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					Emotional
Intelligence




 Definitions
 and History
Working Definitions
 Emotion - Organized mental response to an event that
  includes psychological, experiential, and cognitive aspects
   Internal, external
      Darwin said that emotional expression has evolved across species - implies that
       emotion and the capacity to read it is universal across human beings and related
       mammals.
Definitions
   Intelligence - as defined by others
     "I define [intelligence] as your skill in achieving whatever
       it is you want to attain in your life within your
       sociocultural context. By capitalizing on your strengths
       and compensating for, or correcting, your weaknesses” –
       Sternberg

     "An intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to
       create products, that are valued within one or more
       cultural settings ( Gardner, 1983/2003, p. x)"
Putting it together
  The Connection between emotion and intelligence




  “Emotional intelligence is the capacity to reason about
   emotions and to enhance thinking”.

     Emotional intelligence combines affect with cognition,
      emotion with intelligence
Robert Thorndike (1937)
  Began writing about social intelligence in 1937
  Mechanical intelligence - the ability to visualize relationships
    among objects and understand how the physical world
    worked
  Social intelligence - the ability to
 function successfully in interpersonal
  situations".



  http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/ethorndike.shtml
David Weschler
 Defined intelligence as the “aggregate
   or global capacity of the individual to
   think rationally and to deal effectively
   with his environment
 viewed intelligence as an effect rather
   than a cause, and asserted that non-
   intellective factors, such as personality,
   contribute to the development of each
   person‟s intelligence.
 Tests are still based on his philosophy
   that intelligence is "the global capacity
   to act purposefully, to think rationally,
   and to deal effectively with [one's]
   environment" (cited in Kaplan &
   Saccuzzo, p. 256).
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligence

 Proposed that intrapersonal
and interpersonal intelligences
are as important as IQ
Peter Salovey and John Mayer - 1990

  Credited with coining the
   term “emotional
   intelligence”
  Helped develop valid
   measures of EI
  A type of social intelligence that helps
    to monitor emotions and discriminate
    among them to guide one‟s actions
Daniel Goleman - 1985
 Produced best seller book
  “Emotional Intelligence”
 Started discussing how
  traditional tests of
  cognitive intelligence
  (IQ) don‟t adequately
  predict success in life
 Said EQ matters twice as
  much as IQ
5 Attributes of Emotional
Intelligence
 Self Awareness
 Self Regulation
 Motivation
 Empathy
 Social Skill
IQ vs. EQ
  Researches are finding    High Levels of EI are
   that IQ alone is not a     associated with:
   good predictor of job       Participative
   performance                  Managment
                               Putting people at ease
  Understanding
                               self-awareness
   emotion is most
                               Balance of life and
   cognitive in reasoning
                                work
   and has the highest
                               Building and mending
   correlation to IQ            Relationships
IQ vs. EQ
Difference in Emotional and Cognitive INFO
  Emotional Info              Cognitive Info


  Emotional information       Describes rules that have
   pertains to the human        areas of application beyond
                                immediate living world
   world
                               Objects are studied
  People are studied
                               High level of systemization -
  Less universal agreement     more fixed, certain, and
   to the systemization         objective
•Sommerville Study
   IQ gets you hired, but Emotional
    Intelligence (EQ) gets you
    promoted ” is the slogan mentioned in the
    TIME magazine cover story on The EQ
    Factor (TIME, 1995 )

