Issue 04 by cuiliqing


    Editorial ......................................................................................................... 4                                     When you see this symbol,
                                                                                                                                                       visit our website at
                                                                                                                                                       for extended versions of the stories and
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                                                                     Feature Story
                                                                                                                            The Cannabis Health Foundation was formed in the spring
                                                                          GW Pharmaceuticals                                          of 2002 as a non-profit foundation.
                                                                       british company produces                             The foundation is dedicated to:
                                                                                                                            • Promoting the safe medicinal use of cannabis.
                                                                          cannabis medicinals                               • Research into efficacy and genetics of cannabis.
                                                                                      PAGE    5                             • Supporting and protecting the rights of the medical cannabis users.
                                                                                                                            • Educating the public on cannabis issues.
                                                                                                                            The first initiative of the foundation is this complimentary hard copy
                                                                                                                            publication of Cannabis Health.
                                                                                                                            Other activities will include financial and practical support for low
                                                                                                                            income patients and the establishment of a legal defense fund.
                                                                                                                            The free hard copy of Cannabis Health is also reproduced in whole on
    canadian hemp economy                                                                                                   the World Wide Web at (the foundation website)
    would hemp prosper under a liberal regime? .............................................. 9                             with extended stories and hot links to resources and information.
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    John Conroy QC says don’t plead guilty to simple possession ................... 12                                      resource for medical marijuana available, subscribe to Cannabis Health
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    follow-up on Jim Wakeford & Ed Rosenthal................................................ 12                             $70.00cdn)
                                                                                                                            Editor: Brian Taylor Production: Brian McAndrew Sales: Mona Mattei
    cannabis growing in the netherlands                                                                                     Office Manager/Accounting & Distribution: Mandy Nordahn
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    the new dutch regulations .......................................................................... 14                 Cannabis Health is published 6 times per year by Cannabis Health Foundation, P.O. Box 1481,
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    Alive’n Raw .................................................................................................. 15 Cannabis Health is also reproduced on the web in downloadable
                                                                                                                            pdf format at
    Truly remarcable                                                                                                        The following people did not get proper credit for their contribution in Issue
    wholesome cannabis ..................................................................................... 15             #3: Kim O’Leary - photo credit for John Conroy’s picture, and Dan
                                                                                                                            Lorendorf (Rev. Damusy) for his help with the article on Alan Young.
                                                                                                                            Just’n-tyme website should have been
    Ask Dr.Ethan
    Dr. Ethan Russo answers your questions....................................................... 16

    Operation pipe dreams                                                                                                                                            American Gothic (1930)
    U.S. crack-down on smoking paraphernalia ................................................ 18                                                                        by Grant Wood
                                                                                                                                                       Grant Wood adopted the precise realism of
    Nothing to celebrate                                                                                                                               15th century northern European artists, but
                                                                                                                                                       his native Iowa provided the artist with his
    Interview with Celebration Pipes owner .................................................... 19
                                                                                                                                                       subject matter. American Gothic depicts a
                                                                                                                                                       farmer and his spinster daughter posing in
    Cannabis Clinic                                                                                                                                    front of their house, whose gabled window
    More plant deficiencies ................................................................................ 22                                        and tracery in the American Gothic style
                                                                                                                               inspired the painting’s title. In fact, the models were Wood’s sister
    The cost of compassion                                                                                                     and their dentist.
                                                                                                                               A Vancouver-based company re-did the original painting for a
    the high cost of medical marijuana............................................................ 26
                                                                                                                               poster in 1998, updating it for contemporary times.They added a
                                                                                                                               satellite dish to the house, gave the “farmer” an earring, a glove
    The cannabis condo                                                                                                         (#436 “Dura-Bull), and the fruit of his labours to the pitch fork. To
    A co-operative growing situation .............................................................. 28                         the “daughter” they added a joint and moved one eye to give a
                                                                                                                               slightly zonked appearance. After all, records show that 1930 was
                                                                                                                               a bumper crop. The original poster had a caption at the bottom
    Canadian cannabis cafés
                                                                                                                               saying,“Finally, a real cash crop” .
    breaking new ground in the cannabis economy ........................................ 30
                                                                                                                               We saw this poster and felt it the perfect image for issue #4
                                                                                                                                                  “The Economics of Cannabis”
    cannabis classifieds                                                                                                                 The original hangs in the Art Institute of Chicago
    buy, sell, trade, network, coming events, friendly outlets........................ 32

2                                                                                                                                                             CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana journal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal   5
                             By Barb St.Jean, life &   affordable cannabis to all those in need.      manufacturing, retail, health & science,
                             business partner          But the question remains, how? Do we           food services, agricultural, etc. to invest in
                             As per Brian Taylor,      wish to see the rise of the giants as in the   the future of a legal cannabis economy.
                             Editor-in-Chief           pharmaceutical industry, or do we see an       Other countries around the world are
                                                       inclusive model that brings in from the        miles ahead of Canada. The shape of this
                             I’m writing this          cold the small players and establishes         new economy will be influenced by many
                             editorial for Brian,      the “Farm Gate” model for production           factors. But the most important being
                             as he has been in         and distribution, like the Dutch? Or do        who will wake up first? …the race is on.
                             the hospital now          we capitalize and create a multiple level      Your comments and letters are appreciat-
                             for more than 6           environment that will benefit all the          ed – keep them coming.
    Brian Taylor             weeks at the time         players: patients, entrepreneurs, corpora-     Issue #5 will focus on the new cannabis
    Editor-in-Chief          of print. He              tions and governments? Learning from           research required by governments and
    underwent emergency surgery and had                our past and not repeating the same            the massive amounts already done that
    subsequent complications, but we all               mistakes, like the gun registration, is of     governments don’t remember.
    expect a full recovery, hopefully in the           paramount importance. We need to
    near future. We would like to thank all of         control the outcome and not fall asleep        Keep the faith!
    our friends, staff & volunteers for their          at the switch, like at the end of alcohol
                                                                                                        On March 21, the Drug Enforcement
    extraordinary support and dedications to           prohibition when, the day after, all the         Administration (DEA) published their final
    us personally as well as to the magazine,          shelves were stacked and the rules and           rules on hemp foods. The new “Final Rule”
    the business and, most of all, the cause.          plans were already in place.                     essentially bans the sale of all hemp food
    Words don’t express our gratitude for              A truly Canadian model would make the            products by April 21, 2003 and is virtually
    having you all share in our lives.                 medical access program irrelevant and            identical to an “Interpretive Rule” issued on
    This edition concentrates on the down &                                                             October 9, 2001 that never went into effect
                                                       unnecessary. It would recognize                  because of a Stay issued on March 7, 2002 in
    dirty of who will get rich from the                Cannabis Hemp & Cannabis Marijuana as            a U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
    tragedies of the chronically ill, when the         natural health products and regulate             The Hemp Industry Association and several
    fortunes are made in the new cannabis              them under a model that would incorpo-           hemp food and cosmetic manufacturers will
    economy? The world is changing and our             rate a workable structure. It would              petition the Ninth Circuit to once again pre-
    vision includes the availability of safe and       encourage the business sectors such as           vent the DEA from ending the legal sale of
                                                                                                        hemp seed and oil in the U.S. and Canada.

      LOVE THE MAG                                     er that was purchased by The Muscular ing the full market price for now, (very
      Hi, I picked up a copy of your last issue        Dystrophy Association Canada (of which inconsistent questionable quality, and
    and loved it. Very, very informative. I            I am a member). It helps me get out, walk expensive). Can you be of any help?
    would love to put Cannabis Health on               my dogs, etc. I have been using cannabis Respectfully Yours,
    the rack in my hemp shop. Thank you.               regularly (smoking, infused oil, cookies, Walt Kusmin
    Carol Gwilt, Bogart’s Joint Cafe & Hemp            cake, etc.) with very good results to dull
    Shop, Maple Ridge, B.C.                            the pain of very
                                                       worked muscle
                                                                                  Ned and the “Beanstalk”
      Hello, I just wanted to say I just read          system, by doing
    your magazine and you and your staff               cannabis, I do not
    should be proud. I just moved to Salmon            need as many
    Arm last summer and love the outdoor               prescription
    growing weather here. Picked up your               drugs, with all
    mag at J.J’s hemp.I would like to find out         their side effects.
    how I could help out anyone in my area             My wife and I are
    with medical needs that do not have the            very      discrete,
    knowledge or space to grow their own. I            respectful of the
    love this plant and will support anyone            law, but in this
    with the same positive outlook. Thanks             case, we feel that
    for your time.                                     the law is “an
    Mark and Sherry                                    ass”. I would
      CAN YOU HELP?                                    appreciate       if
      Hi, just had a look at your website, very        there was an
    interesting. I am on permanent disability          inexpensive and
    because of muscle loss and weakness                easier alternative
    caused by muscular dystrophy, affecting            for me to get
    my whole body. I need to use a cane all            cannabis,      for
                                                       which I am pay-          cartoon by Glenn Smith from Osoyoos, B.C.
    the time, have a two wheel electric scoot-
4                                                                                   CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
developing cannabis-based medicines

