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					                                        FOREWORD
     The present document is a revision of the Pocket Book Manual to Green Ship Recycling
     published in a draft form December 2005 to the intersessional working group.

     The report was initiated by the Danish EPA to assist implementation of the Basel Con-
     vention Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management for full and
     partial dismantling of ships. The project was steered by Lone Schou of DK EPA, and
     developed by project manager Frank Stuer-Lauridsen (DHI Water & Environment) and
     Klaus Winther Ringgaard (COWI).

     The guide applies to all developments for green recycling be it in countries that were
     previously engaged in ship scrapping, countries new to the industry or the existing
     breakers primarily in Asian countries. It is foreseen, however, that the latter will be the
     main users of the guide and the emphasis is on development of existing substandard fa-
     cilities.

     The International Maritime Organization and the International Labour Organization are
     also deeply engaged in the addressing the issue of ship recycling. Presently, these or-
     ganisations and the Basel Convention Secretariat participates in a joint working group
     to coordinate efforts and bring the various guidance documents issued on ship recycling,
     ship breaking and ship dismantling into a combined document. The present document
     does not aim at addressing the issued covered by IMO and ÌLO, but may form a Basel
     Convention contribution to the process.

     The revision of the draft version of December 2005 includes a modification of table 3.8
     on disposal and the addition of three new tables 3.9-.3.11 addressing the management of
     hazardous waste seen from the primary handling point of view: is it solid, liquid or inte-
     grated in equipment?

     Also presented to the working group is a more detailed table on hazardous materials as
     they may be found in the vessel’s structure and equipment, generated during operation
     or located in stores. The table points out the typical occurrences and labelling codes for
     hazardous materials according to Basel Convention classification, and may be appended
     to the Pocket Book Manual.

     We will appreciate your comments before 20 September 2006.




Danish Environmental                                                                 Draft B
Protection Agency                                                                 June 2006
Implementation of Green Ship
Recycling

Pocket Book Manual
Draft B June 2006




Danish Environmental              Draft B
Protection Agency              June 2006
Implementation of Green Ship                                                          Agern Allé 5
                                                                                      DK-2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
Recycling
                                                                                      Tel:         +45 4516 9200
                                                                                      Fax:         +45 4516 9292
Pocket Book Manual                                                                    Dept. fax:
                                                                                      e-mail:      dhi@dhi.dk
Draft B June 2006                                                                     Web:         www.dhi.dk




Client                                                         Client’s representative

           Danish Environmental Protection Agency                  Lone Schou


Project                                                        Project No

           Implementation of Green Ship Recycling                  53828

Authors                                                        Date
                                                                   June 2006
           Frank Stuer-Lauridsen, DHI
           Klaus Winther Ringgaard, COWI                       Approved by




   B       Draft                                                 FSL            FSL          KIG         270606

   A       Draft                                                 FSL            FSL          TMA         061205

Revision   Description                                            By        Checked         Approved      Date

Key words                                                      Classification

           Ship recycling, Hazardous waste, Basel Convention           Open

                                                                       Internal

                                                                       Proprietary


Distribution                                                                                  No of copies

Danish Environmental Protection Agency         Lone Schou
DHI:
CONTENTS


1     INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................ 1-1

2     LAYOUT OF GREEN RECYCLING YARD ................................................................. 2-1

3     THE UPGRADING OR DEVELOPMENT OF A GREEN YARD .................................. 3-3
3.1   Green Issues Prior to Arrival ...................................................................................... 3-4
3.2   On Arrival Verification and Pre-cleaning Process ....................................................... 3-6
3.3   Dismantling Process .................................................................................................. 3-9
3.4   Interim Storage, Transport and Disposal .................................................................. 3-10
3.5   Contingency Plans and Monitoring Programmes ...................................................... 3-16




APPENDICES (NOT INCLUDED IN DRAFT)

A     Paper trail procedure and certifications

B     Table of onboard hazardous materials, locations and labelling codes




                                                      i                                                  DHI Water & Environment
1   INTRODUCTION
    The present implementation guide should be seen as a brief “pocket-book” version of
    the existing Technical Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management of the
    Full and Partial Dismantling of Ships published by the Basel Convention in 2003.

    It is primarily aimed at the operators of yards interested in entering the market for green
    recycling through upgrading of an existing yard. The information is given at the level
    where the management and their contractors can develop the actual plan for upgrading
    based on the guidance and the information sources given.

    Yards engaged in upgrading will most likely address safety and health issues and up-
    grade the purchasing procedures simultaneously with addressing the environmental is-
    sues. The guidance outlined in the International Maritime Organization (2003) Guide-
    lines on Ship Recyling and the International Labour Organization (2003) Safety and
    health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and Turkey should be consulted
    for these issues.

