WATERBORNE_SRA IP v1.0 by xiangpeng


									              Draft V1.0 29 September 2006
                                                           Ref.: 2995

Strategic Research Agenda Implementation Plan
        Prepared by WATERBORNE Support Group:

                 Editorial Team Members

         •Pierre Besse         EURACS        Chairman
         •Michael vom Baur     CESA          Secretariat
         •Norman Grum          EMECRID       Editor
         •Bob van de Graaf     CESA
         •Tony Bates           EUDA
         •Ken Wittamore        EURMIG
         •Jean Courjault       EUROGIF

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                                                                                            Table of Contents
Strategic Research Agenda Implementation Plan........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
  1.1     Waterborne Value Chain & Stakeholders.................................................................................................................................................... 3
  1.2     Vision 2020.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
  1.3     Research Agendas........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
  1.4     Implementation Plan .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
  1.5     Research Topics and Large Project Initiatives............................................................................................................................................. 6
  Large Project Initiatives mapped onto the Research Priorities under Pillar 1 ......................................................................................................... 8
  Large Project Initiatives mapped onto the Research Priorities under Pillar 2 ......................................................................................................... 9
  Large Project Initiatives mapped onto the Research Priorities under Pillar 3 ....................................................................................................... 10
2 Safe, Sustainable and Efficient Operations Implementation Plan ..................................................................................................................... 12
  2.1     Implementing Goal/Risk Based Frameworks for Cost Efficient safety..................................................................................................... 12
  2.2     Towards the Zero Accidents Target........................................................................................................................................................... 15
  2.3     The Crashworthy Vessel, Offshore traffic safety and Cargo Containment ............................................................................................... 18
  2.4     Low Emissions vessels and Waterborne Activities ................................................................................................................................... 19
  2.5     Enhanced waterborne Security .................................................................................................................................................................. 24
3 Competitiveness Implementation Plan .............................................................................................................................................................. 25
  3.1     Innovative Vessels and Floating Structures............................................................................................................................................... 25
  3.2     Innovative Marine Equipment and Systems .............................................................................................................................................. 29
  3.3     Tools for accelerated Innovation ............................................................................................................................................................... 32
  3.4     Next generation Production Processes....................................................................................................................................................... 34
  3.5     Effective Waterborne Operations .............................................................................................................................................................. 40
  3.6     Technologies for New & Extended Marine Operations ............................................................................................................................ 41
4 Growth & Infrastructure Implementation Plan .................................................................................................................................................. 43
  4.1     Accelerated development of New Port & Infrastructure Facilities............................................................................................................ 43
  4.2     Interoperability Between Modes................................................................................................................................................................ 46
  4.3     More Effective Ports & Infrastructure ....................................................................................................................................................... 47
  4.4     Intelligent Transportation Technologies and Integrated ICT Solutions .................................................................................................... 50
  4.5     Understanding the Environmental Impact of Infrastructure Building and Dredging ................................................................................ 52

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1 Introduction
The WATERBORNE Implementation Plan has been prepared by a consolidation of a ‘bottom up’ development from the VISION and Strategic
Research Agenda priorities and a ‘top down’ assessment of product, service and infrastructure needs by industry

1.1 Waterborne Value Chain & Stakeholders
This Research Agenda Implementation Plan represents the whole Waterborne value chain and stakeholders.

1.2 Vision 2020

1.3 Research Agendas

A Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) Overview has been published to address the Vision 2020 targets and challenges. The research topics that
address the SRA priorities and fulfil the Vision have been characterised under the WATERBORNE pillars of Sustainability, Competitiveness
and Growth.

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1.4 Implementation Plan

The Waterborne Strategic Research Agenda Overview presented a list                1.4.1 Implementation Plan Structure
of research priorities that needed an Implementation Plan to provide
the detailed structure for a Route Map. A Technology Impact                         •   Waterborne Pillar
Evaluation has been used to structure the Implementation Plan by:                       • Research Priority
                                                                                          • Research Topic
   •   Ranking research priorities                                                            • Research Programme
   •   Clustering topics that contribute to a common vision goal                                 • Pre-requisites
   •   Identifying potential application objectives                                              • Research timescales
                                                                                                 • Budget estimates
Stage 1- Each research agenda item is mapped on to each vision
                                                                                              • Technology, Tools and Processes
objective in terms of a high, medium or low impact
                                                                                              • Expected research Outcomes
Stage 2 –The size of the research challenge in terms of Rough Order of
Magnitude (ROM) cost and timescale is estimated.
Stage 3 – The most value added agenda topics are clustered into
common research areas

The Implementation Plan defines the objectives and work scope
content of the research topics and presents robust research outcomes
for Route Map milestones. These identify the benefits that the research
programmes will deliver over a 5, 10 and 15 year timescales.

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Route Maps & Technology Impact


     Implementation Plan
     FP7 Work Programme


 Demonstrator Programmes

     Figure 1 Implementation Plan

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1.5 Research Topics and Large Project Initiatives

Research topics have been prepared from a consolidation of a ‘bottom up’ development from the VISION and Strategic Research Agenda
priorities and a ‘top down’ assessment of product, service and infrastructure needs by industry. The top down approach generated a number of
large project initiatives that cover many of the SRA priority areas. The current list of large project initiatives is presented in Table 1 below and a
mapping of the proposals to the SRA priorities is given in Table2, Table 3 & Table 4 below. The detailed descriptions for the consolidated
project proposals and the large project initiatives are listed under the key SRA Research P priority items in sections 2, 3 & 4.

