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The New York State English Language Arts Exam

VIEWS: 41 PAGES: 60

									 The New York State
English Language Arts
         Exam
  Mrs. Bearup’s Fourth Grade
                      Genre
• Types of writing
  –   Myth: beliefs of different cultures
  –   Legend: certain cultures about real people in history
  –   Fables: teach a lesson or moral
  –   Fairy Tale: include magic, miracles
  –   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/genresl.cfm
  –   http://www.4to40.com/fables/
            Fiction
*Passages about made up things
*Realistic Fiction is a made up story
  with some items that could be true!
           Nonfiction
• A story, or passage, about real things
• Include the following:
       – Table of Contents – list of chapters
       – Headings – tell you when a new section begins
       – Titles – name of piece of writing
       – Diagrams – labeled illustrations that provide
         information
       – Tables – bar graphs are an example
       – http://www.quia.com/pop/39360.html
        Nonfiction Texts
• Almanac – includes a list of important events/data that
  occurred each year
• Atlas – a book of maps
• Dictionary – look up information about a specific word
• Encyclopedia – topics with short articles
• Thesaurus – book to find different words that mean the
  same thing
• Internet – resources on the computer
  http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/referencesourc
  esl.cfm
  http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=8
           Diagram
• A picture that shows how something
  works or is put together
           Contrast
• Finding differences between two or
  more nouns
           Compare
• Finding similarities between two or
  more nouns
          Tips for Contrast
• Look for, and use, key words
         • But, however, instead of, not the same as, on the
           other hand
•   Look for direct words such as bigger, smaller, taller, older
•   Look for direct statements
•   Draw a Venn Diagram
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/f/vennl.cfm
     Tips for Compare
• Look for, and use, key words
    • Alike, both, just as, similar, the same as
• Look for detailed descriptions
    • my birthday, his birthday
• Draw a Venn Diagram
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/o/comparecontrastl.cfm
            Cause
• Something that makes something else
  happen
            Effect
• The result of something else
        Tips for Cause and
              Effect
• Find events in order – the cause is usually found before the
  action, or effect
• The cause and effect can be joined by the word “because.”
• Look for cause words:
       • cause, because, so , led to, due to, as a result of.
• Cause and effect can be found in both nonfiction and fiction
  passages

•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/causeeffectl.cfm
         Main Idea
• Tells what the passage is mostly
  about.
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/a/mainideal.cfm
      Tips to find the Main
               Idea
•   Read the entire passage first.
•   Look for a sentence that tells the main idea.
•   Look for the main idea in the answer choice.
•   Look for the author’s message.
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=32
•   http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/WebLessons/GetTheIdea/d
    efault.htm
•   http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/reading.cfm?str=reading&num=
    11&act=4&que=1
•   http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/reading.cfm?str=reading&num=
    11&act=4&que=1
           Details
• Facts and descriptions that add
  interest to the passage.
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/o/detailsl.cfm
    Tips to find Details
• Identify the main idea
• Details support the main idea
• Paragraphs typically include a main
  idea and details
• When writing an answer, use details
  from the story you just read.
         Summarize
• Restate what the reading says in
  shorter form, using your own words

• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/o/summaryl.cfm
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/h/storysummaryl.cfm
           Characters
• People in a made-up story
       – Animals
       – Talking shoes
       – Friendly monsters
    Tips about Characters
• Usually have one or two really important characters
• Look for details about the characters
• Listen as the author introduces you to the characters
• Pay attention to how the characters act
• Notice how the characters are alike or different from
  each other
• Notice how characters change (physically and
  mentally)
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/character
  sfeelingsl.cfm
      Character Traits
• Qualities:
     • Generous, easy-going, gentle, rough, weak,
       strong, shy