                                                 that have thus far prevented cannabis         ments that vapourize cannabis extracts.
                                                 from regaining its place in the pharma-       The spray technology is being utilized for
                        by Matt Elrod            copoeia.                                      the Group’s lead product, the CBD/THC
                                                 Dr. Guy founded GW Pharmaceuticals [5],       mixture. Active compounds in the “oro-
                         In November 1998,       still the only company dedicated to           mucosal” spray are primarily absorbed by
                         a year before the       developing cannabis-based medicines, in       the lining of the mouth and the tongue
                         Institute of            early 1998. A collaboration with              and begin to take effect within about 15-
                         Medicine [1] rekin-     HortaPharm BV of the Netherlands gave         20 minutes. Some of the extract may also
                         dled North              GW a commanding “first mover” advan-          be swallowed, providing symptomatic
                         American interest       tage. HortaPharm’s medicinal cannabis         relief for 4 to 6 hours. The inhaler’s effects
                         in cannabinoid                                            ,
                                                 varieties, known as “chemovars” had been      are felt almost immediately and do not
                         research and the        standardized and stabilized for over 20       last as long.
 development of cannabis-based                   years to consistently express specific        Depending on government require-
 Pharmaceuticals, the UK House of Lords          cannabinoids, however, HortaPharm             ments, both the spray and the inhaler
 Select Committee on Science and                 lacked the ability to develop pharmaceu-      may be equipped with the company’s
 Technology published its report
                                                 ticals and sought drug company partners       “Advanced Dispensing System (ADS)” a     ,
 “Cannabis: The Scientific and Medical
                                                 to take the next step. GW was the only        solid-state device resembling a portable
 Evidence” [2], which recommended that
                                                 company with the vision to take the           phone, which measures and monitors use
 clinical trials of cannabis “should be
                                                 HortaPharm research through the devel-        to help ensure optimal dosages and pre-
 mounted as a matter of urgency” The  .
                                                 opment and approval process.                  vent diversion to the black market. The
 committee recognized the deficiencies of
                                                 Botanists initially chose 10 Dutch            tamper-resistant device can also be con-
 existing orally administered cannabis
                                                 chemovars bred to express high quanti-        nected to the internet, so doctors and cli-
 derivatives, such as dronabinol.“Research
                                                 ties of either THC (delta-9 tetrahydro-       nicians can remotely monitor their
 should be promoted into alternative
                                                 cannabinol) or CBD (cannabidiol) for their    patients’ consumption. As Orwellian as
 modes of administration (e.g. inhalation,
                                                 first crop of 5,000 plants grown organi-      digital drug dispensing systems that
 sub-lingual, rectal), which would retain
 the benefit of rapid absorption offered         cally in secretive and exceedingly secure     phone home might appear, currently
 by smoking, without the adverse effects”   .    glasshouses in the south of England. The      many controlled subtances must be con-
 One expert who provided testimony to            computer-controlled glasshouses are           sumed under close medical supervision.
 the Committee, Dr. Geoffrey W. Guy, was         among of the most sophisticated in            The ADS promises to grant patients who
 uniquely positioned to fulfill the parlia-      Europe. No chemicals are used and all         need such drugs more freedom and
 mentary mandate. Dubbed “the man                pest control is biological.                   autonomy. For example, GW, encouraged
 most likely to succeed at going to pot” by      A GW contractor uses supercritical fluid      by the Home Office, is currently collabo-
 the Financial Times, [3] Dr. Guy is an entre-   extraction (SFE), a fairly new technique      rating with the National Addiction Centre
 preneur and physician who specializes in        for extracting lipophilic and volatile com-   (NAC) to trial the ADS for the administra-
 phytopharmaceuticals, plant-based medi-         pounds. [6] SFE utilizes carbon dioxide,      tion of methadone and diamorphine
 cines and their delivery systems.               which is Generally Regarded As Safe           (heroin) in the treatment of drug addic-
 Having founded Phytopharm [4] in 1989           (GRAS), making the extraction process         tion. If successful, the program will
 to develop botanical extracts and shep-         free of organic solvents. Liquid CO2 is       extend to other countries in Europe and
 herd them to market, Dr. Guy is adept at        forced into supercritical state (SC-CO2) by   North America.
 navigating the cumbersome regulations           regulating its temperature and pressure.      The ADS was originally developed to
 governing both natural health products          Supercritical fluid is heavy like a liquid    make cannabis-based products more
 and controlled substances. Perhaps more         but has the penetrating properties of a       palatable to U.S. regulatory authorities,
 significantly, unlike most medicinal            gas. SC-CO2 is inert and does not interact    who still classify cannabis at the highest
 cannabis enthusiasts, Dr. Guy has a repu-       chemically with the botanical material or     (most restrictive) level as a Schedule I
 tation within Europe’s conservative med-        the extraction apparatus.                     substance. [7] Attempts by various peti-
 ical community for playing and winning          GW is developing 3 delivery technolo-         tioners to have cannabis rescheduled
 by their rules. Dr. Guy’s background made       gies; an oral spray, a tablet which dis-      have been unsuccessful. [8] Despite over-
 him distinctly qualified to overcome the        solves under the tongue, and a compact        whelming evidence to the contrary, U.S.
 clinical, social and bureaucratic hurdles       inhaler containing miniature heating ele-     authorities maintain that cannabis has no
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                                  5
    developing cannabis-based medicines
    recognized medicinal value and a high        already being cultivated and clinical trials    great difficulty accepting the idea of “tok-
    potential for abuse, a position they have    designed to explore their pharmacologi-                 .
                                                                                                 ing up” A prescription oral spray would
    not seriously reconsidered since before      cal properties are on the drawing board         be perfectly acceptable to many such
    the discovery of cannabinoid receptors       or underway.                                    patients - literally “just what the doctor
    over a decade ago.                           One of the significant medical benefits of      ordered”  .
    GW’s clinical trials have demonstrated       using whole-cannabis extracts appears to        In previous Phase II trials, there was a
    that, once patients are no longer            be some attenuation of the sometimes            50% average reduction in the partici-
    “cannabis naive“ and have become accus-      unpleasant psychoactive effects of pure         pant’s use of opiates. The reduction in
    tomed to the psychoac-                                                                                      opiate use suggests future
    tive effects, they are                                                                                      analgesics may combine opi-
    both able and inclined                                                                                      ates and cannabinoids for
    to titrate and personally                                                                                   their very different but com-
    individualize their dose                                                                                    plementary effects. In fact,
    to achieve improvement                                                                                      animal studies have found
    in their symptoms with-                                                                                     that opiate/cannabinoid
    out experiencing                                                                                            mixtures do not cause the
    unwanted effects that                                                                                       severe withdrawal symptoms
    might interfere with                                                                                        associated with long-term
    their day-to-day activi-                                                                                    opiate use. [9] Perhaps
    ties. GW consultant Dr.                                                                                     cannabinoids will eventually
    Ethan Russo expects                                                                                         be integrated into GW’s
    precautionary labeling                                                                                      methadone and diamor-
    will be similar to that                                                                                     phine products.
    found on synthetic                                                                                          Try as they might to divorce
    cannabinoid packaging,                                                                                      their company and its
    advising patients to                                                                                        research from the politically-
    avoid driving or operat-                                                                                    charged debate over
    ing heavy machinery                                                                                         cannabis law reform,
    until they have become                                                                                      research on whole plant
    accustomed to the drug.                                 formulated                                          extracts, more than research
    Based on their experi-                                                                                      on synthetic analogs, is
    ences and the remarkable safety profile      THC. CBD in particular seems to “soften”        applicable to the forbidden herb. When
    of cannabis and cannabis-based prod-         the effect of THC and is known to have          reporting GW progress, the media tend to
    ucts, GW does not anticipate a need for      anti-psychotic properties. Another bene-        equate their cannabis-based medicine
    the ADS outside of the USA.                  fit is the unusual breadth of effect.“These     extracts with cannabis, often exploiting
    GW currently has 3 extracts under investi-   medicines have unique effectiveness for         the “snicker factor” with pot puns and
    gation; one derived from CBD-rich            a wide range of conditions, and within          allusions to stoner stereotypes.
    chemovars, one from THC-rich varieties       the same condition, can often target mul-       Interpretations also seem linked to
    and one with an even mixture of these        tiple symptoms. For example, GW                 geopolitical preconceptions. Most British
    two most promising cannabinoids.             research has found that “patients with          papers herald GW’s encouraging findings
    Proportions of terpenoids, flavonoids and    multiple sclerosis have experienced sub-        as further evidence of the medicinal ben-
    other therapeutically active cannabi-        stantial relief from spasticity, poor sleep,    efits of cannabis - more reason to reform
    noids, such as CBC, CBG and THC-V, are       bladder dysfunction and pain,” says David       medicinal cannabis laws - while U.S.
    consistent and monitored but left unal-      Hadorn, M.D., a GW consultant. Currently,       papers tend to characterize cannabis-
    tered. Dr. Russo explains “Flavonoids are    MS sufferers must orchestrate the careful-      based medicines as a socially acceptable,
    antioxidants and anti-inflammatory com-      ly timed and measured administration of         non-psychoactive alternative to smoked
    ponents with anti-aging and cell protec-     several distinct, interacting, chemical enti-   cannabis. A magic prohibitionist bullet
    tive responses. Terpenoids are the           ties to achieve this broad “shot gun”           that will render herbal cannabis, and
    essential oils that give cannabis its        effect.                                         therefore efforts to reform cannabis laws,
    aroma. There are many with important         Another advantage of GW’s pharmaceuti-          obsolete.
    medical benefits that include anti-inflam-   cal-grade extracts is that they are likely to
    matory, analgesic, bronchodilating and       reach many people who would otherwise
    memory-enhancing effects. The patient        miss out on the benefits of cannabis-
    receives the full complement of synergis-    based medicines. This is perhaps espe-
    tic phytochemicals. Only the cough is        cially true for elderly patients, many of
    removed. Together this herbal mixture        whom have chronic pain and other
    produces effects and medical benefits        symptoms, for which cannabis-based
    unobtainable with synthetic THC such as      medicines would likely provide substan-
    Marinol” Plant varieties bred to express     tial relief. Most elderly patients are
    these less understood compounds are          cannabis-naive, however, and would have         Matt Elrod, Val, David Hadorn