    The IMO guideline contains an outline for the information and documents to be ex-
    changed prior to sale and after sale between Shipowner/Seller, Recycling State Authori-
    ties and Recycling Facility/Buyer. With respect to the proper initiation of a green recy-
    cling process two key documents are 1) the ship’s Green Passport, including the
    Hazardous Materials Inventory, which is the responsibility of the shipowner and 2) the
    Ship Recycling Plan, which is prepared by the Ship Recycling Facility. With these
    documents prepared during the sale of the vessel the pre-cleaning process can be
    planned and partly initiated prior to arrival of the ship at the recycling facility. The
    overall remaining activities in an environmental context are the core recycling process
    of dismantling the vessel and the final storage, transport and disposal of hazardous ma-
    terials. In case of a towed vessel, pre-cleaning may be completed before the final voy-
    age, and the fate of hazardous waste must be transparent and in compliance with rele-
    vant legislation and guidance.

    During the complete recycling activities, a yard should be able to produce a verifiable
    paper trail of the procedures, subcontractors and facilities employed in the process. This
    includes requesting and documenting the procedures for final disposal of various haz-
    ardous wastes from contractors.




                                        1-1                                   DHI Water & Environment
2   LAYOUT OF GREEN RECYCLING YARD
    The recycling of vessels is performed by facilities using primarily three modes of ac-
    cessing the ship during the dismantling: beaching, quay side mooring or dry docking.
    Slip way recycling is also used for larger vessels in combination with beaching and pier
    breaking.

    Upgrading to green recycling according to the Basel Convention Guideline entails that
    it is preferable to break along a quay or pier rather than on a beach/tidal mud flat and ul-
    timately to break in dry docks rather than at piers. Several countries and organisations
    have initiated and implemented procedures and techniques locally for improving the en-
    vironmental and working conditions in ship recycling. This includes the beach and slip
    way approach in Turkey, pier breaking in China and tidal flat beaching in Bangladesh.
    The lessons learned from these activities should be consulted when available

    Several recycling yards employing pier breaking have implemented workers health and
    environmental management systems allowing them to achieve certification by interna-
    tional organisations, OHS and ISO (examples from China). The experiences of these
    yards can also be consulted. Finally, the full upgrading to breaking in dry docks is rare
    in ship breaking, but experiences within the decommissioning of naval ships or offshore
    platforms can be consulted (USA, UK, Norway).

    A generic plan for the organisation and layout of a ship recycling yard is given in the
    Basel Convention Guideline Chapter 5 and a schematic map is shown overleaf. A key
    issue in the development and organisation of a safe yard is the separation of hazardous
    activities, incl. handling of hazardous materials, from other activities in the yard. It is
    obvious that depending of the type of facility and the sophistication of the methods em-
    ployed presently the upgrading may have many starting points. Nevertheless, very sim-
    ple measures may indeed be the most critical, and this includes a well organised and
    timely separation of activities, good housekeeping in the use and disposal of chemicals
    used in the dismantling activities and the combined efforts made to avoid accidents,
    fires and explosions. The ILO Guidelines can be consulted for this.




                                        2-1                                   DHI Water & Environment
Schematic layout of Ship Recycling Facility according to ESM approach.




                               2-2                               DHI Water & Environment
3   THE UPGRADING OR DEVELOPMENT OF A GREEN YARD
    When upgrading a yard to offer green recycling it should be considered to which level
    the yard should upgrade. The starting point is different between existing shipbreaking
    yards and between countries, and the sequence and timing of upgrade may therefore
    also be different. The Basel Convention Guideline on Environmental Sound Manage-
    ment of Full and Partial Dismantling of Ships allows in Section 7 and Table 11 for a se-
    quenced achievement of compliance to the guide over a 10 years period. The yard
    should consider these issues and chose their path. In the following tables the steps re-
    lates to hazardous materials and the protection of the environment are outlined for each
    activity of the ship recycling procedure beginning with

           the purchase and prior-to-arrival activities,

           the pre-cleaning,

           the dismantling and

           the storage, transport and disposal.

    The upgrading to green recycling may entail a number of investments for a given yard,
    both in terms of “software”, i.e. training of personnel and increasing awareness, and in
    terms of improving the tools, personal protection equipment and equipment used. Some
    of the investments may be substantial and the Basel Convention Guideline contains an
    approximate ranking of costs in pages 71-79.

