Semiconductor Science and Technology

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					Semiconductor




Semiconductor Technology
Copper Interconnect Metallization and
Wafer Level Packaging Chemistries




Technology for Tomorrow’s Solutions
02 | 03




          Semiconductor Technology
          Total Chemistry Solutions for Wafer Metallization




          Atotech’s Semiconductor Technology product portfolio offers chemistry and process solutions for
          advanced wafer metallization, from the chip interconnects to wafer level packaging technologies.
          Electrochemical deposition and electroless deposition techniques are used to plate copper,
          nickel, gold, palladium and tin for a variety of applications ranging from Damascene plating, pad
          surface treatment and metallization to through silicon via (TSV) for 3D integration.

          Products for Electrochemical Metal Deposition
          ▪ Everplate copper for Damascene interconnects
          ▪ Spherolyte copper for pillar, redistribution layer (RDL), and TSV
          ▪ Spherolyte nickel and tin for pillar protection and solder joint technology

          Products for Electroless Metal Deposition
          ▪ Xenolyte nickel, palladium, and gold for pad metallization
          ▪ Xenolyte copper and gold for wire bonding and soldering
          ▪ Stannolyte immersion tin for copper pillar sidewall protection




                                                                Quality
                                                                Assurance




                                      Leading
                                      Technology




                                                                                          Best Local
                                                                                          Service
                                                                                                        Semiconductor




Semiconductor Technology Approach




Focus on Quality Assurance
From the point of raw material selection and qualification, to chemistry production in our
state-of-the-art manufacturing facility, and finally to finished product quality testing, Atotech’s goal
is to provide the semiconductor industry with highest quality products.

Leading Technology and R&D Programs
Atotech is committed to developing and implementing innovative and sustainable technologies that
allow our customers to minimize production costs, reduce their environmental footprint, and improve
process efficiency. As market leaders in the PCB and IC substrate industries, Atotech continuously
expands its product portfolio and develops technology for tomorrow’s solutions. Atotech’s total
solution concept for wafer metallization demonstrates the company’s commitment to provide the
semiconductor industry with cutting-edge products, while delivering superior quality and service.

Best Local Service – Think Global / Act Local
Being close to its customers is a top priority for Atotech. With Berlin as the international headquarters
for R&D and administration, Atotech has established regional headquarters in Rock Hill and
Yokohama, supported by 40 application centers worldwide. Atotech’s regional TechCenters for
Semiconductor Technology development are equipped to provide the industry with customized
products and top-of-the-line plating support during all phases of sampling, process optimization,
qualification and scale-up at the customer site.




                                 Neuruppin, Germany   Berlin, Germany

            Albany, USA                                                      Yokohama, Japan
          Rock Hill, USA                                             JangAn, Korea
                                                                                   Shanghai, China
                                                               Guangzhou, China    Guanyin, Taiwan
                                                              Hong Kong, China


                                                                    Singapore




      Semiconductor Facilities
      Sales Office

                                    Berlin       Albany        Yokohama      Guanyin        Neuruppin
04 | 05




          Semiconductor Technology Facilities
          Advanced Packaging TechCenter, Berlin




          The TechCenter for advanced packaging technologies is located in
          Berlin, Germany, at the company’s headquarters. The TechCenter
          has specialized semiconductor labs (3,230 ft²) which collectively
          contain a variety of electroless and electrochemical deposition
          equipment for advanced wafer level packaging (WLP) applications.
          The plating equipment ranges from wet bench and single wafer tools,
          to innovative spray plating tools, all of which are 200 and 300 mm
          compatible. In order to ensure process repeatability and stability,
          on-line monitoring instruments and replenishment systems are
          utilized for a total process-solution approach.

          Atotech’s headquarters also houses Berlin’s Material Science and
          Analytics departments. Their respective labs include a wide range of
          analytical equipment which are used to examine plated results and
          analyze bath samples.                                                      Atotech headquarters in Berlin,
                                                                                     Germany
          The Semiconductor TechCenter together with the Material Science
          and Analytics facilities provide the foundation for Atotech to conduct
          R&D activities which are essential to supply the semiconductor
          industry with innovative technologies. With these facilities, Atotech is
          fully equipped to support the complete process lifecycle from R&D,
          best known method (BKM) development, sampling and finally during
          process qualification and ramp-up.