                                                                        Table 1
  LPI title                  Description                                                                                         Industrial
                                                                                                                                 weighting, priority
  New Generation Short       Project cluster supporting and facilitating the necessary renewal of the European SSS fleet
  Sea Ships                  (development, design, production of SSS)
  LESS                       Cruise and Ferry Sector large project (new innovative product elements, including the
                             equipment +systems suppliers), addressing minimization of resources, emission,
                             maintenance, risk etc., to enhance the European leadership in the Cruise & Ferry sector
  New Generation Main        Project cluster for future energy efficient power generation and propulsion (increased
  Propulsion                 efficiency, radical new propulsor technologies, engines and equipment for new fuels etc.),
                             addressing the need for energy/resources saving and the change in future available fuels
  Innovative Marine          Project cluster around a range of ship systems & equipment with the objective to develop,
  Equipment                  validate and demonstrate new equipment and on board decision support systems
                             incorporating latest basic technologies, to increase efficiency in production, operation and
  Risk/Goal Based            Cluster of projects to support implementation of a risk based regulation framework on
  Design and                 international level, addressing enhanced safety but also to enhance competitiveness through
  Regulations                design for the synergy of safety and economy
  Enhanced Integrated        Projects for development, validation and demonstration of automated operations and decision
  Support Systems for        support systems, addressing complex operations to minimise human errors, thereby
  Shipping and               enhancing safety and operational reliability whilst reducing operating expenses
  Waterborne Operations

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New generation Inland   Cluster of projects around the development of the main inland navigation routes (e.g. Danube
Navigation              corridor). Technical developments of ships and infrastructure, integration in logistic chains,
                        transport management, aiming at a step change in inland waterway transport, to contribute to
                        future better transport distributions without congestion
Future Advanced Hull    Projects dealing with exploitation of opportunities for innovative technologies. This includes:
Structures              enhanced fatigue properties through new joining methods, new architecture possibilities
                        created by innovative materials, weight saving and reduction of maintenance costs (incl.
                        supporting modernization of respective rules and regulations). This is aimed at reduction of
                        life cycle cost, improvement of fatigue and safety and enabling new freedom for creative ship
                        layout enhancing European design leadership
Accelerated Port- and   Projects supporting the faster planning, decision making and construction of ports and
Infrastructure          infrastructure for waterborne transport, e.g. baseline for environmental checks. Other projects
Development             include innovative layouts, facilities and ship-/cargo handling equipment, future advanced
                        ship-/shore interfaces (e.g. for Electrical shore power supply) and automated operations; all
                        addressing the growth problems of waterborne transport and cargoes in Europe
The Future              Projects around making recreational craft and their production processes more sustainable.
Recreational Craft      These include minimisation of emissions (production waste streams, waste management,
                        noise vibrations, exhaust gases & coatings), energy efficiency through life (minimisation of
                        wash, hull efficiency, fuel efficiency & power train optimisation) and minimising carbon
                        tariffs (end of life disposal new materials & coatings)
Transport and           Projects addressing new challenges from the future energy exploration and transport
Operations in cold      opportunities in arctic and northern waters (sustainable transport concepts and ship-/platform
climate and in          designs, reliable climate proof technologies, materials, minimizing emissions/environment
Northern Environment    impact, reduction of atmospheric icing, maximize safety, crew qualification etc)
Maritime Security       Projects dealing with concepts for long range maritime security (control of waters, e.g.
                        special concepts, sensors, platforms/ships, software), others with prediction /prevention of
                        piracy, economically viable security concepts for the logistic chain etc
Leading Edge            Projects aiming to integrate latest developments in ICT, logistics, and technology into the
Integrated              local as well as distributed shipbuilding process, with the goal to be constantly on the leading
Shipbuilding            edge of productivity and efficiency against a world wide benchmark
Offshore: Deep Sea      Projects dealing with new challenges from offshore operations in increasing water depths
Operations and          (enhanced design and simulation tools, procedures, new platform and equipment types etc)
Floating Equipment

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            under Pillar 1

                                                      The Crashworthy Vessel
                                                                               The Zero Accidents Target

               Enhanced waterborne Security
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            onto the Research Priorities

               Low Emissions vessels and Waterborne
                                                                                                           Implementing Goal/Risk Based Frameworks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Large Project Initiatives mapped

                                                                                                                                                                                                             New Generation Short Sea

                                                                                                                                                     Safe, Sustainable and efficient Waterborne Operations

                                                                                                                                                                                                             New Generation Main

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Innovative Marine Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Table 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Risk/Goal Based Design and

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                                                                                                                                                                                                             Integrated Support Systems for
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Shipping and Waterborne
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                                                                                                                                                                                                             New generation Inland
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Future Advanced Hull
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Accelerated Port- and
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Infrastructure Development

                                                                                                                                                                                                             The Future Recreational Craft
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Transport and Operations in
                                                                                                                                                                                                             cold climate and in Northern
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Maritime Security

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Leading Edge Integrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Shipbuilding Production
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Offshore: Deep Sea Operations
                                                                                                                                                                                                             and Floating Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       under Pillar 2

                                                                                                                             Tools for accelerated Innovation

                                                    Effective Waterborne Operations

               New and Extended Marine Operations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       onto the Research Priorities

                                                                                      Next generation Production Processes
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Innovative Vessels and Floating Structures

                                                                                                                                                                Innovative Marine Equipment and Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Large Project Initiatives mapped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A Competitive European maritime Industry

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New Generation Short Sea Ships


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New Generation Main Propulsion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Innovative Marine Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Table 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Risk/Goal Based Design and

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Integrated Support Systems for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Shipping and Waterborne Operations
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  New generation Inland Navigation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Future Advanced Hull Structures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Accelerated Port- and Infrastructure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Future Recreational Craft

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Transport and Operations in cold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  climate and in Northern Environment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Maritime Security