6                                                                              CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal   page 9
    developing cannabis-based medicines
    Cannabis law reforms are also changing          scription medicine that will help with          END NOTES
    the environment for cannabis-based              their condition, it is the ticket. Not every-   1) Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A
    pharmaceuticals. Some British papers            one grows grapes when there is Cabernet         Benson Jr., "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing
    have attributed gains in GW stock value         Sauvignon on the shelf. Similarly, some         the Science Base," <
    to last year’s indications Parliament may       will toke on ‘homegrown’, while others          /marimed/> Division of Neuroscience and
    reclassify cannabis from Class B to the         will reach for the vapourizer, and others       Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine
    less restrictive Class C this summer.           for the standardized prescription product.      (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999),
    Others cited plans for cannabis reclassifi-     Nothing will advance the acceptance of
    cation as having the opposite, negative         cannabis faster than good quality               2) House of Lords Select Committee on Science
    effect on GW’s financial outlook. Some          research of this type.”                         and Technology, "Ninth Report," London: United
    activists, such as Richard Cowan, the for-      Noted cannabis expert Dr. Lester                Kingdom (1998): Cannabis: The Scientific and
    mer national director of the National           Grinspoon has a similar vision “... we are      Medical Evidence.
    Organization for the Reform of Marijuana        going to have two distribution systems
    Laws, expect cannabis law reforms to            for medical cannabis. One will be the con-      99798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/15101.htm>
    reduce the market viability of cannabis-        ventional model of pharmacy-filled pre-
    based pharmaceuticals.                          scriptions for FDA-approved medicines           3) The Man Most Likely To Succeed At Going To
    “GW Pharmaceuticals is making excellent         derived from cannabis as isolated or syn-       Pot, Nicholas Timmins, The Financial Times, June
    progress and I wish them well, but I think      thetic cannabinoids and cannabinoid             15, 1998, <
    that their business will suffer when mari-      analogs. The other will have more in com-
    juana is legalized,” wrote Cowan in his         mon with some of the means of distribu-         4) Phytopharm plc.
    online magazine. [10] Dr. Russo thinks the      tion and use of alternative and herbal          5) GW Pharmaceuticals plc,
    tent is big enough,“the decriminalization       medicines. The only difference, an enor-        6) Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE),
    or legalization of cannabis will likely         mous one, will be the continued illegality
    occur in many nations, but represents no        of whole smoked or ingested cannabis. In
                                                                                                    7) High Court Upholds Marijuana As Dangerous
    real threat to this company’s viability or      any case, increasing medical use by either
                                                                                                    Drug, Drug Enforcement Administration, June 6,
    ultimate profitability.”                        distribution pathway will inevitably make
    GW is walking a fine line between alarm-        growing numbers of people familiar with
    ing cannabis prohibitionists, who see           cannabis and its derivatives. As they learn
    medicinal cannabis as a “stalking horse”        that its harmfulness has been greatly           8) Petitions to reschedule marijuana in the
    for broader liberalization, and whole           exaggerated and its usefulness underesti-       United States,
    cannabis advocates, who suspect GW of           mated, the pressure will increase for dras-     olsen/NORML/PETITIONS/petitions.html
    trying to “monopolize” cannabis thera-          tic change in the way we as a society deal      9) Notes on the International Cannabinoid
    peutics and introduce products that             with this drug.”[12]                            Research Society 1998 Symposium on Cannabin-
    would replace, rather than offer alterna-       GW is now capable of producing medi-            oids, La Grande Motte, France, 23-25 July 1998,
    tives to, herbal cannabis. Writing for          cine for 20,000 patients per annum. They        Professor Leslie Iversen FRS, Specialist Adviser,
    Cannabis Culture Magazine, Canadian             expect to have their first product, for
    activist David Malmo-Levine went so far         treating multiple sclerosis and neuro-          798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/151a05.htm
    as to accuse GW of conspiring to corner         pathic pain, on the UK market by the end        10) UK Firm hopes to have "a cannabis-based
    the world-wide market for both cannabis         of 2003. The company plans to price its         medicine ready to be prescribed by doctors with-
    pharmaceuticals and cannabis plants. [11]       products competitively with other medi-         in three to four years." How Time Flies When You
    Others believe GW’s ultimate goal is to         cines used for similar conditions and at        Are Not In Pain!,1999. http://www.marijua-
    create, on behalf of vested interests,          levels that allow provision under govern-
    medicinal cannabis products that do not         mental health insurance plans.                  hopes_to_have_.htm
    produce the illicitly sought “side-effect” of   Based on discussions with national regu-        11) Will Pot Be Patented?, David Malmo-Levine,
    euphoria.“This is simply untrue,” insists       latory authorities, GW anticipates gaining      Cannabis Culture Magazine #41, Mar 2003,
    Dr. Russo,“GW Pharmaceuticals extracts          approval for their first line of extracts in    <
    contain predominantly THC, predomi-             Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand          cles/2780.html>
    nantly CBD or a 1:1 THC/CBD mix, as well        and Canada within months of UK                  12) On the Pharmaceuticalization of Marijuana,
    as the essential oil terpenoids and             approval. The timing of approval of GW          Lester Grinspoon, MD, International Journal of
    flavonoids of the natural herb. If someone      products in the United States is less cer-      Drug Policy, 12 (5-6) (2001) pp. 377 - 383.,
    used a sufficient dose of the extracts con-     tain because the company has yet to   
    taining THC, they would become ‘high’.”         receive final guidance from the FDA con-        LINKS
    “GW does not expect cannabis as a plant         cerning how much additional research, if
                                                                                                    Cannabis from the Chemist, BBC Panorama,
    to disappear,” continued Russo,“However,        any, will be required for approval in the
                                                                                                    November 2001
    cannabis the plant can never be accepted        US. They will also need a development
    by the FDA as a smoked prescription             partner to handle promotion and distri-
    medicine as the rules stand. Standardized       bution in North America. Dr. Hadorn pre-        ma/1625124.stm
    cannabis-based medicine extracts can.           dicts that it will probably be “at least two
    For the person who wishes HMO reim-             years following UK approval” before GW’s        e-1628.html
    bursement or coverage under a national          medicines are available in the United
    health service policy for a defined pre-        States.
8                                                                                CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
Would hemp prosper under a liberal regulatory regime?
 “Industrial hemp” - sometimes maligned, sometimes ignored,                 hemp cultivation in Canada labors under a license system
                            sometimes hyped, wonder plant                   administered by Health Canada. Hemp, because it is cannabis
                            overloaded with hyperbole - has                 sativa, still falls under the definition of a controlled substance.
                            been grown in Canada commer-                    It’s a challenging situation leading to obstacles faced by few
                            cially since 1998. While it is legal            other industries. 5 years old, Canada’s hemp industry is having
                            to grow hemp for fibre and seed,                an interesting time of it.
                                  By Arthur
                                 For those
                                 with       this
                                 c o u n t r y ’s
                                 hemp regu-
                                 licenses are
                                 required for
each step in the value chain. Growers are
licensed, fields are licensed, cleaners are
licensed, processors are licensed. While a
criminal record check is required for your
application, none of the other require-
ments are especially onerous (GPS your
crop, use only certified seed, fill out all the     Saskachewan hemp field near maturity July 31st 2002
forms completely), provided one is grow-
                                                    regulations bring and demand of the             health food store shelf include Hempola,
ing hemp legitimately for seed or fibre on
                                                    industry. The fact that a full paper trail is   Manitoba Harvest, Ruth’s Hemp Foods,
an agricultural basis.
                                                    kept for hemp seed products,creates a fully     MUMS Original, Hemp Oil Canada, Cool
The hemp regulations do not allow for
                                                    accountable industry; there is a level of       Hemp, Fast Fuel, Ancient Harvest.
hemp to be grown for horticultural purpos-
                                                    control that is exceptional among much of       Interestingly, these are all start-ups.
es. Field scale only, folks. Don’t call me
                                                    the food industry.                              Nature’s Path, Omega Nutrition and
about hemp bonsai or decorating your
                                                    Is this industry growing? On a field scale      Honeybar are some established Canadian
backyard. It’ll never happen.
                                                    production has ranged wildly, from 2,700        companies that have developed new
The industry’s fortunes rest in part on tight
                                                    inaugural hectares in 1998 to a sky high        products that include hemp. The big guys
seed controls. As stated, there is a require-
                                                    14,000 h in 1999 to 2002’s level of 1,530 h.    (like McCain’s, President’s Choice, Tim
ment to use only certified seed.This means
                                                    Much action is off the field. In the last 5     Horton’s) don’t bother with hemp. So the
that there is no “common”hemp seed … no
                                                    years, several sharp entrepreneurs have         field is wide open.There is certainly a lot of
seed saving is allowed, and every year
                                                    started up hemp seed food companies or          diversification: at one point this author
farmers must purchase their planting seeds
                                                    developed hemp bodycare lines: some of          counted 12 varieties of hemp oil on the
from a licensed seed seller. All seeds that
                                                    the Canadian brands you may see on a            market, including regional brands. But
are sold are on an approved list of cultivars.
All hemp seed is evaluated according to
THC: only strains that are under a 0.3% THC
threshold are allowed to be grown. In food
processing, only trace amounts of THC (10
parts per million, 10 ppm, is the ceiling) are
allowed in finished products such as food
or cosmetics.
For fibre, most of the regulations are on the
field level and less stringent. Once the
hemp fibre is off the field, it is out of the
regulations. So lets keep most of the dis-
cussion focused on seeds.
The intent of the regulations is to head off
unwanted cannabis proliferation. Of
course, by keeping a tight lid on industrial
hemp, Health Canada has unwittingly done
its part to protect the black market. Ironies
in politics will never cease.
Most people working in the industry are
comfortable with the existing standards.
Being business people, they tend to be reg-
ulation liberals, and would like less; howev-
er, they also see the quality control that the
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                                       9
 w o u l d h e m p p r o s p e r. . .
 there are also increasingly diverse prod-      trade, nor does Health Canada keep track         laws. Liberalization is anticipated, though
 ucts: where once you may expect to see         on what everyday shoppers are buying. So,        its anyone’s guess on how the law will be
 hemp only in oil, seed and dehulled seed       no help from the feds. How about the             written.To the matter at hand, will the busi-
 forms, increasingly shoppers will find         industry itself: almost all companies are pri-   ness of hemp become more attractive with
 things like bars, cereals, pasta, chips and    vately held, and the sector is competitive,      the marijuana laws changing? That’s a
 baked goods made with hemp.Hemp has a          so financials are kept private, which is         good question, but as marijuana, whether
 lot of potential as a healthy ingredient: in   understandable. Based on estimates and           for medicinal or personal use, is covered
 the future, you may find yourself eating       extrapolations of what self-disclosed data       under a different part of the CDSA than
 hemp more and more, but you will only          is available, the market for hemp food &         hemp is, the short-term effect on hemp
 know if you read the ingredient label.         bodycare products is in the $40 million dol-     that a reform of the marijuana laws will
 After 5 years, with a fresh, secure domestic   lar range (USD). The hemp seed food busi-        bring will be negligible.
 supply of seed, customers are finding out      ness is in the $5-10 million USD range.          Consider this: John’s and Mary’s right to
 for the first time, how flexible, tasty and    There is considerable value added here, as       have a legal stash will not likely affect the
 nutritious hemp foods are.                     the farm gate value of current level of seed     hemp regulations regarding allowable THC
 And there’s science to back it up; a small     (grain) production is only about $2 million      in the field or in finished hemp products.
 amount of research studies are under-          dollars maximum.                                 Similarly, John and Mary may have a hand-
 way that are testing the efficacy of hemp      Considering that Canada’s french fry             ful of plants at home under lights, but that
 seed nutrition. This work takes place in a     export to the U.S. is over $200 million CDN      will not compete with the farmer who has
 larger context regarding the roles of          a year, Canada’s hemp industry is small          200 acres seeded. Nor will John and Mary
 healthy oils and fats in the diet. A grow-     potatoes indeed.                                 be able to create much in the way of value-
 ing understanding of essential fatty acids     Many of hemp’s specific problem are agri-        added industry with the handful of stalks
 in the nutritional business community          culture problems. The sector on the whole        they harvest. Maybe a few cottage indus-
 and in the health press is helping to cre-     is changing, with fewer farmers at work,         tries could do hemp weaving and spinning
 ate a positive commercial climate for          consolidation happening on all levels, high      from stalks pulled from a backyard plot,but
 hemp seed products.                            debt loads and a high risk and failure rate      lets not dress that up more than we need
 On these terms hemp sounds like a success      for new age ventures. It’s a challenging         to.Few people are doping it with (legal) flax
 story. But just how much of a success is it?   time on the farm and rural communities           right now. And maybe with hemp bonsais,
 Because it is such a new, and hence still      and the ability and capability to embrace        landscape architecture could take off
 small industry, it is challenging to come up   new industries promised by hemp is limit-        under the right hustling horticultural
 with an estimated worth of the sector. The     ed.The sector is stressed.                       entrepreneur. But these would be new
 government’s official measuring arm, Stats     Now in 2003, Canada seems to be on the           industries, and wouldn’t have an effect on
 Canada keeps no data on the hempseed           verge on reforming the nation’s marijuana        what we have in place right now.

10                                                                            CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
                                                                               w o u l d h e m p p r o s p e r. . .
One could even make the case that liberal-          found above the 0.3% allowable limit. So          Hemp industry has made a good case to
ization will have a negative effect on the          you know, the issue is not necessarily            date with its management of THC levels.
hemp industry. Given concerns about                 genetic, as THC levels fluctuate according        For example, the Industry standard Test
genetic pollution as with GMO’s and, in             to environmental variables, like heat and         Pledge regulates levels beyond what gov-
some quarters, the shift in the food system         stress such as hail, as well as being affected    ernment requires).
towards identity preserved (IP) production,         by latitude (levels rise closer to the equa-      Outside of such proposals, there are some
and considering cannabis being as pollen            tor). No matter that hemp with 0.4% THC,          upcoming changes in the regulatory front.
prolific as it is,there is very real concern that   while exceeding regulations, is still not         These considerations may all become
genetic pollution could occur. Allegedly            even close to being marijuana, and this           extremely relevant ones.
this has already happened, however, with-           higher level won’t change the THC levels on       Coming down the pipeline for 2003 is
out land-use plans in place, the scenario           the valued seed, once the seed is cleaned         another hemp risks and benefits study
could lead to some unhappy situations.              and processed. Outrageous! Why should             from Health Canada. An earlier version was
There is also the question of U.S. market           we almost lose one of our top cultivars over      leaked to the press in the summer of 1999;
access. As American officials are some-             what is essentially a technicality? This          this draft caused a small storm of outrage
times willfully obtuse about the differ-            species has an attractive fatty acid profile,     in the industry. The report, slammed by
ences between hemp and marijuana,                   produces a pleasant oil and was reported-         independent researchers, causing a re-
would such liberalization on Canada’s part          ly chosen to be grown for 40% of last year’s      think on Health Canada’s part. The study
complicate access further? Would there              1,500h national commercial hemp crop.             was never released, but had a half life on
be some sort of blow-back? Would                    Anyhow, it seems that Finola will be given a      the web. The 2003 version is highly antici-
Canadian hemp products be treated with              second chance, with a revived breeding            pated; whatever its findings, its contents
even more scrutiny at the border? You               program.This is good news, and a relief.          will set the tone for a subsequent stake-
know how they get, post 9-11….                      Further to seed, what also needs to be            holders meeting between industry and
More significant than the law changing              reconsidered is our over-reliance on certi-       government in 2004. This meeting will be
                                                    fied stock. Prices are usually around $2/lb       an opportunity to recraft the regulations,
                                                    and under, depending on cultivar availabil-       It will be interesting to see if there is indeed
                                                    ity. (Seeding rate is typically 30 lbs/acre).     a regulatory climate change coming. Is it
                                                    Now certified seed delivers quality for a         too early? Massive wholesale reform of
                                                    higher price, which is an excellent deal, but     Canada’s hemp rules is unrealistic to
                                                    having more on farm flexibility and choice        expect; these regulations will not be
                                                    could also expand the market for all seed.        dumped in some prairie slough. But it is
                                                    Common seed would certainly make ambi-            desirous that they are reformed.The indus-
                                                    tious large scale hemp biomass plantations        try needs regulations that encourage qual-
                                                    more economically attractive.                     ity and de-emphasizes control.
                                                    You also have to ask yourself whether             As stated, many of hemp’s challenges are
                                                    sampling and testing of hemp field crops          due to other factors, principally economic
                                                    should even be necessary when the                 issues, and not just the fault of existing reg-
                                                    grower is using certified seed. And if            ulations. However, a liberalization of the
                                                    Health Canada is not as worried about             nation’s marijuana laws would improve the
                                                    the illegality of marijuana as much, and          regulatory climate and lead to a lighter reg-
                                                    therefore is less concerned about                 ulatory touch that would bring benefits to
                                                    cannabis proliferation, what kind of pur-         the industry. The business of hemp will
                                                    pose do these regulations have?                   grow more attractive in a liberal regulatory
                                                    (If you ask me, THC-free hemp is not the          environment that reinforces and rewards
                                                    answer, as the compound has a biological          good business practices.
Hemp in flower
                                                    role in the plant’s life. There are no zeros in   Arthur Hanks is a Saskatchewan writer who
                                                    nature. However, we need low THC varieties        never grows tired of hemp for some reason.
would be the regulatory climate change              for everyday food consumption and cos-            He can be reached at
that would come with it. Canada’s hemp              metic use. So, what’s needed are bound-           Pictures courtesy of Arthur from his website:
industry does not need really wholesale             aries, and that’s what we have.The question
regulatory reform, but it would benefit             is, what should those boundaries be? The          preport/gallery/
from a lighter touch. Some deft touches
could be placed around seed issues. I will
bring up one relevant current issue.
Currently, one of the favoured cultivars
(Finola, which is a shorter/earlier grain vari-
ety of hemp), is being taken off the List of
Approved Cultivars because it has relative-
ly high THC.
Finola is not a high THC cultivar, and usual-
ly tests at the lower limit of the testing scale
(0.05). But consistently, somewhere in
Canada, year after year, some fields are