  Sommerville Study
     40 yr longitudinal study 450 boys in MA
     66% from welfare families, 33% had IQ below 90
     Showed IQ had little correlation to how well the boys did at
      work later in life
Berkley - Ph.Ds
  80 PhDs in science underwent a battery of personality and
   intelligence testing and interviews
  40 yrs later researchers followed up on resumes and
   repeat interviews to determine level of success
  Found social and emotional abilities were 4x more
   important than IQ in determining professional success and
   prestige
Marshmallow studies - Stanford
  4 yr olds were placed in a room with
   marshmallows - the investigator told the children
   they could have two marshmallows if they wait
   to eat when the investigator got back
  14 yrs later follow up studies were conducted
   and the investigators found that those who were
   able to resist temptation scored an average 210
   pts higher on SAT
Emotional Intelligence
Measurement Instruments
EQ-i
Developed by Dr. Reuven Bar-On in 1996.
The first test of emotional intelligence to be published by a
psychological test publisher (1997).
EQ-I is the most comprehensive, practical and widely-
administered tool in the field of emotional intelligence
(EQ)
The test…
  A self-report measure designed to measure a number of
   constructs related to EI.
  Consists of 133 items.
  Takes approximately 30 minutes to complete.
It gives an overall EQ score as well as scores for the following five
composite scales and 15 subscales:
          Intrapersonal (self-awareness and self-expression)
        Self-Regard: To accurately perceive, understand and accept oneself
        Emotional Self-Awareness: To be aware of and understand one‟s emotions
        Assertiveness: To effectively and constructively express one‟s emotions and oneself
        Independence: To be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others
        Self-Actualization: To strive to achieve personal goals and actualize one‟s potential
          Interpersonal (social awareness and interpersonal relationship)
        Empathy: To be aware of and understand how others feel
        Social Responsibility: To identify with one‟s social group and cooperate with others
        Interpersonal Relationship: To establish mutually satisfying relationships and relate
         well with others
          Stress Management (emotional management and regulation)
        Stress Tolerance: To effectively and constructively manage emotions
        Impulse Control: To effectively and constructively control emotions
          Adaptability (change management)
        Reality-Testing: To objectively validate one‟s feelings and thinking with external
         reality
        Flexibility: To adapt and adjust one‟s feelings and thinking to new situations
        Problem-Solving: To effectively solve problems of a personal and interpersonal
         nature
          General Mood (self-motivation)
        Optimism: To be positive and look at the brighter side of life
        Happiness: To feel content with oneself, others and life in general
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional
Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
An ability-based test designed to measure the four
branches of the EI model of Mayer and Salovey.
Developed from an intelligence-testing tradition
formed by the emerging scientific understanding of
emotions and their function and from the first published
ability measure specifically intended to assess emotional
intelligence, namely Multifactor Emotional Intelligence
Scale (MEIS).
Consists of 141 items and takes 30-45 minutes to
complete.
Measures the four branches of Emotional Intelligence:
  Perceiving Emotions - The ability to perceive emotions
  in oneself and others as well as in objects, art, stories, music,
  and other stimuli.
  Facilitating Thought - The ability to generate, use, and
  feel emotion as necessary to communicate feelings or
  employ them in other cognitive processes.
  Understanding Emotions - The ability to understand
  emotional information, to understand how emotions
  combine and progress through relationship transitions, and
  to appreciate such emotional meanings.
  Managing Emotions - The ability to be open to feelings,
  and to modulate them in oneself and others so as to promote
  personal understanding and growth.
Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)

Developed by the Hay Group in conjunction with Drs.
Daniel Goleman and Richard Boyatzis, both thought
leaders and researchers in the field of emotional
intelligence, leadership and adult development.
State-of-the-art multi-rater (360-degree) online
survey that gives you valuable insight into how key
people in your environment perceive your effectiveness
in intra- and interpersonal relationships skills.
Provides information on the consistency and competency demonstrated in 4 critical areas of emotional
intelligence that encompass the following 18 abilities:
                Self-Awareness
             Emotional Self-Awareness
             Accurate Self-Assessment
             Self-Confidence

                Self-Management
             Emotional Self-Control
             Transparency
             Adaptability
             Achievement Orientation
             Initiative
             Optimism

                Social Awareness
             Empathy
             Organizational Awareness
             Service Orientation
                Relationship Management
             Developing Others
             Inspirational Leadership
             Change Catalyst
             Influence
             Conflict Management
             Teamwork and Collaboration
Emotional Intelligence
Quiz
   from
   Emotionaliq.net
Questions and Answers
Question 1
You're on an airplane that suddenly hits
extremely bad turbulence and begins
rocking from side to side.
What do you do?

 a. Continue to read your book or magazine, or watch the movie,
paying little attention to the turbulence.
b. Become vigilant for an emergency, carefully monitoring the
stewardesses and reading the emergency instructions card.
c. A little of both a and b.
d. Not sure -- never noticed.
Answer 1
Anything but D -- that answer reflects a
lack of awareness of your habitual
responses under stress.