    An inventory of hazardous materials onboard may have been carried out during pur-
    chase or a green passport may be available. This forms the basis of a pre-cleaning activ-
    ity, which is crucial for the protection of both workers and environmental health. The
    pre-cleaning may be carried out before transport to the yard if the vessel is towed, or it
    is performed on arrival. The yard must establish a team skilled in identifying and label-
    ling hazardous material onboard, both for the verification of an existing inventory or for
    the development of a new. The training of the specialised employees could be made
    available e.g. through a national association of shipowners or shipbreakers, or via inter-
    national organisations.

    The typical hazardous materials onboard are well known and it is likely that guidance
    for their removal and regulation of their storage, transport and disposal is available in
    national regulation. The establishment of an Environmental Management System at the
    yard may also be helpful in achieving compliance and such a system will allow the yard
    to be certified through internationally recognised systems, such as ISO.

    Whether the yard itself manages the disposal of hazardous waste or the activity is out-
    sourced to a company, performed by a utility or local authority, the fate of all hazardous
    materials should be thoroughly documented in a green recycling facility. The disposal
    facilities used must therefore also provide the yard with proof of their approval, licence
    or certification documents. Provisions for disposal of some of the most prominent
    wastes are given in tables in the Storage, Transport and Disposal section.



                                        3-3                                  DHI Water & Environment
3.1   Green Issues Prior to Arrival

      Table 3.1      Green Recycling Issues Addressed During Contract Negociations


                  General Issues                             Actions

                  The yard must obtain information on        A request for the ship’s Green Passport
                  hazardous materials onboard already        and the inventory according to “Inventory
                  when accepting a vessel.                   Of Potentially Hazardous Materials On
                                                             Board” from IMO Guideline should be
                                                             submitted to shipowner.
                  Approval for import of ship destined for   The relevant local authorities should be
                  scrapping.                                 informed.
                  Documentation of management of envi-       Paper trail documentation initiated during
                  ronmental issues                           acquisition.

                  Special issues

                  Ballast water management                   Seller and Buyer’s should agree to use
                                                             the IMO guidelines for ballast water man-
                                                             agement prior to arrival
                  Residual materials (e.g cargo, bunker,     Seller and Buyer’s agreement on use of a
                  fuels, bilge, holds/tanks                  cleaning station or MARPOL facilities en
                                                             route
                  Non-acceptable materials onboard           Initiate pre-cleaning prior to arrival, re-
                                                             export hazardous waste according to in-
                                                             ternational rules, or reject of ship

                  Guidelines, recommendation etc.

                  Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
                  agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. page 44
                  Guidance for paper trail (Danish/Dutch procedure when available?)

                  International Maritime Organization, IMO (2003) IMO Guidelines on Ship Recyling.
                  Resolution A.962(23) Adopted on 5 December 2003 (Agenda item 19). Section 8 re-
                  lates to paper trail and appendix 3 is a template for Hazardous Materials Inventory.
                  International Chamber of Shipping, ICS (2001). Industry code of practice on ship re-
                  cycling and Inventory of potentially hazardous materials on board, International
                  Chamber of Shipping, London, 2001 (www.marisec.org).
                  IMO Assembly Resolution A.868(20): “Guidelines for the control and management of
                  ships ballast water to minimise the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and patho-
                  gens”.




                                               3-4                                     DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.2      Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in the Ship Recycling Plan.


            General Issues                               Actions

            Planning of a safe recycling process         The dismantling process should only be
                                                         initiated after development of a detailed
                                                         plan for the sequence of activities. A
                                                         guidance document is available from IMO
                                                         and it calls for a Safety and Health Plan,
                                                         an Environmental Compliance Plan and
                                                         an Operational Plan.
            Ensuring that site layout corresponds to     Segregate activities in time and space
            a safe dismantling process                   while ensuring the flow of equipment, re-
                                                         sources and traffic.

            Special issues

            The Ship Recycling Plan should address       If required, the recycling plan is submitted
            particular issues related to each individ-   and negotiated with authorities and stake-
            ual vessel                                   holders
            Paper trail                                  Prepare documentation of activities. The
                                                         Plan is a key document demonstrating
                                                         that the yard takes verifiable consideration
                                                         to the environment through the Environ-
                                                         mental Compliance Plan.
            Identification                               Develop the procedures for identifying
                                                         and labelling all hazardous materials and
                                                         areas, incl. enclosed spaces. Ensure
                                                         availability of skilled crew from Buyer.
            Pre-cleaning                                 A key element is the Operational Plan
                                                         scheduling the procedures for removing
                                                         hazardous material while dismantling the
                                                         vessel.
            On site transport and storage                Directions for transport and storage under
                                                         safe conditions are developed. The in-
                                                         terim storage facilities must ensure con-
                                                         tainment conditions in case of spills.
            Disposal of hazardous materials              The removal of hazardous material from
                                                         yard for disposal under appropriate envi-
                                                         ronmental sound management conditions
                                                         must be verifiable.