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                                       11
     Legal Eagle
                                                                   [18] What then of the position of the            Crown essentially had two options: it could
                          On March 14th in P.E.I.                  Federal Crown in other jurisdictions across      have appealed or it could have elected not
                          court, the judge read out                Canada? Is the Federal Crown bound               to appeal and accept Parker as a final judg-
                          the decision on the                      throughout Canada, as the prosecutor             ment. It chose the latter approach.
                          Ronald Barry Stavert                     throughout Canada, of all CDSA offences          [42] The decision in Parker was not a judg-
                          case, who was charged                    by the decision of the Ontario Court of          ment in personam which applied only to
                          with simple marijuana                    Appeal in Parker which it chose not to           Mr. Parker. The Ontario Court of Appeal’s
                          possession and made
                                                                   appeal? Put another way, is the Crown            ruling struck down that part of s4 of the
 John Conroy, Q.C.,        application to quash the
 photo by Kim O'Leary      information      arguing
                                                                   estopped from arguing that its marijuana         CDSA which prohibited marijuana posses-
 that it does not disclose an offence known to law.                possession law is valid in Prince Edward         sion. Clearly, that ruling became the law in
 The accused based his application, essentially,                   Island, when it has been declared invalid in     Ontario as of July 31st, 2000, subject to the
 on the Ontario Court of Appeal decision in R. v.                  a decision which, as a final judgement,          one year suspension of the operation of
 Parker (2000) 146 CCC (3d) 193, which                             binds it in Ontario?                             the declaration, which afforded Parliament
 declared the prohibition against possession of                    [20] There is no question that the applicant     what should have been an ample opportu-
 marijuana in s. 4 of the CDSA invalid due to its                  here raises the same issue as was involved       nity to pass remedial legislation, if it had
 failure to provide for legal possession of marijua-                                                                chosen to do so.
                                                                   in Parker. He challenges the validity of the
 na for medical uses. Below are some excerpts
                                                                   law prohibiting simple possession of mari-       [52] A stay of proceedings is therefore
 from the decision, with the full document on the
                                                                   juana by virtue of this application, as did      entered in this matter.
 web at
                                                                   Mr. Parker.                                      Question: What is your view on this case?
 [3] The applicant submits that the Federal
 Crown is estopped from arguing that s4 of                         [21] Secondly, there is no question that the     Answer: No one should plead guilty or
 the CDSA is valid legislation on the basis                        decision of the Ontario Court of Appeal in       take diversion for a simple possession case.
 that the Parker decision is binding on the                        Parker is a final judgement since the Crown      They should plead not guilty, file a consti-
 Federal Crown throughout Canada.                                  made no attempt to appeal to the                 tutional challenge to the effect that the
                                                                   Supreme Court of Canada.                         federal government failed to comply with
 [14] What the Ontario Court of Appeal
 clearly did in Parker was declare the mari-                       [24] Clearly, any person charged in Ontario      Parker in the Ontario Court of Appeal as
 juana possession prohibition in s4 of the                         with simple possession of marijuana could        evidenced by Hitzig and argue the P.E.I.
 CDSA to be invalid without exception. It                          rely on the Parker decision in an applica-       case to the effect that Parker is binding on
 also suspended the declaration of invalidi-                       tion such as the accused has brought             the federal Crown in B.C. as in Ontario and
 ty for a period of twelve months “ pro-                      before this Court.Since the Crown is bound       P.E.I. because they didn’t appeal Parker and
 vide Parliament with the opportunity to fill                      in relation to all simple possession of mari-    the MMAR do not comply with the Parker
 the void” (Parker at page 40)
           .                                                       juana charges arising in Ontario due to the      declaration, so simple possession is legal.
 [15] The Federal Crown did not appeal the                         operation of stare decisis, all persons in the   As you all know, we are back in the
                                                                   Province of Ontario, all 12 million of them,     Supreme Court of Canada May 6th at 9:30
 Ontario Court of Appeal decision in Parker,
                                                                   have acquired an immunity from prosecu-          a.m. on Caine, Malmo-Levine and Clay.
 and there has been nothing presented to
                                                                   tion for marijuana possession, which may         Hopefully, we will get a good decision in
 the court in the instant application to indi-
                                                                   be anything from short term to permanent         our favour this year or early next.
 cate that Parliament did anything to avail
                                                                   and in fact counsel indicated on this appli-     John Conroy, Q.C., CONROY& COMPANY
 itself of the opportunity to pass remedial                                                                         Barrister and Solicitor
 legislation to cure the defect in s4.The fore-                    cation that all simple possession charges
                                                                   were being adjourned in Ontario pending          2459 Pauline Street, Abbotsford, BC V2S 3S1
 going preceded the Ontario Court of                                                                                Telephone: (604) 852-5110
 Justice decision in R. v. J.P. [2003] O.J. 1 of                   the outcome of the appeal in the J.P. case.
                                                                                                                    Fax: (604) 859-3361
 January 2nd,2003,which in turn appears to                         [41] When the Ontario Court of Appeal ren-       Website:
 have prompted this application.                                   dered its judgment in Parker, the Federal

 What Now?
     We are following the stories of the people we                 Jim Wakeford                                     ple now allowed by Health Canada to
     covered in our last issue who have been                       “The Crown has dropped or stayed all             use and grow it. Officials in the
     prosecuted in the U.S.A. and Canada for                       charges. I am a free man. It is hard to get      Insurance Bureau of Canada said that
     their support of medicinal marijuana                          used to the reality that for me it’s all         underwriters will not provide even basic
     patients. Where are they now?                                 over, the constitutional challenge and all       homeowner’s or tenant’s insurance to
                                                                   the criminal charges from 4 arrests in           people who they know grow marijuana,
                                                                   two provinces over a period of two               even if legally allowed to do so.
                        CONROY & COMPANY                                                                            “The sad reality, however, remains that I
                        Barristers and Solicitors                  years,” said Jim in a recent e-mail to our
                                                                   journal.                                         have no grower, no real space to grow
                        JOHN W.CONROY, Q.C.
                        Barrister and Solicitor                    Jim is still challenging laws, though. He        and hence no regular supply of marijua-
                        2459 Pauline Street                        has just been refused an insurance claim         na. That has been the case since I start-
                        Abbotsford, B.C.
                                                                   for stolen marijuana. This refusal               ed using marijuana therapeutically in
                        Canada V2S 3S1
                                                Ph: 604-852-5110   demonstrates that the insurance indus-           1996. That has to change.” Jim
      E-mail: Toll Free:1-877-852-5110
                                                                   try wants absolutely nothing to do with          Wakeford closed.
      Website:             Fax: 604-859-3361
                                                                   either medical marijuana or the 900 peo-
12                                                                                               CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal   page 13
What Now?
 Ed Rosenthal                                  time the jury members read a letter of           “The other victims of today’s decision
 Despite the best efforts of the U.S.          apology to Mr. Rosenthal, and then read          are patients… because I am only one of
 Attorney’s Office to incarcerate him          a statement endorsed by 8 of the 12              many people that they are trying to put
 immediately, Ed Rosenthal was allowed         jurors demanding a new trial for Mr.             in jail for helping sick people.
 to remain free on $200,000 bail, pending      Rosenthal.                                       My case clearly demonstrates that it is
 his sentencing on three federal counts of     “Federal prosecutors made extraordi-             time for a national debate on the issue of
 marijuana cultivation, which is sched-        nary efforts to block the truth, the whole       medical marijuana… The federal gov-
 uled for June 4th, 2003. The sentencing       truth and nothing but the truth. Because         ernment is choosing to prosecute and
 range is from a minimum of 5 years to         the truth is that I was deputized by the         imprison individuals instead of work-
 more than 80, with possible fines of sev-     City of Oakland to legally grow marijua-         ing… to resolve the conflicts in medical
 eral million dollars.                         na for medicinal use by sick or dying            marijuana law. Because helping sick
 After the hearing, six jurors met with        patients. Had the jury known about the           people should never be a crime.” - Ed
 Mr. Rosenthal, his family, defense attor-     City’s attempts to give immunity to their        Rosenthal.
 neys and selected supporters before           people, including me, it would have              *Excerpts for this article are from the
 holding an unprecedented press confer-        acquitted me today,” stated Ed in his            Green Aid website “Rosenthal Trial
 ence outside the federal building. At this    interview of January 31st, 2003.                 Diary” and “Statement on the Verdict”.

