Emotion - Organized mental response to an event that
includes psychological, experiential, and cognitive aspects
Darwin said that emotional expression has evolved across species - implies that
emotion and the capacity to read it is universal across human beings and related
Intelligence - as defined by others
"I define [intelligence] as your skill in achieving whatever
it is you want to attain in your life within your
sociocultural context. By capitalizing on your strengths
and compensating for, or correcting, your weaknesses” –
"An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to
create products, that are valued within one or more
cultural settings ( Gardner, 1983/2003, p. x)"
Putting it together
The Connection between emotion and intelligence
“Emotional intelligence is the capacity to reason about
emotions and to enhance thinking”.
Emotional intelligence combines affect with cognition,
emotion with intelligence
Robert Thorndike (1937)
Began writing about social intelligence in 1937
Mechanical intelligence - the ability to visualize relationships
among objects and understand how the physical world
Social intelligence - the ability to
function successfully in interpersonal
Defined intelligence as the “aggregate
or global capacity of the individual to
think rationally and to deal effectively
with his environment
viewed intelligence as an effect rather
than a cause, and asserted that non-
intellective factors, such as personality,
contribute to the development of each
Tests are still based on his philosophy
that intelligence is "the global capacity
to act purposefully, to think rationally,
and to deal effectively with [one's]
environment" (cited in Kaplan &
Saccuzzo, p. 256).
Theory of Multiple Intelligence
Proposed that intrapersonal
and interpersonal intelligences
are as important as IQ
Peter Salovey and John Mayer - 1990
Credited with coining the
Helped develop valid
measures of EI
A type of social intelligence that helps
to monitor emotions and discriminate
among them to guide one‟s actions
Daniel Goleman - 1985
Produced best seller book
Started discussing how
traditional tests of
(IQ) don‟t adequately
predict success in life
Said EQ matters twice as
much as IQ
5 Attributes of Emotional
IQ vs. EQ
Researches are finding High Levels of EI are
that IQ alone is not a associated with:
good predictor of job Participative
Putting people at ease
emotion is most
Balance of life and
cognitive in reasoning
and has the highest
Building and mending
correlation to IQ Relationships
IQ vs. EQ
Difference in Emotional and Cognitive INFO
Emotional Info Cognitive Info
Emotional information Describes rules that have
pertains to the human areas of application beyond
immediate living world
Objects are studied
People are studied
High level of systemization -
Less universal agreement more fixed, certain, and
to the systemization objective
IQ gets you hired, but Emotional
Intelligence (EQ) gets you
promoted ” is the slogan mentioned in the
TIME magazine cover story on The EQ
Factor (TIME, 1995 )
40 yr longitudinal study 450 boys in MA
66% from welfare families, 33% had IQ below 90
Showed IQ had little correlation to how well the boys did at
work later in life
Berkley - Ph.Ds
80 PhDs in science underwent a battery of personality and
intelligence testing and interviews
40 yrs later researchers followed up on resumes and
repeat interviews to determine level of success
Found social and emotional abilities were 4x more
important than IQ in determining professional success and
Marshmallow studies - Stanford
4 yr olds were placed in a room with
marshmallows - the investigator told the children
they could have two marshmallows if they wait
to eat when the investigator got back
14 yrs later follow up studies were conducted
and the investigators found that those who were
able to resist temptation scored an average 210
pts higher on SAT
Developed by Dr. Reuven Bar-On in 1996.
The first test of emotional intelligence to be published by a
psychological test publisher (1997).
EQ-I is the most comprehensive, practical and widely-
administered tool in the field of emotional intelligence
A self-report measure designed to measure a number of
constructs related to EI.
Consists of 133 items.
Takes approximately 30 minutes to complete.