            Guidelines, recommendation etc.

            Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
            agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Chapter 6 and Table 10.
            International Maritime Organization, IMO (2004) Guidelines for the Development of
            the Ship Recycling Plan. Circular 419.
            International Maritime Organization, IMO (2003) IMO Guidelines on Ship Recyling –
            Appendices 3, 4 and 5. Resolution A.962(23) Adopted on 5 December 2003 (Agenda
            item 19).
            ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
            Turkey. Section 7.2.




                                         3-5                                        DHI Water & Environment
3.2   On Arrival Verification and Pre-cleaning Process

      Table 3.3      Green Recycling Issues related to Securing and Inspection Verifying the Hazardous Mate-
                     rials Inventory on Arrival of Vessel.


                  General Issues                               Actions

                  Status of the Hazardous Materials In-        Preferably, the ship’s crew has identified
                  ventory developed by shipowner and/or        and marked the hazardous materials on-
                  buyer                                        board during the last voyage.
                  Ship arrival status comply to agreed pre-    The yard’s pre-cleaning crew must check
                  arrival cleaning activities                  the accuracy and completeness of the
                                                               labelling or removal of hazardous materi-
                                                               als, and if needed complete labelling to
                                                               the quality standards of the yard.

                  Special issues

                  Hazardous wastes collected during final      Hazardous waste that is ready for trans-
                  voyage must be secured.                      port, storage and disposal or reuse, such
                                                               as stores of e.g. oil, should be classified
                                                               and labelled according to relevant national
                                                               or international legislation. Other polluting
                                                               materials should be marked to allow
                                                               proper handling during dismantling.

                  Residual hazardous or polluting materi-      Contingency measures taken, e.g. oil spill
                  als must be removed                          booms in place. For transport measures
                                                               see section 3.4
                  Reusable equipment removed and               Ensure safe transport to shore. For trans-
                  brought to storage                           port measures see section 3.4

                  Guidelines, recommendation etc.

                  Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
                  agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Appendix B.
                  International Maritime Organization, IMO (2003) IMO Guidelines on Ship Recyling –
                  Appendix 3. Resolution A.962(23) Adopted on 5 December 2003 (Agenda item 19).
                  International Chamber of Shipping, ICS (2001). Industry code of practice on ship re-
                  cycling and Inventory of potentially hazardous materials on board, International
                  Chamber of Shipping, London, 2001 (www.marisec.org).
                  IMO Assembly Resolution A.868(20): “Guidelines for the control and management of
                  ships ballast water to minimise the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and patho-
                  gens”




                                               3-6                                        DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.4      Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in Pre-Cleaning.


            General Issues                              Actions

            The identified hazardous materials          The Ship Recycling Plan should contain
            should be carefully removed as it be-       detailed directions for the sequence of
            comes accessible.                           events in dismantling and the appropriate
                                                        actions to be taken to recover all hazard-
                                                        ous material in a safe manner. The
                                                        directions must be followed carefully
            Containment                                 The removed materials and products shall
                                                        be stored in a dedicated area with hard
                                                        bottom and equipped with containment
                                                        walls sized to contain the maximum vol-
                                                        ume of the largest storage tank
            Good housekeeping                           Keep a clean recycling site and separate
                                                        wastes and keep them separated.

            Special issues

            Asbestos                                    Pre-cleaning operations involving a risk of
                                                        occupational exposure to airborne asbes-
                                                        tos dust shall be performed in accordance
                                                        with the appropriate ILO code of practice
                                                        (1984)
            PCB                                         Possible PCB containing equipment and
                                                        products shall be identified and tested for
                                                        PCB-content. PCB-containing prod-
                                                        ucts/equipment shall be removed accord-
                                                        ing to requirements found in UNEP 1999
            Metals                                      The metals shall be sorted into separate
                                                        waste fractions and reused, according to
                                                        Basel Convention guidelines.
                                                        Cables shall not be burned at site
            Organotins                                  Avoid generating and wasting paint chips
            Oil and oily water                          Removed to safe tank arrangement
                                                        equipped to reduce risk of spills and to
                                                        contain the maximum volume of the larg-
                                                        est storage tank, according to Basel Con-
                                                        vention guidelines
            Sludge and bilge water                      Reduce generation of bilge water from
                                                        rain water during dismantling. Removed to
                                                        safe tank arrangement equipped to re-
                                                        duce risk of spills and to contain the
                                                        maximum volume of the largest storage
                                                        tank. Decide on pollutant concentrations
                                                        and thus possible disposal
            Freons                                      Freons shall be recovered to closed cylin-
                                                        ders from cooling systems before remov-
                                                        ing the systems themselves
            Ballast water                               The ballast water should be cleaned, ac-
                                                        cording to IMO Resolution A.868(20), be-
                                                        fore acceptance of ship at recycling facility

            Guidelines, recommendation etc.




