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					How did Russia become the USSR only to
          become the CIS?
USSR: UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST
           REPUBLICS
      CIS: COMMONWEALTH OF
        INDEPENDENT STATES
                The Rise of Russia
               Geography’s Influence

 As Western Europe was developing its
  distinctive medieval civilization, Russian culture
  took a different path in the east
 Russia connected Europe and Asia and became a
  center of power
 A major reason why Russia developed differently
  from Western Europe was due to its unique
  geography
 The Ural Mountains mark the boundary between
  European Russia and Asian Russia (Eurasia)
      Geography’s Influence (continues)
   Three regions that shaped early Russian life were:
     1) The northern forests supplied lumber
      for building and fuel while fur-bearing
     animals attracted hunters but little farming
    2)South of the northern forest is where farming
     took place which provided a band of fertile
     land (today includes the Ukraine, home to
     Russia’s first civilization at Kiev (Breadbasket)
    3)The southern steppe is an open treeless grassland
     offering pasture for the herds and horses of nomadic
     peoples who used this as a highway for migration
    Rivers Link Russia and Byzantium
 Russia’s   network of rivers running from
  north to south, provided transportation for
  people and trade
 The 3 major rivers include the Volga, Don and
  Dnieper Rivers
 They linked early Russians to the advance
  Byzantine world in the south
 During the Middle Ages, Russians turned to
  Byzantium rather than to Western Europe due to
  the fact that Western Europe was extremely
  disorganized after the fall of the Roman Empire
            History of the Czar
 The era of modern Russia can be traced
  to 1533 when Ivan IV became the ruler of
  Russia at age three
 His mother controlled during his years
 He eventually became the first person
  crowned Czar (which means emperor, or
    king)
 At age 17, in 1547, he quickly unified a
  rocky country into a very powerful
  nation
 He became known as Ivan the Terrible
         History of the Czar (continued)
 Ivan immediately formed a new type of military
  that required all men to serve for life from the
  age of 15
 Any disobedience resulted in death
 By 1522, Ivan had taken most of the area today
  known as the Baltic States
 By 1582, Ivan had taken most of Siberia
 Because of these continued wars that lasted some
  30 years Russia was left in economic collapse
 Ivan, several times wounded, was in ill health
 He died in 1584
        History of the Czar (continued)
 Ivan was known to have an extremely
  short temper
 it is said that he killed his oldest son in an
  argument over dinner in 1582.
 His second son supposedly died while in
  prison in Sweden.
 He considered the rest of his children too
  young to rule.
 Left without a true, heir, his wife’s
  brother, Boris Godunov, effectively took
  over Russia.
 Boris was a very affective diplomat and
  administrator.
    History of the Czar (continued)
 He very quickly had Russia bounce back
  from Ivan’s economic policies.
 He never gave back the lands Ivan stole
  but he peaceably ruled from 1584-1603
 Upon his death in 1603, Boris left no true
  heir.
