermal.gif
27
   http://geoheat.oit.edu/whatgeo.htm



                                                                                           57
temperature is above its annual mean during the heating months of October, November,
December, and most of January. This represents a significant potential to capture
inexpensive heating or cooling at times in the year when it is most needed.




Figure 13 Seasonal periodic soil temperature variation at the surface and 2, 5, and 12 ft
Source: John Schonder, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2003 FEMP presentation.

GHP provide several advantages over conventional Heating, Ventilation and Air-
Conditioning (HVAC) equipment, including:

       GHPs exchange heat with the earth, rather than with ambient air
       Earth provides a much better heat exchange medium
       Stable year-round temperature
       Generally cooler than ambient air when cooling is needed, and warmer than
        ambient air when heating is needed
       Water is a better heat transfer medium than air

GHP have proven to be effective energy savers, however, there are factors other than the
Earth‟s steady temperature that contribute to make a project feasible. In general, it is best
to consider GHP if several of these conditions apply to the site under consideration:

       New construction or existing facility with hydronic piping
       Major renovation when existing systems are obsolete
       High water table or moist, damp soil
       Ground-level parking area or open land for loop installation, or access to ground
        or other water
       Mixture of heating and cooling needs:
            o Multiple zones, both core and perimeter
            o Water heating, snow melt, and process applications



                                                                                            58
GHPs are an energy saving renewable technology as they can reduce the energy required
for space heating, cooling and service water- heating in commercial/institutional
buildings by as much as 50%. GHPs replace the need for a boiler in winter by utilizing
heat stored in the ground; this heat can be upgraded by a vapor-compressor refrigeration
cycle. In summer, heat from a building is rejected to the ground. This eliminates the need
for a cooling tower or heat rejector, and also lowers operating costs because the ground is
cooler than the outdoor air.28 A GHP system still requires electricity for pumps and fans
for moving fluids and there may be an increase in electricity use, but in a well-designed
system there will be an overall decrease in energy consumed heating and cooling a
building(s).

It is estimated that there are over 450,000 GHPs operating in the U.S. currently and
representing a capacity of approximately 3,400 MWt.29

Essentially every USCG site has at a low temperature thermal resource and all are
reasonable candidates for GHPs based on the resource alone, so there is not a prioritized
list. The characteristics that make one site preferable over another have more to do with
the criteria listed above than with the specific ground temperature at a specific site. In
future phases of REP implementation, when site characteristics are more clearly defined,
loads delineated, and energy costs are factored in, site specific feasibility can be
addressed.


Direct use applications
Direct-use applications make the most practical use of low quality geothermal resources.
As the name implies, there is no need for a heat pump as systems use the heat in the water
directly. The thermal energy that is being utilized comes from the Earth, not the sun.
The temperature range of typical applications is 100°-300°F (38°-149°C).

Applications can include heating for greenhouses, homes, spas/resorts or district heating.
The heat can be used to facilitate a wide range of ‘industrial’ processes, including:
aquaculture (fish farming), crop drying, food dehydrating, laundries, gold mining, sludge
digestion, or other process heat applications with low temperature loads. The current
installed capacity of direct use systems in the U.S. is about 470 MW.

There were 245 USCG sites with Direct Use Applications potential identified. There is
not an effective way to differentiate among them as they are application-driven, not
resource temperature-driven. The sites are listed in the table below.




28
  Cane, D., Caneta Research for Advanced Buildings, www.advancedbuilding.org
29
  Lund, J., Boyd, T., Sifford, A., BLoomquist, R. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States –
2000, Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Fall, Oregon


                                                                                                         59
Table 14 USCG sites with medium temperature geothermal resource
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL
Active USCG sites with direct use potential from geothermal energy
                  Active                                                                                Geothermal
   ATU_     NREL     _                                                                              Qualitative Estimate
  OPFAC     Recno Station                 NAME        Latitude Longitude       City     State           of Potential
 05-20130    155     Y    CG AIRSTA ELIZABETH CITY     36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30140   3859     Y    Station Crisfield            38.0      -75.9 CRISFIELD         MD     Direct Use Applications
 05-30254   3898     Y    Station Portsmouth           36.9      -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-30264   3857     Y    Station Chincoteague         37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-30269   3696     Y    Station (SM) Swansboro       34.7      -76.7 ATLANTIC BEACH    NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30271   3693     Y    Station (SM) Ocracoke        35.2      -75.7 HATTERAS          NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30272   3873     Y    Station Hobucken             34.7      -76.6 HOBUCKEN          NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30277   3877     Y    Station Little Creek         36.9      -76.2 NORFOLK           VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-30278   3852     Y    Station Cape Charles         37.3      -76.0 CAPE CHARLES      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-30287   3885     Y    Station Milford Haven        37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS           VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-30295   3666     Y    CG STA OCRACOKE              35.1      -76.0 OCRACOKE          NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30298   3891     Y    Station Oregon Inlet         36.0      -75.6 NAGS HEAD         NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30300   3862     Y    Station Elizabeth City       36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-30301   3894     Y    Station Parramore Beach      37.6      -75.7 WACHAPREAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-30305   3906     Y    Station St Inigoes           38.2      -76.4 SAINT INIGOES     MD     Direct Use Applications
 05-33220    838     Y    DD - ELIZABETH CITY          36.8      -76.3 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-36230   1479     Y    GP CP HAT ELEC SHOP          35.2      -75.5 BUXTON            NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-36232   1534     Y    Group Eastern Shore          37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-36234   1481     Y    GP FT MACON ADMIN DIV        34.7      -76.7 ATLANTIC BEACH    NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-36235   1442     Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      36.9      -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-37070    835     Y    DD - EASTERN SHORE           37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-37070   3290     Y    SEC HAM RD ADMIN/PERS DIV    36.9      -76.3 NORFOLK           VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-37510   3652     Y    SFO EASTERN SHORE            37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-37530   3651     Y    SFO CAPE HATTERAS            35.3      -75.6 BUXTON            NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-41901    184     Y    ANT Crisfield                38.0      -75.8 CRISFIELD         MD     Direct Use Applications
 05-41906    191     Y    ANT Hatteras Inlet           35.2      -75.7 HATTERAS          NC     Direct Use Applications
 05-41909    182     Y    ANT Chincoteague             37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-41912    190     Y    ANT Hampton Roads            36.9      -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-41913    194     Y    ANT Milford Haven            37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS           VA     Direct Use Applications
 05-41923    196     Y    ANT Potomac                  38.2      -76.4 SAINT INIGOES     MD     Direct Use Applications
 08-20155    156     Y    CG AIRSTA HOUSTON            29.6      -95.2 HOUSTON           TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-20245    154     Y    CG AIRSTA CORPUS CHRISTI     27.7      -97.3 CORPUS CHRISTI    TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-30325   3733     Y    CG STA FREEPORT              28.9      -95.3 FREEPORT          TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-30331   3781     Y    CG STA PORT ARANSAS          27.8      -97.1 PORT ARANSAS      TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-30334   3805     Y    CG STA SOUTH PADRE ISLAND    26.1      -97.2 S PADRE ISLAND    TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-30337   3783     Y    CG STA PORT O'CONNOR         28.4      -96.4 PORT OCONNOR      TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-30350   3735     Y    CG STA GALVESTON             29.3      -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-31180    495     Y    CG BASE GALVESTON            29.3      -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-33206   2703     Y    CG MSO PITTSBURGH            40.4      -80.0 PITTSBURGH        PA     Direct Use Applications
 08-33240   2644     Y    MSD BROWNSVILLE              27.8      -97.4 BROWNSVILLE       TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-33241   2657     Y    MSD LAKE CHARLES             29.8      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR       TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-33244    839     Y    DD - ESD GALVESTON           29.7      -95.3 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-33265   2799     Y    CG MSO GALVESTON             29.3      -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-33267   2804     Y    MSU LAKE CHARLES             30.2      -93.3 LAKE CHARLES      LA     Direct Use Applications




                                                                                                                           60
Table 15 USCG sites with medium temperature geothermal resource (cont.)
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL


Active USCG sites with direct use potential from geothermal energy (cont.)
                  Active                                                                                Geothermal
   ATU_     NREL     _                                                                              Qualitative Estimate
  OPFAC     Recno Station              NAME           Latitude Longitude      City      State           of Potential
 08-33268   2800     Y    MSU BATON ROUGE              30.3      -91.3 BATON ROUGE       LA     Direct Use Applications
 08-36243   1471     Y    CGC SKIPJACK (PATROL BOAT)   29.3      -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-37190    902     Y    DD - WLR SUPRT GREENVILLE    33.4      -91.1 GREENVILLE        MS     Direct Use Applications
 08-37190    903     Y    DD - WLR SUPRT NATCHEZ       31.6      -91.4 NATCHEZ           MS     Direct Use Applications
 08-37190    904     Y    DD - WLR SUPRT PINE BLUFF    34.2      -92.0 PINE BLUFF        AR     Direct Use Applications
 08-40116   2428     Y    CG LORSTA BOISE CITY         36.6     -102.8 FELT              OK     Direct Use Applications
 08-40505   2458     Y    LORSTA RAYMONDVILLE          26.5      -97.8 RAYMONDVILLE      TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-40506   2457     Y    LORSTA GRANGEVILLE           30.7      -90.8 PINE GROVE        LA     Direct Use Applications
 08-41865   4327     Y    CG VTS HOUSTON/GALV          29.8      -95.3 HOUSTON           TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-41917    235     Y    CG ANT PORT O'CONNOR         28.4      -96.4 PORT OCONNOR      TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-41931    223     Y    CG ANT MORGAN CITY           29.7      -91.2 MORGAN CITY       LA     Direct Use Applications
 08-41939    240     Y    CG ANT SABINE                29.7      -93.9 SABINE PASS       TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-41943    205     Y    CG ANT CORPUS CHRISTI        27.8      -97.4 CORPUS CHRISTI    TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-41960    211     Y    CG ANT GALVESTON             29.3      -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 08-41969    183     Y    ANT COLFAX                   31.5      -92.7 COLFAX            LA     Direct Use Applications
 09-40142   2455     Y    LORAN Station Seneca         42.8      -76.9 ROMULUS           NY     Direct Use Applications
 11-20170    140     Y    AIRSTA SAN DIEG PERSRU       32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-20253    160     Y    CG AIRSTA LOS ANGELES        33.9     -118.4 LOS ANGELES       CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-30464   3774     Y    CG STA NOYO RIVER            39.4     -123.8 FORT BRAGG        CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-30465   3764     Y    CG STA MONTEREY              36.6     -121.9 MONTEREY          CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-30471   3765     Y    CG STA MORRO BAY             35.4     -120.9 MORRO BAY         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-30887   3755     Y    CG STA LOS ANGELES/LBCH      33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-30888   3792     Y    CG STA SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-30890   3788     Y    CG STA RIO VISTA             38.2     -121.7 RIO VISTA         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-33255   2710     Y    CG MSO SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-33261   2666     Y    CG MSD SANTA BARBARA         34.4     -119.7 SANTA BARBARA     CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-36261   1557     Y    Group San Diego              32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-36263   1542     Y    Group LA-LB                  33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-36268   1461     Y    CG GROUP MONTEREY            36.6     -121.9 MONTEREY          CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-37250   3545     Y    SEC SAN DIEGO ADMIN/PERS DIV 32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-37260    887     Y    DD - SANTA BARBARA           33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT        35.5     -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT       NV     Direct Use Applications
 11-41981    220     Y    CG ANT LOS ANGLS/LBEACH      33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-41982    241     Y    CG ANT SAN DIEGO             32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-73135    112     Y    CG ACTIVITIES SAN DIEGO      32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 11-81106   2894     Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN SAN PEDRO33.7       -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 13-20190    164     Y    CG AIRSTA PORT ANGELES       48.1     -123.4 PORT ANGELES      WA     Direct Use Applications
 13-30484   3766     Y    CG STA NEAH BAY              48.4     -124.6 NEAH BAY          WA     Direct Use Applications
 13-30508   3704     Y    CG STA BELLINGHAM            48.8     -122.5 BELLINGHAM        WA     Direct Use Applications
 13-36277   1444     Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      48.1     -123.4 PORT ANGELES      WA     Direct Use Applications
 13-37310   3530     Y    SEC PORTLAND ADMIN/PERS DIV 45.6      -122.7 PORTLAND          OR     Direct Use Applications
 13-40143   2435     Y    CG LORSTA GEORGE             47.2     -119.9 QUINCY            WA     Direct Use Applications
 13-41907    217     Y    CG ANT KENNEWICK             46.2     -119.2 KENNEWICK         WA     Direct Use Applications
 20-32425    521     Y    CAMSLANT                     36.7      -76.2 CHESAPEAKE        VA     Direct Use Applications
 20-34261   2798     Y    MSST CHESAPEAKE 91102        36.7      -76.2 CHESAPEAKE        VA     Direct Use Applications
 20-34263   2787     Y    MSST 91104 GALVESTON         29.3      -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
 20-34302   4149     Y    CG INT MARITIME LAW ENF TEAM 36.8      -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
 20-75120    264     Y    AA ADMIN STAFF (AA)          36.8      -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
 20-76200   2515     Y    MIFCA                        36.8      -76.0 VIRGINIA BEACH    VA     Direct Use Applications
 20-83205   1596     Y    CGRU HDCU 205                37.2      -76.5 YORKTOWN          VA     Direct Use Applications
 21-34262   2786     Y    MSST 91103 SAN PEDRO         33.7     -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-34269   2793     Y    MSST 91109 SAN DIEGO         32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-34301   4100     Y    CG PACAREA TACLET            32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-34404    520     Y    CG UNIT C3I CTR WEST         33.9     -117.3 MARCH AFB         CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-83101   1600     Y    NCWGRU ONE                   32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-83110   1590     Y    CGRU HDCU 110                32.7     -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-83114   1593     Y    CGRU HDCU 114                33.7     -118.3 LONG BEACH        CA     Direct Use Applications
 21-93308   2883     Y    CG PORT SECURITY UNIT 311    33.7     -118.3 LONG BEACH        CA     Direct Use Applications
 24-64125    545     Y    CG TRAINING QUOTA MGT CENTER 36.8      -76.2 CHESAPEAKE        VA     Direct Use Applications
 28-72201    510     Y    CG BUSL PRO                  48.7     -122.5 BELLINGHAM        WA     Direct Use Applications
 28-72208   2874     Y    DD - LANTAREA (AOF)          36.8      -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
 28-72208   2875     Y    DD - MLCLANT(VR)             36.9      -76.3 NORFOLK           VA     Direct Use Applications
 30-59201    746     Y    C2CEN ADMIN STAFF            36.9      -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications




                                                                                                                           61
Table 16 USCG sites with medium temperature geothermal resource (cont.)
Source: Donna Heimiller, NREL


Active USCG sites with direct use potential from geothermal energy (cont.)
                 Active                                                                               Geothermal
  ATU_     NREL     _                                                                             Qualitative Estimate
 OPFAC     Recno Station             NAME           Latitude Longitude      City      State           of Potential
32-47300   4032     Y    C130J - APO                  36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
32-51282    668     Y    DET ELIZ CITY, NC            36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
32-54000   1415     Y    ESU PORTSMOUTH               36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
32-54040   1306     Y    CG ESD CHINCOTEAGUE          37.9     -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE      VA     Direct Use Applications
32-54050   1302     Y    CG ESD BUXTON                35.3     -75.6 BUXTON            NC     Direct Use Applications
32-54060   1311     Y    CG ESD ELIZABETH CITY        36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
32-54080    855     Y    CG ESD PORTSMOUTH            36.9     -76.3 NORFOLK           VA     Direct Use Applications
32-54080   1327     Y    DD - MSO HAMPTON ROADS       36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
32-54301   1341     Y    CG ESDD HOUSTON              29.8     -95.3 HOUSTON           TX     Direct Use Applications
32-54340    858     Y    CG ESD GALVESTON             29.9     -94.0 PORT ARTHUR       TX     Direct Use Applications
32-54340   1313     Y    DD - MSO PORT ARTHUR         29.3     -94.8 GALVESTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
32-54350   1308     Y    CG ESD CORPUS CHRISTI        27.8     -97.4 CORPUS CHRISTI    TX     Direct Use Applications
32-73001    530     Y    CG FD & CC ATLANTIC          36.9     -76.2 NORFOLK           VA     Direct Use Applications
32-75130    411     Y    CG DAR CAPE MAY              36.8     -76.3 CAPE MAY          NJ     Direct Use Applications
33-47720   2336     Y    ISC SAN PEDRO                33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
33-51252   2829     Y    CG MAT SAN DIEGO             32.7    -117.1 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
33-51252   2848     Y    MAT SAN PEDRO                33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
33-53421   1359     Y    ESD PORTLAND                 45.6    -122.7 PORTLAND          OR     Direct Use Applications
33-53710   1361     Y    ESD SAN PEDRO                33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
33-53720   1360     Y    ESD SAN DIEGO                32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
36-51800    532     Y    CG FINANCE CENTER            36.8     -76.2 CHESAPEAKE        VA     Direct Use Applications
39-51900    539     Y    CG NVDC MARTINSBURG          39.6     -77.9 FALLING WATERS    WV     Direct Use Applications
39-51901    551     Y    DD-NVDC                      39.6     -77.9 FALLING WATERS    WV     Direct Use Applications
40-50100    439     Y    ARSC INFO SYS DIV            36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
40-50101    262     Y    CG C-130J APO                36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
44-68120   3067     Y    CG RUITOFF PITTSBURGH        40.6     -80.0 PITTSBURGH        PA     Direct Use Applications
44-68139   3051     Y    CG RUITOFF NORFOLK           36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
44-68310   3129     Y    EASTERN REG RUIT CMD         36.8     -76.2 CHESAPEAKE        VA     Direct Use Applications
45-68156   2962     Y    CG RUITOFF DALLAS            32.7     -97.1 ARLINGTON         TX     Direct Use Applications
45-68157   2999     Y    CG RUITOFF HOUSTON           29.8     -95.4 HOUSTON           TX     Direct Use Applications
45-68159   3093     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN ANTONIO       29.5     -98.4 SAN ANTONIO       TX     Direct Use Applications
46-68115   2966     Y    CG RUITOFF DENVER            39.9    -105.0 THORNTON          CO     Direct Use Applications
46-68160   2917     Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE       35.1    -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE       NM     Direct Use Applications
46-68173   2940     Y    CG RUITOFF CERRITOS          33.9    -118.1 CERRITOS          CA     Direct Use Applications
46-68174   3065     Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5    -112.1 PHOENIX           AZ     Direct Use Applications
46-68175   3097     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN DIEGO         32.8    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
46-68176   3081     Y    CG RUITOFF RIVERSIDE         34.1    -117.3 COLTON            CA     Direct Use Applications
46-68182   3100     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN FRAN          37.7    -122.1 SAN LEANDRO       CA     Direct Use Applications
46-68183   3103     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN JOSE          37.3    -122.0 SAN JOSE          CA     Direct Use Applications
46-68188   3070     Y    CG RUITOFF PORTLAND          45.7    -122.6 VANCOUVER         WA     Direct Use Applications
46-68191   3110     Y    CG RUITOFF SPOKANE           47.6    -117.3 SPOKANE           WA     Direct Use Applications
47-77100    687     Y    CGIS DET LA/LB               33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO         CA     Direct Use Applications
47-77100    698     Y    CGIS DET SAN DIEGO           32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO         CA     Direct Use Applications
47-77101    674     Y    CGIS DET BELLINGHAM          48.7    -122.5 BELLINGHAM        WA     Direct Use Applications
47-77101    697     Y    CGIS DET PORTLAND            45.6    -122.7 PORTLAND          OR     Direct Use Applications
47-77104    679     Y    CGIS DET BROWNSVILLE         27.7     -97.3 CORPUS CHRISTI    TX     Direct Use Applications
47-77104    684     Y    CGIS DET CORPUS CHRISTI      29.7     -95.4 HOUSTON           TX     Direct Use Applications
47-77104    690     Y    CGIS DET HOUSTON             30.7     -88.2 MOBILE            AL     Direct Use Applications
47-77104    701     Y    CGIS DET PORT ARTHUR         38.6     -90.2 SAINT LOUIS       MO     Direct Use Applications
47-77104    706     Y    CGIS DET SO. PADRE ISL       29.9     -90.1 NEW ORLEANS       LA     Direct Use Applications
47-77105    671     Y    CGIS CHESAPEAKE REGI         36.8     -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA     Direct Use Applications
47-77105    705     Y    CGIS DET YORKTOWN            37.2     -76.5 YORKTOWN          VA     Direct Use Applications
49-52301    525     Y    ATOM AC&I STAFF              39.3     -78.0 KEARNEYSVILLE     WV     Direct Use Applications
58-34359    538     Y    CG NATIONAL STRIKE FORCE     36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
75-63100   3164     Y    BM A SCHOOL                  37.2     -76.5 YORKTOWN          VA     Direct Use Applications
75-66110   3165     Y    CG TRACEN YORKTOWN - A SCH 37.2       -76.5 YORKTOWN          VA     Direct Use Applications
75-66111   3159     Y    CG TRACEN YORKTOWN - C SCH 37.2       -76.5 YORKTOWN          VA     Direct Use Applications
78-61300    527     Y    C-130 C SCHOOL               36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY    NC     Direct Use Applications
84-33666    114     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD HOUSTON        29.7     -95.3 HOUSTON           TX     Direct Use Applications
89-33645    118     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD NORFOLK        36.9     -76.3 NORFOLK           VA     Direct Use Applications
93-33675    116     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD LONG BEACH     33.8    -118.2 LONG BEACH        CA     Direct Use Applications
99-51501    669     Y    CG NAFA FIELD SUPPORT OFFICE 36.8     -76.1 VIRGINIA BEACH    VA     Direct Use Applications
99-66217    173     Y    DD 559TH FTS                 29.5     -98.3 RANDOLPH AFB      TX     Direct Use Applications
GD-04000   2071     Y    UG/FAIRMONT STATE COLG       39.5     -80.1 FAIRMONT          WV     Direct Use Applications




                                                                                                                         62
Being creative in matching the available geothermal resource with a load or process that
can effectively utilize it while lowering operating costs is the type of thinking that is
driving the growth in this medium temperature geothermal energy application. Not
enough is known at this point regarding the breadth of activities and types of loads
encompassed within the USCG‟s 4,300+ buildings. It is assumed that cost effective
matches can be made when site characteristics are more clearly defined, loads delineated,
and energy costs are factored in.