          Equipment for Electroless Deposition of Nickel, Palladium, Gold
          ▪ RAMGRABER wet bench, batch tool, 150/200/300 mm
          ▪ SEMITOOL Cintillio spray design, batch tool, 200/300mm
          ▪ SEMITOOL Raider fountain platform, single wafer tool, 200/300 mm

          Equipment for Electroless Deposition of Immersion Tin
          ▪ SEMITOOL Raider fountain platform, single wafer tool, 200/300 mm

          Equipment for Electrochemical Deposition of Copper, Nickel, Tin
          ▪ SEMITOOL fountain platform, Raptor & CFD3 chambers, 200/300 mm
          ▪ RENA fountain plating platform, 3 chambers, 200 mm
          ▪ NEXX shear plater, manual tool, 200 mm
                                                                                                                          Semiconductor




Material Science and Analytical Capabilities*
▪   Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX)
▪   Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) / EDX
▪   Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) / EDX
▪   X-Ray Fluorescence Thickness Measurement Tool (XRF)
▪   Scanning Force Microscope (SFM)
▪   Analyzers for measuring Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Carbon (TC)
▪   Graphic Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS)
▪   Inductive Coupled Plasma using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)
▪   High Performance Liquid Chromotography using Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS)
▪   Electrospray Ionisation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS)
▪   Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
▪   EAGLE III XRF Thickness Measuring Tool
▪   Veeco Dektak 8 Profilometer
▪   Metrohm CVS Electrochemical Analysis
▪   Disco Wafer Dicing Saw
* Please refer to Atotech’s Worldwide TechCenter brochure for a full list of our Material Science and Analytical capabilities




       ancosys On-line Monitoring and Dosing System                               SEMITOOL Single Wafer Tool




       RAMGRABER Wet Bench                   SEMITOOL Cintillio                   SEMITOOL Raider
       Manual Tool
06 | 07




          Semiconductor Technology Facilities
          Copper Interconnect R&D Center, Albany




          Atotech’s research and development center for Damascene and
          Dual Damascene development used for copper interconnect
          technology is located at the College of Nanoscale Science and
          Engineering (CNSE) in Albany, New York. The partnership with
          CNSE provides Atotech’s R&D team access to CNSE’s state-of-
          the-art wafer processing facility which contains over 85,000 ft²
          of clean rooms and analytical labs, and houses a complete line
          of cutting-edge 300 mm semiconductor manufacturing and R&D
          equipment.

          Atotech’s copper additive R&D and Damascene process develop-
          ment is conducted in an on-site electrochemistry lab in collaboration
          with CNSE’s metrology department. Collectively the clean room
          and lab capabilities provide the infrastructure needed for Atotech to
          perform plating and additive R&D, bath sample analysis, qualification   CNSE NanoTech Complex
          runs and customer sampling.


          Atotech Electrochemistry Lab
          ▪ HPLC-TOF-MS for plating bath analysis, additive research
          ▪ Autolab Galvonostat / Potentiostat with RDE, controller
          ▪ ECI QL-10E CVS / CPVS analysis
          ▪ Microfluidic cell for additive analysis
          ▪ Beaker plating set up
          ▪ Sartorius CP microbalances
          ▪ Heraeus annealing oven
          ▪ Four point resistance prober

          Infrastructure for Copper Electroplating
          ▪ Applied Materials SlimCell fountain plater, 300 mm
          ▪ Novellus Sabre Extreme fountain plater, 300 mm
          ▪ NEXX Stratus vertical plater, 300 mm
                                                                                      Semiconductor




Material Science and Analytical Capabilities
▪ Complete in-line 300 mm metrology equipment
▪ Hitachi S-4800 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
▪ FEI Nova Nano Environmental SEM (ESEM)
▪ FEI Focused Ion Beam (FIB) 200 Microscope
▪ FEI Nova NanoLab 600 Dual Beam FIB SEM
▪ FEI Titan3 S Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
▪ JEOL JEM 2010F TEM
▪ Digital Instruments Nanoscope III Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
▪ JEOL 4200 AFM
▪ Bruker D8 X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR)
▪ Perkin-Elmer PHI 600 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
▪ Thermo VG Scientific Theta Probe X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
▪ IONTOF Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF.SIMS 5)
▪ Physical Electronics 6650 Quadruple Dynamic SIMS System
▪ Dynamitron Linear Accelerator 4 MeV System
▪ Beam time on the BESSY and Brookhaven National Lab Synchrotron