 Since Czarship could only be attained by
  birthright, two men known today as the
  “false Dimitri’s” began to say they were
  the sons of Ivan The Terrible, and should
  be crowned Czar
    History of the Czar (continued
 Neither was able to hold power for long
  and both were dead within the year
 From 1603-1613, the Russian Orthodox
  Church, which had broken from the
  Roman Catholic Church 1,000 years
  before, began to search for a successor to
  Boris
 It was believed that the Czar was sent by
  God to rule so the people had no
  problems being leaderless for a decade
           History of the Czar (continued
   Although inconsistent in approach, the Russian pope
    ruled effectively, sighting “God” as justification for
    his power
   By 1613, however, Russian peasants and landowners
    alike wanted a new Czar
   In 1613 Mikhail Romanov, nephew of Ivan IV was
    crowned Michael I by the Russian Pope
   Michael went on to be one of the most successful
    Czars in history, effectively making peace with all of
    Ivan The Terrible’s enemies
          History of the Czar
 Mikhail strengthened his control on Eastern
  Europe and Western Asia both through
  skilled diplomacy
 He was very successful in winning people
  over to his side
 He died in 1645, completing a year that saw
  Moscow become one of the most powerful
  capitals in the world
              History of the Czar
   After Michael died, his son Alexis became Czar
   He was called the “most gentle czar”
   Despite his fits of temper, he was a devoted son
    of the church
   He frequently sought the clergy for advice on
    matters of state
   He believed the clergy in their call to “convert”
    non-believers
    Alexis has become known as the czar to
    institute full fledged “serfdom” in Russia
           History of the Czar
 Serfdom is similar to slavery with two
  distinct differences
  1) Serfs had many rights under the law,
  such as retirement pensions and sick
  benefits
 2) Serfs were still slaves and were treated
  as such by the landowners
 Because of Alexis’s devotion to the
  church, great theological reform and
  moral revival took place in Russia
            History of the Czar
 Many   people who did not want this reform
  were burned at the stake
 Alexis, believing God was on his side,
  wanted a “purified” clergy
 Alexis died in 1676
 Alexis’ first son Fyodor then took over as
  Czar
 Being sickly himself, he ruled ineffectively
  only until 1682
            History of the Czar
 Alexis second son Peter, only ten at the time,
  was named Czar
 Peter was to become known as Peter the Great
 Arguably Peter was the greatest Czar who ever
  lived
 Peter spent much of his time in the company of
  foreigners, especially Germans
 Through these contacts Peter believed Russia to
  be a backward, technologically inferior nation
 The Two Greatest Romanovs
                  Catherine
Peter the Great
                  The Great
                History of the Czar
   He became extremely motivate to design and
    imitates Western Europe
   He was a tireless student who it is said read a book
    every dayPeter felt much more comfortable
    around common people than he did around the
    rich, and made every attempt to gain friendship on
    the streets
   Peter was so disgusted with Russian
    “primitiveness” that upon returning from a trip to
    Europe at age 16, he issued an order that no man
    in the upper classes in Russia could wear a beard
           History of the Czar
 He also outlawed the use of the
  Gregorian calendar
 Peter gave up on his fascination with the
  West and began to solidify Russian
  strongholds on the frontiers of Europe
 After conquering Sweden, something no
  other czar, even Ivan, had ever been able
  to do, he moved the capital to a new city
  called St. Petersburg, in honor of himself
            History of the Czar
 Over the years he conquered more and more
  of Europe through intelligent tactile
  engagements
 By 1723, Peter’s earlier dream of becoming a
  western power was realized, and no country
  in the world could match Russia
 Peter also became a champion of the common
  man, which was what probably allowed him
  to stay in power as long as he did
           History of the Czar
 He delegated authority to a newly created
  Senate, which he also ordered to
  immediately open up all colleges and
  universities to the people, not just the
  ruling classes
 Peter also began to redistribute taxes, so
  that the rich would pay more and the
  poor pay less
 Peter also defined the “ranks” the rich
  were allowed to hold
           History of the Czar
 These ranks, similar to military ranks,
  allowed for better distribution of power
  in the empire
 All in all Peter did more to modernize
  and westernize Russia than any Czar
  before him
 All great czars were to be judged in
  comparison to Peter the Great
          History of the Czar
 Catherine I was Peter’s wife and
  successor upon his death in 1725
 Being illiterate and virtually mentally
  challenged, her brother, Aleksander
  Menshikov governed Russia during her
  reign
 He was a gentle man who believed highly
  in education mostly because of the
