MEAT INSPECTION by cuiliqing

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									          MEAT INSPECTION

    A service performed by federal and state
    governments to insure the cleanliness and
    wholesomeness of meat moving in the
    interstate or intrastate commerce. Meat
    inspection eliminates meat considered to be
    UNSOUND, UNHEALTHFUL,
    UNWHOLESOME, or UNFIT for human
    consumption from the meat supply.
    MEAT INSPECTION IS
      DESIGNED TO
 1. PROTECT THE CONSUMER
 2. GIVE OFFICIAL ASSURANCE OF
  WHOLESOMENESS AND PROPER
  LABELING
 3. DETECT AND LOCATE
  COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
     THE FIVE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF
               FEDERAL
        MEAT INSPECTION ARE:
   1. DETECTION AND DESTRUCTION OF
    DISEASED MEAT
   2. ASSURANCE OF CLEAN AND
    SANITARY HANDLING AND PREPARATION
   3. PREVENTION OF ADULTERATION
    (THE ADDITION OF HARMFUL
    SUBSTANCES OR PRODUCTS
    CONSIDERED IMPROPER IN CERTAIN
    SPECIFIED QUANTITIES)
   4. PREVENTION OF FALSE LABELING
   5. APPLICATION OF THE INSPECTION
    STAMP
FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION CONSISTS OF
   SEVEN AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY.

   The biggest problem in meat inspection is
    operational sanitation. Correspondingly,
    there are two functions of meat inspection
    that are continuous:
   A. Continuous inspection patrol to assure
    maintenance of sanitary premises and
    practices.
   B. Re-inspection privilege to detect
    unacceptable products at any stage of
    preparation or storage.

    The specific areas of responsibility are:
1. FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION AND
OPERATIONAL SANITATION

 A. Building Plans
 B. Specifications for Operational
  Sanitation
 C. Design, Equipment, and Operation
  of Slaughter Facilities and Facilities for
  Processing Edible Product
    2.   ANTEMORTEM INSPECTION

   M.P.I.P. regulations require that all
    animals entering an inspected plant be
    inspected both while they are in motion
    and also at rest. If they have an
    abnormal temperature or display other
    symptoms of disease which would
    render their meat unfit for food, such
    animals are marked with a "U.S.
    Condemned" tag which assures their
    elimination for food purposes.
  Some examples of types of animals or
   symptoms which require that they be
 identified as "U.S. Condemned" include:
 1. Dead or Dying
 2. Comatose Condition
 3. Temperatures over 105 degrees F.
  (106 degrees F. for swine)
 4. Eminent Parturition
 5. Animals with obvious diseases
  symptoms such as Anthrax, Rabies,
  Tetanus, Cholera. Epithelioma, and
  Foot and Mouth Disease
      Some examples of types of animals or symptoms which
      require that they be identified as "U.S. Suspect" and
      thus be held for detailed inspection during the
      postmortem inspection are:

•1.     Seriously Crippled
•2.      "Downers"
•3.      Reactors to Tuberculin Test
•4.      Minor Epithelioma (cancer eye)
•5.      Minor Anasarca (brisket edema)
•6.      Minor Swine Erysipelas
•7.   Vesicular Exanthema (blisters on the lips, tongue,
and feet)
•8.      Immature (baby veal)
    3.     POSTMORTEM INSPECTION

Examples of reasons whole carcasses are
  condemned:

   1.    Hog Cholera
   2.    Anthrax
   3.    Rabies
   4.    Extreme Emaciation
   5.    Pneumonia
   6.    Uremic Poisoning
   7.    Epithelioma
   8.    Peritonitis
   9.    Septicemia
   10.   Abscesses
   11.   Arthritis
 Primary causes for parts of
carcasses being condemned:
 1.   Contamination
 2.   Abscesses
 3.   Arthritis
 4.   Injuries and Bruises
4. PRODUCT INSPECTION
   Federal meat inspection extends also to the
    processing departments of a meat packing
    plant. There, it is essential for the inspectors
    to be fully informed on the details of all
    manufacturing processes, to make sure they
    are carried out under sanitary conditions and
    to guard against the use of any harmful
    substances in the formulation of a product.
    All formulas used in processing products are
    filed with the M.P.I.P., and no deviations are
    permitted.

         5. LABORATORY
         DETERMINATIONS
   Meat inspection regulations are specific
    concerning the spices, coloring matter,
    cereals and other additives that may be used
    in the manufacture of meat products.
    Samples of all spices, condiments, coloring
    agents and similar substances must be
    submitted to a certified laboratory to make
    chemical and other technical determinations.
   The following tests represent examples of the
    kinds of analysis required for frankfurters
    under federal meat inspection regulations:
 1.   Fat Analysis
 2.   Moisture Analysis
 3.   Curing Agents-Nitrate Analysis
 4.   Phosphate Analysis
 5.   Binders-Soy Protein Isolate Analysis
 6.   Meat From Other Species
 7.   Drug, Biologic, or Pesticide Residue
       6. CONTROL AND
        RESTRICTION OF
     CONDEMNED PRODUCTS
   All materials, parts, portions, organs, or
    glands that are condemned must be treated
    in a manner to insure that they do not
    become a part of the domestic meat supply.
    Such meats must be held under lock and key
    or in a suitably marked container and
    disposed of by one of the following methods:
   1. Rendering for edible fats, greases or oils
    (rendered)
   2. Made into animal feed of fertilizer (tanked)
   3. Incinerated