      Nikon 80i Fluorescence Microscope        Novellus Sabre 300 mm Plating System




      CNSE’s 300 mm Class 1 Cleanroom          AMAT SlimCell 300 mm Plating System
08 | 09




          Semiconductor TechCenter, Yokohama




          The Semiconductor TechCenter in Yokohama, Japan is Atotech’s
          facility to serve the semiconductor industry in Japan and other regions
          in Asia. The local semiconductor team consists of experts with
          international experience and know-how specializing in chemistry,
          electroplating and semiconductor processing.

          The TechCenter is fully equipped to support electrolytic copper
          R&D activities and customer sampling for 200 and 300 mm wafer
          substrates. The TechCenter contains plating equipment which enable
          the semiconductor team to conduct R&D for applications ranging from
          copper Damascene plating for chip interconnects to advanced pack-
          aging technologies such as copper pillar, RDL, and pad metallization.

          The Material Science and Analytical equipment enable the team to
          perform physical analysis of visual inspections and cross sections,       Semiconductor TechCenter in
          as well as chemical analysis of inorganic and organic components.         Yokohama, Japan
          Collectively, the equipment and lab capabilities provide the infra-
          structure to test new chemistries, perform additive and plating R&D,
          conduct mini qualification runs, as well as demonstrate our products
          during customer sampling and demos.


          Electroplating and Lab Capabilities
          ▪ Dainippon Screen Damascene Plating System with automatic cleaning unit,
             200 and 300 mm tools
          ▪ Plating System for Pad Metallization, vertical platform, 200 mm
          ▪ S One Wet Bench with clean unit for testing and beaker plating
          ▪ Millipore Ultrapure Water System for chemical mixing
          ▪ Nomura Micro Science DI Water System for rinsing
          ▪ Techno Rise Semi-automatic Wafer Spin Dry, 200/300 mm
          ▪ Cleaning Booths for sample preparation and Damascene plating, 200 mm
          ▪ Atotech Fe Redox Mediator System for on-line monitoring of Fe, Cu concentrations
                                                                                                 Semiconductor




Material Science and Analytical Capabilities
▪ ECI and Metrohm CVS / CPVS analysis
▪ Seiko Analyzers for measuring TOC & TN
▪ Leica INM300 DUV Microscope
▪ Olympus Optical Microscopes (6)
▪ Struers Polisher for wafer cross sections
▪ SEIKO XRF Thickness Measuring Tool, 300 mm
▪ JEOL SEM / EDX Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis
▪ Keyence Laser Microscope for measuring surface roughness and depth
▪ Metrohm Titration Equipment for titration of cations and anions, automatic and manual




      Damascene Plating System, 300 mm            Plating System for Pad Metallization, 200 mm




      Atotech Fe Redox Mediator System            Wet Clean Bench
10 | 11




          Semiconductor TechCenter, Guanyin




          The newest addition of Atotech’s global semiconductor facilities
          is the Guanyin TechCenter in Taiwan. The Guanyin TechCenter is
          already equipped for R&D and sampling in order to fulfill the
          local demands of the semiconductor industry. In addition, the location
          has a wide range of Materials Science and Analytical equipment for
          conducting specialized testing as well as developing innovative new
          solutions for future customer needs.

          The first phase of equipment and lab installation was completed
          in 2009 and expansions of the current capabilities are planned for
          2010 and 2011. This will include the installation of additional plating
          and production equipment, as well as Materials Science and Analytical
          equipment and methods, which collectively will enable the R&D and
          application teams to conduct experiments, qualification runs and
          in-house customer sampling.                                               Semiconductor TechCenter in
                                                                                    Guanyin, Taiwan
          The completed Guanyin TechCenter will strengthen Atotech’s position
          in Asia to provide best local customer service and fast reaction to our
          customers’ requirements. The enhanced TechCenter will also support
          Atotech’s cooperation with the Industrial Technology Research
          Institute (ITRI) for the next generation of semiconductor technology
          development.