  condition of Catherine
 He founded the Academy of Sciences
          History of the Czar
 Catherine only served as Czarina from
  1725-1727
 But in these two short years the Academy
  was founded and became the greatest of
  Russian colleges
 When she died she had designated her
  grandson, Pytor to be her successor
  Pytor became Peter II in 1727 at age 14,
  but died on year later from small pox
           History of the Czar
 Because of his age and the fact that he
  was not married, the church again began
  a process to find a new Czar
 Several people tried for this position,
  including Peter the Great’s daughter
  Elizabeth
 She became Czarina in 1741 after a series
  of infants held the crown in succession
 Elizabeth tried to link herself with Peter
  the Great
          History of the Czar
 She abolished the death penalty for a
  short time and attempted to continue her
  father’s reforms in government
 She was not successful, though, and the
  financial condition of the country
  deteriorated
 Upon her death she named her nephew
  Peter as Czar
          History of the Czar
 Peter was Peter the Great’s grandson and
  became Peter III in 1761
 He only survived six months however,
  because his wife decided she could run
  the country better and had him killed
 She eventually would become known as
  Catherine the Great
 Catherine II was proclaimed Czarina in
  1762
Catherine The Great
         History of the Czar
 Technically she had no claim to the
  throne
 Because of her incredible intelligence and
  the fact that most people who opposed
  her disappeared, she quickly established
  herself as a worthy ruler
 She was a serious drinker and is said to
  have had several intimate male friends
 Catherine was the first ruler of Russia
  to actively oppose the church
         History of the Czar
 She was given the title “Great” mostly
  because of her ideals on the
  enlightenment, and her suppression of
  an uprising in Poland
 She dies in 1796, considered on of the
  greatest rulers of Russia
 Her son Paul was crowned Paul I in 1797
         History of the Czar
 Paul was not a well-liked person from
  early in his life and he did not care
 He set about to change everything about
  Russia including several ideas handed
  down by Peter the Great
 This was a mistake and he was killed by
  his own guards in 1801
 Alexander I, his son, took over next
         History of the Czar
 Alexander returned Russia to its place as
  it was before his father was Czar
 He was the first Czar to understand that
  his power rested solely on his support in
  the military
 Alex I introduced modest changes during
  his reign
 The most impressive was his appointment
  of cabinet offices
          History of the Czar
 At first there were eight: war, navy,
  foreign affairs, justice, interior, finance,
  commerce, and education
 Alex I appointed one man to head each of
  these cabinets, answerable to him
 He also enacted a new school system and
  built more universities
           History of the Czar
 The basic form of Russian government and
  later Soviet government were designed by
  Alex I
 Alex did much for domestic Russia, but he
  ignored the world around him
 During Alex’s reign a new emperor had
  risen in France
 Napoleon Bonaparte was the most
  intelligent, yet erratic military mind of his
  time
         History of the Czar
 He quickly spread his empire across
  Europe and in 1812 invaded Russia
 Napoleon’s strategy and superior
  numbers enabled him to quickly move all
  the way to Moscow
 He occupied the city and set it on fire
 Alex I, refusing to surrender willed his
  troops to hold out until winter
         History of the Czar
 Because of the cold and snow, Napoleon
  could not maintain his supply lines and
  was forced to retreat back to France in
  1813
 Napoleon lost over a million men
  Napoleon, finally defeated, was forced to
  make peace with what would become
  known as the Quadruple Alliance:
  Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain
         History of the Czar
 Alex I died in 1825, and his son Nicholas
  I became Czar
 Nicholas I had a remarkable foresight
  and soon realized that a major war was
  brewing in Europe
 He felt that he must ally himself with the
  Ottoman Empire if he was to survive
          History of the Czar
 It is interesting to note that the war he
  described in his writings was to occur
  almost 100 years later (World War I)
 During Nicholas I reign, the first vestiges of
  industrialization began to seep their way
  into Russia
 The first St. Petersburg to Moscow
  railroad opened in 1851
         History of the Czar
Nicholas I died in 1855 after a short
 illness
 His son, Alexander II became Czar
 Alexander II became known as the
 “liberator Czar” because in 1861, he
 ordered all serfs freed
         History of the Czar
 Taking the lead of the American
  President Lincoln, he believed that a
  happy working class was the key to
  prosperity
 He was very much against this type of
  slavery, and even survived attempts on
  his life after he freed the serfs
 Between 1864-1865 many social reforms
  were instituted by Alex II, mostly geared
  at the newly freed serfs