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leading Edge Integrated Shipbuilding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Offshore: Deep Sea Operations and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Floating Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   under Pillar 3

                Traffic Management Studies
                                                                                                                                                                        Interoperability Between Modes

                                             Infrastructure Building and Dredging
                                                                                    Intelligent transportation technologies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   onto the Research Priorities

                                                                                                                              More Effective Ports and Infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Development of New Port and Infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Large Project Initiatives mapped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               New Generation Short Sea Ships

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Manage & Facilitate Growth and Changing Trade Patterns

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               New Generation Main Propulsion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Innovative Marine Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Table 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Risk/Goal Based Design and

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Integrated Support Systems for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Shipping and Waterborne
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               New generation Inland Navigation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Future Advanced Hull Structures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Accelerated Port- and Infrastructure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The Future Recreational Craft

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Transport and Operations in cold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               climate and in Northern Environment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Maritime Security

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Leading Edge Integrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Shipbuilding Production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Offshore: Deep Sea Operations and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Floating Equipment
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The Research Topics and Large Project Initiatives are consolidated under the three pillars of the WSRA Overview

         Environment                                      Competitiveness                                     Growth and Infrastructure
•   Implementing Goal/Risk           •   Innovative vessels and floating structures                   •   Accelerated Development of New Port
    based frameworks for Cost            •   New generation Short Sea Ships                               and Infrastructure Facilities
    Efficient Safety                     •   Future advanced hull structures                              •    Planning tools for logistics chains and
    •   Risk/goal based design and   •   Innovative Marine Equipment and Systems                               hinterland connections
        regulations                      • Energy efficient ship systems                                  •    Advanced field measurement techniques
•   Towards The Zero Accidents               •   More efficient propulsion                                •    Non intrusive measurement
    Target                                   •   Prime mover development                              •   Interoperability between modes
    •   Systems integration for              •   Next generation power and propulsion concepts            •    High quality, efficient inter-modal
        safety and security          •   Tools for accelerated innovation                                      services
•   The Crashworthy Vessel           •   Next generation production processes                         •   More effective ports and infrastructure
•   Low Emissions Vessels and            • Leading Edge Integrated Shipbuilding production                •    Systems integration and ship/shore
    Waterborne Activities                • Modular equipment design, new materials and                         interface equipment for fast cargo
    •   Marine fuel cells,                                                                                     handling
                                            production processes
    •   Fuel supply & fuel systems                                                                        •    Vessel shore energy systems
                                             •   Electric propulsion system and component design
    •   Eco-ship systems                                                                                  •    New generation Inland Navigation
                                             •   Electrical power networks
    •   LESS environmental                   •   Modular control, navigation and communication        •   Intelligent Transportation technologies
        impact cruise ships and                  systems                                                  and ICT Solutions
        ferries                              •   Innovative new materials, composites and                 • Ports network and data exchange
    •   The future sustainable                   manufacturing processes                                  • Cargo logistic management
        recreational craft                   •   Ship/shore interface and cargo handling systems      •   Understanding the Environmental Impact
•   Enhanced Waterborne              •   Effective Waterborne Operations                                  of Infrastructure Building and Dredging
    Security                             •   Automated ship operation and Life Cycle Cost reduction       •    Determination of baseline conditions for
    •   Maritime Security                                                                                      infrastructure development
                                     •   Technologies for New and Extended Marine Operations
                                         •   Transport Operations in Cold Northern Environment            •    Understanding construction impacts on
                                         •   Offshore Deep Sea Operations and Floating Equipment               new port and waterway development
                                                                                                          •    Refinement of environmental regulations
                                                                                                          •    Marina and leisure facility development

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2 Safe, Sustainable and Efficient Operations Implementation Plan
2.1 Implementing Goal/Risk Based Frameworks for Cost Efficient safety

2.1.1 Risk/Goal Based Design and Regulations                              Technology, Tools & Processes   Research Objectives                                                   Probabilistic methods and tools for risk-based calculations;
                                                                                Calibration of such methods via ICT and operational data
Future generations of passenger ships, such as cruise liners, ferries and       acquisition developments.
RoPax vessels, will require enhanced redundancy concepts to fulfil the          ICT and logistic chain developments leading to remote real-
operators´ demands in terms of safe, economic and environmental friendly        time monitoring, support and maintenance of shipboard
operation of the vessels. The development of enhanced redundant ship            equipment, enhanced availability, reduced operational risk
systems will be determined by a goal/risk - based approach over the whole       and deeper understanding of all aspects of operational risk
lifecycle of the ship. This begins in the development and design phase and
covers approval, production, commissioning, operational logistics and
training of the crews.                                                    Expected Research Outcomes   Research Programme                                                    2012       Demonstration of more reliable tools and systems
                                                                                           providing better predictions and forecasts.
Pre-requisites: Successful development of the SAFEDOR FP6 Research                         Recommendations to IMO
project and of those aspects of INTERSHIP which are directly relevant to        2015       Industrial application of remote real-time
risk-based ship design by the middle of 2009                                               monitoring, support and maintenance

Research Timescales: 2010 - 2014

Budget requirements:

