Unit II Middle Ages 400-1400 “Middle Ages” “Dark Ages”

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Unit II Middle Ages 400-1400 “Middle Ages” “Dark Ages” Powered By Docstoc
					Unit II Middle Ages 400-1400 “Middle                         intellectual curiosity
Ages” “Dark Ages”                                            about the world evolved
                                                             into modern science.
      Christianity official cult of dying        Technological advances tools
       empire-faith of the barbarians-               mechanisms that extended
       inherited remains                             humanities power over nature-
      Byzantium-Eastern remnant of                  extended manufacturing.
       Christianized Roman Empire                 Churches disapproval of slave
       maintained sovereignty-the west               labor.
       disintegrated.                                    o Craftsman of free trade
      Contesting barbarian kingdoms                         and guilds were
           o Franks                                          established-foundation of
           o Burgundians                                     medieval urban economy,
           o Visigoths                                       and industry.
           o Anglo-Saxons                    Florence – mother city of the modern
           o Lombard’s                       world – established itself early and by
           o And others                      the 15th century had the means to lead
      Misconception – artwork of the        Europe into the undiscovered country of
       middle ages was not crude or          the Renaissance
           o Instead the look is             Chapter 16 Early Medieval Art
                 attributed to necessary        Waves of migrant people
                 convention and                    previously discussed as
                 convenience.                      Acheaeans, Dorians, Mycenaeans
      Medieval art characterized by the           and Gauls.
       interrelationship of Greco-                    o 3rd Century-Invaded Asia
       Roman culture and Christianity.                    Minor-defeated by
      New energetic spirit of Celtic-                    Attalus I of Pergamon
       Germanic people                                o 2nd Century- Goths
      13th century or 1200’s Church at                   migrated southward from
       height of its power-monopoly on                    Baltic region to north
       education                                          shore of Baltic Sea-
           o Latin language, Roman                        Scythians, Sarmatians-
                 Law, Roman                               met and defeated the
                 administrative practice,                 Vandals on their march-
             th
       By 13 century-questions about                      pushed them into central
       the physical world came into                       Europe-Vandal Kingdom
       play. Salvation irreverence.                       in N. Africa
           o Summation of Medieval                    o Goths-Ostrogoth’s
                 knowledge- Speculum                      (eastern) Sarmatia,
                 Majus (Great Mirror),                    Visigoths (western)
                 Vincent of Beauvais,                     Danube River
                 Dominican monk,                      o Romans held off the
                 “Mirror of Nature”                       Barbarians for much of
           o Did not answer the                           the time-but the Huns
                 questions, a secular and                 from the East pressed in.
          o 376 Roman Emperor                     then became what we know as
            Valens allowed the                    France.
            Visigoths to settle west of          Accounts of barbarian character
            the Danube. Maltreated                vary, some say they were
            by the Romans the                     moraled and ethical, other accuse
            Visigoths revolted-killed             them of debauchery. We look to
            the emperor. After this-              the Germanic heroes like
            Rome offered very little              Beowulf, and Siegfried, the
            resistance.                           struggle against pagan world of
                                                  dreadful monsters. Joy in battle
The Migration Period                              alternates bragging and
    Migrants were seldom allowed to              carousing.
      settle too long in any one area            Imagination of these peoples
    Visigoths pushed into and out of             teamed with fantastic creatures of
      France pushed into Spain-then               all sorts. Zoomorphic, demonic
      pressure of Franks pushed them              creatures, Dragons, Siegfried’s
      into Northern France.                       Fafnir, and Beowulf’s Grendel
    Huns reached France and Italy in             symbolize the mysterious and
      mid 5th century, but Death of               threatening universe of fierce
      Attila in 453 prevented further             forces, that the Medieval world
      success.                                    will picture as Hell.
    Ostrogoth’s moved into Pannonia             People remained more than half
      (Hungary, Austria, and                      pagan- no surprise that the
      Yugoslavia) then to Italy under             Germanic people readily adopted
      Theodoric established a                     an art form, that although
      Kingdom and fell later to the               foreign, was ideally suited to
      Lombards.                                   imagination, the Eastern Animal
                                                  Style already encountered in
      Fear and uncertainty in the                Mesopotamia.