         History of the Czar
 Alex II died in 1881 and his second son
  becomes Alexander III
 The reign of Alexander III is completely
  marked by revolutionary uprisings
 Because his father had freed the slaves,
  Alex III became the scapegoat for all the
  economic problems that became a result
         History of the Czar
 Since the serfs were now free, they
  needed education which Alex III paid for
  by cutting benefits for other needy [parts
  of society, especially the workers
 The workers began to follow the words of
  a German named Karl Marx, who had
  written a book called the Communist
  Manifesto
 Marx advocated that the workers should
  rise up and start a revolution against the
  owners of business and industry
KARL MARX
         History of the Czar
 Russian workers believed this and in
  small numbers began to revolt against the
  Czar
 Alexander III crushed the rebellion
 Many workers were tried and hanged
 The Marxists as they became known
  began to spread throughout the empire;
  secretly at first, but later in larger and
  louder voice
         History of the Czar
 Alex III’s destruction of the rebellion
  further angered the working class, but his
  death in 1894 brought his son Nicholas II
  to power
 The workers were quieted, for a while
 Nicholas II was much like his father but
  lacked strength of character
 He believed the empire would return to
  the old ways if just left alone
         History of the Czar
 Because he did advocate rapid
  industrialization, work days were
  lengthened, pay was decreased, and the
  workers became even more angry
 Realizing what he had done, he shortened
  the workday to 11.5 hours
 Still unhappy, the workers began to follow
  the ideas of Marx and by 1898, most
  university students were following Marx
          History of the Czar
 In 1905, the first in a series of revolutions
  was to happen
 Nicholas I ordered the protesters shot
 This massacre became known as
  “Bloody Sunday”
 Protests and riots continued to spread
  until Nicholas was forced to allow the
  people some form of constitutional
  government
Nicholas II
         History of the Czar
 A Duma, or Congress was elected in that
  year and began to provide representation
  for the people
 Officials were elected, but the Czar
  always had the overriding power of veto
 Three Dumas were elected, right until
  1914, the beginning of World War I
 It was a heavy drain on Nicholas II
         History of the Czar
 Spending all his time on the war effort,
  he neglected the situation at home
 His wife and Rasputin, made many
  decisions that angered the people
 When Nicholas returned he was blamed
 By 1916 the people of Russia had had
  enough
 Nicholas was forced to abdicate his
  throne in favor of his brother Mikhail
         History of the Czar
 Mikhail refused and the reign of the Czar
  was over
 Between the year 1916 and 1919, several
  groups would attempt to gain power in
  the Russian Empire
 A group known as the Bolsheviks would
  eventually come to power
 Between the year 1916 and 1919, several
  groups would attempt to gain power in
  the Russian Empire
           History of the Czar
 A group known as the Bolsheviks would
  eventually come to power
 The Bolsheviks were a group of Marxists led
  by Vladimir Ilich Lenin
 Lenin was a great writer and philosopher
  that eventually would rule all of Russia
 The Bolsheviks were able to overthrow the
  Provisional Government of Russia in 1917
  and began to win the support of the military
The Soviet Era
         History of the Czar
 Lenin advocated a country that was run
  by the people
 He believed that the workers were
  oppressed by the czar and that it was
  important to the future of the people that
  all monarchical power be returned to the
  people
 This type of democracy advocated by
  Lenin quickly began to disappear
         History of the Czar
  Lenin simply could not win the
  revolution without absolute control of the
  Bolsheviks
 He took power for himself and
  eventually became the first President of
  the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
     RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 The Russian Revolution of 1917 – 1919
  began as a unified movement aimed at
  simply overthrowing the monarchial
  regime of Czar Nicholas II
 It grew into a vast struggle for power
 A struggle between several factions with
  the faction that was able to secure the
  support of the Russian military winning
  control of the government
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the
  Bolsheviks
 He was an incredibly popular person in
  Russia, having escaped the Czar and living
  in the West for several years before he
  returned to Moscow in 1917
 Lenin was able to gain the support of some
  of the most popular Marxists in Russia
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
  Josef Stalin, Leon Trotsky and
  Aleksandr Kerensky became his main
  leaders and supporters
 These men were able to persuade the
  military to withdraw from World War I
  and concentrate their efforts on
  maintaining order at home
 With Lenin’s and Trotsky’s advanced
  speaking skills they were very successful