A=20, B=20, C=20, D=0.
Question 2
You've taken a group of 4-year-olds to the
park, and one of them starts crying
because the others won't play with her.
 What do you do?

a. Stay out of it -- let the kids deal with it on their own.
b. Talk to her and help her figure out ways to get the other kids to
play with her.
c. Tell her in a kind voice not to cry.
d. Try to distract the crying girl by showing her some other things
she could play with.
 Answer 2
B is best. Emotionally intelligent parents use
their children's moments of upsets as
opportunities to act as emotional coaches,
helping their children understand what
made them upset, what they are feeling, and
alternatives the child can try.

A=0, B=20, C=0, D=0.
Question 3
Assume you're a college student who had hoped to get an "A" in
a course, but you have just found out you got a "C-" on the
midterm.

 What do you do?

a. Sketch out a specific plan for ways to improve your grade and resolve
to follow through on your plans.
b. Resolve to do better in the future.

c. Tell yourself it really doesn't matter much how you do in the course,
and concentrate instead on other classes where your grades are higher.
d. Go to see the professor and try to talk her into giving you a better
grade.
Answer 3
A. One mark of self-motivation is being
 able to formulate a plan for overcoming
 obstacles and frustrations and follow
 through on it.

 A=20, B=0, C=0, D=0.
Question 4
Imagine you're an insurance salesman
calling prospective clients. Fifteen people
in a row have hung up on you, and you're
getting discouraged.
 What do you do?

a. Call it a day and hope you have better luck tomorrow.
b. Assess qualities in yourself that may be undermining your ability
to make a sale.
c. Try something new in the next call, and keep plugging away.
d. Consider another line of work.
Answer 4
C. Optimism, a mark of emotional
intelligence, leads people to see setbacks
as challenges they can learn from, and to
persist, trying out new approaches rather
than giving up, blaming themselves, or
getting demoralized.


A=0, B=0, C=20, D=0.
Question 5
You're a manager in an organization that
is trying to encourage respect for racial
and ethnic diversity. You overhear
someone telling a racist joke.
What do you do?

a. Ignore it -- it's only a joke.
b. Call the person into your office for a reprimand.
c. Speak up on the spot, saying that such jokes are inappropriate
and will not be tolerated in your organization.
d. Suggest to the person telling the joke he go through a diversity
training program.
Answer 5
C. The most effective way to create an
atmosphere that welcomes diversity is to
make clear in public that the social norms
of your organization do not tolerate such
expressions. Instead of trying to change
prejudices (a much harder task), keep
people from acting on them.
A=0, B=0, C=20, D=0.
Question 6
You're trying to calm down a friend who
has worked himself up into a fury at a
driver in another car who has cut
dangerously close in front of him.
What do you do?

a. Tell him to forget it -- he's okay now and it's no big deal.
b. Put on one of his favorite tapes and try to distract him.
c. Join him in putting down the other driver, as a show of rapport.
d. Tell him about a time something like this happened to you and
how you felt as mad as he does now, but then you saw the other
driver was on the way to a hospital emergency room.
Answer 6
D. Data on rage and how to calm it show the
effectiveness of distracting the angry person
from the focus of his rage, empathizing with
his feelings and perspective, and suggesting a
less anger-provoking way of seeing the
situation.

A=0, B=5, C=5, D=20.
Question 7
You and your life partner have gotten into an
argument that has escalated into a shouting match;
you're both upset and, in the heat of anger, making
personal attacks you don't really mean.
What's the best thing to do?
a. Take a 20-minute break and then continue the discussion.
b. Just stop the argument -- go silent, no matter what your partner
says.
c. Say you're sorry and ask your partner to apologize, too.
d. Stop for a moment, collect your thoughts, then state your side of
the case as precisely as you can.
Answer 7
 A. Take a break of 20 minutes or more. It
  takes at least that long to clear the body
  of the physiological arousal of anger --
  which distorts your perception and
  makes you more likely to launch
  damaging personal attacks. After cooling
  down you'll be more likely to have a
  fruitful discussion.
 A=20, B=0, C=0, D=0.
Question 8
You've been assigned to head a working
team that is trying to come up with a
creative solution to a nagging problem at
work.
What's the first thing you do?
a. Draw up an agenda and allot time for discussion of each item so
you make best use of your time together.
b. Have people take the time to get to know each other better.
c. Begin by asking each person for ideas about how to solve the
problem, while the ideas are fresh.
d. Start out with a brainstorming session, encouraging everyone to
say whatever comes to mind, no matter how wild.
Answer 8
B. Creative groups work at their peak
when rapport, harmony, and comfort
levels are highest -- then people are freer
to make their best contribution.