                                         3-7                                       DHI Water & Environment
ILO 1984. Code of practise on safety in the use of asbestos
UNEP, August 1999. Guidelines for Identification of PCBs and materials containing
PCBs.
IMO Resolution A.868(20): Guidelines for the control and management of ship's bal-
last water to minimise the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and patogens
Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Page 46-49
International Maritime Organization, IMO (2004) Guidance document on the Ship Re-
cycling Plan.
United Nations Environment Programme. Montreal Protocol on Substances that De-
plete the Ozone Layer. UNEP. 1987. Last amended September, 1997
International Maritime Organization, IMO (2003) IMO Guidelines on Ship Recyling –
Appendix 1. Resolution A.962(23) Adopted on 5 December 2003 (Agenda item 19).




                           3-8                                    DHI Water & Environment
3.3   Dismantling Process

      Table 3.5      Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in Dismantling.


                  General Issues                              Actions

                  Avoid accidents that could lead to a re-    The Safety and Health Management Sys-
                  lease of hazardous materials to the envi-   tem must provide procedures reducing the
                  ronment                                     risk for unintentional spills and prescribe
                                                              the use of personal protection equipment.
                  Employ equipment leading to less envi-      The use of cranes, fork lifts, motorised
                  ronmental risk                              equipment, etc. should be employed in
                                                              particular for operations involving hazard-
                                                              ous materials or high risk of accidents

                  Special issues

                  Explosions and fires caused by unsafe       Employ test and certificates on “Gas-free
                  use of torches and cutters                  for Hot Work” to ensure safe dismantling
                                                              process.
                  Entry into confined and enclosed            Employ test and certificates on “Enclosed
                  spaces                                      Space Entry Permit” to ensure safe dis-
                                                              mantling process.
                  Limit the generation of bilge water         Manage and drain rain water from vessel
                                                              during dismantling

                  Paints on structures may contain fire       Paints should be removed from cutting
                  retarding compounds, antifouling agents     lines
                  or heavy metals

                  Guidelines, recommendation etc.

                  Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
                  agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Section 5.4.
                  International Maritime Organization, IMO (2004) Guidance document on the Ship Re-
                  cycling Plan.
                  International Maritime Organization, IMO (2003) IMO Guidelines on Ship Recyling –
                  Appendix 4 and 5. Resolution A.962(23) Adopted on 5 December 2003 (Agenda item
                  19).
                  ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
                  Turkey.




                                               3-9                                      DHI Water & Environment
3.4   Interim Storage, Transport and Disposal

      Table 3.6      Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in Interim Storage.


                  General Issues                              Actions

                  Reusable and recyclable items               Ensure good housekeeping, label materi-
                                                              als appropriately and if possible store pro-
                                                              tected from rain.
                  Waste                                       Must be carefully inventorised and appro-
                                                              priate containers labelled. Storage must
                                                              follow appropriate guidelines.

                  Special issues

                  Asbestos                                    Asbestos shall be stored in a manner that
                                                              does not pose a health risk to the workers
                                                              concerned, or to the population in the vi-
                                                              cinity of the enterprise. Measures shall be
                                                              taken by the competent authority and by
                                                              employers to prevent pollution of the envi-
                                                              ronment by asbestos dust released from
                                                              the workplace (typically involving wetting
                                                              and double layer plastic bags).
                  PCB                                         PCB waste must be stored in accordance
                                                              with the Stockholm Convention and Draft
                                                              Technical Guidelines prepared by Basel
                                                              Convention and the Stockholm Conven-
                                                              tion
                  Metals (non-ferrous)                        Metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium,
                                                              beryllium must be kept separately con-
                                                              tained, and in particular mercury in sealed
                                                              containers.
                  Organotins                                  Organotin leaches from paints and paint
                                                              chips. Steel plates with TBT paint should
                                                              be stored under roof and in an imperme-
                                                              able area with drains.
                  Oil and oily waste                          Store oil and fuel in a safe tank arrange-
                                                              ment including leakage detection, overfill
                                                              monitoring and corrosion protection. Oily
                                                              waste and used oil should be kept in
                                                              dedicated tank and labelled accordingly.