      Popes succeeded the Roman           Scythian Antecedents: The Animal
       Emperors                            style
      At this time most of the                 Generic term- artifacts worn by
       Barbarian tribes entering Europe           nomadic people
       were already Christian but of the             o Originated in pre-historic
       Arian creed condemned heretical                  times- Egypt,
       by the Orthodox Church.                          Mesopotamia, Luristan
                                                        Bronzes (ch.2) Style
      Papal Rome was strengthened                      transference was a result
       when the Frankish King Clovis                    of trade transactions in
       (481-511) was converted to                       the Mediterranean
       Catholicism.                                  o Wide spread steady
      Franks Gained control over                       propagation result of it
       Burgundians in and around Lake                   being found on small
       Geneva, and the Visigoths which                  metal objects that were
                                                        worn or carried
      Great revolution in metallurgy
       that replaced the Bronze age with     Art of the Germanic People
       the Iron age after 1000 B.C.              Originally abstract, decorative,
       created a means of fashioning                 and geometric, ignored the world
       metal jewelry and objects in                  of organic nature. Bracelets,
       abundance                                     buckles, pendants, weapons, or
      Scythians (Iranian-speaking                   items of personal adornment
       nomadic people) responsible for           Most characteristic- Fibula,
       the wide distribution of the styled           decorative pin used to fasten
       artifacts.                                    garments.
      Remains from tombs of Scythian
       kings are scattered through           Fig 16-1 Fibulae a b c, bronze, silver, or
       Crimea, Caucasus, and Anatolia,       gold
       and in southern Russia                     Profusely decorated, with inlaid
                                                    precious or semiprecious stone.
Fig 8-1 Pectoral with scenes from                 Horror vacui- common to
Scythian Life, Gold Greek Craft done for            primitive cultures-“fear of empty
Scythians                                           space”
    o 48 figures, mostly animals,                 Decoration becomes are carefully
       soldered to frame, frieze-like, on           adjusted to the basic shape of the
       3 concentric bands                           object shape.
    o Innermost band-Scythians in                 Highly disciplined decorative
       encampment, accompanied by                   style was joined with the animal
       domestic animals. Men make                   style during the early Medieval
       shirt of animal skin, close an               period-Scythians passed it to the
       amphora, and milk sheep. Calves              Gothic overlords in the 3rd
       and foals are suckling, horse                century who were the main
       casually scratches itself with               transmitters of the style.
       hoof. Birds, a kid, and a goat.            Zoomorphic elements became
    o Central band- Classical Greek in              almost completely
       its ornament of rhythmical vine              unrecognizable, due to the
       scrolls, acanthus, and rosettes.             elaborate patterning.
    o Outer band- Figures contrast                The technique is that of small
       sharply with pastoral mood of the            metal strips (cloisons) usually of
       others. Heraldic symmetrical                 gold are soldered to a metal
       griffins attack horses, lions and            backing and stones are place
       panthers tear at deer and boar,              inside the spaces.
       hounds pursue hare, and                    Cloisonné was highly prized and
       grasshoppers challenge each                  handed down from generation to
       other.                                       generation. Also as gifts to and
    o Crisp realism, which later is                 from kings.
       transformed into Zoomorphic
       motifs and become part of the         Fig 16-2 Purse cover from the Sutton
       ornamental vocabulary of the          Hoo ship burial, Suffolk England, Gold
       Germanic people, the Goths and        and Enamel
       their successors.
      Found in 1939, associated with       Fig 8-4 Prow of the Oseberg Ship, early
       the Ship burial of the East          ninth century
       Anglian King Anna, who died in            Oseberg Norway- Viking art now
       654.                                         called Hiberno-Saxon art
      Purse lid- 4 symmetrically                Prow-interlace design, wood
       aligned groups of figures, end               carving, carved bands follow the
       groups are men standing between              graceful curved lines of the hull
       beasts, he faces front-men appear            shiplap. Embroidered look with
       in profile. The arrangement goes             tightly woven animals, lizard or
       back to ancient Mesopotamia                  serpent-like.
      Two center groups represent
       eagles attacking ducks-figures fit   Fig 16-3 Animal-Head post from the
       so snug they appear to be one        Oseberg Ship burial c. 823
       object.                                   Fierce untamed spirit of the
      Geometric designs above- linear,            pagan sea
       inside designs are interlaced with        Joins the concept of untamed
       writhing animal figures.                    roaring beast with the controlled
       Interlacement was known outside             interlace embroidered approach
       the barbarian world but seldom              of the ships carved designs
       used in combination with animals          Firm artistic limit is put into wild
       or figures-related to the fondness          vigor-exemplary of two
       of interlacing leather thongs or            fundamental motifs of barbarian
       shoes.                                      art-animal form and interlace
      The cloisonné style and                     pattern.