    4. Chemically denatured with one of several
    agents including kerosene, diesel oil, FD&C
    No.3 green coloring or carbonic acid
   5. Held in a -10 degrees cooler for 5 days
    and sold for animal feed ie: Mink Farms
 7. MARKING, LABELING,
AND INSPECTION INSIGNIA
   Definite provisions control the use of brands and
    labels applied to meats and containers holding
    meats. For example, the circular stamp carrying the
    legend "U.S. Inspected and Passes" must also have
    a number on it to identify the official establishment.
   Green, yellow, or red ink made from harmless
    vegetable coloring compounds are used for branding
    fresh meats. Brands come in various sizes for
    different kinds of meat. In the case of labels on
    prepared meat products, the M.P.I.P. insists that they
    be submitted for approval before use. The labels
    must contain:
          (LABELING LAWS)
   1. The Common or Usual Name of the
    Product
   2. The Inspection Legend
   3. The Establishment Number, Name, and
    Address of the Processor or Distributor
   4. Correct Statement of Quantity as Net
    Weight
   5. For Sausage and Canned Meats, A
    Statement of the Ingredients Used, Listed in
    Descending Order of Their Predominance
     Pathogen Reduction and Hazard
    Analysis and Critical Control Point
            (HACCP) Systems

   On July 25th, 1996, USDA announced the Pathogen Reduction and Hazard
    Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems final rule. This rule
    calls for:
   Mandatory HACCP systems
   Microbiological testing (generic E. coli and Salmonella)
   Sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs)

   HACCP was developed by food microbiologists; however, it is not limited to
    controlling microbiology safety. It can be used to control the full range of
    physical, chemical and biological factors that affect the safety of a food
    product. HACCP is a preventative system in which safety is designed into the
    food formulation and the production process.
   HACCP includes the following seven principles (National Advisory
    Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 1998. Hazard Analysis and
    Critical Control Point Principles and Application Guidelines. Journal of Food
    Protection, 61:1246-1259).
Principle 1. Conduct a hazard
           analysis.

– The hazards -- physical, chemical and
  biological -- associated with the production,
  distribution, sale and consumption of a product
  are determined, and the relative risks and
  consequences of each hazard are assessed.
  Principle 2. Determine the
critical control points (CCPs).

 – A point, step or procedure where control can be
   applied to prevent, eliminate or reduce to
   acceptable level a food safety hazard.
Principle 3. Establish critical
            limits.
– A maximum and/or minimum value to which a
  biological, chemical or physical parameter must
  be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate, or
  reduce to acceptable level teh occurrence of a
  food safety hazard.
Principle 4. Establish monitoring
           procedures.

 – A planned sequence of observations or
   measurements to assess where a CCP is under
   control and to produce an accurate record for
   future use in verification.
     Principle 5. Establish
      corrective actions.

– Contingency plans that detail the protocols that
  must by followed when a CCP is found out of
  control should include step to bring the CCP
  under control and the recommended disposition
  of any product manufactured while the CCP
  was out of control.
     Principle 6. Establish
    verification procedures.

– Those activities, other than monitoring, that
  determine the validity of the HACCP plan adn
  that the system is operating according to the
  plan.
Principle 7. Establish Record-
 keeping and documentation
         procedures.

– Records include the hazard analysis, including
  the rationale for determining hazards and
  control measures, the HACCP plan, and
  monitoring and corrective action activities.
       Inspection vs. Grading
MEAT INSPECTION IS ENTIRELY
 UNRELATED TO AND SHOULD NEVER BE
 CONFUSED WITH MEAT GRADING. The
 grading program is simply a process of
 subdividing highly variable products into
 uniform or standardized quality groups. Meat
 grading is a marketing tool while meat
 inspection eliminates unfit meat from the
 meat supply.
         Inspection vs. Grading
   MEAT GRADERS VS. MEAT INSPECTORS

   Grading - Voluntary, paid for by user.

   Inspection - Involuntary, paid for by the
    government, supported in part by taxes.

   Both are under the U.S.D.A., but have two
    separate purposes.
         Inspection vs. Grading
       INSPECTION INSIGNIA
   A circular purple stamp on a cut of meat
    bearing the legend "U.S. Inspected and
    Passed" serves as a guarantee of
    wholesomeness, and is backed by the Meat
    and Poultry Inspection Program (M.P.I.P.) of
    the Animal and Plant Health Inspection
    Service. The stamp appears on all meat
    products which move in interstate and foreign
    commerce.

             KOSHER - The Meaning of the Term
    The word "kosher' is one of Judaism's contributions to the
 international vocabulary. People of other cultures and languages
use the term in its original meaning-denoting that which is proper
             and meets accepted rules and standards.

								
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