A=0, B=20, C=0, D=0
Question 9
Your 3-year-old son is extremely timid,
and has been hypersensitive about -- and a
bit fearful of -- new places and people
virtually since he was born.
What do you do?
a. Accept that he has a shy temperament and think of ways to
shelter him from situations that would upset him.
b. Take him to a child psychiatrist for help.
c. Purposely expose him to lots of new people and places so he can
get over his fear.
d. Engineer an ongoing series of challenging but manageable
experiences that will teach him he can handle new people and
places.
Answer 9
D. Children born with a timid
temperament can often become more
outgoing if their parents arrange an
ongoing series of manageable challenges
to their shyness.

A=0, B=5, C=0, D=20
Question 10
For years you've been wanting to get back to
learning to play a musical instrument you tried in
childhood, and now, just for fun, you've finally
gotten around to starting. You want to make the most
effective use of your time.
What do you do?

a. Hold yourself to a strict practice time each day.
b. Choose pieces that stretch your abilities a bit.
c. Practice only when you're really in the mood.
d. Pick pieces that are far beyond your ability, but that you can
master with diligent effort.
Answer 10
B. By giving yourself moderate
challenges, you are most likely to get into
the state of flow, which is both pleasurable
and where people learn and perform at
their best.

A=0, B=20, C=0, D=0.
Total your score!
Results

         200 -- Highest Score
         125 to 175 -- High
         76-124 -- Average
         0 to 75 -- Low
What does your score mean?
  Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence tests assesses your capacity to recognize
your own emotions and those of others; understand how best to
motivate yourself; become close to others; and manage your own
feelings and those of others.
Emotional intelligence contributes a great deal to your potential
in life. A poor emotional intelligence can hold a brilliant individual
back from achieving his or her goals, while a good EIQ can help
someone who might otherwise struggle achieve success in life.
Emotionally intelligent people have an easy time
overcoming difficulties in their lives and they are
generally able to control their moods. They are able
to motivate themselves to overcome obstacles and
to reach their goals. In addition, they find social
interactions to be quite easy and fulfilling. They are
comfortable allowing themselves to get close with
others, and feel comfortable being vulnerable
enough to establish intimacy. They also report
having an easy time offering support to others;
likely due to an empathetic nature and a solid
ability to offer advice.
Leaders with high emotional intelligence excel in
participative management and change
management. They are self-aware, decisive, and
straightforward. These leaders are experts at
putting people at ease and dealing with problem
employees. They are well versed in building and
mending relationships and are able to find balance
between work and personal life. They are generally
successful, optimistic, and willing to do “whatever
it takes.”
You are the Human Resources Director. What qualities
are you looking for in the applicants for your new faculty
position?
Characteristics of a high
EI employee
Optimist
Leadership capabilities
Effective in their position
Agreeableness
Verbal Intelligence
Participates in meaningful social interactions
Limited or absent harmful or deviant behaviors
   Value of Emotional Intelligence in
   the Workplace
                                  Optimism verses
• Learned optimism                Pessimism
– Optimists tend to look at       • Is the glass half empty
  defeat as a temporary             or half full?
  setback, not their fault, and
  related to this one instance
– Pessimists tend to look at
  defeat as long-term, being
  their fault, and all-
  encompassing
• Met Life Example
    Martin Seligman
Optimism verses Pessimism
– Putting it in perspective
Leadership Effectiveness
Rosete et. al


  Higher Emotional Intelligence
  was positively associated with
  increased leadership
  effectiveness
Effectiveness
(Spencer & Spencer, 1993; Spencer, McClelland, &
Kelner, 1997) L‟Oreal salespeople with certain
emotional competencies sold more products
Less Turnovers
Effectiveness
U.S. Airforce
  Used EQ-I to select recruiters
  Competencies: Assertiveness,
         empathy, happiness, and emotional self-awareness
  Immediate gain of 3 million
         dollars
Agreeableness and Verbal
Intelligence

