Jam Jam Lidder
Chris Balding, Dan Stonehewer, Alex Timmons, Alex McDiarmid, Omar Qattan, Yuqi Yao, Khairul Jafri
Updated Design Specification........................................................................................ 1
Initial design concepts brief ........................................................................................... 4
Review Tables ................................................................................................................ 5
Design Development ...................................................................................................... 7
Maintenance ................................................................................................................. 11
Maintenance Schedule ................................................................................................. 13
Health and Safety ......................................................................................................... 14
Updated Design Specification
The product being designed is part of a mechanical handling system that fixes lids to jam jars
in a jam bottling factory. The function of this machine is to automatically place and fix lids to
jam jars, then to place the jam jars in a tray in a 3x4 matrix and transport them half a metre
onto the next process.
- The jars are filled with jam and arrive in single file along a horizontal conveyor.
- The jars are fed at a rate of 30 jars per minute.
- A 3Nm torque is required to fix the lid to the jar.
- Energy efficiency should be maximised
- Use of resources should be minimised
- Noise generated should be minimised
- The machine can use the adequate supplies of water, gas and electricity in the
area of the factory.
- The machine must work within the available amounts of hydraulic and
compressed air supply:
- Hydraulic supply of 120 bar @ 6 litres/min
- Compressed air supply of 6 bar @ 120 litres/min
- The machine should be able to function in standard UK temperatures and
- The operation should be conducted at atmospheric pressure.
- There should also be no corrosive fluids that come into contact with the
- Vibrations from other machines in the factory should not disrupt the product.
- The product should not make a less safe environment for the staff in the work
place/vicinity around the machine.
4. Life in service
The product should be able to be in use for a continuous 10 years.
- Details about how to maintain the product should be included.
- A maintenance schedule should be provided for short and long term
6. Target product cost
- The machine should be made to be as cost effective as possible without
compromising the performance of the product.
- Maintenance cost should be as little as possible.
Transporting the machine in its sub-assembly parts would be easier than transporting
the whole assembled machine so creating definite sub assemblies should be aimed for.
The packaging should be strong enough to protect the product while in transportation.
This machine is a one off product.
- The machine should have the smallest footprint size possible in order to
minimise space taken up in the factory.
- There should also be no unwanted interference with any other machines in the
The product weight should be made as small as possible to make transport and setup as easy
12. Aesthetics, appearance and finish
- Functionality and cost reduction of the product take precedence over aesthetics.
- The finish should be smooth to avoid catching clothing on rough surfaces.
- Warning stickers for potentially unsafe moving parts are to be placed in visible
locations on the machine.
- The materials should be as economical as possible without compromising the
stability or strength of machine.
- The materials should also be environmentally friendly in order to reduce the
negative externalities as much as possible.
14. Standards and specifications
- British standards should be kept to during manufacturing for ease of
construction when making and ordering parts.
- EEA health and safety standards must be kept.
- Different parts of the machine should be accessible for ease of maintenance.
- The sub-assemblies should be simple to make into the complete assembly.
- Once in the factory the machine should be simple to install.
- The whole process should be visible for easy location of malfunctions.
16. Quality and reliability
The product should be reliable and only require the scheduled maintenance to keep the
- Testing should be done after production and before distribution to the buyer.
- Cost should be kept as low as possible.
- The machine should also be tested post installation to check it will run as
needed where it will be staying.
- The product must not have parts that are beyond a reasonable hazard.
- Any hazards must have safety stickers and highlighted warnings.
- Kill-switches must be placed on the floor and at hand height in case of
- A safety cage is to be placed around the moving parts of the machine.
19. Company constraints
- The product must adhere to the purchasing companies Health and Safety
- The company that purchases the product will have to discuss other constraints
or requirements that are needed by the product.
20. Market constraints
- The product will have to be of the same or better value than its competitors to
do well on the market.
- The product will also only be competitive if it is able to integrate with other
machines in the factory.