                  Guidelines, recommendation etc.

                  Draft Technical Guidelines on the Environmentally Sound Management of Persistent
                  Organic Pollutants as Waste, Open-Ended Working Group of the Basel Convention
                  on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal,
                  First Session, Geneva, 28 April - 2 May 2003 (not published)
                  ILO (1986) C162 Asbestos Convention
                  ILO (1990) C170 Chemicals Convention
                  Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
                  agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Page 46-57.
                  ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
                  Turkey. Section 9.



                                               3-10                                      DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.7      Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in Transport.


            General Issues                              Actions

            Reusable and recyclable items               Ensure good housekeeping, label materi-
                                                        als appropriately and if possible store pro-
                                                        tected from rain.
            Waste                                       Must be carefully inventoried and appro-
                                                        priate containers labelled. Storage must
                                                        follow appropriate guidelines.
            Transport contractors                       Ensure compliance of subcontractors to
                                                        pertinent national and international regula-
                                                        tion and guidance. A national licensing
                                                        system may be in place.

            Special issues

            Asbestos                                    Asbestos waste shall be packaged, la-
                                                        belled and transported according to
                                                        UNECE recommendations.
            PCB                                         PCB containing waste (> 50mg/kg) shall
                                                        be packaged, labelled and transported
                                                        according to UNECE recommendations.
            Metals                                      No special requirements unless the met-
                                                        als are contaminated with hazardous sub-
                                                        stances.
            Organotins                                  Organotin containing waste shall be
                                                        packaged, labelled and transported ac-
                                                        cording to UNECE recommendations.
            Oil and oily water                          Specific types of oil, e.g. diesel shall be
                                                        packaged, labelled and transported ac-
                                                        cording to UNECE recommendations
            Sludge                                      There are no requirements to oil sludges.
                                                        If other components are anticipated, the
                                                        waste shall be analysed in order to de-
                                                        termine the concentration and whether the
                                                        waste is dangerous goods.
            Freons and CFCs                             Freon and CFC gases waste shall be
                                                        packaged, labelled and transported ac-
                                                        cording to UNECE recommendations.

            Guidelines, recommendation etc.

            United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
            (ST/SG/AC.10/1Rev.5, United Nations, New York, 1988)
            United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, UNECE (2004): UN Model Regu-
                                                           th
            lations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, 14 edition




                                         3-11                                     DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.8      Overall Green Recycling Issues to be addressed regarding hazardous waste Disposal.


            General Issues                              Actions

            Environmental Sound Management in           Ensure compliance of subcontractors to
            Disposal issues                             pertinent national and international regula-
                                                        tion and guidance. A national licensing
                                                        system may be in place for disposal facili-
                                                        ties

            Special issues

            Solid hazardous waste
            Asbestos-containing materials               To be disposed in hazardous waste land-
                                                        fill
            Other non-metallic inorganic materials      Some glass fractions are to be disposed
                                                        in hazardous waste landfill
            Metals and metal bearing wastes (non-       Reusable and recyclable are separated.
            ferrous)                                    Fractions containing hazardous materials
                                                        to be sent to secure disposal
            Liquid hazardous waste
            PCBs and related substances                 Stored under Environmental Sound Man-
                                                        agement procedures or definitively dis-
                                                        posed
            Oil, fuel and oily wastes                   Under certain conditions oil and fuel may
                                                        be reused. Waste oil and sludge must be
                                                        collected and disposed safely.
            Paints and coatings, varnishes, solvents    Collected from removal operations and
                                                        incinerated or stored in secure landfill
            Bilge water                                 Treated water may comply to standards
                                                        and be discharged. Sludge is disposed in
                                                        secure landfill
            Other hazardous wastes                      Must be handled in an environmentally
                                                        sound manner
            Ballast water                               Biological hazards handled pre-arrival or
                                                        upon arrival according to section 2.1
            Equipment
            Various hazardous materials                 Equipment may contain any of the above
                                                        mentioned hazardous materials. Some
                                                        fractions are found in particular instrument
                                                        etc.

            Guidelines, recommendation etc.

            Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
            agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Chapter 6.
            Stockholm Convention (2003) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollut-
            ants. Article 6
            ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
            Turkey. Section 9.
            UNEP Non-incineration procedures for PCBs




                                          3-12                                     DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.9      Major solid hazardous wastes in ship recycling. In general, generation of dust, fibres,
               abrasion grits etc. should be avoided or collected if generated. Specialised authorities or li-
               censed companies may be available handling disposal.