It gives an overall EQ score as well as scores for the following five
composite scales and 15 subscales:
Intrapersonal (self-awareness and self-expression)
Self-Regard: To accurately perceive, understand and accept oneself
Emotional Self-Awareness: To be aware of and understand one‟s emotions
Assertiveness: To effectively and constructively express one‟s emotions and oneself
Independence: To be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others
Self-Actualization: To strive to achieve personal goals and actualize one‟s potential
Interpersonal (social awareness and interpersonal relationship)
Empathy: To be aware of and understand how others feel
Social Responsibility: To identify with one‟s social group and cooperate with others
Interpersonal Relationship: To establish mutually satisfying relationships and relate
well with others
Stress Management (emotional management and regulation)
Stress Tolerance: To effectively and constructively manage emotions
Impulse Control: To effectively and constructively control emotions
Adaptability (change management)
Reality-Testing: To objectively validate one‟s feelings and thinking with external
Flexibility: To adapt and adjust one‟s feelings and thinking to new situations
Problem-Solving: To effectively solve problems of a personal and interpersonal
General Mood (self-motivation)
Optimism: To be positive and look at the brighter side of life
Happiness: To feel content with oneself, others and life in general
Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
An ability-based test designed to measure the four
branches of the EI model of Mayer and Salovey.
Developed from an intelligence-testing tradition
formed by the emerging scientific understanding of
emotions and their function and from the first published
ability measure specifically intended to assess emotional
intelligence, namely Multifactor Emotional Intelligence
Consists of 141 items and takes 30-45 minutes to
Measures the four branches of Emotional Intelligence:
Perceiving Emotions - The ability to perceive emotions
in oneself and others as well as in objects, art, stories, music,
and other stimuli.
Facilitating Thought - The ability to generate, use, and
feel emotion as necessary to communicate feelings or
employ them in other cognitive processes.
Understanding Emotions - The ability to understand
emotional information, to understand how emotions
combine and progress through relationship transitions, and
to appreciate such emotional meanings.
Managing Emotions - The ability to be open to feelings,
and to modulate them in oneself and others so as to promote
personal understanding and growth.
Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)
Developed by the Hay Group in conjunction with Drs.
Daniel Goleman and Richard Boyatzis, both thought
leaders and researchers in the field of emotional
intelligence, leadership and adult development.
State-of-the-art multi-rater (360-degree) online
survey that gives you valuable insight into how key
people in your environment perceive your effectiveness
in intra- and interpersonal relationships skills.
Provides information on the consistency and competency demonstrated in 4 critical areas of emotional
intelligence that encompass the following 18 abilities:
Teamwork and Collaboration
Questions and Answers
You're on an airplane that suddenly hits
extremely bad turbulence and begins
rocking from side to side.
What do you do?
a. Continue to read your book or magazine, or watch the movie,
paying little attention to the turbulence.
b. Become vigilant for an emergency, carefully monitoring the
stewardesses and reading the emergency instructions card.
c. A little of both a and b.
d. Not sure -- never noticed.
Anything but D -- that answer reflects a
lack of awareness of your habitual
responses under stress.
A=20, B=20, C=20, D=0.
You've taken a group of 4-year-olds to the
park, and one of them starts crying
because the others won't play with her.
What do you do?
a. Stay out of it -- let the kids deal with it on their own.
b. Talk to her and help her figure out ways to get the other kids to
play with her.
c. Tell her in a kind voice not to cry.
d. Try to distract the crying girl by showing her some other things
she could play with.
B is best. Emotionally intelligent parents use
their children's moments of upsets as
opportunities to act as emotional coaches,
helping their children understand what
made them upset, what they are feeling, and
alternatives the child can try.
A=0, B=20, C=0, D=0.
Assume you're a college student who had hoped to get an "A" in
a course, but you have just found out you got a "C-" on the
What do you do?
a. Sketch out a specific plan for ways to improve your grade and resolve
to follow through on your plans.
b. Resolve to do better in the future.
c. Tell yourself it really doesn't matter much how you do in the course,
and concentrate instead on other classes where your grades are higher.
d. Go to see the professor and try to talk her into giving you a better
A. One mark of self-motivation is being
able to formulate a plan for overcoming
obstacles and frustrations and follow
through on it.
A=20, B=0, C=0, D=0.
Imagine you're an insurance salesman
calling prospective clients. Fifteen people
in a row have hung up on you, and you're
What do you do?
a. Call it a day and hope you have better luck tomorrow.
b. Assess qualities in yourself that may be undermining your ability
to make a sale.
c. Try something new in the next call, and keep plugging away.
d. Consider another line of work.