- The product must comply with the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC in order to
be placed on the European market for the first time.
21. Patents, literature and product data
To ensure intellectual property rights are not abused, a check on patents will have to be
carried out to remove the possibility of infringements.
Legal documentation must be supplied to ensure all parties involved uphold their side of the
- The customer must prepare for the installation. E.g. clearing access and space.
- The manufacturer must carry out the installation.
- Instructions for how the machine operates must be supplied with the machine.
- A maintenance schedule must also be supplied
- All parties involved would have legal documentation of the transaction.
Once the life span of the product has expired, advice should be sought by the customer as
on how to dispose of it.
Initial design concepts brief
A brief explanation of our individual initial designs;
Jars on conveyor system, with the jar lids being allowed to “catch” onto the jar
before moving further on
Individual clamps engage the jars in a large rotating system, affixing the lids onto the
Computer controlled grips then place the jars into the load tray where they are then
moved by conveyor system
Jars on conveyor system, with the lids fed onto the jars as they pass on to the next
A large gear rotates, and pauses to let two capping claws on hydraulics to affix the
lids to the jars
The jars return to the conveyor, are then grouped and pushed into the 3x4 matrix
The matrix then moves along a conveyor
Jars on a roller system, which rotates the jars as they are moved along
Lid is forced onto jar and remains stationary as jar spins and tightens onto the lid
Rollers separate jars into the 3x4 matrix and the matrix is then moved off by
Conveyor system moves jars and feed system places a lid on the jars as they pass by
Mechanical system then holds the lid firmly and rotates whilst jar is held stationary
The jars are then placed into the 3x4 matrix by the mechanical system and sent
along a conveyor system
Mechanical arm system places lid onto jar and tightens
Sorting system places jars into 3x4 matrix which then moves down the conveyor
Bracketed conveyor belt feeds jars and lids are placed by a secondary conveyor line
moving in parallel
Conveyor continues and the lids are fixed to jars, the jar held by the rubber brackets
Conveyor then splits allowing the 3x4 matrix to be filled
Once filled rollers then push matrix onto conveyor system
Conveyor system leads jars where a mechanical arm places lids and affixes in one
motion, instead of two like previous designs
Conveyor leads and splits into sorting for matrix
Matrix is then sent along conveyor
Jars on a roller system, which rotates as the jars as they are moved along
A parallel conveyor affixes lids onto the jars and holds the lids as the jars rotate
A rail system groups three jars and drops them onto a moving 3x4 matrix conveyor
3x4 matrix conveyor moves the matrix as they are filled
The tables below show our design criteria for effectively reviewing our individual initial
designs. To help choose a final design; we broke up each individual design into the separate
tasks required; jar feeding, lid placement, attaching (screwing on) lid and placement into the
3x4 matrix. Each design was then marked out of ten on different criteria. This would help
reduce favouritism of designs.
Simplicity- how simple the design is, when compared to the other designs. This is the most
important criteria as the simpler the design the more inherently reliable it is.
Efficiency- how well the design will perform the task compared to the amount of work put
in. This is extremely important as well, as it is linked to both simplicity and cost, we marked
this criterion by comparison with the other designs. For example, a conveyor design has the
same result as a roller design but takes less energy to do it, so it is deemed more efficient,
however our final chosen design may have to use sections not rated highly because it would
not function otherwise. E.g. the conveyor system requires the lid to rotate to affix on whilst
the roller system requires the lid to remain stationary.
Footprint size- how large the machinery for the section is when compared to the other
Stress Concentrations- the concentrations of stresses on the machine, i.e. wearing of gears,
bearings etc. This is tied to the simplicity of the design as more complicated designs will have
more moving parts and therefore more stress concentrations.
Maintenance- how easy is the machine to keep in working condition.
Tolerances- how well the machine will perform with minute changes, i.e. jars entering at
slightly different speeds, frequency, minute size differences with lids. How well will the
system compensate if any small detail is changed abruptly.