     Cannabis Growing
     Licensing in the Netherlands                                   manufacturing med-
                                                                    ical cannabis prod-
                                                                                                welcomed the announcement of
                                                                                                Scholten’s new agency, hoping they
 by Allen Town                                 ucts. They will stimulate high quality trials    would be able to sell pot to the govern-
 A change of the Dutch law on controlled       that can be done with several dosage             ment instead of just to coffeeshops.
 substances (Opium Act) will take effect on    forms of varying composition for multiple        “We’ll order cannabis from private grow-
 March 17th, 2003. It includes regulations     indications.                                     ers,” Scholten said. “The Office will have
 for applications regarding the cultivation    “We are guided by a scientific advisory          the sole responsibility for importing,
 of cannabis for medicinal purposes and        board,” said Dutch official Willem               exporting, selling and storing cannabis,
 guidelines for cultivating cannabis.          Scholten.“The board members are health           cannabis resin and their preparations. It
 Applications for an Opium Act exemption       care inspectors specialized in clinical trials   will also be the licensing authority for
 regarding cannabis will be handled by the     and narcotics, a neurologist, a pharmacog-       these substances. Dutch law requires
 Office of Medicinal Cannabis (BMC) of the     nosist, a lawyer and representatives of the      licenses of those who grow cannabis.
 Health Ministry. All cannabis cultivated by   Multiple Sclerosis Patients Association          Our Office will give these licenses to grow-
 applicants has to be sold to the BMC.         and the HIV Patients Association.”               ers who have contracts with the Office.
 The Office will act as a regulator for        (Scholten said a “pharmacognosist” is a          Growers will be screened before they are
 cannabis horticulture, cannabis resin and     pharmacologist who specializes in herbal         contracted. The contract conditions will
 related substances for clinical trials.       medicines).                                      require that contractors sell their entire
 Private companies will be in charge of        Dutch marijuana growers enthusiastically         crops to the government.
                                                                                                 Medicinal cannabis must be organically
                                                                                                 grown, free of contaminants and proper-
                                                                                                 ly processed. Growers will be subject to
                                                                                                 grow room inspections, quality controls,
                                                                                                 and will be required to sell their entire
                                                                                                 crop to our agency. The need for medici-
                                                                                                 nal cannabis depends on the number
                                                                                                 and size of the clinical trials that will be
                                                                                                 done. We don’t expect that a large
                                                                                                 amount of cannabis will be needed in the
                                                                                                 next few years.”
                                                                                                 The guidelines for cannabis cultivation
                                                                                                 have been derived from the general rules
                                                                                                 for Good Agricultural Practice of the
                                                                                                 Working Group on Herbal Medicinal
                                                                                                 Products of the European Medicines
                                                                                                 Evaluation Agency (EMEA).
                                                                                                 They describe requirements for cultiva-
                                                                                                 tion, harvesting and primary processing,
                                                                                                 ensuring that the cannabis is produced
                                                                                                 under conditions that ensure that the
                                                                                                 therapeutic properties of the end product
                                                                                                 are constant and reproducible.

14                                                                           CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
                             According to      homogenized, pasteurized, preserved           range from sassy soups to apple pie, to
                             the     World     or had chemicals added, this always           almond milk and cheese. The extensive
                             H e a l t h       causes a rise in the number of white          collection of tried and tasteful recipes,
                             Organization,     cells in the blood. This is a phenome-        tested and tasted by the author, Elyse
                             toxins in the     non called “digestive leukocytosis”.          Nuff S.T., R.F., will make living a
                             air        we     Eating unaltered, raw and low temper-         lifestyle of raw foods easy and appealing
                             breathe, the      ature heated food did not cause the           for families of all ages.
                             water      we     reaction in the blood.                        The book offers readers more than just
                             drink, and the    Diet improvement is a major weapon            recipes. It has comprehensive explana-
food we eat, cause nearly 80% of can-          against disease, from the common cold         tions, in layman’s terms, which explain
cers. We cook, process and radiate our         to cancer. Whole, raw food nutrition          how our bodies work and what they
food until it is altered into chemical sub-    allows the body to use its built-in           require. This book provides all the
stances that the body cannot digest, and,      restorative and repairing abilities. A        research and facts needed to make life-
in fact, treats as poison. In 1930, studies    healthy diet can intervene in the disease     changing decisions about our diets. The
by Dr. Paul Kouchakoff, at the Swiss           process at many stages, from its incep-       book outlines all the necessary vitamins,
Institute of Chemistry, studied human          tion to its growth and spread. Fresh          minerals and essential nutrients that
blood and documented the effects of            fruits and vegetables top the list of heal-   human beings require daily. Alive’n Raw
cooked and processed food versus raw           ing foods.                                    takes the difficulty and confusion out of
and natural food on the immune system.         Alive’n Raw is a raw foodist book that        a raw food lifestyle and makes it easy
If a food had been heated beyond a cer-        will be essential for a natural lifestyle     and practical for readers to begin to
tain temperature, as low as 110˚F, or          kitchen. This easy to read book contains      change their life.
even worse, was processed, refined,            recipes for your eating delight, that

 Truly remarcable!
 From cookies and lollypops to gourmet         across Canada. If you have a license and      ting,” says Marc,“I can’t do it alone, and I
 specialties and concentrates, remarcable      are interested, you can start a Remarcable    don’t have the resources to do it all.” If
 foods is making access to medication sim-     Foods cottage industry in your own com-       you are interested in Marc’s products,
 pler for many people. Marc has created a      munity by baking/cooking fresh food to a      starting your own cottage industry, or to
 line of strong medical cannabis food -        local customer base of individuals with a     join his company contact Marc through
 which can be delivered across Canada to       prescription. There are literally hundreds    his website.
 prescription holders. His new website:        of great tasting recipes for breakfast, will have all            lunch, supper, and every snack in                     Available Now! New Book!
 kinds of recipes for foods that use the       between. Marc’s dream is to have                 “Alive’n Raw” As Nature Intended,
 concentrate he makes. The site tells peo-     enough of a customer base to support a                   by Elyse Nyff S.T.,R.F., CHC
                                                                                             Information on raw food and its effects on your
 ple how to use the concentrates and           Remarcable Foods restaurant/catering
                                                                                               health. Supporting recipes to give you great
 effectively manage dose control.              service in every town in Canada.“Within         tasting meals. A must read for all wanting to
 A sample is a smoothie shake with con-        a couple of months the rules are chang-           improve their health and/or health issues.
 centrate     and Tropicana         Orange     ing, and there will be opportunities to         To get yours, call: 1-250-878-2659
 Strawberry Banana juice. It is the best       respond from the exposure we are get-             or check your local book store.
 tasting smoothie you’ve ever had and it
 has the same dose as a strong cookie.
 Take this smoothie, add equal parts of
 ice cream, run it through a blender till it
 starts to whip, pour it into popsicle
 molds and freeze - now you have the
 best tasting creamsicle you’ve ever had!
 You can buy the concentrates, use the
 recipes, create your own, or buy the fin-
 ished product all through this website.
 Marc is interested in sharing his knowl-
 edge with other enterprising people

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                             15
                                      Ask Dr. Ethan                                                   for HCV:
                                      Medicine is     was without having the cough myself. I          ery.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&
                                      an     ever-    then gave it to my kids, the youngest
                                                      being about 8 years old when I started          Interferons are natural or synthetic sub-
                                      science.        using it. I noticed that by the second
                                      While sug-                                                      stances based on substances secreted in
                                                      time my kids would cough, it would be           tiny amounts by white blood cells. In
                                      gestions for
                                                      weaker and usually subside quickly.             large amounts, they have antiviral prop-
                                      use        of   Since then I have suggested it to other         erties. Fortunately, cannabis has rela-
                                      cannabis        people and everyone is amazed that it           tively few drug interactions, notably an
                                      or     other    works so quickly, in less than a minute.        increase in sleepiness if combined with
  Dr. Ethan Russo
                                   drugs may be       We later tried to see if there were any of      sedative medications. I am not aware of
 made herein, this forum is designed solely for       the “stoned” effects and there were none        specific problems with cannabis and
 educational purposes, and neither the author,        for my wife (who is very sensitive to           PegIntron.
 publisher, nor other parties, will assume any        cannabis) or myself. I, being a chronic
 liability whatever for application or misappli-                                                      It is distinctly possible that cannabis
                                                      cannabis smoker, also had far less              itself has beneficial effects on the course
 cation of any information imparted. We cannot        instances of colds and recovered quicker
 claim scientific proof or accuracy of the materi-                                                    of HCV. In a recent experiment designed
                                                      when I did get them over the 20 years           to assess the effects of “drug of abuse”on
 al discussed, and no warranty, expressed or
 implied is advanced with regard to the infor-        than anyone else in our family. What is         HCV patients, clinical cannabis patients
 mation. Cannabis is illegal in most jurisdic-        the connection?                                 actually had an improved response to
 tions, and the reader must apply awareness of        A 1:                                            interferon treatment! It is likely that the
 this fact when considering its usage. Medical        What you describe is interesting.               immunomodulatory effects of cannabis
 use of cannabis may or may not be a viable           Cannabis is a known bronchodilator via          are helpful in reducing autoimmune
 legal defense where you reside. Canadian clini-      THC itself, and pinene, a terpenoid             damage in this and other diseases.
 cal cannabis patients are encouraged to seek         essential oil component.
 exemptions under existing law from Health
                                                                                                      A more focused research project on HCV
                                                      The tincture might work so fast because         and cannabis usage is now underway
 Canada. The proper forms and procedures are          of sublingual absorption, or actual fumes
 available on their web site. Full disclosure and                                                     with the University of California, San
                                                      being inhaled. Asthma increases suscep-         Francisco and Philippe Lucas of
 discussion of medical issues with your health
 care providers is encouraged, as is proper edu-
                                                      tibility to colds and other respiratory ill-    Vancouver Island Compassion Club
 cation with respect to effects and side effects of   nesses, so prevention of it might lead to       Society ( to
 existing medication.                                 better overall health. It is unfortunate        more closely examine the issue.
                                                      that it remains illegal and unavailable for
 Q 1:
                                                      prescription.                                   Q 3:
 Shortly after I had started smoking
 cannabis 30 years ago, a friend who had                                                              Hello, I have a question that needs a pro-
                                                      Q 2:                                            fessional to answer. Is it more potent
 asthma started smoking also. I don’t
                                                      My Husband has hep-C and is taking              and will you get more of a “buzz” if you
 remember exactly how long after he
                                                      PegIntron and others, he is having lots of      hold in the smoke after you inhale a drag
 started, that he noticed a reduction in
                                                      nausea and has lost weight from loss of         of a marijuana joint? I keep having the
 his asthma attacks and the need for
                                                      appetite, we would like to find out more        same debate, with this question.
 using his inhaler. I was only in contact
                                                      about medical marijuana as a treatment          A 3:
 with him for about another year or so,
                                                      for him.                                        This is an important issue. As you know,
 but I seemed to remember him saying
                                                      A 2:                                            I do not recommend smoking of
 that he didn’t have problems any more.
                                                      You are wise to be cautious. Hepatitis C        cannabis, but rather favour vapouriza-
 Some years later when I had children of
                                                      is an increasingly prevalent and disturb-       tion, use of sublingual tinctures and sim-
 my own, they were having the dry hack-
                                                      ing affliction in our society. The answer       ilar alternative delivery systems. If
 ing kind of cough that started when they
                                                      to your question is still in evolution. It is   people are going to smoke, however, the
 would lay down to go to sleep. We could
                                                      clear from various surveys that cannabis        great efficiency of the lungs as an
 find no off-the-shelf or prescribed reme-
                                                      is a very frequently employed remedy by         absorbtion system for drugs permits
 dy that was effective.
                                                      HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) patients to             good results with a short exposure.
 It was then that I remembered my friend
                                                      combat nausea and weight loss. You may          According to results of a 1995 study,
 from my teenage years. Knowing that
                                                      access patient testimonials at Lester           subjective high and serum THC levels do
 some extracts of the plant dissolve in
                                                      Grinspoon’s Marihuana: The Forbidden            not increase beyond a maximum 10-sec-
 water and others dissolve in alcohol, I
                                                      Medicine         website by plugging            ond inhalation, or “toke”:
 put about a quarter ounce of sifted bud
                                                      “Hepatitis C” into the search engine  
 and hash-like powder in 16oz of vodka,
 let it sit for a day and then tried a tea-
                                                      /shtml.exe/search.htm                           list_uids=7853169&dopt=Abstract
 spoon of it myself first. Almost immedi-
                                                      Peginterferon alfa-2b or PegIntron is a         This shorter toke duration will help
 ately I noticed a relaxation in my lungs
                                                      relatively new immunological treatment          avoid needless pulmonary irritation and
 and opening of my breathing, and that
16                                                                                 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
                                                                                      a s k            d r.        e t h a n
 risk of damage in chronic usage.             rather, is minimal. The heat of smoking           tences in the courts.
 While we’re at it, another myth con-         has pretty much destroyed available               For more information on clinical
 cerns “roaches”. These are much prized       THC. Should a person be apprehended               cannabis delivery systems, see:
 and hoarded by some, but should be dis-      for alleged cannabis crimes, this useless
 carded. Contrary to popular belief, their    material will be added to the weight of           usso-AAPM_chapter.pdf
 THC content is not enhanced, but             seized material and lead to longer sen-