Power plant electricity applications
The U.S. currently produces about 2,800 MW of electricity from geothermal sources
utilizing a variety of conversion technologies.30 The electricity is primarily produced
from hydrothermal resources (hot water/steam). The U.S. Geological Survey estimated
that there is 22,000 MW of potential geothermal generating capacity form already-
identified geothermal systems hotter than 302°F (150°C).31 It has been estimated that
there is 3 to 6 times as much additional geothermal generating capacity yet to be
discovered and tapped.

Geothermal electricity plants have capacity factors in the 70-100% range and
availabilities over 95%, so they are considered a reliable source of base load power at
costs in the range of 4-8¢/kWh. Geothermal power plants produce a small amount
of air emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel plants. They also help to
diversify the fuel mix for electricity whether within a state or utility boundary.

Similar to other renewable energy power systems, most of the cost is borne
upfront. For geothermal, these costs are for site assessment, exploration,
development, plant installation and commissioning. Installation costs are in the
range of $2-3,000/kW for large power plants and $3-5,000/kW for smaller plants
(less than 1,000 kW). O&M costs are typically in the range of 1-3¢/kWh.

There are primarily two types of geothermal power plants – steam or binary. For
steam applications, plants can operate as dry steam power plants. In this type of
system, the hydrothermal fluid goes directly to a turbine which drives the
generator and produces electricity. A flash steam power plant uses very high
temperature hydrothermal fluids (above 360°F or 182°C) that are sprayed into a
much lower pressure tank causing the fluid to rapidly vaporize or flash. The vapor
is used to drive a turbine and makes electricity.

In a binary-cycle power plant, energy is extracted from the hot geothermal fluid
and a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water pass through a
heat exchanger. Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the secondary fluid to flash
and drive the turbine.32

30
   Geothermal Technologies Program web site, http://www.nrel.gov/geothermal/geoelectricity.html
31
   Geothermal Today, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado. August, 2001
32
   Geothermal Technologies Program, http://www.eere.energy.gov.geothermal/powerplants/html


                                                                                                  63
New areas of research and applications within the high temperature applications
are small-scale geothermal power plants in the 750kW – 1.5 MW range. It is more
challenging to cost effectively produce electricity in this size range, but innovative
applications that use the geothermal fluid twice – once to generate electricity and
again in direct use processes such as crop drying, aquaculture or greenhouse
heating have been opening new avenues to effective resource utilization.

Geothermal database resources
The geothermal resource potential was extracted from data obtained from the Southern
Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory (http://www.smu.edu/~geothermal) for the
48 contiguous states (2002); Alaska Department of Natural Resources published map
(1987); and Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism map
(2000).




                                                                                    64
Biomass resource assessment
Biomass energy is fuel, heat, or electricity produced from organic materials such as
plants, agricultural residues, forestry by-products, and municipal or industrial wastes.
Biomass has its energy stored within the chemical structure of the organic substance
itself. Consequently, it is very different from the other resources examined thus far.

Solar and wind cannot be stored as is. They must be transformed into electricity
(typically) and the electricity stored for later use with fairly high energy transformation
losses. Once it is stored, it could be transported for use later and elsewhere.

Much of the plant-based biomass resource is already in a form that is readily
transportable and dispatchable, with no energy transformation necessary, though ensuring
the fuel has the required moisture content if often critical. There are costs associated with
moisture removal/regulation, storage and transport. And, maintaining the energy quality
(i.e., moisture content) of the fuel may require some environmental controls and
consideration for a shelf life that is not indefinite.

The use of biomass for generating electricity, heat and fuel has been increasing over the
past two decades. Biomass supplanted hydropower in 2004 as the largest U.S. source of
renewable electricity with about 7 GW of capacity, or about 1% of the total U.S.
generating capacity.33 A majority of the energy production is at combined heat and power
(CHP) plants most commonly deployed in pulp and paper mills and paperboard
manufacturers. Some timber companies use wood waste to fuel the kilns to dry their
useful product. The biomass fuel comes largely from what would otherwise be part of the
waste stream of the forest products industry, urban wood waste, and construction and
demolition wood waste.

Biomass, itself, can take many different forms, unlike the other renewable energy
resources in this assessment, and can have an even wider a variety of applications. In
many cases, it lends itself to being stored, transported and dispatched to create electricity
or heat as needed. Biomass can take the form of:

          Landfill gas
          Wastewater treatment plants
          Mill residues – primary and secondary (timber, paper, furniture, etc. industries)
          Urban/suburban waste residues
          Agricultural residues from crops – typically corn stover or wheat straw
          Animal waste
          Woody biomass from silviculture, forest thinning
          Dedicated energy crops
          Aquatic plants



33
     Overview of Biomass Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, DOE.


                                                                                                65
The feedstocks are very diverse in: physical, chemical, and thermochemical
composition; and the types of processing required to deliver its energy as heat or power;
and, geographic availability.

The applications can range from:
    Direct firing to produce electricity
    Co-firing with other fuels (fossil) for electricity
    Direct firing of boiler for heating
    Direct firing for combined heat and power (CHP)
    Gasification for CHP
    Converted into liquid fuel stocks


This widespread diversity creates a tremendous wealth of opportunity as overall
nationwide fuel supply is enormous. However, significant portions of this fuel supply is
relatively diffuse and dispersed and there is currently a lack of sufficient infrastructure to
efficiently and cost effectively deliver much of the available fuel to potential
applications. That said, the infrastructure is improving along with the conversion
technologies and more cost effective opportunities are appearing in each of the resource
and technology areas.

Several important points should be noted regarding this biomass assessment and the
potential to be misled by the data. One, the data indicates what is available or what is
produced within the county, but it does not speak to how much of that resource is already
involved in energy production and hence not available, or not without a premium
attached to the price. So the size of the resource is independent of how much of that is
currently idle and waiting to be used. Second, even if the relative magnitude of the
available resource is small, if it is larger than a local USCG load and available at a
reasonable cost, then a feasible project may be possible.

In the tables that follow, the Cumulative Biomass Resource available within the county
borders of specific USCG is shown in the 2nd from the right column in every table to
provide a relative frame of reference for the particular resource size at a USCG site.




                                                                                            66
Landfill gas emissions
Landfills are present in most communities in the U.S. They are typically filled with a
wide variety of urban, suburban and commercial/industrial waste. As organic waste
decomposes, bio-gas is produced that is roughly half methane, half carbon dioxide, and
small amounts of non-methane organic compounds. The methane can be collected,
converted and used as an energy source instead of releasing it into the atmosphere or
flaring it. Using this methane helps to keep it out of the atmosphere thereby reducing its
contributions to air pollution and global climate change.

Table 17 Landfill gas emissions available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL

                      Biomass resources from landfill methane

                                                                                                 Cumulative        Methane
                                                                                                  Biomass         Emissions
  ATU_   NREL Active_                              Latitude Longitude                            Resources      from Landfills
 OPFAC Recno Station             Station Name        [°N]      [°W]         City      State   [tonnes/yr/km 2] [tonnes/yr/km2]
29-72015 2898    Y    CG APO MARIETTA               33.9      -84.5 MARIETTA           GA           92.6           1331.4
14-20255 145     Y    CG AIRSTA BARBERS PT          21.3     -158.1 KAPOLEI            HI           90.7           1331.4
21-32480 794     Y    CG COMMSTA HONOLULU           21.5     -158.0 WAHIAWA            HI           90.7           1331.4
01-30160 3785    Y    CG STA PORTSMOUTH HB          43.1      -70.7 NEW CASTLE         NH           46.1           1331.4
46-68160 2917    Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE        35.1     -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE        NM           31.4           1331.4
09-33262 2802    Y    MSU DULUTH                    46.8      -92.1 DULUTH             MN           28.2           1331.4
09-41976 186     Y    ANT Duluth                    46.8      -92.1 DULUTH             MN           28.2           1331.4
05-36219 1527    Y    Group Atlantic City           39.5      -74.6 ATLANTIC C AIRP    NJ           25.4           1331.4
05-30305 3906    Y    Station St Inigoes            38.2      -76.4 SAINT INIGOES      MD           64.7            682.2
32-54340 858     Y    CG ESD GALVESTON              29.9      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR        TX           29.9            682.2
21-93308 2883    Y    CG PORT SECURITY UNIT 311     33.7     -118.3 LONG BEACH         CA          150.4            151.8
05-30264 3857    Y    Station Chincoteague          37.9      -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE       VA           65.6            118.6
05-30301 3894    Y    Station Parramore Beach       37.6      -75.7 WACHAPREAGUE       VA           65.6            118.6
59-64120 4148    Y    CG CITAT-TSI (DTI-120)        35.5      -97.5 OKLAHOMA CITY      OK           65.6            118.6
11-30670 3752    Y    CG STA LAKE TAHOE             39.2     -120.1 TAHOE CITY         CA           15.8            118.6
13-81113 2895    Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN SEATTLE 47.6         -122.3 SEATTLE            WA           89.0            111.5
33-51253 2842    Y    CG NESU SEATTLE               47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE            WA           89.0            111.5
95-33695 120     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD SEATTLE         47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE            WA           89.0            111.5
13-30475 3713    Y    CG STA CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT 46.3        -124.0 ILWACO             WA           86.2            111.5
32-54030 1304    Y    CG ESD CAPE MAY               39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY           NJ           29.1            111.5
01-41948 254     Y    CG ANT WOODS HOLE             41.5      -70.7 WOODS HOLE         MA           24.1            111.5
01-53102 2869    Y    DIST ORDNANCE SUPPORT FACILITY41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB          MA           24.1            111.5
01-30133 3665    Y    CG STA MENEMSHA               41.3      -70.8 CHILMARK           MA            6.5            111.5
17-41992 248     Y    CG ANT SITKA                  57.1     -135.3 SITKA              AK            0.1            111.5
13-30481 3739    Y    CG STA GRAYS HARBOR           46.9     -124.1 WESTPORT           WA           81.9            90.2
33-51228 1369    Y    CG EMD ALAMEDA                37.8     -122.3 ALAMEDA            CA           27.9            90.2
09-36244 1529    Y    Group Buffalo                 42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO            NY           64.3            79.4
32-54230 1301    Y    CG ESD BUFFALO                42.9      -78.9 BUFFALO            NY           64.3            79.4
05-40117 2454    Y    LORAN Station Carolina Beach  34.0      -77.9 CAROLINA BEACH     NC           62.4            79.4
07-30345 3761    Y    CG STA MIAMI BEACH            25.8      -80.1 MIAMI BEACH        FL           62.2            79.4
07-34503 2463    Y    CG MAPDET MIAMI               25.8      -80.2 MIAMI              FL           62.2            79.4
07-53101 2868    Y    CG ORDSUPFAC                  28.2      -80.6 PATRICK AFB        FL           28.1            79.4
13-37290 3184    Y    AVIATION ENGINEERING DIV      43.4     -124.2 NORTH BEND         OR           75.4            71.4
17-30520 3748    Y    CG STA JUNEAU                 58.3     -134.4 JUNEAU             AK            0.4            71.4
07-30326 3722    Y    CG STA CORTEZ                 27.5      -82.7 CORTEZ             FL           16.7            65.0
08-41917 235     Y    CG ANT PORT O'CONNOR          28.4      -96.4 PORT OCONNOR       TX           15.1            65.0
13-30499 3810    Y    CG STA UMPQUA RIVER           43.7     -124.2 WINCHESTER BAY     OR           71.5            64.6
44-68128 2989    Y    CG RUITOFF HARRISBURG         40.3      -76.8 HARRISBURG         PA           69.2            64.6
05-30184 3691    Y    Station (SM) Great Egg        39.4      -74.4 ATLANTIC CITY      NJ           25.4            64.6
11-30890 3788    Y    CG STA RIO VISTA              38.2     -121.7 RIO VISTA          CA           40.6            63.3
09-33254 2661    Y    MSD MASSENA                   42.9      -78.9 MASSENA            NY           64.3            63.0
49-52301 525     Y    ATOM AC&I STAFF               39.3      -78.0 KEARNEYSVILLE      WV           63.1            63.0
05-30860 3916    Y    Station Wrightsville Beach    34.2      -77.8 WRIGHTSVILLE BC    NC           62.4            63.0
09-30953 3700    Y    CG AUXOP STA MUNISING         46.4      -86.7 MUNISING           MI           31.9            63.0
20-38101 2099    Y    CG INTL ICE PATROL            41.3      -72.0 GROTON             CT           29.1            63.0
61-34310 2464    Y    CG MARSAF LAB GROTEN          41.3      -72.0 GROTON             CT           29.1            63.0
07-30317 3782    Y    CG STA PORT CANAVERAL         28.4      -80.6 CAPE CANAVERAL     FL           28.1            63.0
32-54431 1338    Y    CG ESDD CAPE CANAVERAL        28.4      -80.6 CAPE CANAVERAL     FL           28.1            63.0
13-41907 217     Y    CG ANT KENNEWICK              46.2     -119.2 KENNEWICK          WA           15.3            63.0