          Production Equipment
          ▪ Double Side Plating (DSP) Tool
          ▪ SEMITOOL Spin Rinse Dry (SRD) Equipment

          Materials Science and Analytical Capabilities
          ▪ Struers LaboPol-5 Polisher for cross sections
          ▪ Struers TegraPol-15 Grinding and Polishing Machine
          ▪ Buehler Metaserv 2000 Polisher for cross sections
          ▪ Buehler MiniMet 1000 Polisher for cross sections
          ▪ FEI Nova NanoLab 600 Dual Beam FIB SEM
          ▪ Oxford EDS7636 Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Analysis
          ▪ Zeiss EV50 SEM
          ▪ Fischer XDVM-μ X-Ray Fluorescence Thickness Measuring Tool
          ▪ Olympus Optical Microscopes
          ▪ Confocal Microscopes for Optical Roughness Profilometry (ORP)
          ▪ ECI and Metrohm CVS / CPVS Analysis
          ▪ Metrohm Titration Equipment for titration of cations and anions
          ▪ Shimadzu Analyzers for measuring Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
                                                                               Semiconductor




Xenolyte Solder Ball Array                        Olympus Optical Microscope




200 mm Wafer plated with Atotech’s Xenolyte Nickel, Palladium, and Gold
12 | 13




          High Purity Chemistry Production, Neuruppin




          The Neuruppin production facility for semiconductor plating chemistry
          is designed to satisfy the quality and purity chemistry demands of
          the semiconductor industry of today and tomorrow. The facility uses
          highly automated manufacturing practices and class 1000 mini-
          environment enclosures. The latest engineering design techniques
          are utilized to ensure efficient and safe production, optimized product
          quality, reduced batch to batch variations, and minimized waste
          water to provide cost-effective production solutions. State-of-the-art
          production and quality control ensure reduced ionic and particle con-
          centration in the final product. The quality is verified with controlled
          sampling at various points throughout the manufacturing process.




                                                                                         Semiconductor Chemistry Production
                                                                                         in Neuruppin, Germany




            Filling Station                                    Chemistry Distribution System


                   Features and Benefits
                   ▪ Advanced filtration and mini environment for high purity products
                   ▪ Sustainable production methods for green manufacturing solutions
                   ▪ Highly automated production systems for consistency, efficiency, and safety
                                                                                                    Semiconductor




Manufacturing Concept
Production begins with the filtration and dosing of pre-qualified raw materials via the Chemistry
Distribution System (1). Each raw material container uses a separate, isolated dosing system for
transfer to the mixing vessel. In the mixing vessel, liquid raw materials are combined with Ultra
Pure Water and are sent through the filtration loop (2), where samples are extracted. After filtration,
the chemistry is transferred to the filling stations for bottling of final products (3).


1. Chemistry Distribution System (CDS)
▪ Separate and isolated distribution for each liquid raw material
▪ Automated dosing and circulation loop for filtration of each raw material

2. Mixing Vessel
▪ Ultra Pure Water using reverse osmosis, EDI units and in-line TOC
▪ Inside spray device for in-place vessel cleaning, gas exhaust apparatus, overflow safety device
▪ Filtration of final product ≤ 0.2 μm, monitored by Optical Liquid Particle Counter (OLC)

3. Filling Station
▪ Class ≤ 1000 clean room environment for container filling
▪ Filling apparatus and piping with automatic valve
▪ Weighing unit for precise and consistent filling
14 | 15




          Semiconductor Technology
          Product Portfolio for Copper Interconnect Metallization
          and Wafer Level Packaging


          Atotech’s Semiconductor Technology product portfolio offers chemistry and process solutions for
          wafer metallization, from the chip interconnects to advanced wafer level packaging technologies.