• Two Characters (compare/contrast)
     • Age, what they look like, personality, jobs,
       where they fit into a family, thing they like
       to do
          Parts of a Story
•   Setting –where and when
•   Characters – who
•   Plot - events
•   Conflict – problem
•   Solution – solve problem
•   Theme – idea of the story
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/setting4.cfm
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/bookparts4.cfm
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/chapheading34.cfm
               Setting
• Where and when the story takes
  place
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/m/setti
  ngp2.cfm
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/m/setti
  ngp.cfm
  http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/i/settin
  gp.cfm
   Tips about Setting
• Story can have more than one setting
• Look for details that tell you the
  setting
• If there is more than one setting,
  notice how they are alike and
  different.
               Plot
• The things, or events, that happen in
  a story.
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/h/plotsettheme.cfm
           Conflict
• The main problem of the story
              Theme
• Idea of the story:
    • can be a lesson the author wants the reader
      to learn
    • http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/
      plotp.cfm
            Synonym
• Another word that means the same
  thing
    • Simple – easy
    • Hard – difficult
    • http://www.synonym.com/synonyms/
    • http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/element
      ary/palmasola/ps2syn.htm
    • http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/vocabula
      ry.cfm?str=vocabulary&num=2&act=3&que=1
           Antonyms
• Opposites
    • White - black
    • Fast – slow
    • http://www.sadlier-
      oxford.com/phonics/antonyms/antonyms.ht
      m
              Suffix
• Combinations of letters added to the
  END of the word
    • Respect – respectful
    • Smart – smarter

    • http://www.sadlier-
      oxford.com/phonics/3_4/flamingo/flamingo
      s.htm
    • http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/
      suffixp.cfm
              Prefix
• Combinations of letters added to the
  beginning of a word that changes the
  meaning.
    • View – preview
    • Tie – untie
    • http://www.sadlier-
      oxford.com/phonics/5_6/fishtanks1/fishtan
      ks1.htm
    • http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/
      prefixp.cfm
          Inference
• a decision you make based on all of
  the available facts
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/o/makinginferencel.cfm
• http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4to
  pic.cfm?TopicID=57
            Prediction
• A guess about what will happen in the future
  based on what you already know
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/makin
  gpredictionsl.cfm
• http://www.tv411.org/lessons/cfm/reading.cfm?s
  tr=reading&num=11&act=3&que=1
           Friendly Letter
• Write a letter to someone you know!
• Include a heading, greeting, body, salutation and closing


• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/n/friendlyletterl.cfm
   Types of Sentences
• Declarative – end with a period .
• Command – ends with an exclamation
               mark !
• Interrogative – ends with a question
                   mark ?
• Exclamatory – ends with an
                   exclamation mark !
         Author’s Purpose
• Look for clues that tell why the author wrote the passage.
• Pay attention to the author’s attitude.
• Think about the purpose, message, and attitude about the
  topic.
• What is the point?
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/authorsviewpoin
  tl.cfm
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=
  96.6
• http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/p
  s35glews1a2.htm
            Point of View
• Tells who the story is being told by
   – 1st person – I, we, me, my
   – 2nd person – tells you what to do
                       » Directions, instructions
   – 3rd person – he, she, his, her, they, them
   – http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=88
   – http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/pointofviewl
     .cfm
          Context Clues
• Hints you get from all the words and
  information you understand around
  the word you don’t understand
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/
  ela4/o/contextcluesl.cfm
 http://www.sadlier-oxford.com/phonics/5_6/cows/cows.htm
 http://www.english-zone.com/vocab/vic02.html
              Fact
Any statement that can be proven
http://www.quia.com/jq/24723.html
http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/ele
  mentary/palmasola/rcfo1.htm
               Opinion
• Any fact that can’t be proven