                                                                                                                          67
Wastewater treatment plants
Wastewater treatment plants employ an anaerobic decomposition process in a controlled
environment for quick decomposition of waste materials. Digester bio-gas is produced
during this process and it can be 55-95% methane. These treatment plants also produce
sludge which can be used as a fuel source as well.

Table 18 Wastewater treatment methane available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL

                Biomass resources from wastewater treatment plants
                                                                                                              Methane Emissions
                                                                                               Cumulative       from Domestic
                                                                                                Biomass           Wastewater
  ATU_   NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                           Resources           Treatment
 OPFAC Recno Station             Station Name       [°N]     [°W]          City     State   [tonnes/yr/km2]    [tonnes/yr/km2]
09-30457 3912    Y    Station Two Rivers           44.1      -87.6 TWO RIVERS        WI           91.8                35.2
47-77101 686     Y    CGIS DET KODIAK              57.8     -152.4 KODIAK            AK           91.4                35.2
14-33275 2686    Y    CG MSO HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI           90.7                35.2
05-41913 194     Y    ANT Milford Haven            37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS           VA           33.6                35.2
09-30397 3879    Y    Station Ludington            44.0      -86.4 LUDINGTON         MI           33.4                35.2
01-40106 2446    Y    CG LORSTA NANTUCKET          41.3      -70.0 SIASCONSET        MA           22.9                35.2
33-53602 854     Y    DD - MSO ANCHORAGE           61.2     -149.9 ANCHORAGE         AK            8.5                35.2
17-64119 4190    Y    NPRFTC N.PAC REG FIS TRAN CEN57.7     -152.5 KODIAK            AK            0.1                35.2
32-51281 848     Y    DD - ISC MIAMI               25.8      -80.1 MIAMI             FL           62.2                10.5
01-31310 505     Y    CG BASE SOUTH PORTLAND       43.6      -70.3                                61.2                10.5
01-41947 249     Y    CG ANT SOUTH PORTLND         43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND   ME            61.2                10.5
09-30433 3896    Y    Station Port Huron           43.0      -82.4 PORT HURON       MI            60.6                10.5
09-33181 2524    Y    CG MIO STURGEON BAY          44.8      -87.4 STURGEON BAY     WI            57.2                10.5
05-30190 3660    Y    CG STA BEACH HAVEN           39.6      -74.2 BEACH HAVEN      NJ            56.4                10.5
05-30305 3906    Y    Station St Inigoes           38.2      -76.4 SAINT INIGOES    MD            64.7                 7.6
32-54340 858     Y    CG ESD GALVESTON             29.9      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR      TX            29.9                 7.6
32-46900 2114    Y    CG ISC MIAMI                 25.8      -80.1 MIAMI            FL            97.5                 7.3
32-54330 1325    Y    CG ESD PANAMA CITY           30.2      -85.8 PANAMA CITY      FL            95.5                 7.3
13-37310 3530    Y    SEC PORTLAND ADMIN/PERS DIV 45.6      -122.7 PORTLAND         OR            91.4                 7.3
33-53700 825     Y    DD - AIRSTA SACRAMENTO       38.7     -121.4 MCCLELLAN AFB    CA            91.0                 7.3
21-34268 2791    Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU          21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI            90.7                 7.3
01-50249 1368    Y    CG ESMT PORTSMOUTH HBR       43.1      -70.8                                46.1                 7.3
08-33241 2657    Y    MSD LAKE CHARLES             29.8      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR      TX            29.9                 7.3
09-30454 3910    Y    Station Tawas                44.3      -83.4 EAST TAWAS       MI            29.5                 7.3
09-03624 1513    Y    GP SSM DET STA DULUTH        46.8      -92.1 DULUTH           MN            28.2                 7.3
09-30364 3692    Y    Station (SM) North Superior  46.8      -92.1 DULUTH           MN            28.2                 7.3
09-33287 2740    Y    MSO Duluth                   46.8      -92.1 DULUTH           MN            28.2                 7.3
09-30406 3883    Y    Station Marquette            46.5      -87.4 MARQUETTE        MI            23.1                 7.3
46-68194 2922    Y    CG RUITOFF ANCHORAGE         61.1     -149.9 ANCHORAGE        AK             8.5                 7.3
13-36278 1443    Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      47.7     -122.4 SEATTLE          WA            89.0                 6.8
13-71113 929     Y    DD-INTEL SUPT TEAM PORTLAND 47.6      -122.3 PORTLAND         OR            89.0                 6.8
21-34260 2785    Y    MSST 91101 SEATTLE           47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE          WA            89.0                 6.8
33-47200 2353    Y    ISC SEATT CMD STAFF(C)       47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE          WA            89.0                 6.8
45-68116 3010    Y    CG RUITOFF KANSAS CITY       39.3      -94.6 KANSAS CITY      MO            87.0                 6.8
32-54010 1298    Y    CG ESD ATLANTIC CITY         39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY         NJ            29.1                 6.8
46-68174 3065    Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5     -112.1 PHOENIX          AZ            21.6                 6.8
33-53602 1353    Y    ESD ANCHORAGE                61.2     -149.8 ANCHORAGE        AK             8.5                 6.8
33-51254 2820    Y    378 WHEC MAT-HONOLULU        21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU         HI            90.7                 5.4
13-30672 3662    Y    CG STA DEPOE BAY             44.6     -124.1 NEWPORT          OR            35.6                 5.4
05-30287 3885    Y    Station Milford Haven        37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS          VA            33.6                 5.4
01-64116 4182    Y    CG OPERATIONAL TRNG TEAM     41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA            24.1                 5.4
07-37140 3336    Y    SEC KEY WEST ADMIN/PERS DIV 24.6       -81.8 KEY WEST         FL             3.7                 5.4
21-32490 795     Y    CG COMMSTA KODIAK            57.7     -152.5 KODIAK           AK             0.1                 5.4
33-51231 1402    Y    CG ESU KODIAK                57.7     -152.5 KODIAK           AK             0.1                 5.4
17-40196 2450    Y    CG LORSTA ST PAUL            57.1     -170.3 ST PAUL ISLAND   AK             0.1                 5.4
17-33283 2717    Y    CG MSO VALDEZ                61.1     -146.4 VALDEZ           AK             0.0                 5.4
17-40198 2447    Y    CG LORSTA PORT CLARENCE      64.5     -165.1 NOME             AK             0.0                 5.4
33-47700 2400    Y    ISD CORDOVA                  60.5     -145.4 CORDOVA          AK             0.0                 5.4
33-53601 1362    Y    ESD VALDEZ                   61.1     -146.2 VALDEZ           AK             0.0                 5.4
17-40187 2451    Y    CG LORSTA TOK                63.3     -142.9 TOK              AK             0.0                 5.4




                                                                                                                             68
Primary mill residues
Primary mill residues include course and fine wood materials and bark generated at
manufacturing plants (primary wood-using mills) when round wood products are
processed into primary wood products, like slabs, edgings, trimmings, sawdust, veneer
clippings and cores, and pulp screenings. Currently, much of these residues are used
within the timber and paper industries that create them for process heat and electricity
generation.

Table 19 Primary mill residue available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL
                   Biomass resources from primary mill residues