  in motivating the people to their cause
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 The Bolsheviks were also very organized
 Their people were everywhere and the
  other factions trying for control were not
  well organized
 By late 1922, the Bolsheviks had
  organized the Marxists of Ukraine,
  Belarus, and Transcaucasia to form a
  “socialist republic” with Russia
 The Soviet Union had arrived
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 In 1923, Lenin began to travel all over
  the former Russian Empire trying to seek
  support from the old guards of the Czar
 He was unsuccessful
 These old leaders were much more
  willing to keep control for themselves
  than allow Lenin to command
 Lenin ordered Trotsky, who had become
  the leader of the military, now called the
  Red Army, to send in troops to these
  areas as a show of strength
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Eventually, all former empire lands were
  returned to Lenin, with the notable
  exception of the Baltic States
 From 1921 to 1924, the economy of the
  Soviet Union was in shambles
 The mismanagement of the Czars and the
  civil war left the ruble, the USSR’s main
  currency, practically valueless
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Lenin was unable really to do anything
  about this and most of the country
  headed for famine
 When Lenin died in 1924, many believed
  that the USSR was doomed to die with
  him
 From 1924-1928, a vast power struggle
  between Stalin Trotsky, and Kerensky
  took place
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Stalin, being the more vicious of the three
  immediately began to form alliances with
  people throughout the new cominterm
 The cominterm was a new Congress to
  replace the Duma (eventually it would be
  called the Politburo)
 Kerensky was taken care of because of
  his own erratic behavior in the military
 Trotsky, however, had his own political
  aspirations and had followers of his own
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Trotsky began to organize the people to
  his cause to keep the USSR from Stalin
 Stalin was able to have him exiled from
  the country
 Trotsky moved to Mexico where Stalin
  had him killed in 1940
 Stalin became the outright dictator of
  the Soviet Union
 He moved away from Lenin’s policies
  and began to institute his own
Joseph Stalin/Man of Steel
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Lenin believed in more democracy and less
  government. Stalin believed in death for
  who opposed him
 In 1928, Stalin completely changed the
  course of the Soviet Union that Lenin had
  set
 He forced “Collectivation” on the farmers
  and peasants
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 A collective farm is an incredibly large farm
  owned by the government that the peasants
  were “allowed” to live on and work
 Those who refused were killed
 The farmers very quickly realized that to
  oppose Stalin in any way meant exile or death
 Stalin also began a massive industrialization
  campaign
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Industry was given a quota system
 They were required to reach production
  targets of military and popular good
  regardless of the cost
 Many people worked 12-15 hour days to
  keep up with these quotas
 Finally, convinced that the factory
  owners were too concerned about
  themselves to manage effectively, he
  ordered his own people to take over
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 By 1933, all industry was being run by
  the state
 The people were mistreated and
  overworked for little reward
 Of course, they could have stopped
  working and be murdered by the officials
  of a newly formed organization, the KGB
 The KGB became the eyes, ears, and
  enforcer of all of Stalin’s policies
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 After forming the KGB, Stalin began to
  realize that many of his own generals and
  officials believed that he had betrayed
  Lenin, and were conspiring to have him
  removed from power
 Stalin immediately ordered the KGB to
  begin mass executions of certain high
  ranking officials and the exile of others
 The period from 1933-1937 became
  known as the “Great Purge"
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Stalin had economic plans known as “five
  year plans"
 These five year plans specified the quotas
  that all industry was to meet and even
  told the factories what to make
 The first from 1924-1928 concentrated
  mostly on agriculture, but the second
  from 1928-1932 concentrated almost
  completely on industry
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Stalin had been very wary of a new
  German military resurgence and the
  third five years from 1933-1937
  converted Soviet factories to the creation
  of military hardware
 After hearing from his agents in
  Germany that Hitler had almost
  completely re-armed, Stalin even
  quickened his pace
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 He knew though that he was not
  prepared to fight the Germans and
  decided to offer them a deal
 Stalin and Hitler hated each other, but
  respected each others military might.
