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TERMINOLOGY Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM                                409

pericardium                         Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
pulmonary artery                    Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary circulation               Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
pulmonary valve                     Valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary
pulmonary vein                      One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs
                                    to the left atrium of the heart.                                                                         11
pulse                               Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
septum ( plural: septa)             Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left
                                    atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles
                                    (interventricular septum).
sinoatrial node (SA node)           Pacemaker of the heart.
sphygmomanometer                    Instrument to measure blood pressure.
systemic circulation                Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart
                                    back to body tissues.
systole                             Contraction phase of the heartbeat. From the Greek systole, a
tricuspid valve                     Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three
                                    (tri-) leaflets, or cusps.
valve                               Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening
                                    so that blood flows in only one direction.
vein                                Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs
                                    back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood.
vena cava ( plural:                 Largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae
venae cavae)                        return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
ventricle                           One of two lower chambers of the heart.
venule                              Small vein.

                  Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided.
COMBINING FORM            MEANING              TERMINOLOGY                              MEANING

angi/o                    vessel               angiogram _______________________________________________________________________________
                                               angioplasty _______________________________________________________________________________
aort/o                    aorta                aortic stenosis _________________________________________________________________________

      COMBINING FORM             MEANING                  TERMINOLOGY                                MEANING

      arter/o, arteri/o          artery                   arteriosclerosis ________________________________________________________________________
                                                          arterial anastomosis ________________________________________________________________
                                                          From the Greek anastomoien, providing a mouth.

                                                          arteriography ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                          endarterectomy _______________________________________________________________________
11                                                        See page 430.

      ather/o                    yellowish plaque,        atheroma _________________________________________________________________________________
                                 fatty substance          The suffix -oma means mass or collection. Atheromas are
                                 (Greek athere            collections of plaque that protrude into the lumen (opening) of
                                 means porridge)          an artery, weakening the muscle lining.

                                                          atherosclerosis ________________________________________________________________________
                                                          The major form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of yellow
                                                          plaque (atheromas) containing cholesterol and lipids are found
                                                          within the lining of the artery (Figure 11-12).

                                                          atherectomy ____________________________________________________________________________
      atri/o                     atrium, upper            atrial _________________________________________________________________________________________
                                 heart chamber
                                                          atrioventricular _______________________________________________________________________
      brachi/o                   arm                      brachial artery _________________________________________________________________________
      cardi/o                    heart                    cardiomegaly ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                          cardiomyopathy _______________________________________________________________________
                                                          One type of cardiomyopathy is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy—
                                                          abnormal thickening of heart muscle, usually in the left
                                                          ventricle. The ventricle has to work harder to pump blood. The
                                                          condition may be inherited or develop over time because of high
                                                          blood pressure or aging. Often the cause is unknown

                                                                           FIGURE 11–12 Atherosclerosis. Arrow points to
                                                                           accumulated plaque in lumen of an artery. (From Kumar V,
                                                                           Cotran RS, Robbins SL: Robbins Basic Pathology, 6th ed.,
                                                                           Philadelphia, 1997, Saunders; courtesy Sid Murphree, MD,
                                                                           Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern
                                                                           Medical School.)

                 ather/o, arteri/o, arthr/o

                 These three combining forms are easily confused.
                     ather/o yellowish plaque
                     arteri/o artery
                     arthr/o joint