                                                                                              Cumulative       Primary Mill
                                                                                               Biomass          Residues
  ATU_   NREL Active_                            Latitude Longitude                           Resources            [dry
 OPFAC Recno Station            Station Name       [°N]      [°W]        City      State   [tonnes/yr/km2]   tonnes/yr/km2]
01-33130 2521    Y    CG MIO NEW YORK             40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5            309.5
01-36222 1462    Y    CG GROUP NEW YORK           40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5            309.5
01-41855 4329    Y    CG VTS NEW YORK             40.7      -74.0 GOVERNORS ISL     NY          2403.5            239.8
32-45000 4037    Y    CPRO GOVERNORS ISLAND       40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5            198.0
32-45000 4040    Y    SPRTCEN NY PUBLIC WORK      40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5            198.0
44-68129 3044    Y    CG RUITOFF NEW YORK         40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5            198.0
47-77103 676     Y    CGIS DET CAPE COD           41.7      -70.5 OTIS ANGB         MA          2403.5            198.0
98-02117 1957    Y    DD-NEW YORK                 40.7      -74.0 NEW YORK          NY          2403.5            198.0
01-30232 3667    Y    CG STA ROCKAWAY             40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            198.0
01-37040 884     Y    DD - SANDY HOOK             40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            149.9
01-73136  76     Y    ACT NY ADMIN DIV            40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            149.9
20-34265 2790    Y    MSST 91106 NEW YORK         40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            149.9
32-47000 2402    Y    ISD S PORTLAND              43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND    ME          1660.4            149.9
32-54101 1352    Y    CG ESDD VTS NEW YORK        40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            149.9
32-54160 1324    Y    CG ESD NEW YORK             40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            149.9
32-66144 4035    Y    CG SUPRTCEN NEW YORK T      40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND     NY          1660.4            146.5
09-30931 3849    Y    Station Belle Isle          42.3      -83.0 DETROIT           MI          1192.9            146.5
32-51255 2818    Y    CG MAT KITTERY              42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          1192.9            114.6
11-30885 3793    Y    CG STA SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          767.1             108.2
11-36269 1511    Y    GP SAN FRANCISC PERSRU      37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          767.1             108.2
11-37270 3560    Y    SEC SAN FRAN ADMIN/PERS DIV 37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          767.1             108.2
11-41875 4331    Y    CG VTS SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          767.1             108.2
11-41984 243     Y    CG ANT SAN FRANCISCO        37.8     -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          767.1             108.2
11-81112 2896    Y                                37.8
                      CG RESERVE TRACEN YERBA BUENA        -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO     CA          767.1             108.2
01-30105 3661    Y    CG STA BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
01-30131 3835    Y    STA BOSTON                  42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
01-33200 2682    Y    CG MSO BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
01-37010 3215    Y    SEC BOSTON ADMIN/PERS DIV   42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
01-81114 2904    Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN BOSTON 42.4         -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
20-34266 2794    Y    MSST 91110 BOSTON           42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
32-51221 1294    Y    CG EMD BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
32-51255 2830    Y    CG WLB MAT NEWPORT          43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND    ME          501.4             108.2
32-54100 827     Y    CG ESD WOODS HOLE           42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             108.2
32-54100 859     Y    DD - CGD1 - C3/IRM          41.8      -71.4 E PROVIDENCE      RI          501.4             103.5
32-54110 1300    Y    CG ESD BOSTON               42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             99.7
44-68103 2932    Y    CG RUITOFF BOSTON           42.4      -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4             80.2
47-77103 691     Y    CGIS DET NEW LONDON         41.4      -72.1 NEW LONDON        CT          501.4             80.2
05-33223 2681    Y    CG MSO BALTIMORE            39.3      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             79.2
05-37060 3200    Y    SEC BALTIMORE ADMIN/PERS DIV39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             79.2
05-41908 178     Y    ANT Baltimore               39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             76.7
05-73133  55     Y    ACT BALT ADMIN SUPPORT      39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             65.8
32-54020 1299    Y    CG ESD BALTIMORE            39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             63.4
35-52100 3974    Y    CG SUPCEN BROOKLYN          39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             63.4
37-52700 3975    Y    CG SUPCEN CURTIS BAY        39.2      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             63.4
47-77105 671     Y    CGIS CHESAPEAKE REGI        36.8      -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA          495.9             63.4
88-33635 113     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD BALTIMORE     39.3      -76.6 BALTIMORE         MD          495.9             63.4




                                                                                                                        69
Secondary mill residues
Secondary mill residues include wood scraps and sawdust from woodworking shops - furniture
factories, wood container and pallet mills, and wholesale lumberyards.

Table 20 Secondary mill residue available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL
                  Biomass resources from secondary mill residues

                                                                                             Cumulative     Secondary Mill
                                                                                              Biomass         Residues
  ATU_   NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                         Resources           [dry
 OPFAC Recno Station             Station Name       [°N]      [°W]         City   State   [tonnes/yr/km2]   tonnes/yr/km2]
09-30457 3912    Y    Station Two Rivers           44.1      -87.6 TWO RIVERS      WI           91.8             91.5
47-77101 686     Y    CGIS DET KODIAK              57.8     -152.4 KODIAK          AK           91.4             91.5
14-33275 2686    Y    CG MSO HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU        HI           90.7             91.5
05-41913 194     Y    ANT Milford Haven            37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS         VA           33.6             91.5
09-30397 3879    Y    Station Ludington            44.0      -86.4 LUDINGTON       MI           33.4             91.5
01-40106 2446    Y    CG LORSTA NANTUCKET          41.3      -70.0 SIASCONSET      MA           22.9             91.5
33-53602 854     Y    DD - MSO ANCHORAGE           61.2     -149.9 ANCHORAGE       AK            8.5             91.5
17-64119 4190    Y    NPRFTC N.PAC REG FIS TRAN CEN57.7     -152.5 KODIAK          AK            0.1             91.5
32-51281 848     Y    DD - ISC MIAMI               25.8      -80.1 MIAMI           FL           62.2             28.2
01-31310 505     Y    CG BASE SOUTH PORTLAND       43.6      -70.3                              61.2             28.2
01-41947 249     Y    CG ANT SOUTH PORTLND         43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND ME            61.2             28.2
09-30433 3896    Y    Station Port Huron           43.0      -82.4 PORT HURON      MI           60.6             28.2
09-33181 2524    Y    CG MIO STURGEON BAY          44.8      -87.4 STURGEON BAY    WI           57.2             28.2
05-30190 3660    Y    CG STA BEACH HAVEN           39.6      -74.2 BEACH HAVEN     NJ           56.4             28.2
01-30157 3688    Y    STA(SM) BLOCK ISLAND         41.4      -71.5 NARRAGANSETT    RI           17.9             23.4
01-30109 3708    Y    CG STA BRANT POINT           41.3      -70.1 NANTUCKET       MA           22.9             21.2
13-81113 2895    Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN SEATTLE 47.6        -122.3 SEATTLE         WA           89.0             18.5
33-51253 2842    Y    CG NESU SEATTLE              47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE         WA           89.0             18.5
95-33695 120     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD SEATTLE        47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE         WA           89.0             18.5
13-30475 3713    Y    CG STA CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT 46.3       -124.0 ILWACO          WA           86.2             18.5
32-54030 1304    Y    CG ESD CAPE MAY              39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY        NJ           29.1             18.5
01-41948 254     Y    CG ANT WOODS HOLE            41.5      -70.7 WOODS HOLE      MA           24.1             18.5
01-53102 2869    Y                                 41.7
                      DIST ORDNANCE SUPPORT FACILITY         -70.5 OTIS ANGB       MA           24.1             18.5
01-30133 3665    Y    CG STA MENEMSHA              41.3      -70.8 CHILMARK        MA            6.5             18.5
17-41992 248     Y    CG ANT SITKA                 57.1     -135.3 SITKA           AK            0.1             18.5
05-30305 3906    Y    Station St Inigoes           38.2      -76.4 SAINT INIGOES   MD           64.7             17.2
32-54340 858     Y    CG ESD GALVESTON             29.9      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR     TX           29.9             17.2
09-41994 189     Y    ANT Green Bay                44.5      -88.0 GREEN BAY       WI           94.2             17.0
05-30251 3695    Y    Station (SM) Stillpond       39.2      -76.5 BALTIMORE       MD           92.0             17.0
07-41942 210     Y    CG ANT FORT PIERCE           27.5      -80.3 FORT PIERCE     FL           18.0             17.0
33-51292 663     Y    CEU Honolulu                 21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU        HI           90.7             13.6
28-72208 2877    Y    DD - R&D CENTER              41.3      -72.0 GROTON          CT           89.0             13.6
08-41935 230     Y    CG ANT PENSACOLA             30.4      -87.3 PENSACOLA       FL           87.9             13.6
01-30141 3747    Y    CG STA JONESPORT             44.5      -67.6 WEST JONESPORT ME            45.7             13.6
28-72206 2879    Y    RB-S PRO                     47.5     -122.6 PORT ORCHARD    WA           44.9             13.6
46-68115 2966    Y    CG RUITOFF DENVER            39.9     -105.0 THORNTON        CO           35.5             13.6
82-51410 540     Y    CG OFF DATA BUOY CTR         30.4      -89.6 BAY ST LOUIS    MS           33.6             13.6
07-30316 3780    Y    CG STA PONCE DE LEON         29.1      -80.9 NEW SMYRNA BEAC FL           30.9             13.6
09-30375 3848    Y    Station Bayfield             46.8      -90.8 BAYFIELD        WI           29.2             13.6
05-41926 180     Y    ANT Cape May                 39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY        NJ           29.1             13.6
08-41969 183     Y    ANT COLFAX                   31.5      -92.7 COLFAX          LA           28.3             13.6
09-30355 3856    Y    Station Charlevoix           45.3      -85.2 CHARLEVOIX      MI           20.0             13.6
01-30108 3838    Y    STA MENEMSHA                 41.3      -70.8 CHILMARK        MA            6.5             13.6
32-46900 2114    Y    CG ISC MIAMI                 25.8      -80.1 MIAMI           FL           97.5             13.0
32-54330 1325    Y    CG ESD PANAMA CITY           30.2      -85.8 PANAMA CITY     FL           95.5             13.0
13-37310 3530    Y    SEC PORTLAND ADMIN/PERS DIV 45.6      -122.7 PORTLAND        OR           91.4             13.0
33-53700 825     Y    DD - AIRSTA SACRAMENTO       38.7     -121.4 MCCLELLAN AFB   CA           91.0             13.0
21-34268 2791    Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU          21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU        HI           90.7             13.0
01-50249 1368    Y    CG ESMT PORTSMOUTH HBR       43.1      -70.8                              46.1             13.0
08-33241 2657    Y    MSD LAKE CHARLES             29.8      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR     TX           29.9             13.0
09-30454 3910    Y    Station Tawas                44.3      -83.4 EAST TAWAS      MI           29.5             13.0
09-03624 1513    Y    GP SSM DET STA DULUTH        46.8      -92.1 DULUTH          MN           28.2             13.0
09-30364 3692    Y    Station (SM) North Superior  46.8      -92.1 DULUTH          MN           28.2             13.0
09-33287 2740    Y    MSO Duluth                   46.8      -92.1 DULUTH          MN           28.2             13.0
09-30406 3883    Y    Station Marquette            46.5      -87.4 MARQUETTE       MI           23.1             13.0
46-68194 2922    Y    CG RUITOFF ANCHORAGE         61.1     -149.9 ANCHORAGE       AK            8.5             13.0




                                                                                                                       70
Urban residues
Urban residues include waste products such as: wood residues from wood chips and pallets,
utility tree trimming and/or private tree companies, and construction and demolition-sites.