       interlacing was so liked that it
       was mimicked in the manuscript       Fig 16-4 Wood-carved ornament (porch
       illuminations, stone sculpture,      of stave church), Umes, Norway 11th
       and masonry of churches and          century
       sculpted wood.                            Interlace pattern culminated in
                                                    the 11th century with designs
Viking Art                                          such as this
    Wood important medium of                    Church itself constructed of
      Vikings                                       wood (staves are wood wedge-
    Viking means “pirate”, pagan                   shaped timbers placed vertically)
      seafaring, Scandinavians-9th to               these give the wood carver
      11th centuries destructively                  special opportunity to show their
      raided the Germanic and Celtic                skill in carving. In this case- the
      settlements of Christian Europe               porch walls.
    Once Christianized-settled down             Graceful attenuated animal forms
      to become Normans (North                      intertwine with flexible stalks
      men)-name given in part for                   and spiraling rhythm- An effect
      Northern France called                        of natural growth and life. Urnes
      Normandy.                                     style is the culmination of 3
                                                    centuries of Viking art – Merges
                                                    with Romanesque in around 11th
                                                    and 12th centuries
                                                    work, and scrolled bands and
Hiberno-Saxon Art                                   ribbons, knots and whorls.
    Two centuries of Viking                  Manuscript Illumination-
      incursion into Celtic Ireland and         o books became important vehicle
      Anglo-Saxon England                           of miniature art
    Christian culture of Ireland-              o vehicle for exchange of style
      important role in civilizing              o vehicle for teaching Christianity
      Barbarian Europe                              and reading
    Celts converted in 5th century
      400’s-developed monastic                Fig 16-6 Ornamental page from the book
      organization                            of Lindesfarne,
          o Preserved literature,             Northumberland,England,7th century
              learning, philosophy, and            Hiberno-Saxon, ornamental
              the decorative useful arts             patterning, tightly compacted
          o Monasticism-person                       design, Serpentine interlacement
              dedicated themselves to                of animals devouring each other
              spiritual life and                   Rhythm of expanding and
              ostracized themselves                  contracting
              from the material world              Inscribed cross-similar to stone
              of temptation. St. Basil in            Celtic crosses in Ireland
              4th century, St. Benedict            Motifs are placed in detailed
              in 6th century.                        symmetries with inversions,
          o Ireland not invaded from                 reversals
              400-850 by the Germanic              Joy of working in small intimate
              Irish monks established                scale
              strong monastic
              establishments in the                 Irish Christianity lost its
              British Isle at Iona,                  influence in Anglo-Saxon
              Lindisfarne, carried over              England
              into Europe and the                   Roman version won out
              Scot’s became known                   Roman orthodoxy and aesthetic
              along with their style.                would then be an influence in the
          o Style denotes synthesis of               manuscripts
              Migration and Nomadic
              cultures with                   Fig 16-9 The scribe Ezra Rewriting the
                                              Sacred Records from the Codex
Fig 8-7 Tara Brooch, Ireland c.700, gold      Amiatinus, Jarrow, 8th century.
filigree and amber settings.                      Copied from an Italian
     o Irish costume jewelry 8th                     manuscript- The Codex of
        century-attention to detail, clasps          Grandior of Cassiodorus
        and fasteners, functional ring and
                                                  The same original must have
        pin-amber and amethyst glass,                been seen earlier and translated
        copper, gold and silver enclose              in the abstract Hiberno-Saxon
        the ornamental motifs, interlaced            maner: St. Matthew from the
        birds, animals, humanoids, strap             book of Lindisfarne
                                                  Style is that of a brush,
      Color is in flat planes and                  Interlace pattern
       blended smoothly                             Some have scenes from the life
      Mediterranean influence                       of Christ or of a Celtic Saint
                                                    Grotesque humanlike forms
Fig 16-8 St. Matthew, from the Book of              Center of this one shows Christ
Lindisfarne, from Northumberland,                    as judge of the world-the hope of
England late 7th century                             neighboring dead

      Hard evenly stressed line,            Carolingian Period
      appear to know nothing of                 Late 8th and 9th Centuries
       illusionistic, pictoral technique,           “Charlemagne’s Revolution”
      abstracting the unfamiliar                   energetic brilliant illumination of
      folds are of sharp lines rather              art, culture, and political ideals of
       than smooth blending                         Christian Rome.