C. Optimism, a mark of emotional
intelligence, leads people to see setbacks
as challenges they can learn from, and to
persist, trying out new approaches rather
than giving up, blaming themselves, or
A=0, B=0, C=20, D=0.
You're a manager in an organization that
is trying to encourage respect for racial
and ethnic diversity. You overhear
someone telling a racist joke.
What do you do?
a. Ignore it -- it's only a joke.
b. Call the person into your office for a reprimand.
c. Speak up on the spot, saying that such jokes are inappropriate
and will not be tolerated in your organization.
d. Suggest to the person telling the joke he go through a diversity
C. The most effective way to create an
atmosphere that welcomes diversity is to
make clear in public that the social norms
of your organization do not tolerate such
expressions. Instead of trying to change
prejudices (a much harder task), keep
people from acting on them.
A=0, B=0, C=20, D=0.
You're trying to calm down a friend who
has worked himself up into a fury at a
driver in another car who has cut
dangerously close in front of him.
What do you do?
a. Tell him to forget it -- he's okay now and it's no big deal.
b. Put on one of his favorite tapes and try to distract him.
c. Join him in putting down the other driver, as a show of rapport.
d. Tell him about a time something like this happened to you and
how you felt as mad as he does now, but then you saw the other
driver was on the way to a hospital emergency room.
D. Data on rage and how to calm it show the
effectiveness of distracting the angry person
from the focus of his rage, empathizing with
his feelings and perspective, and suggesting a
less anger-provoking way of seeing the
A=0, B=5, C=5, D=20.
You and your life partner have gotten into an
argument that has escalated into a shouting match;
you're both upset and, in the heat of anger, making
personal attacks you don't really mean.
What's the best thing to do?
a. Take a 20-minute break and then continue the discussion.
b. Just stop the argument -- go silent, no matter what your partner
c. Say you're sorry and ask your partner to apologize, too.
d. Stop for a moment, collect your thoughts, then state your side of
the case as precisely as you can.
A. Take a break of 20 minutes or more. It
takes at least that long to clear the body
of the physiological arousal of anger --
which distorts your perception and
makes you more likely to launch
damaging personal attacks. After cooling
down you'll be more likely to have a
A=20, B=0, C=0, D=0.
You've been assigned to head a working
team that is trying to come up with a
creative solution to a nagging problem at
What's the first thing you do?
a. Draw up an agenda and allot time for discussion of each item so
you make best use of your time together.
b. Have people take the time to get to know each other better.
c. Begin by asking each person for ideas about how to solve the
problem, while the ideas are fresh.
d. Start out with a brainstorming session, encouraging everyone to
say whatever comes to mind, no matter how wild.
B. Creative groups work at their peak
when rapport, harmony, and comfort
levels are highest -- then people are freer
to make their best contribution.
A=0, B=20, C=0, D=0
Your 3-year-old son is extremely timid,
and has been hypersensitive about -- and a
bit fearful of -- new places and people
virtually since he was born.
What do you do?
a. Accept that he has a shy temperament and think of ways to
shelter him from situations that would upset him.
b. Take him to a child psychiatrist for help.
c. Purposely expose him to lots of new people and places so he can
get over his fear.
d. Engineer an ongoing series of challenging but manageable
experiences that will teach him he can handle new people and
D. Children born with a timid
temperament can often become more
outgoing if their parents arrange an
ongoing series of manageable challenges
to their shyness.
A=0, B=5, C=0, D=20
For years you've been wanting to get back to
learning to play a musical instrument you tried in
childhood, and now, just for fun, you've finally
gotten around to starting. You want to make the most
effective use of your time.
What do you do?
a. Hold yourself to a strict practice time each day.
b. Choose pieces that stretch your abilities a bit.
c. Practice only when you're really in the mood.
d. Pick pieces that are far beyond your ability, but that you can
master with diligent effort.
B. By giving yourself moderate
challenges, you are most likely to get into
the state of flow, which is both pleasurable
and where people learn and perform at
A=0, B=20, C=0, D=0.
Total your score!