  They signed a treaty called the “Non-
  Aggression Pact of 1939”
 This treaty stated that they would never
  go to war against each other and that
  they would divide Poland and the Baltic
  States between them
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland
 The world panicked as Britain and France
  declared war on Hitler, starting World War II
 Stalin very quietly moved in and took the
  Baltic States and half of Poland
 The world did not even realize what Stalin
  had done until months later
The Big Three-Churchill,
   Roosevelt & Stalin
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR

 They quickly let him off the hook when
  he explained that he was only
  “protecting” these people from the
  Germans
 He proved himself justified in June of
  1941, when Hitler broke their agreement
  and invaded the Soviet Union
 Hitler easily crushed the Red Army
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 By October of 1941, the German armies
  had Moscow and Leningrad (formerly St.
  Petersburg, and named after Vladimir
  Lenin) surrounded
 The Soviets were caught off guard by the
  technological superiority of the Germans
 Hitler, however, was a poor history
  student
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 He failed to learn Napoleon Bonaparte’s
  lesson of over one hundred winters
  before (1812-14) when he was forced to
  retreat to France in the middle of the
  Russian winter
 The German armies, outfitted in only
  summer clothing, were caught in the
  open when winter hit
 It was a simple matter for the Soviets to
  cut their supply lines
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Hitler lost over one million troops and
  this became a major turning point in the
  war
 With the American entry in the war in
  1941 the tide changed
 Germany was in retreat on all fronts
 The USSR quickly took back all Soviet
  land and began to push its way into
  Eastern Europe
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 With the Americans and the British
  pushing the Germans back in the West it
  was only a matter of time before Hitler
  surrendered
 Stalin’s new military now occupied all of
  the Baltic States, Poland, East Germany
  (including the capital, Berlin),
  Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and
  Bulgaria
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 A post-war agreement with the US and
  Britain at Yalta guaranteed that the
  Soviets would withdraw from these
  countries when stable governments
  existed there
 Stalin installed “stable” governments in
  these countries that were Communist and
  answered to him
 Soviet troops never withdrew from these
  countries
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 The Iron Curtain and the Cold War were
  beginning in 1945
 American President Roosevelt had kept
  Stalin in the dark as to America’s nuclear
  bomb program
 Stalin was stunned with the Americans
  dropped two atomic bombs on Japan to
  end the war
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Stalin ordered his people to search
  Hitler’s archives for any research in
  nuclear physics that would allow the
  USSR to develop its own bomb
 Scientists and politicians in Moscow,
  tired of war again, began to oppose Stalin
 He again began a pure to get rid of these
  people
     RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 But Stalin had learned a great deal about
  how to motivate people since his purges of the
  1930’s and he found a better way to gain his
  people’s support
 Instead of simply killing these people, Stalin
  bean to round up entire families
 He would send some to exile to Siberia where
  they would work in coal and mineral mines,
  and would send others to industrial cities
  where they could work on his weapons
  programs
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 These people were told that if they ever
  wanted to see their families again they
  would do exactly what they were told
 People who were of little value to Stalin
  were systematically killed
 It is estimated that 30 million people died
  on Stalin’s orders between 1924-1953
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Stalin spent the rest of his life in fear that
  old rivals were attempting to remove him
  from power
 He continued his purges and killing right
  up to his death in 1953
 Stalin was so powerful in the USSR that
  no one would dare oppose him when he
  was alive
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 After his death, many in the USSR talked
  of returning to Lenin’s original ideals
  and introducing more freedom to the
  people of the country
 A man who was very influential in the