Safety- what threat, if any, the machine could pose to outside forces, i.e. maintenance staff.
Cost- how much money the machine would require to assemble, maintain, Etc. Note; this is
a preliminary assessment and does not consider all possible factors.
Feasibility- how feasible is the design when compared to the rest of the group.
Accuracy- how reliable is the design when putting the lids on jars, higher marks means less
chances of the lids not being placed or placed improperly on the jars
Lifespan- the length of time the design can be used for before individual parts, pieces begins
Impact force on jar- the level of force applied to the jar during operation.
Jar Feeding Simplicity Efficiency Footprint Stress Maintenance Tolerances Safety Cost Total
Mechanism Size concentrations
Max 8 9 6 9 5 4 7 7 55
Kai 6 10 6 7 6 8 8 8 59
Alex M 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 57
Chris 8 7 6 7 6 7 7 6 54
Dan 7 8 7 8 7 5 7 6 55
Alex T 8 9 6 8 6 7 7 5 56
Omar 6 8 7 6 7 6 6 7 53
The highest rating for the jar feeding mechanism is Kai’s design; its simple conveyor system
throughout the entire design is a simpler mechanic when compared to the other designs
which changed the way jars were carried or used a different mechanic to move the jars once
the lids were attached. Note this does not mean we will use Kai’s design, it is just a
indication of the best candidate, and development could see a completely new design being
made, which may end up an amalgam of several designs.
Placing lid on Simplicity Feasibility Efficiency Stress Accuracy Cost Total
Max 8 8 10 10 10 8 54
Kai 8 6 10 10 10 8 52
Alex M 7 7 8 7 8 6 43
Chris 6 8 7 6 7 5 39
Dan 7 7 8 7 8 7 44
Alex T 7 6 7 8 7 6 41
Omar 8 7 7 8 7 7 44
Max’s “catch” design gained the highest marks, with Kai’s similar design being a close
Attaching Simplicity Feasibility Efficiency Stress Maintenance Safety Cost Total
Max 6 6 7 8 5 7 6 45
Kai 6 9 8 7 7 8 6 51
Alex M 7 7 6 7 7 7 8 49
Chris 7 7 7 6 6 6 7 46
Dan 8 6 7 7 7 7 6 48
Alex T 7 7 8 6 5 6 5 44
Omar 9 6 7 6 7 7 6 48
Kai’s design gained the highest marks, whilst not the simplest, its method of stopping and
allowing the lids to be screwed on was considered more feasible when compared to the
3x4 matrix Simplicity Feasibility Footprint Stress Lifespan Impact Force Safety Cost Total
placing Size concentrations on Jar
Max 6 7 7 8 6 8 8 5 55
Kai 6 8 8 8 7 10 8 6 61
Alex M 8 5 7 7 7 8 9 8 59
Chris 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 6 55
Yuqi 8 6 7 8 8 7 8 6 58
Dan 7 6 8 7 7 8 7 5 55
Alex T 8 6 7 8 6 9 8 7 59
Omar 6 7 6 5 6 5 6 8 49
Kai’s design gained the most marks because of it did not allow the jars to simply drop in; it
lowered the jars into the matrix, making it much safer and reducing the impact on the jars
Note we also did not include a section for the 3x4 matrix movement because a simple
conveyor was deemed the best candidate and was used in most, if not all the initial designs.
Due to the design specification and the chosen solutions for surrounding sections of the
design, it was decided that the conveyor belt was to be made of a low-friction metal. This
metal had to be suitable for use in food processing applications, and durable enough to last
the 10 year product life span. Research into belt systems for small parts handling pointed us
to the Dorner iDrive 2200 series, a highly sophisticated and versatile all-in-one miniature
conveyor system, available in various widths and lengths with belts made from suitable
Internally mounted gearmotor and control for space savings and tight work spaces
Reduced integration time required to mount and wire the total conveyor package
Ideal combination of conveyor and gearmotor sizing for small parts handling
Variable Speed and reversible for maximum application flexibility
Control switches conveniently located in high impact protective case
32mm diameter drive roller for smooth product transfer
V-guided belts for maintenance-free belt tracking
Maintenance-free brushless DC motor
Rack and pinion belt tensioning for fast and accurate adjustments
Built-in belt tension indicators for preventative maintenance
T-Slots for fast and simple mounting of automation components
Capable of carrying loads up to 54kg
The material chosen for the belt was stainless steel. This metal alloy offers low friction,
resistance to rust, is extremely durable, and is suitable for food processing applications.