    Canna – Biz
    What other plant, anywhere in the          Canna – food: chocolate, coffee, jel-
    world, can possibly do what cannabis       lies, sour gums, lollypops, chewing
    does? Cannabis, and its cousin hemp,       gum, flour, seeds, salsa, tortilla chips,
    is capable of producing a wide variety     oil, pasta, tortilla wraps, hemp milk,
    of products virtually unheard of in any    salad dressing, snack bars, hulled
    other single plant. All of the products    seeds.
    listed below are in production across      Canna-medicine:           essential     oil,
    the world.                                 lozenges, massage oil, smoke.
    Canna – drinks: wine, beer, vodka,         Canna – stuff: cat litter, small animal
    pop.                                       litter, clothing, jewellery, bed linen, pil-
    Canna – beauty: seed oils, soaps, lip      lows, diapers, paper, envelopes, jour-
    balm, body products, shampoo, condi-       nals, rope, dog and cat leashes and
    tioner, perfume, after-shave.              collars, string.
                                        Pictured to the right: B.C.’s home-made cannabis wine

   Marinol is an FDA-approved drug containing the principal
   active ingredient (THC) found naturally in the marijuana
   plant and most drug stores. Despite Federal Drug
   Administration approval of synthetic THC, marijuana is clas-
   sified as a Schedule 1 drug. Physicians cannot prescribe
   Schedule 1 drugs, including marijuana, because such drugs
   are generally thought to have no medicinal value.
   Marinol costs the average AIDS or cancer patient $6,000 a
   year (e.g. lOOmg b.i.d. @$400 for 30 tablets, $9,600) and
   comes in dosages of 2.5, 5 and 10 milligrams. The marijua-
   na plant grows naturally and abundantly in much of the
   U.S., making the drug very affordable and nearly without
   cost to those who grow their own, except for the economic
   impact of prohibition that dramatically increases the cost of
   marijuana on the black market.

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                   17
     Operation Pipe Dreams
 By Arlene Smith                                 sell their weapons to criminals or encour-      Drug paraphernalia is any equipment,
 Attorney General John Ashcroft and              age customers to commit murder.                 product or material that is employed for
 Acting DEA Administrator John Brown             This war on illicit sites is equally misguid-   making, using, or concealing illegal drugs
 announced the indictment of over 50             ed.The sites are no more harmful than the       and generally falls into two categories:
 individuals and companies on charges of         retail shops are. Consumers can safely          • User-specific products are marketed to
 trafficking in illegal drug paraphernalia on    shop from their home or at a local store        drug users to assist them in taking or con-
 February 24th, 2003. The charges are the        without being exposed to criminal ele-          cealing illegal drugs. Pipes, smoking
 culmination of two nationwide investiga-        ments. In contrast, take for example the        masks, bongs, marijuana grow kits, roach
 tions code-named “Operation Pipe                site <>. Not only         clips, and items such as hollowed out cos-
 Dreams” and “Operation Headhunter” and          do they offer gun silencers, there are          metic cases or fake pagers used to con-
 include indictments against national dis-       explicit directions on how to obtain the        ceal drugs can be included in this
 tributors of drug paraphernalia and busi-       necessary paperwork and background              category.
 nesses - freezing their assets and closing      check in order to purchase a silencer           • Dealer-specific products are used by
 the businesses down.                            online. It seems that obtaining a gun with      drug traffickers for preparing drugs for
 Because of these closures, many people          a silencer is less harmful to society than      distribution at the street level. Scales,
 are now out of work, and the local              the fellow taking his medicine in the com-      vials, and even sandwich bags fall into
 economies of every city where business-         fort of his own home.                           this category.
 es like these were targeted has slowed.         Sentencing for these crimes seems a little      Under the Federal Drug Paraphernalia
 And worse, since these operations do            stiff when compared to those received by        Statute, which is part of the Controlled
 nothing to reduce the drug supply, there        violent offenders. In a recent conviction,      Substances Act, it is illegal to possess, sell,
 will be absolutely no effect on the reduc-      Chris Hill of Chills Pipes was sentenced to     transport, import, or export drug para-
 tion of drug sales. The whole notion that       one year at the Eglin prison facility. But      phernalia. Paraphernalia is subject to
 putting a purveyor of glass pipes out of        Federal law allows for a maximum sen-           seizure and forfeiture upon conviction.
 business will prevent even a single per-        tence of 3 years in prison, and/or a fine of    Seized paraphernalia is delivered to the
 son from using drugs is simply ludicrous.       $250,000.                                       General Services Administration, who may
 Nor will it, as John Walters (Director of       In an era where hospitals, schools, lunch       order it destroyed or authorize its use for
 the National Drug Control Policy) states,       programs, seniors and disability pro-           law enforcement or educational purposes
 “protect our young people from the              grams, homeless shelters, parks, and a          by Federal, State, or local authorities.
 harms of illegal drugs.”                        slew of other endeavours are hungry for         According to Eric Chase of the Chase Law
 According to John Brown, “people selling        aid, the use of federal money for these         Group, ( there
 drug paraphernalia are in essence no dif-       operations seems wasteful. The cost of          are 3 important points to remember for
 ferent than drug dealers, they are as much      policing and court processes couldn’t           those who believe they may be contacted
 a part of drug trafficking as silencers are a   likely be recovered in crime reduction          by the DEA:
 part of criminal homicide. These criminals      when targeting paraphernalia suppliers          • Do not talk to the investigators for any
 operate a multi-million dollar enterprise,      and manufacturers. It seems no one told         reason without an attorney present.
 selling their paraphernalia in head shops,      these lawmakers that pot could be               • Do not consent to any search of your
 distributing out of huge warehouses, and        smoked in a corncob pipe too! Ah, but           property. Of course, if they have a warrant
 using the worldwide web as a worldwide          tobacco pipes are not targeted. Sure they       your consent is not necessary for them to
 paraphernalia market. With Operations           can be used for pot, and though tobacco         conduct the search.
 Pipe Dreams and Headhunter, these crimi-        is just as harmful - possibly more harmful      • Consult an attorney now - steps you take
 nals are out of business and 11 illicit         - than pot, it is not illegal.                  before being contacted may be the best
 dot.coms are dot.gone.”                         One can also argue that medical marijua-        protection you have.
 The Federal operations are sadly misguid-       na is now legalized for patients. Yet those
                                                 patients are not allowed legal access to        Resources:
 ed and are an example of bureaucracy run                                              
 amuck.While it is likely that producers and     either their medicine or smoking aides. In
 suppliers were aware the products were          this light, these Federal operations can be
 used as drug paraphernalia, the products        seen as an infringement on the medical
 are not usually sold as such, nor do suppli-    user’s rights.                        
 ers usually facilitate such activities. In a    What exactly is considered drug para- 

 similar vein, the firearm companies do not      phernalia?

18                                                                             CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
                                                   Brother’, big time!                           CH: Well, just from the internet and chat
                                                   CH: I heard they were taking assets.          lines where people are discussing, the
                                                   Steve: Yes, they are confiscating the pos-    next round will be early April and they
                                                  session of the URL’s and literally taking      are looking to expand their target to
Nothing to                                        over the domain name, (which is some-          include more portions of the network
Celebrate about!                                  body’s private property) without due           that they feel supports the illegal activity.
Celebration Pipes advertised in our first issue   process. They pick the biggest ones. We        So, one wonders where they will attack
and was one of the businesses affected by         are strictly a home-based business. I do       next. Will it be the print media, or the
“Operation Pipe Dreams” Cannabis Health           about 4,000 pieces a year & that’s it. Now     hydroponic stores…?
contacted owner Steve Lach to find out first-     these guys have factories, you know, they      Steve: It is hard to say, because I don’t see
hand what happened.                               have some major operations. And they did       how they could have the manpower. As far
CH: Catch you at a bad time?                      that to send a message, in my opinion.The      as I know, there are approx. 10,000 hydro
Steve: No, I was just busy in the little shop     thing that bugs me though, is that the         shops around the country.
trying to get things out of here.That’s basi-     web is supposed to be free and is sup-         The print media, for me, and in America,
cally what we have been doing the last            posed to be the ultimate tool for mankind      well, that would probably be the last thing
10 days.                                          to communicate, and now it has become          they would attack. It is against the first
CH: So, tell me what happened.                    the ultimate enemy.                            amendment. But if they go to war and too
Steve: On Monday they raided 55-60 dif-           Now, I am 50 years old, and I grew up on       many nasty things happen here, they can
ferent people and businesses all across           the Constitution. And I grew up as a           always call martial law, which would be a
the US.,closed down various peoples’web-          Republican, okay? (chuckles) And I have to     sad state of affairs.
sites and then they redirected the sites of       say that something is wrong in ‘Bean           CH: Have you thought of relocating to
the biggest people, like Tommy Chong              Town’, something’s really wrong.               Canada with your business?
and all these big glass pipe guys, directly       CH: Well, it certainly has been the enemy to   Steve: I have a window where I can come
to the DEA, so they can capture anybody           the government, shutting down 55 sites.        up in a couple of days. I have a friend in
web surfing.                                      Steve: More! I heard, many more. Well, I’m     Washington who may be willing to split
CH: Isn’t that entrapment?                        one of them. They didn’t physically shut       the cost of moving with me, and we could
Steve: Well, actually they are just building      me down, but I did. Because the penalty        get a house with a garage that could be
a catalogue of people to go and run down          for carrying on is 3 years in jail and         converted into a studio ....
to where all the computers are. It’s ‘Big         $250,000.

                         The SOS co-op is made up of medical
                          users and growers. The seeds you will
                         receive will be of the finest quality un-
                           named indoor and outdoor strains
                        available earning the fine reputation of
                                        BC Bud.
                      Many of the strains selectively bred by the
                 same growers for up to 20 years!
   When ordering indicate preference for indoor, outdoor, sati-
    va, or indica. If you have a favorite strain, we will make
            every effort to match it as close as possible.
                $25 for 10 indoor or outdoor seeds.
   (specify indoor or outdoor) Taxes and shipping (for Canada) included

            Send cheque or money order to S0S c/o
    P.O. Box 2320 Grand Forks BC V0H 1H0

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                              19
Cannabis Clinic
                                                Letter to Michael.                                      Potato Bugs: For those who have access to
                                                Thank you for your informative article on               hemp leaves; make a strong tea of these
                                                Compost Tea in issue 2, page 24. Shortly                leaves and spray it on potato plants that
                                                after, we came across the following excerpt             have been visited by Colorado Potato bugs.
                                                published in “Eco Farm and Garden -                     I do not know why, but it seems to kill off
                                                Canada’s National Organic Magazine”                     the bugs. Second and third applications
                                                (winter 2000, vol. 3, No. 1, pg. 29) in it’s col-       deter/discourage/destroy new arrival. I saw
                                                umn “Organic tips” reader’s tips are sent in
                                                                    ,                                   this in a hemp network on uses of hemp in
                                                & chosen for the column.The following is a              Europe. A friend of mine has actually used it
                                                direct quote:“Hemp Leaf Tea Discourages                 and says it worked.