      Hiberno-Saxon style-copying of            Charlemagne, like Constantine,
       books and artwork is related to              wanted a unified Christiandome
       that of transcribing books and            Crowned by Pope in Rome in
       language. Medieval artists didn’t            800 – became the Holy Roman
       look to nature for models.                   Empire which was eventually
      Blasphemous to interpret or                  destroyed by Napoleon in 1806
       change as with individual                 Charlemagne admired learning
       expression devoid of any stylistic           and the Arts
       backing. Images were copied as            Recovery of one of the true text
       diligently as the text, and thought          of the Bible, help of scholar
       to be the truth.                             Alcuin of York @ Monastery at
    High crosses of Ireland erected         Painting and Illuumination
       between 8th and 10th centuries,           Importation of whole libraries
       massive scale not portable. Some          Frankish styles of these books
       17ft high, burial grounds,                   were weak and inept
       monasteries, Celtic Cross
                                             Figure 16-11 Equestrian Statue of
                                             Charlemagne, from Metz, Germany, 5th

                                             Figure 16-12 St. Matthew, from the
Fig 16-10 High Cross of Muiredach at         Coronation Gospels
Monasterboice, Ireland, 923                     c. 800-810
     4 sided shaft of stone,                    Style comes from sculpture and
     Shaft rises from base with                    painting
       sloping sides                             deft illusionistic brushwork
     concave looping arms joined by             good rendering of masses and
       4 arcs that form a circle.                   drapery
     Circle intersected identifies the          Acanthus of frame recalls the
       cross as Celtic                              Pompeian style of wall painting
      Landscape background is                     Vivid animation, bodies tense,
       classicizing, composition is out             shoulders hunched, heads thrust
       of place in the north of the 9th             forward
       century.                                    Simple human emotions,
      Many books in the Carolingian                pantomime skill in execution of
       style came about- prototypes                 gesture is distinctively Medieval-
       with many mistakes were                      Two Musicians shouting at the
       distributed widely                           pumper to keep the air going.
      Classification becomes difficult
       as to where each on came from         Craft Art
                                                 Portable art still popular-no
   Figure 16-13 St. Matthew from the                monumental sculpture or art
   Ebbo Gospels, France 816-135
       Interpretation of prototype          Fig 16-15 Psalm 57, front cover of the
       Classical calm replaced by           Psalter of Charles the Bald, St. Denis,
          frenzied energy, a frail Saint,    France, 865
          hair stands on end.
       Body proportions are                 Fig 16-16 Crucifixtion, front cover,
          forsaken in the artists efforts    Lindau Gospels, 870
          to concentrate on writing
       Tiny angel is dictating- the         Fig 8-15 Codex of Aureus of St.
          saint must copy quickly            Emmeram, Gold set with pearls and
       Native power of expression           stones
          is to become an important               Late 9th century
          characteristic of Late                  Originated with St. Denis or
          Medieval work.                            Reims court of Charles the Bald-
                                                    Grandson of Charlemagne
Lindisfarne artist transformed the Ezra           Inscribed square cross, Christ
portrait from a classicizing manner into            appears in the same context as
Hiberno-Saxon idiom                                 the Apse Mosaic of San Vitale
                                                  Four Evangelists with four
Ebbo artist thus transforms the Classical           scenes of Christ’s life above
prototype into a Carolingian image.                 and below the Saints
                                                  NO interlace pattern
Figure 16-14 Psalm 43 detail of folio 25          Delicate and floral filigree
recto of the Utrecht Psalter, Hautvillers,
France 830                                   Fig 8-16 detail of Paliotto (golden altar)
                                             Master Wolvinus, St. Abrogio, Milan 9th
Figure 8-14 Psalm 150, Utrecht Psalter,      Century, Gold and Silver enamel
France c.830                                      Shaped like a large tomb
    Narrative Illustration                       Designed to house the bones of
    Psalmist says to praise the name               St. Ambrose-bishop of Milan
       of God in song and with timbrel,           Cover divided into cross pattern
       trumpet and organ.                           as before
                                                  Enthroned Christ in middle
      Signs of the Evangelists, and               Charlemagne went to Rome and
       Twelve Apostles-all wrought in               Ravenna for building inspiration
       classicizing figure style of                 visited Ravenna in 789
       Carolingian period                         chose one of its churches as a
      Back panel-life of Ambrose-                  model for the Palatine Chapel of
       donor-Archbishop Angilbert II-               his own palace at Aachen.