  Politburo was able to take power after
  Stalin died
 He promised reforms to the Communists,
  but quickly went back on these promises
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 He began to create the most powerful
  military the world had ever known
 His name was Nikita Khrushchev
 Khrushchev began to devote incredible
  amounts of money and resources to both
  space and military matters
 In 1959, the USSR shocked the world by
  placing the first artificial satellite in orbit
  around the earth
Nikita Khrushchev
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
  It was called Sputnik
 This was a tremendous boost to the
  morale of the Russian people, but it was
  also a warning
 The USSR was now capable of not only
  placing satellites in orbit, but they could
  do the same with nuclear weapons
 Khrushchev continued his buildup until a
  Soviet Cosmonaut was launched into
  space
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Russia became the first country to be
  able to put a human into orbit and return
  him safely to earth
 His name was Yuri Gagarin
 Khrushchev’s military became so
  powerful that by 1960, the USSR had
  made tanks, planes, nuclear weapons,
  submarines, and aircraft carriers than
  the United States
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 He then invaded Hungary, Czechoslovakia,
  Bulgaria, and began to p lace nuclear
  weapons in these countries
 Fearing a Soviet takeover, the people of
  East Germany began to leave their country
  for freedom in the West
 In one week over 100,000 people fled
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Khrushchev ordered the border sealed,
  and began to construct a wall that would
  become the symbol of oppression to the
  world
 By 1962, the Berlin Wall completely
  encircled the city of Berlin
 President Kennedy started what became
  known as the Berlin airlift to ensure that
  the Soviets could not take over the rest of
  the city
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 At the same time Khrushchev secretly
  began to put nuclear missiles in the
  country of Cuba
 Cuba is located 90 miles from the United
  States
 If Khrushchev could get these missile
  sites operational, he could launch an
  attack against the United States with no
  warning what-so-ever
   The Cuban Missile Crisis

 Lenin
 Stalin
 Khrushchev
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
  Khrushchev did not know however, that
  the United States knew of his plans in
  Cuba after a “U-2” spy plane took
  overhead pictures of the missile sites
 President Kennedy called for the massing
  of over one million troops in Europe to
  prepare for war with the USSR
 Kennedy moved aircraft carriers, tanks,
  and destroyers close to Soviet territory
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Kennedy stunned the world by
  announcing on national public television
  and told Khrushchev in private that he
  had 24 hours to remove the missiles from
  Cuba or the United States might launch a
  full scale nuclear strike against the USSR
 No one had ever made this threat before
  and Khrushchev made the public
  statement, “. . . we will crush you.”
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Kennedy did not back down however, and
  refused to extend the deadline he gave
  Khrushchev
 Faced with nuclear oblivion, Khrushchev
  removed the missiles from Cuba with only
  hours to spare
 What was not publicized was than the U.S. had
  agreed to remove their missiles from Turkey
  that could reach the USSR
 Khrushchev was publicly humiliated
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Many in the Politburo called for him to
  resign is office
 He refused and was forcibly removed
  from power and committed to what
  became known as “internal exile”
 Because of the large amounts of money
  spent in Khrushchev’s arms and space
  race, the USSR was once again faced with
  massive unemployment and debt
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 A new leader came on the scene who, just
  as Khrushchev before him, began to
  promise massive reforms
 This leader, however, kept his word
 His name was Leonid Brezhnev
 Leonid Brezhnev had been a Politburo
  member since the time of Stalin
 He had fought in World War II, was
  wounded and decorated
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
  In 1964, he began a series of reforms
  that greatly improved the working
  conditions of his people
 He signed nuclear arms reduction
  treaties with the USA and allowed the
  conquered countries of Europe more
  freedom
 He even allowed a joint Soviet/American
  space flight in 1975