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2.1.2 Goal based regulations and approval                                   Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    •   The current level of safety or risk for ship types
                                                                                  •   Risk acceptance criteria related for human life and the
Three main objectives need to become addressed before goal-based / risk-              environment
based regulations and approval are implemented:                                   •   Risk models for ship types and main ship systems
• A modernized regulatory framework needs to be established at IMO.                   including the necessary data
   This will be under the headline of the safety-level approach to goal-          •   Pilot applications to identify the effects of introducing
   based standards, and it includes the debate on acceptable risk levels and          risk-based goals into the regulatory framework for
   public risk perception.                                                            maritime transport
• Approval for risk-based designed ships and ship systems needs to be             •   Qualification scheme for review and approval personnel
   standardised following the first version developed by the running                  and training for PSC officers
   project SAFEDOR.                                                               •   A risk-based ISM-code for application on a risk-based
• Operation of risk-based ships needs to be addressed taking into account             designed ship
   existing codes and practices                                                   •   A risk-based maintenance and inspection regime.
• Enabling smooth port-state-control for risk-based ships
                                                                            Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme
                                                                                  •   A modernized regulatory framework at IMO based on the
Ongoing Projects: IP SAFEDOR, until Jan. 2009                                         safety-level approach together with appropriate
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                        acceptance criteria
Budget requirements: €20m                                                         •   A standardized approval for risk-based designed ships to
                                                                                      reduce costs and improve quality
                                                                                  •   High level standards for development and approval of
                                                                                      risk based rules / regulations for standard ships
                                                                                  •   Standards for documenting the risk-based elements of

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2.1.3 Risk based ship and ship system design                                        Technology, Tools & Processes     Research Objectives                                                          •   Verified and validated first-principles risk analysis tools
•   Risk-based ship and ship system design implementation entails substituting           •   Parametric models linking performance (in addition to hazards
    compliance with a set of safety rules/regulations with a set of safety objectives        and functionality) to ship design and risk-control-options-
    that necessitate functional requirements and design criteria to be verified by           related parameters
    available knowledge:                                                                 •   Integrated design environment based on specification from IP
•   Acceptable risk levels together with design scenarios with calculable                    SAFEDOR to facilitate fast and all-encompassing risk balance
    probabilities and consequences to facilitate design                                      and design optimization
•   Top-level functions and systems for each ship type and design criteria to            •   Automated multi-criteria, multi-objective optimization
    satisfy relevant safety objectives                                                       schemes using genetic algorithms, aiming to balance safety,
•   Enhancing and benchmarking first-principles tools needed for verification of             performance and functionality
    design criteria and functional requirements
•   Derivation of knowledge-rich formulae for use in early / concept design         Expected Research Outcomes
•   System integration and standardisation of design scenarios
                                                                                         Complete pilot applications on knowledge-intensive and safety-     Research Programme                                                           critical ships beyond the level of detail currently pursued in
Ongoing Projects: IP SAFEDOR until Jan 2009, IP INTERSHIP until 2007, IP
VIRTUE until 2008, POP&C until 2007
Research Timescales: 2008-2014
Budget requirements: €10m

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2.2 Towards the Zero Accidents Target

2.2.1 Accident and incident data reporting and analysis                     Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    •   A new process to collect accident and incident data for
                                                                                      vessels with European flag
To complete feedback from operation, and to support risk analyses in the          •   A novel data model for archiving accident and incident
broadest sense, an efforts is needed to the creation of databases for                 data
recording of waterborne accidents and incidents. However, existing                •   A standard for reporting personal accidents, include
schemes do not work nor deliver as expected and before starting new                   injuries and ill health issues relating to working on ships
initiatives reasons for non-performance have to be identified.
                                                                            Expected Research Outcomes
European solutions alone are not sufficient in this case and a worldwide
approach should be envisaged with strong European lead. Therefore, the
                                                                                  •   A database containing those accidents and incidents
second step involves developing and proposing a new common
                                                                                      structured by relevant scenarios and detailing causes,
international injury reporting system (occupational health and safety) and a
                                                                                      probabilities and consequences
new accident reporting system to IMO.    Research Programme

Ongoing Projects:
Research Timescales: 2007-2009, followed by implementation
Budget requirements: €5m for research, €10m for implementation

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2.2.2 Systems Integration for Safety and Security                          Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                   Modelling of complex security systems
                                                                                 Standardised, maritime Intel communication and database
Safety and security systems management can be enhanced through                   technologies
improving sensor technologies and alert algorithms used in monitoring            Data fusion and threat analysis based on Intel and complex
systems. This will result in earlier and more dependable warnings. Where         multi-sensor systems
possible the alert systems should be married to automatic counter measures       Global tracking and reporting of vessels & slot management
such as fire suppression. New technologies such as smart valves should be        based upon safety assessments of actual traffic situation and
developed to create self-healing systems. New materials and their                using Vessel Traffic Services and Vessel Traffic
innovative use will increase safety and decrease commercial risk by e.g.         Management systems.
guaranteeing intrinsic fire survivability.                                       Coastal surveillance with high-definition radar sensors
                                                                                 Autonomous underwater vehicles for survey operations
Next generation navigation systems on-board of commercial vessels need to        Efficient non-lethal measures to deter intruders
be substantially improved in terms of track keeping accuracy. The objective      Mobile CNRN sensors for cargo inspection at sea
is fully automatic control over the whole passage including docking. The         Ship assist systems including safeguarding shore approaches.
track is prepared by local VTS centres with detailed knowledge of the            Offshore and onboard training of seafarers concerning port
traffic situation. For track keeping in congested waterways a more precise       approaches and VTS communication.
and reliable positioning system than GPS is required. Galileo is the choice.     Simulation tools to model the interaction of relatively slow
Navigation and safety systems on board recreational vessels need to be           moving recreational craft with higher speed commercial
more user-friendly to a wider range of abilities with improved decision          traffic for application in regulated waters
support systems.
                                                                           Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme
                                                                                 Better and faster operator decision making enabled in an
Pre-requisites: Wide availability of Galileo, successful development of EC-      increasing crowded and fast moving marine environment.
DOCK and EFFORTS. National authority support for regulatory                      2012        Demonstration of more reliable tools and systems
requirements.                                                                                providing better predictions and forecasts.
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                               Recommendations to IMO
Budget requirements:                                                              2015       Industrial application of remote real-time
                                                                                             monitoring, support and maintenance