The belt will be 80mm in width, with the whole conveyor system spanning a total length of
Additional parts which will be added to the belt are:
2200 Series Lane Guiding, Length: 1', Height 125mm. This will ensure that the jars
are in a straight line so that when the electromagnetic chuck lifts the row, the jars
align with each magnet.
The system will also need to be raised to the correct height; therefore a frame will be
Row Formation Mechanism
Two concepts were initially chosen to complete
the task of sorting the jars into closely packed
rows of four. The first uses a through-beam
light sensor, which on sensing passage of the
fourth jar allows a pneumatically operated gate to open and allow the row of four to pass
through. The second idea uses a four-armed ‘vane’, which mechanically senses when four
jars have passed since contacts on the vane shaft and the bearing housing align, enabling the
pneumatically operated gate to open.
Both possible solutions were stringently researched in order to select the most appropriate
solution according to the specification.
Many digital through-beam sensors exist, all of which would fulfil the needs of this project,
but they go far beyond the call of duty. These devices are designed for much larger scaled
applications. Since our solution to the problem of sorting the jars into a 3x4 matrix requires
that the jars are sorted into rows of 4, the sensor only needs to count up to 4.
The cost of manufacturing the vane solution was also found to be far lower than buying a
The positioning of electrical contacts had to be adapted since bearing housings available did
not allow for mounting of copper contacts on the strut and the bearing whilst the housing
itself being firmly fixed to the conveyor. For this reason, the contacts were moved to the
housing and the strut, as shown on the housing diagram below.
This section of the design consists of two main parts, which will be machined from raw
materials. The ‘vane’ consists of 4 hollow stainless steel arms positioned horizontally and at
90° to one another, welded to the top of a rotating hollow stainless steel strut. This strut is
mounted within an axle bearing, which uses vertical rollers to allow the strut to rotate a full
360° whilst being itself mounted, using two small screws with washers, to the conveyor belt.
The strut and housing each have a copper contact, electrically insulated so as not to electrify
the whole part, which align following a full rotation. This completes the electrical circuit
which governs the movement of the second part of the jar sorting mechanism: a pneumatic
piston controlled gate.
The gate comprises firstly of a vertically fixed hollow stainless steel strut, again secured to
the conveyor using two small screws and washers. Attached onto this strut using a
This gate is raised for 3 seconds, allowing the four jars to pass through in a close-packed line.
Whilst the gate is closed, the jars form the close-packed line, guided by side rails, as the low-
friction stainless steel belt passes beneath them.
Bearing and Housing
Self-Lube Pillow Block Bearing
Sealed bearing unit to suit shaft diameters of 12mm.
Made from cast iron to BS1452
Spherical bearing insert accommodates initial misalignment
Supplied with full fitting instructions
C3 internal radial clearance
Slotted bolt holes
Supplied with grease nipples
L = 16mm
Position of Copper contacts?
(insert solidworks diagram)
(insert solidworks diagram)
Force required to lift gate=
Power required from pneumatic cylinder=
Jam Jar Clamp.
The clamp for holding the jars is to stop the jar spinning as the lids are screwed on. It has to
hold the jars tight enough so that they do not spin when the lid is being put on, but loose
enough so that the jars themselves aren’t broken by the force.