Agreeableness
  Ivcevic, Brackett and Mayer (2007) found a “low, but signficant”
   correlation between agreeableness and emotional intelligence
  Verbal Intelligence
  Ivcevic, Brackett and Mayer (2007) found a “moderate
   correlation” with verbal intelligence and emotional intelligence
Meaningful Social Interactions
Brackett, Mayer, and Warner (2003)
  Males with a low EI scored poorly in “quality peer
   relations”
  May have difficulty forming meaningful relationships
Limited Harmful Social Behaviors
Brackett, Mayer and Warner (2003)
  Low EI is correlated with increased “potentially harmful behaviors”
  Males with low EI are more likely than females with low EI to engage in
   deviant behavior
Interpersonal facilitation
and stress tolerance

(Lopes et al, 2006)
Greater merit increases
Higher company rank
Better peer and supervisor
ratings of interpersonal facilitation
and stress tolerance.
How can I increase my emotional
intelligence?
Steve Sablack
The following slides give some advice on how to increase
your emotional intelligence.
*The following slides are quoted directly from Steve Sablack
on the Fountain website
http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=f0135982d9
&k=217&541086654&show=part1
His suggestions are based on the five key steps of Goleman‟s
model of EI.
Increase self-awareness
“Learn the difference between thoughts and feelings.”
“Ask yourself how you are feeling throughout the day.”
“Be open to input from others.”
Self-regulation
“Monitor your self-talk”
“Accept responsibility for your emotional responses in your
life.”
“Anticipate emotional triggers and prepare for them.”
“Reframe an irritating situation into a problem-solving
exercise.”
“Use humor.”
“Never underestimate the power of taking deep breaths.”
“Remove yourself from the situation and keep moving.
Self-Motivation
“Be aware of how you explain setbacks to yourself…stay
realistic.”
“Connect your goals with your values to get energized.”
“Strive for reaching a „flow‟ state while working on
projects.
“Visualize!”
“Keep learning.”
Empathy
“Look for nonverbal cues as well as listening for verbal
ones.”
“Share and be honest about your feelings.”
“Your spoken and unspoken messages should be
consistent.”
“Take the kinder road whenever possible. There are
many ways to deliver opinions and criticism.”
“Try to see a situation from the other person‟s
perspective.”
  Effective Relationships
“Share your passion and enthusiasm for your job and the
organization‟s vision – it‟s contagious!”
“Create an inspiring work environment.”
“Engage in creative brainstorming.”
“Be willing to coach or mentor others and be open to being
coached yourself.”
References
Brackett, M.A., Mayer, J.D & Warner, R.M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to
everyday behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1387-1402.
Cherniss, C. (1999). The business case for emotional intelligence. Rutgers University, Consortium
for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations.
Ivcevic, Z., Brackett, M.A., & Mayer, J.D. (2007). Emotional intelligence and emotional
creativity. Journal of Personality, 75, 199-235.
Lopes, P.N., Grewal, D. , Kadis, J., Gall, M. & Salovey, P. (2006). Evidence that emotional
intelligence is re4lated to job performance and affect and attitudes at work. Psicothema, 18, 132-
138.
Rosete, D. (2005, June). A leaders edge – what attributes make an effective leader. Paper
presented at the 5th Annual Emotional Intelligence Conference, Netherlands.
Seligman, M.E. Learned optimism. Retrieved October 2, 2008 from
http://wwwshearonforschools.com/learned_optimism.htm .
Seligman, M.E. (2008). Two ways of looking at life. Retrieved September 30, 2008 from
http://www.enotalone.com/article/5412.html .
Sources
   Center for Creative Leadership. (2003). Leadership skills & emotional intelligence. Retrieved Sept 26, 2008.
    http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/assessments/skills_intelligence.pdf


   Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197-215.

   Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R., Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1(3), 232-242.
   Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D.R., Salovey, P. (2000). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-298.
   Robertson, S.A. (2007). Got eq? Increasing cultural and clinical competence through emotional intelligence. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 29(1), 14-19.
   Romanelli, F., Cain, J., Smith, K.M. (2006). Emotional intelligence as a predictor of academic and/or professional success. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(3), 1-
    10.
   Sternberg, R.J. (1997). The concept of intelligence and its role in lifelong learning and success. American Psychologist, 52(10), 1030-1037.
   http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/map.shtml - online map created by Dr. Jonathan Plucker. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
   http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm. Retrieved September 29, 2008
   http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_goleman_emotional_intelligence.html. Retrieved September 29, 2008
   http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/eq_and_iq.htm. Retrieved September 29, 208

				
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