            Special issues –                                 Actions
            Solid Hazardous Waste

            Asbestos-containing materials
            Asbestos                                         Disposed sealed in double bags in haz-
                                                             ardous waste landfill ensuring contain-
                                                             ment
            Asbestos compounded in other materi-             Disposed sealed in double bags in haz-
            als (ACM)                                        ardous waste landfill ensuring contain-
                                                             ment
            Other inorganic materials
            Glass in cathode tubes, computers, TV            Disposed in hazardous waste landfill en-
            and radio equipment                              suring containment
            Ferrous materials
            Coated plates                                    Coatings may be flammable or contain
                                                             other hazardous substances. Depending
                                                             on the recycling method coatings may be
                                                             left in place.
            Non-ferrous metal waste
            Lead                                             Lead in batteries should be sent to secure
                                                             disposal or safe reuse
            Zinc                                             Anodes to safe reuse or if corroded to
                                                             secure disposal
            Other solid hazardous wastes
            Solid paint waste may contain lea,               Grits from abrasive blasting must be col-
            chromium, copper, arsenic, TBT and               lected and disposed in in hazardous
            other hazardous compounds, such as               waste landfill ensuring containment
            PCBs
            Pesticides and chemicals from ships              Can be reused provided labelling is ade-
            stores                                           quate and usage allowed. Otherwise dis-
                                                             posed by incineration or in hazardous
                                                             waste landfill ensuring containment
            Plastics                                         Plastics are covered by MARPOL 73/78
                                                             and should be disposed of accordingly

            Guidelines, recommendation etc.

            Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
            agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Chapter 4, 6 and Appendix B.
            Stockholm Convention (2003) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollut-
            ants. Article 6
            ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
            Turkey. Section 9.
            MARPOL Convention 73/78. Annex V
            UNEP Non-incineration procedures for PCBs




                                            3-13                                           DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.10   Major liquid hazardous wastes in ship recycling. In general, leaks and spills should be
             avoided or collected in drains, if generated. Specialised authorities or licensed companies
             may be available handling disposal..



                                                         s
        Special issues –
        Liquid Hazardous Waste

        Oil, fuel and oily wastes                        Under certain conditions oil and fuel may
                                                         be reused, if necessary after regenera-
                                                         tion. Sludge from vessels and interim
                                                         storage tank should go to hazardous
                                                         waste facility or secure landfill
        PCBs and related substances                      Stored under Environmental Sound Man-
                                                         agement procedures or definitively dis-
                                                         posed as described in Stockholm conven-
                                                         tion. Typically removed by a licenced
                                                         company to incineration or disposal in
                                                         approved facilities
        Paints, varnishes, solvents, lubricants          Collected from stores and removal opera-
                                                         tions and incinerated or stored in secure
                                                         landfill. In some cases the materials can
                                                         be reused.
        Other liquid hazardous wastes                    Halons, CFCs, battery electrolytes etc.
                                                         must be handled in an environmentally
                                                         sound manner. Typically removed by a
                                                         licensed company.
        Mercury                                          May be found leaking from safety valves
                                                         or in drains due to spills. Must be dis-
                                                         posed in sealed container to hazardous
                                                         waste facility.
        Bilge water                                      Water tested for hazardous compounds
                                                         before treatment and discharge according
                                                         to (inter-)national standards. Sludge
                                                         should disposed in secure landfill
        Ballast water                                    Biological hazards to be handled pre-
                                                         arrival or upon arrival according to section
                                                         2.1

        Guidelines, recommendation etc.

        Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
        agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Chapter 6.
        Basel Convention Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of
        wastes consisting of , containing or contaminated with PCBs, PCT or PBBs
        Stockholm Convention (2003) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollut-
        ants. Article 6
        ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
        Turkey. Section 9.
        International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and
        Sediments (2004) Under ratification.
        UNEP Non-incineration procedures for PCBs




                                         3-14                                          DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.11   Major hazardous wastes found in equipment in ship recycling and their disposal..




         Special issues –                              Actions
         Hazardous Waste in Equipment