          Products for Electrochemical Metal Deposition
          ▪ Everplate copper for Damascene interconnects
          ▪ Spherolyte copper for pillar, redistribution layer (RDL), and through silicon via (TSV)
          ▪ Spherolyte nickel and tin for pillar protection layer and solder joint technology




                Everplate
                Electrochemical Deposition for Chip Interconnects
                ▪ Copper Damascene plating from M1 to Mx




                                       Sn
                                       Ni
                                       Cu




                Spherolyte
                Electrochemical Deposition for Advanced Packaging Technology
                ▪ Copper for pillar, RDL and TSV
                ▪ Nickel and tin for pillar protection layer and solder joint technology
                                                                          Semiconductor




Products for Electroless Metal Deposition
▪ Xenolyte nickel, palladium, and gold for pad metallization
▪ Xenolyte copper and gold for wire bonding and soldering
▪ Stannolyte immersion tin for pillar sidewall protection




     Xenolyte
     Electroless Deposition for Pad Metallization
     ▪ Nickel, palladium, gold for pad metallization
     ▪ Copper and gold for wire bonding and soldering




                                                                Cu   Sn
                   Sn
            Ni
                            Sn
                   Cu
                  Pillar

                 Si Oxide

                 Si Wafer




     Stannolyte
     Electroless Deposition for Advanced Packaging Technology
     ▪ Immersion tin for pillar sidewall protection
16 | 17




          Semiconductor Plating Solutions
          Everplate




          The Everplate portfolio consists of medium and high purity base electrolytes and technology node
          specific additive systems used for the electrochemical deposition of copper for Damascene inter-
          connects. Everplate process solutions are compatible with 200 and 300 mm wafers and are available
          for 45 nm node technologies and beyond. Next generation Everplate products are currently being
          developed at CNSE for 32 and 22 nm node technologies.

          Electrodeposition of High Purity Copper
          Everplate base electrolytes are available in various acid and copper concentrations for optimum
          tool and process control and can be customized according to the application requirements.
          Medium and high purity specifications of less than 10 ppm and 100 ppb for cations, with particle
          count less than 100,000 / ml and 10 / ml respectively, are controlled by Inductively Coupled Plas-
          ma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS). Advanced filtration using 0.2 µm membrane technology and
          Optical Liquid Particle Counter (OLC) control the particle level in the chemistry.

          Reliable and Void-Free Filling of Trenches and Vias
          Everplate’s three component organic additive systems consist of accelerators, suppressors and
          levelers for superior filling performance of high aspect ratio (AR) structures. The additive systems
          are designed to enhance the bottom-up fill and provide a uniform copper thickness distribution with
          minimal overburden for Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP).




                  Post anneal cross section      Post anneal cross section      Top down view of M1,
                  of M1, 3:1 AR, 32 nm node      of M1-V1-M2, 45 nm node        22 nm node



          Features and Benefits
          Everplate chemistries and process solutions are designed to satisfy the stringent requirements for
          the Damascene plating process and the deposited copper. In order to maximize yield and throughput,
          a reliable and stable process with the following features is needed.

          ▪   Reliable gap-fill properties and void-free filling of high AR vias and trenches
          ▪   Uniform copper thickness distribution
          ▪   Low post CMP defect density
          ▪   Low resistance and post anneal internal stress
          ▪   Low resistivity and contact resistance
          ▪   Superior electromigration (EM) and stress migration (SM) properties
                                                                                                    Semiconductor




Spherolyte




The Spherolyte portfolio consists of pre-treatment solutions, base electrolytes, and three
component additive systems used for the electrochemical deposition of copper in advanced
packaging applications. Spherolyte copper chemistries include a variety of base electrolytes,
as well as brightener, carrier, and leveler additives to enhance the filling peformance of copper
pillar, redistribution layer (RDL) and through sillicon via (TSV) structures. Spherolyte nickel and tin
chemistries are used for diffusion barrier and solder joint technologies.




      Spherolyte Copper Pillar with   RDL Contact Pad and rerouting   TSV (20 μm x 80 μm)
      CuNiSn                          Structure


Features and Benefits
Spherolyte products are designed to fulfill the industry requirements for the deposited copper in
packaging technologies. The process requirements vary depending on the application however
there are certain characteristics of the deposited copper that are essential regardless of the
technology. Spherolyte products satisfy these requirements and have demonstrated exceptional
results for plating of RDL and pillar structures, and bottom-up filling of TSVs.