1st Idea. Rubber Pad underneath
This design utilises the fact that the machine that
screws the lid on has to apply a downward force when
attaching the lid. There would be a rubber patch
under the position where the jar stops to have the lid
screwed on and the downward force, coupled with the
higher friction forces, due to the rubber patch, would
stop the jar from spinning. The downward force
would have to be carefully calculated, so that it is
enough to keep the jar from spinning, but also light
enough so that the jar itself does not smash.
2nd Idea. Clamp Arm
This design holds the jar in place with a
horizontally moving clamp. When the jar stops
in the position to screw the lid on, a
pneumatically driven clamp would move to
hold the jam jar in place. The inside of both
the clamp and the slot in which the jar fits on
the rotating plate will be covered in rubber to
increase the friction force, and also is softer
than just the metal faces and so wouldn’t chip
the glass jar. The clamp would have to be firm
enough to hold the jar in place while the lid is
put on, but gentle enough not to smash the jar.
It was decided that the rubber pad would not provide enough friction to the jam jar, so the
idea of having a clamp attached to the lidder that would envelop the jar as the lid was
screwed on was suggested. It was thought that this would be too complicated and that
having two separate mechanisms would be better.
The design we have chosen is the clamp arm. This design will hold the jar much better, and
doesn’t put too much strain on the part that screws the lids on. It will also position the jars
in the same place each time, so the lids will always be in the same place which allows for
more accurate lid screwing. The arm will move to the right when the rotating disk stops and
will hold the jar firmly. The lid will then be screwed on, and the clamp will release and move
to the right. The process will be repeated for each jar.
Pneumatic Cylinder. VDMA/CNOMO cylinder 40 x 160mm from RS online. This pneumatic
cylinder can provide up to 754 N which will be more than enough to hold the jar in place. It
is also double acting, so will quickly recoil to release the jar . (£71.12)
Clamp arm. This will be machined from steel and then edged in rubber. There is no
premade model on the market and so it will be made in house. (Materials £30, Labour £70)
A maintenance regime is required for each component and assembly part in the machine. A
preventative maintenance program is needed for the different processes in a systematic
order. The parts are cleaned, inspected and rebuilt if required.
Processes involved in general maintenance:
Tightening of screws, nuts and bolts
Inspection of worn parts
Replacement of degraded parts
Oiling/lubricating gears and moving parts
Calibration of devices
Timing of parts / ratios of gears
Inspection of every part to produce a maintenance report: logging all defects,
machine numbers and serial numbers
Preventative Maintenance Schedule (PMS) - A PMS should be compiled prior to ANY
maintenance being carried out. It allows the scheduled work to be pre-ordered and booked
in time slots that will not interrupt the machines production time. This is planned into the
run time of the machine as much as production time is.
After running down it is important to clean the machine. This entails vacuuming or dusting
down all surfaces and apertures. Ensuring all air filters and oil/hydraulic gaskets are cleaned
of dirt, dust and inclusions. This will prevent contaminants running through the machine and
reducing the life of the components through excessive frictional wear, uneven axial loading
on bearings will cause misaligning and unsymmetrical rotation.
A note should be made of all parts that need replacing during the next service. This will
ensure that the component is in stock and will not require ordering, as this will prolong the
stand-by time of the machine. The life cycle of a part and the safe operation of the machine
is a trade-off; it is much cheaper to replace a single part than replace a full section of the
machine (potentially the entire assembly) due to massive failure.
It is well recognised within the manufacturing industry that the cost of a maintenance
engineer is cheaper than an uncontrolled shutdown of a production line, also the potential
safety implications of running older or less maintained equipment is apparent.
Inspections and testing processes have to be filed in and documented very carefully. A
compatibility report should be submitted to check that the scheduled maintenance was
carried out under the manufacturer regulations and the company operating procedures.
The legal implication of running and maintaining industrial machinery has to be recognised,
as the responsibility of caring for your employees is of utmost importance.
Expenses regarding the slotted repair work should too be documented and submitted for
financial evaluation and administration. This will assist departments with calculations of
budgeting and forecasting.