         Asbestos integrated with equipment            If equipment cannot be freed of asbestos
                                                       safely, the entity must be disposed of in
                                                       sealed in double bags in hazardous waste
                                                       landfill ensuring containment
         PCBs and related substances                   May be drained from transformers and
                                                       hydraulic systems, but is disposed with
                                                       capacitors, cable insulation, gaskets,
                                                       paints etc.
         Heavy metals, incl. lead, chromium,           Motors, generators, electronic equipment,
         nickel                                        batteries, paints etc.
         Mercury                                       Fractions in switches, thermometers,
                                                       pressure sensors should be sent to se-
                                                       cure disposal or safe reuse
         Sources of radiation                          Materials emitting low level radiation may
                                                       be found in electronic equipment, smoke
                                                       detectors, emergency signs
         Oil, fuel and oily wastes                     Under certain conditions oil and fuel may
                                                       be reused
         Paints and paint-removal waste contain-       Collected from removal operations and
         ing chromium, TBT, arsenic                    incinerated or stored in secure landfill
         Bilge water                                   Water tested for hazardous compounds
                                                       for cleaning and discharge. Sludge dis-
                                                       posed in secure landfill
         Ballast water                                 Handled during pre-arrival or upon arrival
                                                       according to section 2.1
         Other hazardous wastes                        PVC, cable insulation, flame retarded
                                                       equipment etc. must be handled in an en-
                                                       vironmentally sound manner

         Guidelines, recommendation etc.

         Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
         agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Chapter 4 and 6.
         Stockholm Convention (2003) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollut-
         ants. Article 6
         ILO (2003) Safety and health in shipbreaking: Guidelines for Asian countries and
         Turkey. Section 9.
         International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and
         Sediments (2004) Under ratification.
         UNEP Non-incineration procedures for PCBs




                                       3-15                                       DHI Water & Environment
3.5   Contingency Plans and Monitoring Programmes

      Table 3.12   Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in Contingency Plans.


               General Issues                              Actions

               Risk management and containment             Prepare contingency and response plan.
                                                           The existence and implementation of the
                                                           contingency plan should be a key instru-
                                                           ment in limiting impact to the environment
                                                           from spills and accidents.

               Special issues

               Contents of environmental contingency       Develop environmental contingency plan.
               plan                                        Proposed outline and contents can be
                                                           found in UNEP/OCHA Guidelines.
               Response to spills                          A spill cleaning procedure, including safe
                                                           handling operations and appropriate pro-
                                                           tective clothing should be established. An
                                                           example of a general procedure can be
                                                           found in the Basel Convention Guidelines.
               Spills of oil in the sea                    Oil spill booms must be placed around the
                                                           vessel at all times in a distance from the
                                                           vessel. After containment is secured and
                                                           if safe for personnel, recovery of
                                                           oil/chemical from the sea, by the use of
                                                           skimmers, shall be initiated, and recov-
                                                           ered to sealed containers.
               Spills in storage facilities                Liquid chemicals including oils must be
                                                           stored in hard surfaced locations sur-
                                                           rounded by containment walls sufficient to
                                                           contain the maximum volume of the larg-
                                                           est storage tank. Recovery of chemi-
                                                           cals/oils by pumps and absorbents.
               Fires                                       Fire fighting equipment must be available.
                                                           Response to fires shall be part of envi-
                                                           ronmental contingency plan.
               Emergency preparedness                      Emergency preparedness and response
                                                           arrangements should be maintained
                                                           through training and exercises, according
                                                           to ILO guidelines.

               Guidelines, recommendation etc.

               UNEP/OCHA. Guidelines for the development of a national environmental contin-
               gency plan
               Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
               agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. page 65
               International Maritime Organization: IMO Oil Pollution Manual. Section 4. Combating
               Oil Spill.




                                              3-16                                   DHI Water & Environment
Table 3.13   Green Recycling Issues to be addressed in Monitoring.


         General Issues                               Actions

         Compliance with local regulation, na-        Agree monitoring programme with rele-
         tional or international certification on     vant authorities. Ensure competent sam-
         discharges                                   pling and analysis, if yard responsibility.

         Special issues

         Waste stream in and out of yard re-          The environmental management system
         corded                                       should allow for estimation of waste
                                                      streams and their fate.
         Waste water monitoring                       Discharge monitoring programme estab-
                                                      lished
         Monitoring of noise, air, soil and water     Environmental monitoring programme
                                                      established

         Guidelines, recommendation etc.

         Basel Convention (2003) Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound man-
         agement for full and partial dismantling of ships. Table 3, Section 4.3 and 4.4, Chap-
         ter 6




                                        3-17                                     DHI Water & Environment
                                                  APPENDICES




d:\docstoc\working\pdf\030b4723-cd19-40ef-ae09-        DHI Water & Environment
31951af8f098.doc
                                                                 APPENDIX                     A

                                                  Paper trail procedure and certifications




d:\docstoc\working\pdf\030b4723-cd19-40ef-ae09-                              DHI Water & Environment
31951af8f098.doc
                                                        APPENDIX                     B

                   Table of onboard hazardous materials, locations and labelling
                                                                          codes




d:\docstoc\working\pdf\030b4723-cd19-40ef-ae09-   A-1               DHI Water & Environment
31951af8f098.doc

				
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