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2.2.3 Survivability of Smaller Vessels In Extreme                             Technology, Tools & Processes
      Weather Conditions                                                            •   Development of methods and practical tools for
                                                                                        verification of ship form characteristics and examination    Research Objectives                                                          of actual safety level.
Although safety at sea is regulated, the existing safety criteria, standards        •   Implementation of new standards. Application of new
and regulations work quite well for large ocean-going ships, but in the case            standards to existing ships and new designs.
of small vessels, the existing stability regulations are not sufficient. The        •   Development of design methods and procedures for
safety level is definitely unsatisfactory in the smaller ships category. This is        designers to ensure that the new designs satisfy the new
proven by accident statistics, which indicate that annual casualties involving          safety standards.
smaller vessels exceed several times those on large ships. Particularly             •   Development of operational guidance on how to reduce
alarming is the safety of fishing vessels, which constitutes the most acute             the risk of capsizing in extreme waves for various types
and urgent problem.                                                                     of smaller vessels.
The overall objective is to increase safety of small ship operations through        •   Development of training methodology.
development of criteria and standards preventing capsizing and foundering           •   Development of operational criteria
in extreme waves through
    • Theoretical analyses of physical phenomena                              Expected Research Outcomes
    • Development of mathematical models and computer software                      •   Improved small vessel design, with robust intact stability
    • Model tests                                                                       and reduced risk of capsizing,
    • Systematic numerical simulations                                              •   Operational guidelines for individual types of ships, to
    • Statistical analyses of real accidents versus “safe” ships                        enhance and supplement the inherent stability of the
    • Development of rational criteria preventing capsize                               ships,
    • Development of safety standards and regulations.                              •   Training instructions and crew training courses to
                                                                                        educate the crews about basics of stability, safety and    Research Programme                                                           how to avoid critical mistakes
Pre-requisites: none                                                                •   On-board capsizing expert systems and other decision
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                          support systems,
Budget requirements: >10M€

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2.3 The Crashworthy Vessel, Offshore traffic safety and Cargo Containment

2.3.1 Risks with respect to Collision and Grounding                             Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                       •   Technology to support (accurate and compulsory)
                                                                                         reporting of accidents
To enable safe traffic on the coastal waters and the inland waterways of the         •   Development of databases for realistic accident scenarios
EU-25 and for ships under EU flags on all waters.                                        and probabilities
Intensified traffic, larger unit sizes and increased dangerous goods                 •   Development of crashworthy designs tailored to cope
movement has increased the need for improved resistance of ships to                      with realistic accident scenarios.
collision and grounding, besides the institution of traffic monitoring and           •   Development of mathematical models for accidents and
control systems. By maintaining acceptable risk in larger transport units the            consequences
economy of transport stands to benefit.                                              •   Research into failure mechanisms of vessel systems
The research objectives are to gain more insight into the following aspects:         •   Research into failure mechanisms of vessel structures
• Collision and Grounding Scenario Research                                          •   Development of mathematical models for cargo spills
• Failure Mechanisms Research and Modelling                                              (including arctic conditions)
• Residual strength of damaged tankers                                               •   Development of scripts/scenarios for emergencies
In this respect the focus of the project is to analyse the integrity of the ship         ensuring minimum impact to environment
hull with respect to the containment of the cargo after crash.                       •   Pollution control solutions for sea-lanes, coastlines,
                                                                                         estuaries and inland waterways.
                                                                                     •   European database and shipping safety modelling    Research Programme
                                                                                Expected Research Outcomes
                                                                                     •   Availability of databases containing scenario’s and
                                                                                         probabilities of collision and grounding events for the use
Research Timescales:
                                                                                         of regulators and designers
                                                                                     •   Structural solutions/designs providing improved collision
Budget requirements:
                                                                                         and grounding resistance

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2.4 Low Emissions vessels and Waterborne Activities

2.4.1 Marine Fuel Cell fuel operation test facility                        Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    The critical technologies include:
                                                                                  • Fuel processing and storage system design
Fuel cells with efficiencies up to 70% are being developed for land-based         • Fuel reformation pilot plant development and operation
applications running on natural gas. Marinisation of this technology will         • Integration of fuel cells into ships power system
significantly reduce marine power system emissions and provide clean,             • Transient load and part load performance optimisation of
efficient power sources for niche marine applications. Widespread                    fuel cell systems
application of fuel cells in power propulsion requires the development of a       • Whole system energy efficiency measurement and
cost effective diesel oil reformation technology.                                    analysis
                                                                                  • Prototype marine application specification and design
The marinisation, fuel reformation and power systems integration of high
power (>250 kW) marine fuel cells needs to be developed in shore based
                                                                           Expected Research Outcomes
test facilities. These will simulate the ships power system and operation to
optimise the design and operation of fuel cells for harbour power generation
and auxiliary power supplies. The prototype fuel cell system will then be         2012 Pilot fuel processing/reformation plant operation.
demonstrated in an operating vessel. The practical application of the fuel        2012 Development fuel cell power system operation.
cell as a prime mover on an inland vessel is one possibility as well as for       2014 Prototype marine fuel cell APU sea trials.
auxiliary power units on local ferries and luxury yachts. 250 kW is a
realistic starting point for such applications.    Research Programme

Pre-requisites: Successful completion of the FELICITAS project concept
design of a 250 kW marine auxiliary power unit (APU) and fuel processing
requirements specification, by the end of 2008.
Research timescales 2009 - 2014
Budget estimates