    • I think, I feel, that is beautiful, that is my
      favorite, gross
    • http://cuip.uchicago.edu/www4teach/97/jly
      man/default/quiz/factopquiz.html
    • http://www.teachingandlearningresources.co
      .uk/factoropinion.shtml
          Persuade
• Convince the reader about something
      Advertisements
• An “ad” tries to persuade to buy
  something
  – They use testimonial, bandwagon and
    transfer as different forms of
    persuasion
  – http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela
    4/o/advertisementsl.cfm
         Perspective
• What the writer feels and thinks
  about the topic.
          Transitions
• Sign posts to show the reader that
  you are moving from one point to
  another.
• Use: afterwards, meanwhile, next,
  however, in addition, then, first, last
       Tips for Listening
•   Watch the speaker
•   Picture the story as a movie
•   Sit up straight
•   Listen for main ideas
•   Listen for important details
•   Ask “who,” what,” “when,” “where,”
    and “why,” and “how”
  Listening Note Taking
• Setting, characters, problem,
  solution, message

• Beginning, Middle, End, Conclusion
                   Sequence
• The order in which events take place
• First, next, last, finally, last night, in two days

• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/chronorderl.cf
  m
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/f/sequencel.cfm
• http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/WebLessons/Sequen
  ceOfEvents/default.htm
• http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/a/writedirectionsl
  .cfm
       Tips for Written
         Responses – 1
• Read the question carefully.
• Support your response with details from the
  passage.
• Answer all parts of the question.
• Plan your response before you begin writing.
• Use your best handwriting
• Use everything you have learned in Language Arts.
          Tips for Written
           Responses – 2
•   T.T.Q.A.
•   Stay focused on the topic.
•   Use great organization.
•   Check mark all parts of the question.
•   Use a variety of words.
•   Use different types of sentences.
•   Check your spelling.
•   Use capitals when necessary.
•   Use punctuation!!!
    Sites to Improve Your
           Writing
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/k/capsentl.cfm - Capitalization
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=48 - Miscellaneous
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/n/quotesl.cfm - Quotations
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/sentencestructurel.cfm - Sent. Structure
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/vocabularyl.cfm - Vocabulary
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/compoundl.cfm = Compound Sentence
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/o/pronounsp.cfm - Pronouns
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=54 – Verb Tenses
•   http://studyzone.org/testpfm?TopicID=69 – Editing
•   http://www.eduplace.com/kids/hme/k_5/proofread/proof.htm - Plural/Singular

•   Check out many different activities to help you write stronger!
•   http://www.internet4classrooms.com/skills_4th_lang.htm#elements
  Tips to answer Multiple
     Choice Questions
• Identify key words in the question?
• Reread the question
• Try to develop the answer in your head before
  looking at the choices
• Skim the passage to find key words
• Use the “x” and “?” system
• Approximately 9 minutes per story
            Stanza
• Groups of two or more lines in poetry
          Alliteration
• Several words that begin with the
  same sound

       – Old, odd owl
                Simile
• Comparing two things using the words
  “like” or “as”

      – Your eyes are as blue as the sky.
           Metaphor
• Comparing two things using “is,”
  “was,” “are,” or “were”

    • She was quiet like a mouse.
    • http://volweb.utk.edu/Schools/bedford/har
      risms/1poe.htm
       Personification
• When the writer gives human
  qualities to something not human.
    • “The grass danced in the wind.”
                 Haiku
• A poem usually about nature
• 3 Lines
       – 5 syllables
       – 7 syllables
       – 5 syllables
             Limerick
• Silly or humorous poem that rhymes
• 5 lines
    • 1,2, and 5 rhyme
    • 3,4 rhyme
             Ballad
• Very old form of a song that repeats
  the same again and again

           » “Oh, Susanna”
    Extra Sites to Visit and
           Practice
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=1    - Parts of a book
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=2    -Headings
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=8     -Newspapers
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=12     -Application
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=14     - Relevant Information
•   http://studyzone.org/testprep/e4topic.cfm?TopicID=26     - Miscellaneous Information
•   http://www.sadlier-oxford.com/phonics/3_4/dino/dino.htm
•   http://www.studyzone.org/testprep/ela4/h/dictless.cfm

								
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