       Ambrose places crown on                    Resemblance to San Vitale
       bishops head                               Aachen is simpler-floating
      Designer was of Frankish orgin               quality of San Vitale is gone for
                                                    a stiffened solid geometric form,
Fig 8-17, Mounted Warrior with                      this foreshadows the style which
Captive, detail of gold vessel, Romania,            becomes Romanesque in the 11th
9th century                                         and 12th centuries
      Avars-held off by Charlemagne         Fig 16-19 Lorsch Gatehouse of the
        in conquests                         Lorsche Monastery c. 800
      Migrations of warlike people               Example of Charlemagnes
        across the great grasslands                 dependence on Roman models
      Avars great metalsmiths                    Resemblance to Old St. Peters
      Posed frontally and in profile               Rome- arch and atrium entrance
      Man may be already dead, while             Symbol of Christian triumph
        the other head is of a person also          over paganism
        killed                                    Triple arched gateway-like
      Small scale of victim                        Roman triumphal arches
      Avars influence by those the               Columns do not support a full
        came into contact with not too              entabulature
        original                                  Zig zag ornamental brickwork
      Vessel itself is derived from                and decorative pattern of
        Byzantine and Sassanian (late               hexagons and triangles
        Persian) art.                             Steeply pitched roof shelters a
                                                    chapel dedicated to St. Michael
Architecture                                      Charlemagne chiefly influence
    Charlemagne encouraged revival                 by the late period of the
       of Roman building technique                  Christianized Roman empire
    Germanic people relied on
       forests and wood construction for     Fig 16-20 Plan for a monastery at St.
       their building Timber frame           Gall, Switzerland c 819
       construction                               Learning was the crux of
                                                    Monastic life
Fig 8-18 Illustration of an Iron Age              Christian life should be led in
house, Holland                                      seclusion as far as monks were
Fig 16-17 to 16-18 ODO OF METZ                    Benedictine Rule-vow of
Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne,                     poverty, chastity, obedience,
Aachen,West Germany, 792-805                      Represents the authority of the
                                                    Benedictine rule
      All units balanced crossing             Lateral entrances leading to
       square plan                              aisles
                                               Loss of the basilica style
16-21 Drawing of the monastery church          Crossing squares used as a model
of Saint-Riquier, Centula, France, 800          for dimension 3 long to 1 wide
                                               Heavy piers at corners to squares
Ottonian Period                                No vaulting here
    Charlemagne’s empire survived             Timber structure required
      him only 30 years under                   enthusiastic adoption of the
      grandsons- Charles the Bald,              proportion system of new
      Lothair, and Louis the German,            support system to vaulting also
    Partitioned in 843 into western            created the aesthetic of an
      central and eastern areas                 unbroken interior
    Breakup of empire and pressure
      from Vikings brought fall of the   16-25 Doors with relief panels (Genesis,
      empire-thrown into a period of     left door, life of Christ, right door,)
      darkness deeper than the 7th and   commissioned by Bishop Bernward for
      8th centuries                      St. Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany
    Magyars in east plundering          1015
    Saracen in Mediterranean
    Saxon line in the mid 10th
      century in the east                Sculpture is mostly engraving, small,
    Ottonians – Three Ottos             and inspired by painting, and relief from
    Church had become corrupt was       Rome.
      sanctioned and set up ties with
      Italy and the papacy               16-26 Column with reliefs illustrating
    Henry the II last Ottonian line     the life of Christ, commissioned by
      11th century, pagan marauders      Bishop Bernaward for St. Michaels
      were then Christianized and        Hildesheim 1015-1022
                                         16-27 crucifix commissioned by
Architecture                             Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral
    Followed Carolingian                Germany, 970

Fig 16-22 Abbey Church of Saint          Painting and Manuscript
Pantaleon, Cologne, Germany 966-980          Considerable independence with
Fig 16-23 to 16-24 Abby church of St.
Michael’s West Germany 1001-1031         Fig 16-28 The Annunciation to the
     Built by bishop Bernward           Shepards, Lectionary of Henry II 1002-
     Tower groupings of St. Riquier     1014
     Massive blank walls                     Planes partitioned sharply
     Addition of second transept and         Drapery simplified, outlined, and
       apse                                     plastic
     Nave is connecting hall                 Figures are angular and doll like
Fig 16-29 Otto II Enthroned Receiving         church and state, typifies the
the Homage of the Four Parts of the           model of medieval predicament
Empire                                       Romanesque denies the imperial
      Reminiscent of Justinian and his
       attendants San Vitale
      Otto is sitting between the
       rivalrous representatives of

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