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2.4.2 Fuel Supply and Fuel Systems                                            Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                      •   Fuel treatment
                                                                                    •   Fuel supply infrastructure analysis for deep sea, coastal
The maritime industry has relied on the use of fuel oil as a source of energy           and inland shipping
for decades because of its low cost. The amount of resources required for           •   Alternative fuels; Methanol, LPG, Biofuels e.g. Rapeseed
high viscosity (heavy) fuel oil treatment, with its deteriorating quality, is of        Methyl Ester (RME)
concern from the viewpoint of environmental impact, manpower and engine             •   Environmental analysis
lifetime. At times expensive measures are used to improve fuel handling,            •   On board fuel storage technology
combustion characteristics and emissions that negate the low cost of heavy              • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
fuel oil.
                                                                                        • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
                                                                                        • Hydrogen
Fuel processing and alternative fuels should be considered for cost
reduction and environmental benefits for shipping, including coastal and            •   Diesel reformation
inshore and inland shipping. The use of alternative fuel such as RME, LNG,
Methanol, and LPG need research regarding application and technical                 •   Life Cycle Cost (LCC) modelling including a variation of
standards. Technology transfer from automotive and clean land based local               the fuel cost in medium and long term
power generating systems should be investigated. Research is required into
the reformation of diesel fuel and removal of sulphur and other                     •   Classification and safety work
contaminants for future marine fuel cell applications.                              •   Improved treatment of fuel by the fuel supply chain    Research Programme                                                 Expected Research Outcomes

Pre-requisites: Successful development of the HERCULES IP                           •   Prime movers operate on low sulphur fuels
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                      •   Prime movers able to operate on synthetic oils and fuels
Budget requirements:                                                                •   Diesel oil reformation technology commercially available

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2.4.3 Eco-Ship Systems                                                     Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                   To research, develop and validate innovative vessel designs
                                                                                 with low environmental impact and reduced or no
To minimise the impact on eco-systems by ships by minimising waste and           dependency on ballast. All waste sources (e.g. black water,
water residuals and discharges into water and by developing technology and       sewage, grey water, shower, sink and galley water,
designs for the next generation of efficient and environmentally friendly        hazardous waste, solid waste, oily bilge water) as well as
vessels, particularly cruise and Ropax, whilst aiming at reduced operational     ballast water treatment should be addressed in a holistic way:
and maintenance costs.                                                           The research must explore the synergies of energy recovery
                                                                                 and emissions reductions. For the expanding fleet of smaller
A holistic approach to energy, waste reduction and waste management              recreational vessels, economic, efficient and robust anti-
needs to be developed. We must explore how one systems waste can be              pollution processes, technologies and systems are to be
used as an input to another. Flue gas cleaning systems need to recover waste     developed and validated.
heat and waste water can be used in diesel engine injection systems in order
to reduce NOx. New approaches are required for the management of ballast    Expected Research Outcomes
water. We need to develop new materials and treatments to improve ease of
recycling and reduce anti fouling contamination. Additionally the use of         Verifiable reduced impact on eco-systems as compared to
renewable materials and re-cycling needs to be investigated.                     existing vessel types; validated marketable designs of ballast-
                                                                                 reduced or ballast-free vessels, solutions for bio-pollution    Research Programme                                                    and anti-fouling contamination of water. Innovative designs
                                                                                 and logistic chain developments leading to reduced
Pre-requisites: Successful completion of the BAWAPLA FP6 ballast                 dependency on ballast. The recovery of energy from organic
treatment research project                                                       waste and flue gas to operate the on-board waste treatment
Research timescales: 2007-2010                                                   systems.
Budget estimates:

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2.4.4 Minimising wash noise and vibration                                    Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                     Research, develop and validate intelligent vibration and
                                                                                   shock control methods, new cost effective design methods
Further advances, especially but not exclusively, in the recreational craft        for the minimisation and prediction of on board noise and
sector, are required to reduce wash, internal and external noise and vibration     vibration and new methods for the design and analysis of wet
and the overall environmental impact of the vessel.                                exhaust systems.
Research is required into sources of noise and vibration, (including analysis      Research innovative vessel design with a minimal noise and
of the complete drive train, exhaust system and behaviour of the hull),            vibration to be achieved by means of an improved
internal and external propogation mechanisms (including propogation over           understanding of the sources of marine noise vibration and
long distances, the land water interface and underwater), mitigation               propagation mechanisms, an improved understanding of the
strategies and design rules to minimise the need for post construction             nature of nuisance noise in terms of character and level and
compliance testing.                                                                the development of strategies and technologies for the
Research is required in hull and propulsion system to reduce wash and the          minimisation of noise.
resulting environmental impact to sensitive eco systems.                           Improved hull and propulsion system design resulting in
                                                                                   reduced wash and environmental impact    Research Programme                                                Expected Research Outcomes

Pre-requisites: None                                                               Design rules for the accurate prediction of noise emissions
Research timescales: 2007-2012                                                     obviating the need for post construction compliance testing
Budget estimates: 6MEuro                                                           Further contributions to the development of recreational craft
                                                                                   noise and vibration standards.