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 He was the most liked ruler since Lenin
 The only problem was that now that the
  people had enjoyed so much freedom,
  they only wanted more
 Brezhnev died in 1982 after ruling
  peaceablyly for almost 20 years
 After Brezhnev a series of rulers tried for
  power in the USSR
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Each was unacceptable to the Politburo
  and was quickly removed from power
 Finally, a moderate named Mikhail
  Gorbachev came to office in 1985
 Many people thought Gorbachev would
  turn around what had become a serious
  economic problem as once again, the
  USSR faltered under its own weight
Mikhail Gorbachev: Last
 President of the USSR
     Mikhail Gorbachev Becomes
       Leader of USSR (1985)
   Gorbachev Inherits a country plagued by
    economic and political problems
   He institutes glasnost- Democratic openness
    policy
   Institutes perestroika- Economic reform &
    restructuring policy
   Over time, Gorbachev’s efforts could not keep
    the Soviet Union together
   The Soviet Union’s government will collapse
    and fall in August of 1991 never to exist again
    as a nation
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 People were nearing revolution, as many
  of them would prefer death to continued
  life in the so-called Communist system
 Massive protests ensued as Gorbachev
  would give more and more freedom to
  the people
 The Politburo became very afraid of
  losing power and in 1990 attempted to
  remove Gorbachev from office and
  replace him with someone who would
  keep the people in line
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 When news of this reached the masses,
  millions of people hit the streets
  demanding that Gorbachev be returned
  to power
 The Politburo told the people that
  Gorbachev was very ill and was near
  death
 This was of course untrue and the people
  knew it
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Finally, Boris Yeltsin, a Politburo member
  and democrat, asked the military to
  support Gorbachev and his reform efforts
 The military agreed to this and quickly
  returned Gorbachev to power in Moscow
 So grateful for his freedom, Gorbachev
  allowed the Baltic States and Georgia to
  succeed from the USSR
 Yeltsin then took control of the republic
  called Russia and the Soviet Union was no
  more
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 Yeltsin invited the fifteen former Soviet
  republics to join Russia in creating a
  Commonwealth of Independent States
  (CIS) modeled after the America’s
  “states” system
 Each republic would be completely
  independent, but would merge in
  economical and social matters
 Eleven of them agreed as of January 1,
  1992
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 The other four, Georgia, Lithuania,
  Estonia, and Latvia negotiated at a later
  date for entrance into the CIS, and did
  eventually join the CIS
 One republic has stated a desire to return
  to its ethnic homeland, this republic is
  called Moldova
    RUSSIAN REVOLUTION/USSR
 In August 1991, Moldova declared its
  independence
 In December of that year became a member
  of the post-Soviet Commonwealth of
  Independent States
 In 1992 the country achieved formal
  recognition as an independent state at the
  United Nations
Fall of the Soviet Union, August, 1991
   After the Communist Party of the Soviet Union broke
     up and disbanded in 1991, the Soviet Union
    fell as a country and ceased to exist
    Each republic became totally independent countries
   They decided that it would be to their advantage as
    independent countries to create an organization
    whereby
    they could help each other as new nations in the areas
    of trade, security and other things.
   This organization became known as the CIS.
             What is the CIS?
 The Commonwealth of Independent States
  (CIS) is an alliance of 12 of the 15 former
  Republics of the Soviet Union (Armenia,
  Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
  Kyrgyzstan, Moldava, Russia, Tajikistan,
  Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).
 The headquarters of the organization is in
  Minsk, Belarus.
 The three non-members are Estonia, Latvia,
  and Lithuania.
 The Commonwealth of
Independent States/ 1991
       European Republics

 Russia-Moscow
 Lithuania-Vilnius
 Estonia-Tallin
 Latvia-Riga
 Ukraine-Kiev
 Belarus-Minsk
 Moldova-Chisinau
  Republics of the Caucasus

Armenia-Yerevan
Georgia-Tbilisi
Azerbaijan-Baku
 Central Asian Republics
Kazakhstan-Alma  Ata
Kyrgyzstan-Bishkek
Turkmenistan-Ashkhabad
Uzbekistan-Tashkent
Tajikistan-Dushanbe

				
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