Electromagnetic actuator – Ball screw guided actuator
Relatively slow moving part with low applied loads. Simple maintenance is required.
Calculations for time between lubrication:
105263 Cycles before lubrication
105263 x4 421053 Jars packaged until lubrication
14035 Minutes until lubrication
Lubricate weekly at periods of high production rates.
Distance actuator travels per 4 jars = 0.95m
Distance travelled until lubrication = 100km
Processing rate = 30 Jars / min
In the manufacture guidelines it recommends reducing exposure to vibrations for risk of
Vibrations can cause resonance within the machine, harmonics in machinery is undesirable
for many reasons: loud noise pollution, enhanced wear, uneven cyclic loading and can cause
damage to aligned parts such as shafts and gear linkages. Tightening all nuts and bolts will
reduce this risk.
Pneumatic cylinder – side arm
Pneumatic cylinders can be affected greatly by; pressure drops, unfiltered lines and poorly
mapped lines. Consistent checks to ensure that there are no obstructions or leaks in the
lines will allow the pneumatics to work at there specified pressures. The air, if obstructed,
can erode pneumatic lines when working at high pressures.
The upkeep of pneumatic connections and hose junctions will reduce the risk of large-scale
blowouts and drops in pressure in the lines. At a high work rate, when the machine is
running at extended processing rates to work to production targets, extra load is placed on
the components. For this reason consideration of every conceivable defect should be
planned. This increases the designed safety factor.
The hysteresis clutch uses a magnetic air gap, which reduces the amount of wearing parts, as
it does not rely on the friction of brushes or slip rings. The illumination of shear and friction
forces to produce torque will enhance the service life and reduce the frequency of heavy
maintenance. The clutch is sealed and enclosed to prevent contaminants entering the jam
jar before sealing.
C 52700 3
L 10 = = = 5420 Million revolutions
Revolutions in 10 years at max speed of 3600RPM = 2695 Million Revs.
Revolutions in 10 years L
Bearings are satisfactory and will not need replacing, must not exceed 100 oc
C = Bearing Load Rating = 52700
P = Maximum Applied Load = 30N
n = 3 for Ball Bearings
L 10 = Duration (millions of cycles) 90% Reliability
Rollers and Conveyers
The roller and conveyer module comes with integrated pretension and alignment; it does
not require any maintenance a part from inspections. It uses closed sleeve ball bearings,
which are not open to the environment. Self-lubricating bearings will require no lubrication.
As it is mounted onto the motor shaft, the only maintenance is to check for obstructions or
parts that it could catch.
General weekly checks should be conducted to ensure no oil from pumps or cylinders are
leaking. Check moving parts have no obstructions.
All chain contacts must be lubricated. Constant operation will remove lubrication from the
All pneumatic components that move such as pistons and arms must also be lubricated to
prevent seizing or catching.
Check the conveyer for rips or signs of wear.
Tighten all fastenings such as clips, bolts and nuts.
Most of the components have been chosen due to their low maintenance characteristics.
The conveyer belts and bearing housings have built in pre- tension and lubrication devices.
Due to this, it is acceptable to only inspect these parts twice a tear to check they are still in
full working order. The calibration of these parts is important for this reason alone.
Gears and conveyer rollers should be well lubricated. Any meshing areas that do not have
lubrication will go on to wear excessively by the time of the next inspection.
Compressor filters should be changed and wiped free of dust before refitting.
Motors should be cleaned and re-greased – consult manufacture specifications to ensure
correct lubricant is used and time between applications.
Health and Safety
Any moving parts must be labelled as such and must have guards preventing direct
contact, any motors required for conveyors etc must be properly housed and labelled to
prevent contact with moving parts or interference with the machine.
Safety kill switches on machine at key points.
The control box will have safety kill switch to allow for immediate shutdown should
any emergency occur.
Any and all pneumatics will have safety release valves in case of pressure build up.
Health and safety documents will be supplied with machine.