Table 21 Urban residue available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL

                       Biomass resources from urban residues

                                                                                                Cumulative
                                                                                                 Biomass       Urban Residue
  ATU_   NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                            Resources            [dry
 OPFAC Recno Station             Station Name       [°N]      [°W]         City      State   [tonnes/yr/km2]   tonnes/yr/km2]
09-30457 3912    Y    Station Two Rivers           44.1      -87.6 TWO RIVERS         WI           91.8            2276.9
47-77101 686     Y    CGIS DET KODIAK              57.8     -152.4 KODIAK             AK           91.4            2276.9
14-33275 2686    Y    CG MSO HONOLULU              21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU           HI           90.7            2276.9
05-41913 194     Y    ANT Milford Haven            37.5      -76.3 HUDGINS            VA           33.6            2276.9
09-30397 3879    Y    Station Ludington            44.0      -86.4 LUDINGTON          MI           33.4            2276.9
01-40106 2446    Y    CG LORSTA NANTUCKET          41.3      -70.0 SIASCONSET         MA           22.9            2276.9
33-53602 854     Y    DD - MSO ANCHORAGE           61.2     -149.9 ANCHORAGE          AK            8.5            2276.9
17-64119 4190    Y    NPRFTC N.PAC REG FIS TRAN CEN57.7     -152.5 KODIAK             AK            0.1            2276.9
32-51281 848     Y    DD - ISC MIAMI               25.8      -80.1 MIAMI              FL           62.2             728.4
01-31310 505     Y    CG BASE SOUTH PORTLAND       43.6      -70.3                                 61.2             728.4
01-41947 249     Y    CG ANT SOUTH PORTLND         43.6      -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND    ME            61.2             728.4
09-30433 3896    Y    Station Port Huron           43.0      -82.4 PORT HURON        MI            60.6             728.4
09-33181 2524    Y    CG MIO STURGEON BAY          44.8      -87.4 STURGEON BAY      WI            57.2             728.4
05-30190 3660    Y    CG STA BEACH HAVEN           39.6      -74.2 BEACH HAVEN       NJ            56.4             728.4
05-30305 3906    Y    Station St Inigoes           38.2      -76.4 SAINT INIGOES     MD            64.7             485.9
32-54340 858     Y    CG ESD GALVESTON             29.9      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR       TX            29.9             485.9
32-46900 2114    Y    CG ISC MIAMI                 25.8      -80.1 MIAMI             FL            97.5             481.0
32-54330 1325    Y    CG ESD PANAMA CITY           30.2      -85.8 PANAMA CITY       FL            95.5             481.0
13-37310 3530    Y    SEC PORTLAND ADMIN/PERS DIV 45.6      -122.7 PORTLAND          OR            91.4             481.0
33-53700 825     Y    DD - AIRSTA SACRAMENTO       38.7     -121.4 MCCLELLAN AFB     CA            91.0             481.0
21-34268 2791    Y    MSST 91107 HONOLULU          21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI            90.7             481.0
01-50249 1368    Y    CG ESMT PORTSMOUTH HBR       43.1      -70.8                                 46.1             481.0
08-33241 2657    Y    MSD LAKE CHARLES             29.8      -94.0 PORT ARTHUR       TX            29.9             481.0
09-30454 3910    Y    Station Tawas                44.3      -83.4 EAST TAWAS        MI            29.5             481.0
09-03624 1513    Y    GP SSM DET STA DULUTH        46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN            28.2             481.0
09-30364 3692    Y    Station (SM) North Superior  46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN            28.2             481.0
09-33287 2740    Y    MSO Duluth                   46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN            28.2             481.0
09-30406 3883    Y    Station Marquette            46.5      -87.4 MARQUETTE         MI            23.1             481.0
46-68194 2922    Y    CG RUITOFF ANCHORAGE         61.1     -149.9 ANCHORAGE         AK             8.5             481.0
13-36278 1443    Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      47.7     -122.4 SEATTLE           WA            89.0             409.4
13-71113 929     Y    DD-INTEL SUPT TEAM PORTLAND 47.6      -122.3 PORTLAND          OR            89.0             409.4
21-34260 2785    Y    MSST 91101 SEATTLE           47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE           WA            89.0             409.4
33-47200 2353    Y    ISC SEATT CMD STAFF(C)       47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE           WA            89.0             409.4
45-68116 3010    Y    CG RUITOFF KANSAS CITY       39.3      -94.6 KANSAS CITY       MO            87.0             409.4
32-54010 1298    Y    CG ESD ATLANTIC CITY         39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY          NJ            29.1             409.4
46-68174 3065    Y    CG RUITOFF PHOENIX           33.5     -112.1 PHOENIX           AZ            21.6             409.4
33-53602 1353    Y    ESD ANCHORAGE                61.2     -149.8 ANCHORAGE         AK             8.5             409.4
13-81113 2895    Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN SEATTLE 47.6        -122.3 SEATTLE           WA            89.0             360.9
33-51253 2842    Y    CG NESU SEATTLE              47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE           WA            89.0             360.9
95-33695 120     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD SEATTLE        47.6     -122.3 SEATTLE           WA            89.0             360.9
13-30475 3713    Y    CG STA CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT 46.3       -124.0 ILWACO            WA            86.2             360.9
32-54030 1304    Y    CG ESD CAPE MAY              39.0      -74.9 CAPE MAY          NJ            29.1             360.9
01-41948 254     Y    CG ANT WOODS HOLE            41.5      -70.7 WOODS HOLE        MA            24.1             360.9
01-53102 2869    Y                                 41.7
                      DIST ORDNANCE SUPPORT FACILITY         -70.5 OTIS ANGB         MA            24.1             360.9
01-30133 3665    Y    CG STA MENEMSHA              41.3      -70.8 CHILMARK          MA             6.5             360.9
17-41992 248     Y    CG ANT SITKA                 57.1     -135.3 SITKA             AK             0.1             360.9
29-72015 2898    Y    CG APO MARIETTA              33.9      -84.5 MARIETTA          GA            92.6             318.0
14-20255 145     Y    CG AIRSTA BARBERS PT         21.3     -158.1 KAPOLEI           HI            90.7             318.0
21-32480 794     Y    CG COMMSTA HONOLULU          21.5     -158.0 WAHIAWA           HI            90.7             318.0
01-30160 3785    Y    CG STA PORTSMOUTH HB         43.1      -70.7 NEW CASTLE        NH            46.1             318.0
46-68160 2917    Y    CG RUITOFF ALBUQUERQUE       35.1     -106.6 ALBUQUERQUE       NM            31.4             318.0
09-33262 2802    Y    MSU DULUTH                   46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN            28.2             318.0
09-41976 186     Y    ANT Duluth                   46.8      -92.1 DULUTH            MN            28.2             318.0
05-36219 1527    Y    Group Atlantic City          39.5      -74.6 ATLANTIC C AIRP   NJ            25.4             318.0




                                                                                                                          71
Forestry residues
Forest residues are logging residues and other removable material left after carrying out
silviculture operations and site conversions. Logging residue comprises unused portions
of trees, cut or killed by logging and left in the woods. Other removable materials are the
unutilized volume of trees cut or killed during logging operations.

Table 22 Forest residue available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL

                         Biomass resources from forest residues

                                                                                                Cumulative
                                                                                                 Biomass       Forest Residue
  ATU_     NREL Active_                             Latitude Longitude                          Resources           [dry
 OPFAC     Recno Station            Station Name      [°N]      [°W]        City     State   [tonnes/yr/km2]   tonnes/yr/km2]
08-30338   3771     Y    CG STA NEW ORLEANS           30.0     -90.0 NEW ORLEANS      LA            65.7            65.3
01-37040    884     Y    DD - SANDY HOOK              40.6     -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          1660.4            56.3
01-73136     76     Y    ACT NY ADMIN DIV             40.6     -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          1660.4            56.3
20-34265   2790     Y    MSST 91106 NEW YORK          40.6     -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          1660.4            56.3
32-47000   2402     Y    ISD S PORTLAND               43.6     -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND ME            1660.4            56.3
32-54101   1352     Y    CG ESDD VTS NEW YORK         40.6     -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          1660.4            56.3
32-54160   1324     Y    CG ESD NEW YORK              40.6     -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          1660.4            56.3
GD-00400   1436     Y    CIVILIAN SUPPORT             38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            45.3
14-30143   3759     Y    CG STA MAUI                  20.8    -156.5 WAILUKU          HI           113.6            44.7
08-33204   2651     Y    MSD GREENVILLE               35.1     -90.0 GREENVILLE       MS           113.2            44.7
32-54110   1300     Y    CG ESD BOSTON                42.4     -71.1 BOSTON           MA           501.4            40.7
28-72202    518     Y    USCG PROJECT RESIDEN         45.1     -87.6 MARINETTE        WI            62.1            40.5
23-72011   2900     Y    CG RES INSPEC PORTLAND ME 43.7        -70.3 PORTLAND         ME            61.2            40.5
05-30187   3689     Y    Station (SM) Beach Haven     39.8     -74.1 BARNEGAT LIGHT   NJ            56.4            40.5
11-73135    112     Y    CG ACTIVITIES SAN DIEGO      32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA            40.1            40.5
33-53720   1360     Y    ESD SAN DIEGO                32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA            40.1            40.5
46-68175   3097     Y    CG RUITOFF SAN DIEGO         32.8    -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA            40.1            40.5
08-30335   3740     Y    CG STA GULFPORT              30.4     -89.1 GULFPORT         MS            37.7            40.5
21-32460    524     Y    CG CAMSPAC SAN FRAN          38.1    -122.8 PT REYES STA     CA            25.3            40.5
01-41946    250     Y    CG ANT SOUTHWEST HBR         44.3     -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME             25.2            40.5
09-30197   3842     Y    Station Alexandria Bay       44.3     -75.9 WELLESLEY ISLAN  NY            24.7            40.5
75-61400   2641     Y    MLE ACADEMY                  32.9     -80.0 CHARLESTON       SC            24.3            40.5
01-36215   1445     Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      41.5     -70.7 WOODS HOLE       MA            24.1            40.5
13-30484   3766     Y    CG STA NEAH BAY              48.4    -124.6 NEAH BAY         WA            11.6            40.5
11-40137   2448     Y    CG LORSTA SEARCHLIGHT        35.5    -114.9 SEARCHLIGHT      NV            10.4            40.5
08-30336   3811     Y    CG STA VENICE                29.3     -89.4 VENICE           LA            1.2             40.5
17-41985    193     Y    ANT KODIAK                   57.8    -152.4 KODIAK           AK            0.1             40.5
33-47810   2102     Y    CG ISC HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU         HI            90.7            35.7
13-30506   3800     Y    CG STA SEATTLE               47.6    -122.3 SEATTLE          WA            89.0            35.7
01-30606   3707     Y    CG STA BOOTHBAY HARBOR       43.9     -69.6 BOOTHBAY HARBOR ME             30.7            35.7
05-30229   3663     Y    CG STA GREAT EGG             39.3     -74.6 OCEAN CITY       NJ            29.1            35.7
55-51210    534     Y    CG LSU WILDWOOD              39.0     -74.8 WILDWOOD         NJ            29.1            35.7
20-93313   2885     Y    PSU 301                      41.7     -70.5 CAPE COD         MA            24.1            35.7
32-54140   1303     Y    CG ESD CAPE COD              41.7     -70.5 OTIS ANGB        MA            24.1            35.7
47-77106    685     Y    CGIS DET JACKSONVILLE        30.4     -81.4 MAYPORT          FL            3.7             35.7
33-53610   1356     Y    ESD KETCHIKAN                55.4    -131.7 KETCHIKAN        AK            0.4             35.7
05-73133     55     Y    ACT BALT ADMIN SUPPORT       39.2     -76.6 BALTIMORE        MD           495.9            35.1
32-54260   1319     Y    CG ESD MILWAUKEE             43.0     -87.9 MILWAUKEE        WI           180.3            33.9
47-77102    670     Y    CGIS CENTRAL REG             41.5     -81.7 CLEVELAND        OH           180.3            33.9
07-30306   3867     Y    Station Georgetown           33.4     -79.3 GEORGETOWN       SC           175.0            33.9
07-41930    188     Y    ANT Georgetown               33.4     -79.3 GEORGETOWN       SC           175.0            33.9
05-30254   3898     Y    Station Portsmouth           36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH       VA           172.6            33.9
05-36235   1442     Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH       VA           172.6            33.9
05-41912    190     Y    ANT Hampton Roads            36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH       VA           172.6            33.9
20-34302   4149     Y    CG INT MARITIME LAW ENF TEAM 36.8     -76.3 PORTSMOUTH       VA           172.6            33.9
20-75120    264     Y    AA ADMIN STAFF (AA)          36.8     -76.3 PORTSMOUTH       VA           172.6            33.9
07-30319   3709     Y    CG STA BRUNSWICK             31.1     -81.5 BRUNSWICK        GA           277.1            33.0
39-33501    536     Y    CG MSC WASHINGTON DC         38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            30.1
54-34401    533     Y    CG INTEL COORD CTR           38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            30.1
98-05300   1439     Y    SPEC EMPHASIS EMPL PGM       38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            30.1
98-47850   1979     Y    HQ Support Command           38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            30.1
GD-00100   1438     Y    OFFICER SUPPORT - HQ         38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            30.1
GD-00200   1440     Y    WARRANT SUPPORT              38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC           323.1            30.1




                                                                                                                          72
Agricultural residues
The following crops were included in this analysis: corn, wheat, soybeans, cotton, sorghum,
barley, oats, rice, rye, canola, dry edible beans, dry edible peas, peanuts, potatoes, safflower,
sunflower, sugarcane, and flaxseed. The quantities of crop residues that can be available in each
county are estimated using total grain production, crop to residue ratio, moisture content, and
taking into consideration the amount of residue left on the field for soil protection, grazing, and
other agricultural activities.