                                                                                   50% reduction of noise impact on the environment

                                                                                   On board.noise and vibration levels approaching automotive

                                                                                   Wash height reduced by 10% for specified Froude numbers

                                                                   Page 22 of 59
                                                          Draft V1.0 29 September 2006    The Future Sustainable Recreational Craft                         Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                     Five sub-programmes are envisaged:
                                                                                   • More efficient power and propulsion systems
The recreational craft industry needs to produce vessels that have minimum         • Improved structural analysis, materials selection and
environmental impact whilst sustaining or improving upon current levels of            manufacturing processes
functionality, accessibility and customer appeal. Producing the sustainable        • Improved safety and accessibility
recreational craft of the future requires the use of more efficient power and      • Tools for life cycle analysis including integrated waste
propulsion systems (including regenerative hybrid diesel/electric drives),            management, end of life disposal and materials recovery
and innovative sail design, reduced overall power consumption, minimal             • Design and construction of a demonstration vessel
emissions to both air and water, together with low noise, vibration and               integrating the research outcomes
wash. The long-term environmental impact of recreational craft
manufacturing processes and constructional materials will be reduced and     Expected Research Outcomes
their ultimate disposal or recovery optimised. New design and analysis
tools will support the integration of these individual elements into the final     Analytical tools - – 20% reduction in overall vessel weight;
product and will optimise life cycle costs. Improved instrumentation and           50% reduction in noise; automotive levels of internal noise
decision support systems will be developed to improve safety in crowded            and vibration.
waters.                                                                            Tools for life cycle analysis –100% of materials to be
                                                                                   recycled on disposal
Technology transfer from other sectors will be an important part of all of         Integrated waste management systems –emissions to air
the research programmes with the intention of using collaboration to reduce        reduced ahead of legislative demand, to water by 80%
risk, accelerate the innovation process and reduce the time to market for the      Alternative propulsion and power systems – Overall fuel
research outcomes. To demonstrate the practicality and viability of the            consumption reduced by 25%, whilst meeting noise,
outcomes it is intended that the results of the various research elements will     vibration and weight targets.
be demonstrated in a new vessel design.                                            Sustainable materials and manufacturing processes – 30%
                                                                                   reduction in energy and carbon tariffs, and through life costs.    Research Programme                                                      Improved instrumentation, navigation, decision support and
                                                                                   safety systems – zero collisions between recreational and
Pre-requisites: None                                                               commercial craft; 50% improvement in accessibility for the
Research timescales: 2008 - 2015                                                   elderly and disabled.
Budget estimates:    25 MEuro                                                      Demonstration of key technologies in a new vessel design
                                                                                   A demonstration craft illustrating the opportunities and
                                                                                   improvements created by the research programme.

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2.5 Enhanced waterborne Security

2.5.1 Maritime Security                                                    Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                   •   Systems communications
                                                                                 •   Inter-agency communication networks
Europe must continue to develop monitoring and data gathering and                •   Secure information exchange systems
management systems to monitor the misuse of waterborne transport. This           •   Multi sensor data fusion
includes practicable cargo inspecting strategies and automatic tracking of       •   Information, Crisis prediction & Recovery engines
goods to ensure they cannot be tampered with during transportation.              •   Automatic tracking of goods
Simulation models should be researched to analyse the sensitivity of the
                                                                                 •   Cargo inspecting strategies
waterborne transport chain to attack. The research should analyse the
                                                                                 •   Simulation models identifying critical points in the
potential economic impact of various shutdown scenarios. This is to identify
                                                                                     waterborne network Crisis management strategies
critical points in the waterborne network and allow for protection and
mitigation should an attack take place. Research is required on crisis           •   Integrated data management systems
management strategies to ensure that there is sufficient capability in all       •   Improved decision support systems
areas of the waterborne network to deal with an attack situation. This           •   New vessel stabilization systems ( SWATH)
response needs modular packages aboard security vessels in order to              •   Modular missions packages (for customs, police,
preserve both national differences and interoperability. These vessels must          coast guards, )
be able to integrate with unmanned vehicle of all kind (surface, underwater      •   Unmanned vehicles (UUV, USV)
and aerial), even in rough sea states.                                           •   Integration on platforms
                                                                                 •   Payload (set of sensors)    Research Programme
                                                                           Expected Research Outcomes
Research Timescales:                                                             •   Operational concepts for all weather patrol ships
Budget requirements:                                                             •   Integrated missions packages
                                                                                 •   Operational sensor systems on land, in the air and sea
                                                                                     based unmanned vehicles.
                                                                                 •   Protection of particularly sensitive locations against
                                                                                     underwater intruders

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3 Competitiveness Implementation Plan
3.1 Innovative Vessels and Floating Structures

3.1.1 New Generation Short Sea Ships                             Technology, Tools & Processes    Research objectives                                        New Short Sea ship concepts:
                                                                      • Lifetime maximum energy efficiency, low emissions, low maintenance
The next European Short Sea Fleet generation must provide             • New cargo handling and ship/shore interface systems
enhanced ships for enhanced European logistic chains, meeting         • Development of voyage planning systems to fit the transport chain
the challenges of a growing and increasingly competitive              Requirements for intensive traffic in limited waters and for new northern
transport market, and of societal demands for safety, security            routes:
and environmental sustainability. New ship concepts and new           • Innovative hull forms with optimal hydrodynamic performance
concepts in collaborative ship design and production will be          • Safe, reliable and energy efficient propulsion trains and manoeuvring
needed to secure industry’s competitiveness and its role as             systems
leading builder and maintainer of the European Short Sea Fleet        • Navigation and automation including E-navigation principles,
of about. 10,000 ships. Maintaining an efficient European             • Innovative ship structures: optimal weight/cost performance&
Short Sea Fleet is therefore needs to be addressed at a                 crashworthiness
European level by a European shipbuilding industry .                  Reduction of lead-time/costs through standardisation and modularisation
The aim is to obtain a breakthrough in Short Sea Ships design,        • Design variants for each ship type
production and operation for at least 60 % of the Short Sea           • Innovation in design, manufacturing, assembly and outfitting processes
Fleet that will enable ship owners to obtain efficient ships at       • New concepts for collaborative shipbuilding and supporting tools for
competitive prices & delivery times New Short Sea ship                  efficient shipbuilding process execution and control.
concepts in future logistic chains will compete with road
transport, without jeopardizing safety and the environment:      Expected research Outcomes    Research programme                                         •   Improved environmental and economic performance Short Sea fleet
                                                                      •   Consolidate Short Sea Shipbuilding collaborative practices in Europe
Pre-requisites: none                                                      based on effective supply chains with reduced lead time and costs
Research Timescales: 2008 - 2012                                      •   Shortened response time to changing market and societal requirements.
Budget requirements: 15 Mi €                                          •     European leadership as primary provider of Short Sea ships