Reliable Metal Deposition for Pillar and Redistribution Layer
Copper
▪ Optimal copper thickness distribution and within-wafer (WIW) uniformity
▪ High current density plating for high throughput
▪ Reliable gap-fill properties for superior and stable pattern plating
▪ Low warpage and internal stress
▪ Low copper surface roughness
Nickel
▪ Uniform nickel distribution for diffusion barrier
▪ Low porosity, high ductility
▪ Enhanced deposition rate
Tin
▪ Fine grain structure
▪ Low organic impurities
▪ Inhibited whisker formation

Fast and Void-Free Filling of Through Silicon Vias (TSV)
▪ Efficient bottom-up filling of high aspect ratio TSVs
▪ Minimal overburden with uniform copper thickness distribution
▪ Void-free copper deposition of smallest features
▪ Low post CMP defect density
18 | 19




          Xenolyte




          The Xenolyte portfolio includes cleaning and activation pre-treatment solutions and plating
          chemistries for the electroless deposition of nickel, palladium and gold in pad metallization
          technologies. Xenolyte products are used as the under bump metallization (UBM) for the connection
          to solder balls, wire bonds, and wedge bonds.

          The Xenolyte nickel, palladium and gold process provides a corrosion protection layer for the
          underlaying interconnects and solder joint connection to the IC substrate. The nickel layer serves
          as the diffusion barrier and provides protection against the formation of Kirkendall voids. The
          palladium and gold depositions provide adhesion for the soldering and bonding, as well as pro-
          tection against oxidation. The Xenolyte electroless UBM process is compatible with aluminum and
          copper pads, with specialized pre-treatments for each. Xenolyte has demonstrated compatibility
          with standard aluminum and gold bonding, as well as emerging copper wire bonding technology.




                Xenolyte for Wire Bonding      Xenolyte NiPdAu Pad            Xenolyte for Soldering
                                               Metallization




          Features and Benefits
          The industry requirements for UBM include a robust and stable connection, with low resistance,
          to the IC substrate. With Xenolyte’s proven technologies, the following process and deposition
          requirements are satisfied at significantly lower costs compared to traditional sputtering technology.

          ▪   Enhanced adhesion between UBM and IC substrate
          ▪   Robust bond pad for wire bonding
          ▪   Stress minimized metal stack
          ▪   Improved reliability with pure palladium for wire bonding technology
          ▪   Process flexibility for use with aluminum, gold, and copper wire bonding technologies

          To address the semiconductor industry’s requirements for green technology solutions, Atotech has
          developed innovative products for UBM applications. Xenolyte lead-free nickel and cyanide-free
          gold enable customers to implement environmentally responsible production solutions.
                                                                                                         Semiconductor




Stannolyte




The Stannolyte portfolio consists of pre-treatment solutions, wetting agents for oxide removal,
and immersion tin plating chemistries used for the electroless deposition of tin for pillar sidewall
protection.

The latest trends in flip chip technology are moving towards smaller pitch sizes and increased
density of integrated circuits. Standard solder packaging technology will soon reach its technical
limitation and consequently new solutions are needed to meet the future challenges for advanced
packaging. Atotech has developed a process to address the requirements for flip chip technology
using through mask plating. The plating process begins with the electrochemical depositions of
Spherolyte copper for pillar formation, followed by Spherolyte nickel and Spherolyte tin for solder
capping. After removal of the plating mask and seed layer, the sidewall of the copper pillar is
exposed. Following the flip chip solder process, the exposed copper sidewalls are directly
connected to the underfill material. Stannolyte immersion tin is used to protect the pillar sidewalls
from oxidation and enhance the adhesion of the pillar to the underfill material.



                                                                                Cu               Sn
                     Sn
              Ni
                              Sn
                     Cu
                    Pillar

                   Si Oxide

                   Si Wafer


      0.2 - 0.3 μm Tin Layer to protect   Copper Pillar covered with   FIB Cut / Tin plating on Copper
      Copper from Corrosion               0.2 µm of Tin                Pillar / Side Wall




Features and Benefits
In copper pillar applications, superior adhesion of the pillar sidewall to the underfill material is
the main requirement. Stannolyte was developed to support the adhesion performance and
successfully delivers the following process advantages.