     Michael Straumietis

     Macronutrient and Micronutrient
     Deficiencies and Identification
                                                garden a few times a week and pick                      patches that are a dull, dark green to
                                                off these nutrient-deficient leaves.                    bluish green, in severe cases older
                                                Nitrogen excess will turn the foliage a                 leaves and petioles turning reddish
                                                very dark green, which may make the                     purple caused by accumulations of
                                                plant susceptible to drought, disease                   anthocyanin. Younger leaves may be
                                                and insect invasion, with a lowering of                 yellowish green with purplish veins
                                                bud and THC production. Cannabis                        when nitrogen is also deficient, and
                                                loves nitrogen, it is primary for its                   darker green veins when phosphorus
                                                plant growth, photosynthesis and                        is deficient. Necrotic (dead areas)
                                                reproduction. Cannabis converts                         spots occur on the leaves’ margins in
                                                nitrogen to make proteins and is                        the advanced stages. Leaf tips can
                                                essential to new cell growth. Nitrogen                  look burned as well. Phosphorus defi-
                                                is mainly for leaf and stem growth, as                  ciency is most common when pH is
     Nitrogen                                   well as overall size and vigour.                        above 7 or below 5.5. Phosphorus will
                                                Nitrogen moves easily to active young                   bind with soil very easily. Excess phos-
     (N) (mobile in plant) (mobile in soil)
                                                buds, shoots and leaves and slower to                   phorus could cause micro nutrient
     Nitrogen deficiency in cannabis will       older leaves. Nitrogen is incorporated                  deficiencies in zinc and iron. Cannabis
     show first in older leaves as a light      into molecules and is involved in the                   uses phosphorus for photosynthesis,
     green overall appearance. As symp-         structure of all amino acids, multiple                  respiration, storing carbohydrates, cell
     toms progress, leaves turn to a yellow     enzymes (which are specialized pro-
     colour and stems become weak and           teins and serve to lower energy
     lower leaves drop off, necrosis (dead      requirements that perform many
     leaf areas) of the older leaves, new       duties inside the plants), proteins and
     growth becomes weak and spindly,           nucleic acid which are needed for all
     and restricted growth of tops and          cell division and reproduction.
     roots, especially lateral shoots. When
     plants are in the mid to later flowering
     stages, older growth and fan leaves        (P) (mobile in plant, immobile in soil)
     will show nitrogen deficiency. This is     Phosphorous deficiency in cannabis
     normal during that stage of bud            will show up in older growth first, with
     development (they are using up their       the leaf tips possibly curling down-
     nutrient and carbohydrate reserves to      wards. When phosphorus is deficient,
     produce buds). As the leaves turn          slow and spindly reduced growth will
     completely yellow, go through your         be noticed. Leaf damage is usually
22                                                                                      C A N N A B I S H E A LT H t h e m e d i c a l m a r i j u a n a j o u r n a l
 division, it is also involved in energy     chlorosis starting at the base of the
 transportation (ATP, ADP), nucleic          leaf. Older leaves may show red pig-
 acids, enzymes and phospholipids            mentation and leaves could curl
 that are important for membrane             upwards. Excess potassium can cause
 structure. Phosphorus helps build           deficiencies in calcium and magne-
 strong roots, is vital for seed and         sium uptake. Potassium maintains
 flower production. Highest levels of        water regulation in cells (ionic bal-
 phosphorus are used during germina-         ance), cell strength, transpiration, pho-
 tion, seedling growth and flowering.        tosynthesis and activates the
 However, that does not mean that            manufacture and movement of carbo-
 cannabis is a phosphorus hog. It is not.    hydrate (energy) and starches, potassi-
 It consumes more potassium and              um is very important in quality bud
 nitrogen and magnesium than phos-           development. Enzyme activity and
 phorus. It will use more phosphorus in      sugar translocation regulates the             young leaves. Molybdenum is very
 flowering than in its vegetative            opening and closing of the stomata.           rarely deficient in cannabis. Chlorosis
 (growth) stage. Also, excess phospho-       Adequate potassium increases a                symptoms similar to nitrogen with
 rus can cause a decrease in uptake of       plant’s resistance to disease, drought        marginal scorching and strapping.
 zinc, iron and copper, which will start a   and frost. Potassium encourages               Generally occurs when sulfur and
 chain reaction of other macro and           strong root growth and water uptake           phosphorus are deficient, interveinal
 micro nutrient deficiencies. Cold tem-      that triggers enzymes that fight dis-         yellow spotting and mottling of older
 peratures of 55 degrees Fahrenheit or       eases. Cannabis consumes a very large         leaves. Deficiency shows as pale
 12 degrees Celsius will have a nega-        amount of potassium both in the veg-          leaves like nitrogen deficiency with
 tive effect on phosphorus uptake.           etative and flowering stages.                 some marginal leaf chlorosis. New
                                                                                           leaves may twist and leaves may cup
                                             Molybdenum (Mb)
                                                                                           and thicken. Excessive molybdenum
                                             (mobile in plant, immobile in low pH soils)
                                                                                           in cannabis will look like iron or cop-
                                             Molybendum deficiency in cannabis             per deficiency. Molybdenum is need-
                                             will show up in older and middle-aged         ed for the reduction of absorbed
                                             leaves first, then progressing to the         nitrates into ammonia prior to incor-

 Potassium (K)
 (mobile in plant, immobile in soil)
 Potassium deficiency in cannabis
 will show first in older leaves with
 yellowing, singed or scorching of leaf
 margins with small necrotic (dead)
 areas (they can start small and grow
 big), stems can become brittle with
 withering leaf tips. Growth slows
 down, especially in the vegetative
 stage and slows growth of flowers in
 bloom with possible interveinal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                   23
 Cannabis Clinic
 poration into an amino acid. It per-       Boron                                      margins discolour and die back in
 forms this function as part of the         (B) (immobile in plant, mobile in soil)    spots. Necrotic spots develop
 enzyme nitrate reductase. In addition                                                 between leaf veins. Deficient leaves
 to direct plant functions, molybde-        Boron deficiencies in cannabis will        become thick, wilt with necrotic and
 num is also essential for nitrogen fixa-   show up first in younger leaves (they      chlorotic spotting. Boron is poorly
 tion by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.          will turn yellow), then moves upwards.     absorbed with low potassium content.
                                            Boron deficiency can resemble calci-       Excessive boron is similar to calcium
                                            um deficiency. Stunting, discoloura-       deficiency and boron deficiency. This
                                            tion, possible death of the growing        is not a misprint! Excessive boron can
                                            tips, bud abortion and development.        resemble boron deficiency. Cannabis
                                            Roots are stunted with swollen stubby      uses boron for sugar transport within
                                            secondary roots, leaves distorted,         the plant. It has a role in cell division
                                            sometimes bronzed or scorched.Tip of       and is required for the production of
                                            the shoot dies; stems and petioles are     certain amino acids, although it is not
                                            brittle. Boron deficiency symptoms         a part of any amino acid, it also affects
                                            first appear at the growing points.This    pollination, seed production, carbohy-
                                            results in short internodes (rosetting)    drate synthesis and transportation,
                                            and stunted appearance. Both the pith      (division, differentiation, maturation,
                                            and epidermis of stems may be affect-      respiration and growth) and it regu-
                                            ed as exhibited by hollow stems to         lates water uptake.
                                            roughened and cracked stems. Leaf
                                            Join me in issue #5 to find out about other macro and micro
                                            nutrient deficiencies that can affect your cannabis plants.

     This Medical Marijuana was grown with
         Advanced Nutrients 2+ Program!

24                                                                        CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal   25
 The Cost of Compassion
 By Don Appleby                                   free medicine to our legitimately sick and      your senate has spoken and I hear your cit-
 Is it just me or is anyone else alarmed by       dying people. I am an aids survivor and on      izens calling and you can’t avoid this issue
 the current state of our medical marijuana       a cocktail of drugs totalling some $1,800       any longer. Action must be taken - and
 movement? Apparently, if you live in B.C.,       per month and I am a licensed medical           taken now, not later. The sick must be
 life is much different than in the rest of the   marijuana grower going broke trying to          allowed their medication and it can’t be on
 country. In B.C., compassion prices are          fill a 10g/day prescription. After I pay my     a paid for basis. Because there is no money
 cheaper than if you live in Montreal and         rent, hydro, telephone, internet and cable,     to be made in compassion, just a heck of a
 pay $12 - $15/gram. The tendency is now          I am busted and can’t afford food and           lot of sick people that require medicine.
 towards buyers’ clubs and each major city        depend on hand-outs from the food               But they do need corporate Canada to
 has one, but the farther you get from the        banks. Some sick people are losing their        step up and foot some of the cost associat-
 cities, the more you pay. Ask someone in         homes and others are being forced into a        ed with growing and running operations
 Sudbury or Timmin’s what they are paying         life of crime to pay for their medicine. We     like the compassion clubs so that we the
 for their medicine. The real question is:        need to put politics aside and do the right     sick can get our medicine. And we need to
 who can afford the medicine and who              thing for the sake of our sick and terminal-    get criminals away from the growing of
 cannot, and how are they supposed to pay         ly ill citizens. At least the senate did its    our medicine.The sick need closure on this
 for it once they get their doctors to pre-       homework when they interviewed every-           issue so that they can get on with whatev-
 scribe it? Sick people are having to defend      one from Holland before they recom-             er life they have left and not have to worry
 compassion clubs because they are forced         mended total legalization. Way to go,           constantly about going broke. Time is run-
 to deal with the black market and a gov-         senator Nolan! The Dutch would love to          ning out for a lot of us.
 ernment that refuses to take action on           help us out if we could stop playing poli-      Rev Don Appleby - Aids survivor and federal
 behalf of its sick and dying citizens.           tics with the lives of our sick, but no, that   medical marijuana exemptee and grower of first
 Something is radically wrong with this           would be illegal and why is that illegal? Ask   generation Dutch medicine. www.themarijua-
 country when we can’t give away enough           George W. to the South. Well, Mr. Chretien,

 The Cost of Growing
  Much debate has been held over the cost         $200/oz. At 1oz per week, that ads up to        Knowledge gained through growing will
  of medical grade marijuana. Some say it         $10,400 per year to buy off the street.         result in larger crops as time goes by.
  grows by itself and should be free and          Equipment costs for growing are average         The end cost of growing $10,400 worth of
  some hold the opposite opinion.                 and prices may vary depending on where          medical grade marijuana is about $5,000.
  Cannabis Health Journal decided to find         you shop. The chart below does not take         It would take 6 to 8 months of successful
  out, did their research and produced this       into consideration the possibility of crop      growing to break even on the cost of
  chart on the cost of growing enough             problems due to molds, insects or a vari-       growing to fill a 4g/day (1oz per week)
  marijuana to fulfill a 4g/day prescription,     ety of other things that modify the             prescription.
  compared to buying it at a cost of              amount your harvest.