200 -- Highest Score
125 to 175 -- High
76-124 -- Average
0 to 75 -- Low
What does your score mean?
Emotional Intelligence tests assesses your capacity to recognize
your own emotions and those of others; understand how best to
motivate yourself; become close to others; and manage your own
feelings and those of others.
Emotional intelligence contributes a great deal to your potential
in life. A poor emotional intelligence can hold a brilliant individual
back from achieving his or her goals, while a good EIQ can help
someone who might otherwise struggle achieve success in life.
Emotionally intelligent people have an easy time
overcoming difficulties in their lives and they are
generally able to control their moods. They are able
to motivate themselves to overcome obstacles and
to reach their goals. In addition, they find social
interactions to be quite easy and fulfilling. They are
comfortable allowing themselves to get close with
others, and feel comfortable being vulnerable
enough to establish intimacy. They also report
having an easy time offering support to others;
likely due to an empathetic nature and a solid
ability to offer advice.
Leaders with high emotional intelligence excel in
participative management and change
management. They are self-aware, decisive, and
straightforward. These leaders are experts at
putting people at ease and dealing with problem
employees. They are well versed in building and
mending relationships and are able to find balance
between work and personal life. They are generally
successful, optimistic, and willing to do “whatever
You are the Human Resources Director. What qualities
are you looking for in the applicants for your new faculty
Characteristics of a high
Effective in their position
Participates in meaningful social interactions
Limited or absent harmful or deviant behaviors
Value of Emotional Intelligence in
• Learned optimism Pessimism
– Optimists tend to look at • Is the glass half empty
defeat as a temporary or half full?
setback, not their fault, and
related to this one instance
– Pessimists tend to look at
defeat as long-term, being
their fault, and all-
• Met Life Example
Optimism verses Pessimism
– Putting it in perspective
Rosete et. al
Higher Emotional Intelligence
was positively associated with
(Spencer & Spencer, 1993; Spencer, McClelland, &
Kelner, 1997) L‟Oreal salespeople with certain
emotional competencies sold more products
Used EQ-I to select recruiters
empathy, happiness, and emotional self-awareness
Immediate gain of 3 million
Agreeableness and Verbal
Ivcevic, Brackett and Mayer (2007) found a “low, but signficant”
correlation between agreeableness and emotional intelligence
Ivcevic, Brackett and Mayer (2007) found a “moderate
correlation” with verbal intelligence and emotional intelligence
Meaningful Social Interactions
Brackett, Mayer, and Warner (2003)
Males with a low EI scored poorly in “quality peer
May have difficulty forming meaningful relationships
Limited Harmful Social Behaviors
Brackett, Mayer and Warner (2003)
Low EI is correlated with increased “potentially harmful behaviors”
Males with low EI are more likely than females with low EI to engage in
and stress tolerance
(Lopes et al, 2006)
Greater merit increases
Higher company rank
Better peer and supervisor
ratings of interpersonal facilitation
and stress tolerance.
How can I increase my emotional
The following slides give some advice on how to increase
your emotional intelligence.
*The following slides are quoted directly from Steve Sablack
on the Fountain website
His suggestions are based on the five key steps of Goleman‟s
model of EI.
“Learn the difference between thoughts and feelings.”
“Ask yourself how you are feeling throughout the day.”
“Be open to input from others.”
“Monitor your self-talk”
“Accept responsibility for your emotional responses in your
“Anticipate emotional triggers and prepare for them.”
“Reframe an irritating situation into a problem-solving
“Never underestimate the power of taking deep breaths.”
“Remove yourself from the situation and keep moving.
“Be aware of how you explain setbacks to yourself…stay
“Connect your goals with your values to get energized.”
“Strive for reaching a „flow‟ state while working on
“Look for nonverbal cues as well as listening for verbal
“Share and be honest about your feelings.”
“Your spoken and unspoken messages should be
“Take the kinder road whenever possible. There are
many ways to deliver opinions and criticism.”
“Try to see a situation from the other person‟s
“Share your passion and enthusiasm for your job and the
organization‟s vision – it‟s contagious!”
“Create an inspiring work environment.”
“Engage in creative brainstorming.”
“Be willing to coach or mentor others and be open to being
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