▪   Defect-free tin deposition
▪   Superior adhesion to the underfill material
▪   Highest thickness uniformity
▪   Whisker and dendrite inhibited process
20 | 21




          Strategic Partnerships
          The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering




          Atotech’s partnership with CNSE focuses on the development and optimization of copper
          deposition technologies for use in advanced device structures. The partnership provides Atotech
          engineers exclusive access to R&D activities with the College and its 250 global corporate
          partners. Together with these partners, Atotech supports the development towards sub-22 nm node
          technologies with contributions of engineering know-how and advanced, cost-competitive plating
          chemistries. Through this partnership, Atotech and CNSE engineers work closely together to develop
          and deliver functional and technical process solutions for smaller and more efficient devices.

          The joint R&D focuses on the optimization of the processing steps and analytical methods which
          impact the copper wiring technologies in semiconductor applications. Nano size defect densities,
          stability of low resistance, and the robustness of electrical and stress migration define the quality
          of the deposited copper during reliability testing conditions. The R&D conducted at CNSE focuses
          on the understanding of these interactions and the exploration of solutions needed for the scaling
          to smaller structures.




               Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion   Tokyo Electron Clean Track      CNSE’s 300 mm Class 1
               Mass Spectrometer (TOF-SIMS)   LITHIUS                         Cleanroom




          About CNSE
          The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering is the first college in the world dedicated to
          education, research, development and deployment in the emerging disciplines of nanoscience,
          nanoengineering, nanobioscience, and nanoeconomics. With over $5.5 billion in high-tech
          investments, the 800,000-square-foot Albany NanoTech Complex attracts corporate partners
          from around the world and offers students a one-of-a-kind academic experience. More than 2,500
          scientists, researchers, engineers, students, and faculty work on site at CNSE’s Albany NanoTech
          Complex, from companies including IBM, AMD, GlobalFoundries, SEMATECH, Toshiba, Applied
          Materials, Tokyo Electron, ASML, Novellus Systems, Vistec Lithography and Atotech. For more
          information, visit www.cnse.albany.edu.
                                                                                                  Semiconductor




SEMATECH International




Atotech’s partnership with SEMATECH International focuses on the development of advanced
copper plating process technologies for the 3D stacking of integrated circuit (IC) devices in order
to fulfill the semiconductor industry’s needs for the increased performance and efficiency of smaller
devices, at significantly lower costs. Atotech joined SEMATECH’s 3D Integration Program as the
only materials supplier to develop high aspect ratio (AR) through silicon via (TSV) technology.

As a member of SEMATECH, Atotech participates in leading edge research towards the development
and implementation of cost effective copper electroplating solutions for TSV technology for wafer-
to-wafer, die-to-die and die-to-wafer 3D integration applications. Atotech contributes to the R&D
with cost-competitive, innovative chemistries and plating know-how. Atotech benefits from the
collaborations and expertise of SEMATECH’s global partners, and has access to joint results
including electrical characterization data, early reliability test data, and module developments.

The 3D Program has its own clean room at CNSE which houses a variety of 3D equipment including
a 300 mm NEXX Stratus ECD plating tool which is used by Atotech for TSV plating process
development. The initial focus of the R&D is on high aspect ratio (AR) TSV structures, with
target geometries of 5 x 25 μm and 5 x 50 μm. The electrical characterization data and early
reliability data generated for the experiments enable the R&D teams to analyze results and
improve the process for best TSV performance.




    NEXX Stratus 300 mm ECD Plating Tool            Bottom-up Filling Sequence (5 x 25 µm)




About SEMATECH:
For 20 years, SEMATECH® (www.sematech.org) has set global direction, enabled flexible
collaboration, and bridged strategic R&D to manufacturing. Today, we continue accelerating the
next technology revolution with our nanoelectronics and emerging technology partners. For more
information, please visit the company’s website at www.sematech.org.
22 | 23




          SEMITOOL




          The partnership with Semitool is for the co-development of plating chemistry, process of record,
          and equipment, in order to provide the semiconductor industry with a complete solution for
          advanced packaging technologies. The primary focus is for the optimization of the plating process
          using the Semitool Cintillio and Atotech’s XENOLYTE chemistries and process.




              The Cintillio is perfectly designed for the UBM of    The Raider Single Wafer Tool is a platform which
              products which require high throughput, such as       is designed for high performance electrochemical
              DRAM devices. The system is designed for opti-        metal deposition and electroless plating. The de-
              mized precision, maximized throughput, with a sig-    sign includes a rotating, faced-down wafer, which
              nificantly reduced footprint compared to a standard   is immersed in the electrolyte using fountain spray
              wet bench.                                            technology.