Table 23 Crop residue available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL

                    Biomass resources from agricultural residues

                                                                                               Cumulative
                                                                                                Biomass        Crop Residue
  ATU_   NREL Active_                               Latitude Longitude                         Resources           [dry
 OPFAC Recno Station             Station Name         [°N]      [°W]        City    State   [tonnes/yr/km2]   tonnes/yr/km2]
07-30313 3754    Y    CG STA LAKE WORTH INLET        26.8      -80.0 RIVIERA BEACH   FL          461.6            432.0
08-33268 2800    Y    MSU BATON ROUGE                30.3      -91.3 BATON ROUGE     LA          185.1            165.0
08-41931 223     Y    CG ANT MORGAN CITY             29.7      -91.2 MORGAN CITY     LA          127.2            123.2
08-37190 905     Y    DD - WLR SUPRT SALLISAW        35.5      -94.8 SALLISAW        OK          143.0            122.2
32-51260 2843    Y    CG NESU ST LOUIS               38.7      -90.1 GRANITE CITY    IL          164.6            107.5
40-50101 262     Y    CG C-130J APO                  36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
58-34359 538     Y    CG NATIONAL STRIKE FORCE       36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
78-61300 527     Y    C-130 C SCHOOL                 36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
32-47300 4032    Y    C130J - APO                    36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
32-51282 662     Y    CEU Cleveland                  41.5      -81.7 CLEVELAND       OH          153.5            106.9
32-54060 1311    Y    CG ESD ELIZABETH CITY          36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
40-50100 439     Y    ARSC INFO SYS DIV              36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
05-20130 155     Y    CG AIRSTA ELIZABETH CITY       36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
05-30300 3862    Y    Station Elizabeth City         36.3      -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY  NC          153.5            106.9
14-30143 3759    Y    CG STA MAUI                    20.8     -156.5 WAILUKU         HI          113.6            106.0
09-30928 3871    Y    Station Harbor Beach           43.8      -82.7 HARBOR BEACH    MI          148.6            101.6
08-36286 1563    Y    Group Upper Mississippi River  40.4      -91.4 KEOKUK          IA          185.5             94.9
32-54521 1342    Y    CG ESDD KEOKUK                 40.4      -91.4 KEOKUK          IA          185.5             94.9
08-87149 4326    Y    CGRU JTRU US TRANSCOM          38.5      -89.9 SCOTT AFB       IL          146.6             89.1
08-37190 904     Y    DD - WLR SUPRT PINE BLUFF      34.2      -92.0 PINE BLUFF      AR          151.8             79.7
09-30880 3901    Y    Station Saginaw River          43.6      -83.8 ESSEXVILLE      MI          114.4             74.5
08-30334 3805    Y    CG STA SOUTH PADRE ISLAND 26.1           -97.2 S PADRE ISLAND  TX           90.3             74.3
47-77104 690     Y    CGIS DET HOUSTON               30.7      -88.2 MOBILE          AL           90.3             74.3
01-30200 3773    Y    CG STA NEW YORK                40.6      -74.1 STATEN ISLAND   NY           90.3             74.3
47-77104 701     Y    CGIS DET PORT ARTHUR           38.6      -90.2 SAINT LOUIS     MO           90.3             74.3
08-20245 154     Y    CG AIRSTA CORPUS CHRISTI       27.7      -97.3 CORPUS CHRISTI  TX          100.8             73.8
08-30331 3781    Y    CG STA PORT ARANSAS            27.8      -97.1 PORT ARANSAS    TX          100.8             73.8
08-33240 2644    Y    MSD BROWNSVILLE                27.8      -97.4 BROWNSVILLE     TX          100.8             73.8
08-41943 205     Y    CG ANT CORPUS CHRISTI          27.8      -97.4 CORPUS CHRISTI  TX          100.8             73.8
32-54350 1308    Y    CG ESD CORPUS CHRISTI          27.8      -97.4 CORPUS CHRISTI  TX          100.8             73.8
47-77104 813     Y    CGIS GULF REG                  30.2      -85.8 PANAMA CITY     FL          100.8             73.8
47-77104 679     Y    CGIS DET BROWNSVILLE           27.7      -97.3 CORPUS CHRISTI  TX          100.8             73.8
05-30710 3671    Y    CG STA STILLPOND               39.3      -76.1 WORTON          MD          104.6             72.0
09-30929 3882    Y    Station Marblehead             41.5      -82.7 MARBLEHEAD      OH          118.8             71.6
20-93307 2889    Y    PSU 309                        41.5      -82.9 PORT CLINTON    OH          118.8             71.6
08-40135 2431    Y    CG LORSTA DANA                 39.8      -87.5 DANA            IN           85.8             71.5
08-40300 2867    Y    CG OMSTA NORTH DAKOTA          46.4      -98.3 LAMOURE         ND          162.6             68.0
05-30846 3893    Y    Station Oxford                 38.7      -76.1 OXFORD          MD          103.2             61.5
09-41979 192     Y    ANT Kenosha                    42.6      -87.8 KENOSHA         WI          128.4             61.4
45-68116 3010    Y    CG RUITOFF KANSAS CITY         39.3      -94.6 KANSAS CITY     MO           87.0             55.0
45-68119 3054    Y    CG RUITOFF OMAHA               41.1      -95.9 BELLEVUE        NE           92.8             54.7
44-68177 2973    Y    CG RUITOFF DOVER               39.2      -75.5 DOVER           DE           83.0             53.9
22-72040 2899    Y    CG RES INSPEC LOCKPORT         29.6      -90.5 LOCKPORT        LA           54.9             51.8
28-72205 513     Y    CPB PRO                        29.6      -90.5 LOCKPORT        LA           54.9             51.8
05-30293 3875    Y    Station Indian River           38.7      -75.1 REHOBOTH BEACH DE            85.6             51.8
05-30208 3664    Y    CG STA INDIAN RVR INLET        38.7      -75.1 REHOBOTH BEACH DE            85.6             51.8




                                                                                                                         73
Livestock methane emissions
Methane from livestock manure has been developed as a viable fuel source in some
applications. Typically, the application is very close to the source, as in a pig farm using
pig manure to provide heat to the livestock. Due to the high water content of manure, it
is expensive to transport it for use as fuel and impractical to dry it first before
transporting due to high volume and low energy density. Studies from a range of animal
dung have yields ranging from 14.5 – 51.8 m3 of methane per ton of manure.

Table 24 Livestock methane emissions available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL


                  Biomass resources from livestock waste residues

                                                                                              Cumulative
                                                                                               Biomass         Manure
  ATU_   NREL Active_                            Latitude Longitude                           Resources
 OPFAC Recno Station             Station Name      [°N]      [°W]        City      State                 2
                                                                                           [tonnes/yr/km ] [tonnes/yr/km2]
01-30121 3717    Y    CG STA CASTLE HILL           41.5     -71.4 NEWPORT           RI           29.9            2.9
47-77102 680     Y    CGIS DET DETROIT             42.4     -83.0 DETROIT           MI          105.0            2.7
46-68196 2998    Y    CG RUITOFF HONOLULU          21.4    -157.9 AIEA              HI           90.7            1.7
13-33271 2709    Y    CG MSO PUGET SOUND           47.6    -122.3 SEATTLE           WA           89.0            1.7
25-72071 2901    Y    CG RES INSPEC SEATTLE        47.6    -122.3 SEATTLE           WA           89.0            1.7
05-41910 187     Y    ANT Fort Macon               34.7     -76.8 ATLANTIC BEACH    NC           51.0            1.6
45-68166 2972    Y    CG RUITOFF DETROIT           42.5     -82.9 EASTPOINTE        MI          116.4            1.6
05-41901 184     Y    ANT Crisfield                38.0     -75.8 CRISFIELD         MD           74.5            1.6
05-30140 3859    Y    Station Crisfield            38.0     -75.9 CRISFIELD         MD           74.5            1.6
46-68191 3110    Y    CG RUITOFF SPOKANE           47.6    -117.3 SPOKANE           WA           35.1            1.6
09-30950 3904    Y    Station Sodus                43.3     -77.0 SODUS POINT       NY           42.2            1.6
05-36235 1442    Y    87' COASTAL PATROL BOAT      36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA          172.6            1.3
05-41912 190     Y    ANT Hampton Roads            36.9     -76.4 PORTSMOUTH        VA          172.6            1.3
20-34302 4149    Y    CG INT MARITIME LAW ENF TEAM 36.8     -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA          172.6            1.3
20-75120 264     Y    AA ADMIN STAFF (AA)          36.8     -76.3 PORTSMOUTH        VA          172.6            1.3
26-72100 2526    Y    CG MLB PROJ RES OFF          30.1     -89.9 NEW ORLEANS       LA           65.7            1.3
01-30162 3840    Y    STA SOUTHWEST HARBOR         44.3     -68.3 SOUTHWEST HARBO ME             25.2            1.1
01-36217 890     Y    DD - STA ROCKLAND            44.3     -68.3 ROCKLAND          ME           25.2            1.1
07-31150 490     Y    Base Charleston              32.8     -79.9 CHARLESTON        SC           24.3            1.1
01-41947 249     Y    CG ANT SOUTH PORTLND         43.6     -70.3 SOUTH PORTLAND    ME           61.2            1.1
32-46900 2114    Y    CG ISC MIAMI                 25.8     -80.1 MIAMI             FL           97.5            1.1
32-54330 1325    Y    CG ESD PANAMA CITY           30.2     -85.8 PANAMA CITY       FL           95.5            1.1
07-30324 3813    Y    CG STA YANKEETOWN            29.0     -82.7 YANKEETOWN        FL           17.0            1.0
47-77104 700     Y    CGIS DET PANAMA CITY         26.1     -97.2 SOUTH PADRE ISLANDTX           95.5            1.0
07-41942 210     Y    CG ANT FORT PIERCE           27.5     -80.3 FORT PIERCE       FL           18.0            1.0
13-30505 3814    Y    CG STA YAQUINA BAY           44.6    -124.1 NEWPORT           OR           35.6            1.0
44-68102 3022    Y    CG RUITOFF MANCHESTER        43.0     -71.4 MANCHESTER        NH           98.1            1.0
28-72208 2876    Y    DD - NESU SEATTLE            47.6    -122.3 SEATTLE           WA           95.5            1.0
14-36280 1539    Y    Group Honolulu               21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI           90.7            1.0
14-40301 2865    Y    CG OMSTA HAWAII              21.5    -157.9 KANEOHE           HI           90.7            1.0
14-41990 213     Y    CG ANT HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI           90.7            1.0
14-71114 920     Y    DD-INTEL SUPT TEAM HONOLULU 21.3     -157.9 HONOLULU          HI           90.7            1.0
07-40124 2439    Y    CG LORSTA JUPITER            27.1     -80.1 HOBE SOUND        FL            9.5            1.0
11-30796 3718    Y    CG STA CHANNEL ISL HRBR      34.2    -119.2 OXNARD            CA           27.9            1.0
07-30348 3855    Y    Station Charleston           32.8     -79.9 CHARLESTON        SC           24.3            1.0
13-30503 3839    Y    STA PORT ANGELES             48.1    -123.4 PORT ANGELES      WA           11.6            1.0
13-30481 3739    Y    CG STA GRAYS HARBOR          46.9    -124.1 WESTPORT          WA           81.9            1.0
33-51228 1369    Y    CG EMD ALAMEDA               37.8    -122.3 ALAMEDA           CA           27.9            1.0
14-33275 2686    Y    CG MSO HONOLULU              21.3    -157.9 HONOLULU          HI           90.7            1.0
01-40106 2446    Y    CG LORSTA NANTUCKET          41.3     -70.0 SIASCONSET        MA           22.9            1.0
33-53602 854     Y    DD - MSO ANCHORAGE           61.2    -149.9 ANCHORAGE         AK            8.5            1.0
17-64119 4190    Y    NPRFTC N.PAC REG FIS TRAN CEN57.7    -152.5 KODIAK            AK            0.1            1.0
32-51281 848     Y    DD - ISC MIAMI               25.8     -80.1 MIAMI             FL           62.2            1.0
09-30149 3887    Y    Station Muskegon             43.2     -86.3 MUSKEGON          MI           81.7            1.0
45-68320 2909    Y    CENTRAL REG RUIT CMD         38.8     -90.4 HAZELWOOD         MO          191.7            1.0
01-81114 2904    Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN BOSTON 42.4         -71.1 BOSTON            MA          501.4            1.0