page 26                                                                        CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal   27
                           “Shared Risk” Models for Medicinal Commercialization
                           A revolutionary      Building on opportunities created by           products compounded by these people.
                           idea for cannabis    shared storage and ownership, the              Licences like those used for industrial
                           production is the    Weyburn Inland Terminal has added              hemp with a mandatory inventory audit
                           “Cannabis            other services such as specialty crops         trail in place would be satisfactory in
                           Condo”. This is      processing and livestock feed pellet           meeting regulatory concerns. As for
                           not a piece of       manufacture. The model is now the              cannabis production, it is best regulated
                           leaky West Coast     industry standard.                             by Agriculture Canada with variety spe-
  Morris Johnson           Real       Estate    Cannabis                                       cific regulations. The Natural Health
                           equipped with        as a Natural Health Product                    Product regulations take effect post-har-
 grow lights, but a production model that       Currently cannabis is regulated by the         vest. All cannabis should be immediate-
 preserves identity and allows for tailored     Health Canada’s Office of Controlled           ly “grand-fathered” into the NHP
 production to meet user needs. The model       Substances. Ideally, it should be regulated    pharmacopia.
 adapts a storage system designed for the       as a Natural Health Product (NHP) under        Health Care: who pays?
 grain industry. In 1992, the Weyburn           the specific direction of users under the      Health Canada/Medicare funds random-
 Inland Terminal created a legal and busi-      supervision of their health care practition-   ized trials and criteria based rationing for
 ness template through their “Grain             er. The proposed NHP regulations (see          high cost Rx drugs, partial coverage for
 Condominium” concept. Spaces in grain        most older low-cost drugs and forces users
 condos are owned directly by farmers; the      dpsn) seem workable.                           to pay for everything else themselves. The
 condos allow for off-farm storage near the     These regulations place requirements on        question is, who pays how much and how
 elevator, giving farmers much more mar-        persons who sell NHPs, namely manu-            all parties can work together to minimize
 ket flexibility.                               facturers, distributors, importers, pack-      total costs.
 To copy this model for medicinal cannabis,     agers and labelers. The regulations also       Medicare coverage triggers must include
 cannabis users would own their own grow        considers that growers who handle              improvements in psychological and physi-
 chambers or grow plots and maintain            and/or treat a product in order to pre-        cal health, financial analysis (pharmaco-
 them either personally or on a mainte-         serve the integrity of the raw material,       economics), reduced social support costs
 nance contract. Each user would choose         are not considered manufacturers.              and increased earning power for the
 specific seeds, grow conditions, nutrients,    Heath care practitioners (for example,         patient. The social, medical and economic
 primary or finished product processing         pharmacists, Aboriginal healers, tradi-        and political aspects must focus on indi-
 methods. Similar to grain condos, excess       tional Chinese medicine (TCM) practi-          vidual patient satisfaction. Unfortunately,
 production can be bartered/traded to avoid     tioners, herbalists, naturopathic doctors,     patients cannot pro-rate payment for 3rd
 crop failure, and to allow for uninterrupt-    etc.) who compound products at the             party or public funded services to ensure
 ed supply; as well the condo could also pro-   request of a patient, are not included         satisfactory service. Pharmaco-economics
 vide opportunities to create blends from       within the manufacturer definition and         analyze all costs to access cannabis for a
 more than one variety.                         therefore the regulations do not apply to      user as well as society over a lifetime vs
                                                                                               the costs if none is used.
                                                                                               Price must be based not only on cost to
                                                                                               grow, process, distribute, research and
                                                                                               provide social and technical support, but
                                                                                               also on medical efficiency. Health Canada
                                                                                               is responsible to see to it that patients are
                                                                                               benefitted in a way that maximizes results
                                                                                               and fund portions of NHP medication
                                                                                               costs for large scale studies. Fees or taxes
                                                                                               on cannabis sales must be used only to
                                                                                               subsidize Rx’s to users based upon indi-
                                                                                               vidual ability to pay.
                                                                                               Legal (local, regional and national, civil
                                                                                               and criminal) and regulatory compliance
                                                                                               (narcotic, pharmaceutical, Natural Health
                                                                                               Product, food), social (compassion club,
                                                                                               disease support group, community/cultur-
                                                                                               al group) and ethical (legal, civil, medical
                                                                                               professional, cultural) values must place
                                                                                               the user health status above all else.
                                                                                               For every activity in the chain, there is a
                                                                                               proven model to copy or adapt to cannabis.
                                                                                               For more detailed/updated information
                                                                                               contact myself or the people with
                                                                                               Cannabis Health Foundation.

28                                                                           CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal   29
                                                                                                       CANNABIS CAFÉS
                                                    hotels, nightclubs and events listed. Readers of   One may have thought that the (tourist
                                                    CANNABIS HEALTH will be interested in the sec-     attracting) “Cannabis Café” was some-
                                                    tion on medical marijuana, which discusses the     thing only found in Amsterdam, where
                                                    Dutch view. There is a list of Coffee Shops        the hip smokers go. Well, Canada has a
                                                    offering discounts for certified patients, there
                                                                                                       few of its own. Vancouver has the Blunt
                                                    are contact numbers for the Medical
                                                    Marijuana Foundations. New this year is a spe-
                                                                                                       Bros. Café (in business for 4 years) and
                                                    cial section on the emerging cannabis scene in     the New Amsterdam Café. Toronto has
 The latest edition of THE SMOKERS                                                                     their cannabis café as well and, by the
 GUIDE TO AMSTERDAM is now available.               the United Kingdom, especially London.
                                                    Finally, page 33 is a pull-out section with        time you read this article, there will be
 (Advertorial)                                                                                         another one opening, this time in New
                                                    coupons good for discounts on your first pur-
 This is the same publication sold exclusively in
                                                    chase. For anyone planning (or just hoping) to     Brunswick by Jim and Lynn Wood of
 the coffee shops of that city for the last 13
                                                    visit Amsterdam, THE SMOKERS GUIDE TO AMS-         Hemp NB.
 years. The handy sized format is divided into
                                                    TERDAM contains everything you need to plan        In the cannabis cafés in Amsterdam you
 many sections dealing with the products sold
                                                    your dream vacation. The smokers guide is          can buy, smoke and ingest marijuana in
 in the Coffee Shops (both marijuana and
                                                    available in North America through Triple          its many forms without fear of breaking
 hashish), tips on quality control and coffee
                                                    Play, 423 King West #326, Hamilton, Ontario,
 shop etiquette. Another section covers “Smart                                                         any laws. In Canada it is a different story.
                                                    L8P 4Y1, Retail $15.95 incl. taxes and shipping.
 Shop” and the variety of goods available there,
                                                    Wholesale orders available at                      There are no marijuana sales, but there
 such as 8 types of mushrooms, salvia and vari-                                                        is a nice atmosphere, tasty munchies
 ous cacti. As well, there are smoke-friendly                                                          and non-alcoholic drinks. (no tobacco

F r i e n d l y                                                                                Director y

Central Hydroponics
        Great products
   Sold by People that Care
  3444 River Rd., Chemainus BC
 Ph/Fa x: 250-246-1379
30                                                                                 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
                                                                                                           CANNABIS CAFÉS
smoking allowed) and a safe place to           places operate in is - the bottom line is,   guished cannabis-based soft drugs
smoke cannabis.                                they have legitimate business licenses       from “hard drugs” such as heroin or
Or is it safe? According to local police,      and are busy places, with some having        cocaine. Cannabis was still officially
the situation is that the people who are       500 plus customers a day. Most of the        illegal, but the possession of up to 30g
“toking” are still breaking the law and        customers seem to be the American            was no longer to be prosecuted as a
can be charged with possession.                tourist coming up to see just what is        criminal offence.
Whether or not the owners of the cafés         going on and experience our more tol-        The liberal Dutch approach laid the
are in violation is still under evaluation     erant situation.                             foundation for a multi-billion Dollar
under the Criminal Code of Canada.The          Now that Ronald Barry Stavert, who           economy, attracting millions of visitors
view of the St. John, New Brunswick            was charged with simple marijuana            each year and generating substantial
police is that it’s very shocking that         possession in P.E.I. won his case on con-    tax income for the Dutch government.
they’re openly condoning and support-          stitutional grounds, the ability of the      Contrary to claims how soft drugs open
ing people breaking the law, as it             police to arrest “tokers” anywhere in        the way toward hard-drug addiction,
stands. These cafés are public place’s so      Canada for simple possession is severe-      coffee shops are a safe place for experi-
they will be dropping by once in a             ly hampered.                                 mentation that keep potential users
while, just to see what is going on.           It looks like the entrepreneurial efforts    away from criminal pushers. The gov-
The general concensus is that it seems         of those pushing the envelope will pay       ernment insists that, while it tolerates
to be OK to operate as long as the com-        off big time!                                soft drugs, it is tough on hard-drug
munity is tolerant and there are no            THE DUTCH EXPERIENCE                         dealers.
complaints.                                    Holland now has more than 800 coffee         A 2002 report from the European
The RCMP have shut down 2 cannabis             shops, found in 105 of the country’s 500     Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug
cafés in the past and owners were              cities and towns.                            Addiction said, so-called “problem drug
charged with possession for the pur-           The Dutch government passed ground-          use” in the Netherlands is the lowest
pose of trafficking.                           breaking legislation in 1976 that distin-    among countries in the European
No matter how grey the area that these                                                      Union and candidate states.

 Pot Prescription Denied to Prisoner
 A Halifax area man who holds a federal        you can help by writing to Honourable        would ensure that he could exercise his
 license to use marijuana for medicinal        Wayne Easter, Solicitor General of           constitutional right to use medicinal
 purposes has been denied access to his        Canada, House of Commons, Ottawa,            marijuana, while maintaining restricted
 prescription since September of last          On., K1A 0A6. The only solution to this      freedom.
 year. Michael Patriquen was sentenced         dire situation is to release Michael to      “If they don’t want to do it voluntarily,
 to 6 years in prison for conspiring to        supervised house arrest, so that he can      we’ll do it in court. But I’m not going to
 traffic the drug in Nova Scotia and           begin to rebuild his health and access his   die waiting for it,” Patriquen said.
 Newfoundland, and he has lost 37              medication, if Correction Services           Visit for
 pounds since being jailed last fall.          Canada cannot provide him with it. This      more information.
 “When I’m in pain, which is most of the
 time…I’m nauseous…my stomach is
 upset,” said Patriquen. Michael’s pain
 stems from a car accident. He suffers
 from chronic/debilitating pain causing a
 loss of weight, sleep, strength and over-
 all health. The father of two is taking his
 case to court to win the right to access
 what he needs. Michael is not new to
 activism, he founded the Nova Scotia
 Marijuana Party and has been active in
 the movement for years.
 Two specialists have agreed marijuana
 would help his situation and Health
 Canada gave him the OK to legally
 smoke the drug. But prison officials say
 they cannot break the law to provide an
 inmate with his drugs, even if that pris-
 oner is legally entitled to it. The argu-
 ment that Michael gives is that inmates
 are given morphine, methadone, and
 other drugs – so why not marijuana?
 Today, Michael remains in prison, and

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal                                                                                       31
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     Number of Applications                                        S TAT I S T I C S
     under the Marihuana Medical                                    Since the MMAR came into force on July                              under s56 of the Controlled Drugs and
     Access Regulations (MMAR)                                      30, 2001, Health Canada has received 976                            Substances Act (CDSA) - Since the initia-
                                                                    applications. Many of these applications                            tion of the exemption program for mari-
     Province            Total Authorizations
                                                                    were incomplete and the applicants had                              juana for medical purposes, in 1999 and as
     Alberta                               68
                                                                    to be contacted for further information.                            of March 7, 2003, 666 exemptions have
     British Columbia                     102
                                                                    However, as of March 7, 2003, Health                                been granted, of which 351 are still active.
     Manitoba                              14
                                                                    Canada has issued 574 authorizations to                             A large number of these current exemp-
     New Brunswick                         12
                                                                    possess, of which 570 are still active, 375                         tions to possess also include exemptions
     Newfoundland & Labrador                9
                                                                    personal production licences and 36 des-                            to cultivate. A total of 269 holders of
     Nova Scotia                           42
                                                                    ignated person licences. No requests for                            exemptions have transitioned to the
     Ontario                              267
                                                                    authorizations to possess have been                                 MMAR at this point. Since June 1999 a
     Quebec                                41
                                                                    refused, however, 2 designated persons                              total of 336 s56 refusals have been
     Saskatchewan                          14
                                                                    have been refused, as the designated per-                           issued.
     Yukon Territory, P.E.I., Nunavut
                                                                    sons already were the holders of licences.                          S ource
     and North West Territories             5                                                                                           sesc/ocma/stats/2003/mar/stats_mar-03.htm
                                                                    The table to the left is a breakdown of the
     Total                                574
                                                                    authorization per province Exemption

32                                                                                                             CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

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