              The closed process chamber is connected to            The Raider may be used for metal deposition in
              different chemistry tanks which dispense and clean    various devices. The application parameters are
              the chambers in a fully automated manner.             chosen based on the specific plating and device
                                                                    requirements.
              Atotech has developed the process of record
              (POR) for UBM processing on the Cintillio, with our   Within Atotech’s development work, the Raider
              semiconductor products for the electroless depo-      equipment is used for nickel, palladium, and gold
              sition of nickel, palladium, and gold on copper or    UBM processing, immersion tin deposition, and
              aluminum structures.                                  ECD copper plating.




          About SEMITOOL
          Semitool designs, manufactures, and supports highly engineered, multi-chamber, single wafer and
          batch wet chemical processing equipment used in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The
          company’s primary suites of equipment include electrochemical deposition systems for electroplating
          copper, gold, tin, and other metals; surface preparation systems for cleaning, stripping and
          etching silicon wafers; and wafer transport container cleaning systems. The company’s equipment
          is used in semiconductor fabrication front-end and back-end processes, including wafer-level
          packaging. Headquartered in Kalispell, Montana, Semitool maintains sales and support centers in
          the United States, Europe and Asia. For more information, please visit the company’s website at
          www.semitool.com.
                                                                                                   Semiconductor




ancosys GmbH




Ancosys contributes to our total solution concept for wafer metallization with their ancolyzer on-line
monitoring and dosing system. The combination of Semitool equipment (Equinox, Raider, Cintillio),
Atotech plating chemistries (Xenolyte, Spherolyte, Stannolyte) and the ancosys ancolyzer,
provides optimized performance and stability for the plating process.

The ancolyzer is an on-line PC based control unit for the monitoring and dosing of the plating bath
compounds. The system offers high transparency with low complexity of use, and has demon-
strated stability and reproducibility at highest accuracy.




  Stabilizer Controller     E-less Nickel Controller

ancolyzer, on-line control and monitoring system       Close-up of ancolyzer measuring unit




Kulicke & Soffa


Kulicke & Soffa (K&S) manufactures and supplies advanced packaging equipment to the semi-
conductor industry for wire and wedge bonding technologies. As a global leader in design and
manufacture of semiconductor assembly equipment, K&S has extensive experience and expertise
in ball and wedge bonding technologies. Through our partnership, Atotech and K&S exchange
product and process information, in order to collaboratively optimize the packaging process and
provide a complete solution to the semiconductor industry. Specifically, Xenolyte nickel, palladium,
and gold products are the focus for the joint R&D, which includes reliability data generation,
specialized experiments, and technical papers.
Atotech Main Office                 Phone       +49 (0)30 349 85 0
Erasmusstr. 20                      Fax         +49 (0)30 349 85 777
D-10553 Berlin                                  www.atotech.com




                                                                                                                  09/10_ JR
Additional Research and Development Programs


Corporate R&D Collaborations

▪   The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering in Albany, New York
▪   SEMATECH International in Albany, New York
▪   International Business Machines (IBM) in Albany and East Fishkill, New York; Burlington, Vermont
▪   Tokyo Electron Limited (TEL) in Albany, New York
▪   Micron Technologies, Inc. in Boise, Idaho
▪   ancosys GmbH in Tuebingen, Germany
▪   Kulicke & Soffa in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania
▪   SEMITOOL in Kalispell, Montana

Research Institutes
▪ Fraunhofer IZM in Berlin, Germany
▪ Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in Taipei, Taiwan

Universities
▪ Columbia University in New York, New York
▪ Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio
▪ University of Ulm in Ulm, Germany
▪ University at Albany in Albany, New York




                                                                Berlin, Germany
           Kalispell, Montana               Tubingen, Germany
     Boise, Idaho         Willow Grove, Pennsylvania             Ulm, Germany
             Cleveland, Ohio        New York, New York
                      Albany, New York

                                                                                                 Taipei, Taiwan




       Corporate R&D Collaborations                 Research Institutes           Universities

				
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