                                                                                                                      74
Dedicated energy crops
Energy crops, such as switchgrass or poplar, grow rapidly thus creating a managed renewable
energy source. Much of the switchgrass is on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands.

Table 25 Dedicated energy crops available within county borders of USCG sites
Source: Anelia Milbrandt, NREL

                          Biomass resources from energy crops
                                                                                                                 Dedicated Energy
                                                                                                                Crops (switchgrass)
                                                                                                Cumulative       on Conservation
                                                                                                  Biomass        Reserve Program
  ATU_     NREL Active_                              Latitude Longitude                          Resources             Lands
 OPFAC     Recno Station             Station Name      [°N]      [°W]        City     State   [tonnes/yr/km2]   [dry tonnes/yr/km2]
01-30180   3767     Y    CG STA NEW HAVEN              41.3     -72.9 NEW HAVEN        CT           77.8                94.4
32-54060   1311     Y    CG ESD ELIZABETH CITY         36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY   NC          153.5                67.0
59-64120   4148     Y    CG CITAT-TSI (DTI-120)        35.5     -97.5 OKLAHOMA CITY    OK           65.6                66.4
08-41972    247     Y    CG ANT SELMA                  32.4     -87.0 SELMA            AL          142.6                66.4
45-68164   3049     Y    CG RUITOFF NILES              42.0     -87.8 NILES            IL          370.6                60.4
09-40142   2455     Y    LORAN Station Seneca          42.8     -76.9 ROMULUS          NY           76.5                59.2
78-61300    527     Y    C-130 C SCHOOL                36.3     -76.2 ELIZABETH CITY   NC          153.5                47.5
33-53400   1406     Y    DD-CGD13 INFO TECH COMM       47.6    -122.3 SEATTLE          WA           89.0                42.7
32-54270   1314     Y    CG ESD GRAND HAVEN            43.0     -86.2 GRAND HAVEN      MI          105.0                41.0
05-37510   3652     Y    SFO EASTERN SHORE             37.9     -75.4 CHINCOTEAGUE     VA           65.6                41.0
47-77100    698     Y    CGIS DET SAN DIEGO            32.7    -117.2 SAN DIEGO        CA          150.4                31.9
93-33675    116     Y    CG ADMLAW JUD LONG BEACH 33.8         -118.2 LONG BEACH       CA          150.4                31.9
33-47720   2336     Y    ISC SAN PEDRO                 33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO        CA          150.4                31.9
33-51252   2819     Y    378 WHEC MAT-ALAMEDA          37.8    -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA          150.4                31.9
32-54110   1300     Y    CG ESD BOSTON                 42.4     -71.1 BOSTON           MA          501.4                31.6
11-81106   2894     Y    CG RESERVE TRACEN SAN PEDRO   33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO        CA          150.4                24.7
21-34262   2786     Y    MSST 91103 SAN PEDRO          33.7    -118.3 SAN PEDRO        CA          150.4                24.7
33-53730   1357     Y    ESD OXNARD                    34.2    -119.2 OXNARD           CA           27.9                22.9
44-68168   2937     Y    CG RUITOFF BUFFALO            42.9     -78.9 BUFFALO          NY           64.3                22.6
05-30187   3689     Y    Station (SM) Beach Haven      39.8     -74.1 BARNEGAT LIGHT   NJ           56.4                21.5
69-33600    122     Y    CGHO- DET DUTY ALAMEDA        37.8    -122.3 ALAMEDA          CA          321.5                20.2
09-30927   3673     Y    CG STA WASHINGTON ISLAND      45.4     -86.9 WASHINGTON ISLA WI            57.2                19.3
76-65100   4153     Y    ATC HELO INTER TAC SQD        30.7     -88.1 MOBILE           AL          146.2                16.0
09-30367   3863     Y    Station Erie                  42.2     -80.1 ERIE             PA           44.5                15.8
44-62200   2907     Y    SPECIAL MISSIONS TRAINING CTR34.6      -77.3 CAMP LEJEUNE     NC           39.7                15.8
32-51255   1296     Y    270 WMEC MAT- BOSTON          40.7     -74.1 BAYONNE          NJ           46.1                15.0
GD-04000   2035     Y    DD -DIAC JOINT MIL ATTACHE SCH38.8     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC          323.1                15.0
LD-00001   1984     Y    LEGACY DATA                   38.9     -77.0 WASHINGTON       DC          323.1                15.0
01-37040    884     Y    DD - SANDY HOOK               40.6     -74.1 STATEN ISLAND    NY          1660.4               14.3
05-30277   3877     Y    Station Little Creek          36.9     -76.2 NORFOLK          VA          134.4                13.2
45-68157   2999     Y    CG RUITOFF HOUSTON            29.8     -95.4 HOUSTON          TX          123.7                13.1
11-37270   3560     Y    SEC SAN FRAN ADMIN/PERS DIV 37.8      -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA          767.1                13.0
11-30885   3793     Y    CG STA SAN FRANCISCO          37.8    -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA          767.1                12.4
11-36269   1511     Y    GP SAN FRANCISC PERSRU        37.8    -122.4 SAN FRANCISCO    CA          767.1                12.4
46-68188   3070     Y    CG RUITOFF PORTLAND           45.7    -122.6 VANCOUVER        WA          152.2                12.2
08-31180    495     Y    CG BASE GALVESTON             29.3     -94.8 GALVESTON        TX           52.7                12.0
01-36229    945     Y    DET DUTY - STA EATONS NECK 41.3        -72.9 NORTHPORT        NY           77.8                11.5
05-33211   2665     Y    MSD Roosevelt                 39.9     -75.1 LEWES            DE          422.6                11.5
05-41908    178     Y    ANT Baltimore                 39.2     -76.6 BALTIMORE        MD          495.9                11.5
07-41930    188     Y    ANT Georgetown                33.4     -79.3 GEORGETOWN       SC          175.0                10.3
44-68134   3085     Y    CG RUITOFF ROCKY MOUNT        36.0     -77.8 ROCKY MOUNT      NC           61.7                10.2
08-30325   3733     Y    CG STA FREEPORT               28.9     -95.3 FREEPORT         TX           20.7                10.2
44-68128   2989     Y    CG RUITOFF HARRISBURG         40.3     -76.8 HARRISBURG       PA           69.2                10.2




                                                                                                                                75
4 STA
CG
BODEGA
BAY




         Definitions and Date Sources Used for Biomass Resource
         Assessment

         Crop residues –The following crops were included in this analysis: corn, wheat, soybeans,
         cotton, sorghum, barley, oats, rice, rye, canola, dry edible beans, dry edible peas, peanuts,
         potatoes, safflower, sunflower, sugarcane, and flaxseed. The quantities of crop residues that can
         be available in each county are estimated using total grain production, crop to residue ratio,
         moisture content, and taking into consideration the amount of residue left on the field for soil
         protection, grazing, and other agricultural activities. Source: USDA, National Agricultural
         Statistics Service, 2002 data.

         Forest residues – Forest residues are logging residues and other removable material left after
         carrying out silviculture operations and site conversions. Logging residue comprises unused
         portions of trees, cut or killed by logging and left in the woods. Other removable materials are the
         unutilized volume of trees cut or killed during logging operations. Source: USDA, Forest
         Service‟s Timber Product Output database, 2002

         Primary mill residues – Primary mill residues include wood materials (coarse and fine) and bark
         generated at manufacturing plants (primary wood-using mills) when round wood products are
         processed into primary wood products, like slabs, edgings, trimmings, sawdust, veneer clippings
         and cores, and pulp screenings. Source: USDA, Forest Service‟s Timber Product Output database,
         2002.

         Secondary mill residues - Secondary mill residues include wood scraps and sawdust from
         woodworking shops - furniture factories, wood container and pallet mills, and wholesale
         lumberyards. Data on the number of businesses by county was gathered from the U.S. Census
         Bureau, 2002 County Business Patterns.

         Urban wood waste – This analysis includes wood residues from MSW (wood chips and pallets),
         utility tree trimming and/or private tree companies, and construction and demolition-sites.
         Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Population data, BioCycle Journal, State of Garbage in
         America, January 2004; County Business Patterns 2002.

         Methane emissions from landfills – The methane generation depends on three key factors: total
         waste in place, landfill size, and location (arid or non-arid climate).
         Source: EPA, Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP), 2003.
         Methane emissions from manure management – The following animal types were included in this
         analysis: diary cows, beef cows, hogs and pigs, sheep, chickens and layers, broilers, and turkey.
         The methane emissions were calculated by animal type and manure management system. Source:
         USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2002 data.

         Methane emissions from domestic wastewater treatment – The methane emissions are
         estimated using the methodology from the EPA Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and
         Sinks: 1990-2003. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 County population data

         Dedicated energy crops – Switchgrass on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands. Source:
         USDA, Farm Service Agency; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1996 energy crops data.




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