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3.1.2 LESS: Low Emission Systems Ship for Cruise and                          Technology, Tools & Processes
                                                                                  The following sub-goals (and technologies) are envisaged for    Research Objectives                                                    a competitive ship:
                                                                                  • Reduced environmental impact (low emissions, no waste,
The research objectives are to develop next generation cruise and RoPax              recycling)
ships with materially reduced environmental impacts and operational costs,        • Increased energy efficiency (hull form, propulsion chain,
less energy consumption, waste and crew onboard order to defend and                  auxiliary engines)
improve their world leadership in this important market segment, European         • Increased safety and security (hull structures,
shipbuilders need to offer their customers products, continuously improved           manoeuvring, emergency handling, decision support,
in terms of “value of money”. During the last ten years the trend has been to        monitoring systems.)
develop bigger and bigger ships. This scale effect provides potential for         • Modelling of flooding and related emergency responses
change in the technologies to be used onboard of the next generation ships.       • Optimum system redundancy through goal/risk based
To take full advantage of this European shipbuilders must be leading in the          design.
development of goal based regulation.                                             • Increased passenger welfare (comfort, onboard logistics)
                                                                                  • Reduced        crew      size     (Ship      Management
The producers must also improve their design and production techniques in            Systems/automation)
order to offer their products at competitive prices. Competitiveness for the
                                                                                  • Increased payload and space (hull structures and
customer depends on the specific market, economic and environmental
boundary conditions and on the strategies of specific customers and
markets. Hence it is not possible to develop one specific “competitive cruise
                                                                              Expected Research Outcomes
ship or ferry”. The Research Objectives are therefore to develop a set of
high-tech solutions for specific ship systems, for integration into optimum
overall products with regard to ship size or type.                                •     Safety and security in the operation of cruise and ferry
                                                                                      ships will be further improved    Research Programme                                                     •     Environmental impact of cruise and ferry ships will be
Pre-requisites: none
                                                                                  •     Technological leadership of the European Waterborne
Research Timescales: 2008- 2011
                                                                                      stakeholders in design, engineering and manufacturing of
Budget requirements: 45 m€
                                                                                      advanced innovative product solutions will be maintained.
                                                                                  •     Closer interaction between shipyards, system suppliers
                                                                                      and technology providers will be realised.

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3.1.3 Future Advanced Hull Structures                                          Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                     The description of loads and structural response merits
                                                                                   further development and verification.
New and harsh environments, call for new structural solutions. Larger units        •   Eulerian and Lagrangian codes such as FEM, SPH,
on (shallow) inland waterways call for higher integrity and collision and            VOF,
grounding resistance. New thermally or chemically aggressive cargos will           •   Statistical approach to lifecycle load exposure
challenge present design solutions and call for new materials and coatings.        •   Failure mechanisms in fatigue, collision, mechanical or
Their introduction into the shipbuilding industry calls for systematic               thermal shock.
investigation and testing. . Fast recreational vessels require the development     •   Through life monitoring of structural performance
of analytical tools for hull load prediction to optimise structure, materials      New materials need new technologies:
use and scantlings                                                                 •   New standards for duplex material and composites
                                                                                   •   Verification of corrosion resistance and mechanical
In this respect the research objectives are                                          properties.
•    To address the issue of goal based regulation in order to enable an           •   Improvements in LNG insulation are required,
  optimal approach to design for new materials and new load environments           •   Improvements in the speed of panel line welding and
•   To develop the tools and models for the description and analysis of              deformation control by the use of innovative hybrid laser
  loads and structural response fit for the needs of goal based regulation           welding
•   To further develop, explore and introduce new materials and new
  structural configurations (sandwiches)                                       Expected research Outcomes
To address current and upcoming problems in surfaces and structures by
developing new materials, new joining and new production methods to                •     Goal based approach in class and authority rules
increase the competitiveness of European maritime transport,                       •     Innovative solutions in composites and matrices.
The consequences of using new material concepts in the production shall be         •     New light metals for shipbuilding, durable use qualities
taken into account. Key performance indicators are structural performance          •     Intrinsic fire survivability in as-built composite
as well as building costs.                                                             structures
                                                                                   •     Efficient manufacturing methods for new polymers and    Research Programme                                                          composites
                                                                                   •     Integrated intelligent systems to monitor the health of
Pre-requisites: (SAND-CORE Concerted Action)                                           structures during their service life
Research Timescales:                                                               •     Smart self-monitoring and self-repairing materials
Budget requirements:

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3.1.4 Lifecycle philosophy                                                   Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                     New tools to allow the analysis of the environmental and
                                                                                   economic impact of vessels to be assessed from production
Research in the environmental and economic impact of vessels throughout            through operation to end of life disposal, and the integration
their life cycle with the aim of delivering maximum value and minimal              of such analysis into industrial application.
environmental impact from production to eventual disposal. Life cycle tools        New tools, methods and technologies for the integrated
and strategies need to be developed which are compatible with the way the          management and deconstruction of out of service vessels,
maritime industry is operating.                                                    including the modelling and evaluation of materials flows
Further research is required into the logistics of disposal, initial materials     and recycling methods and the development of business
selection to optimise the opportunities for recovery and reuse and to reduce       models and strategies for cost effective implementation
the energy costs of recycling.

                                                                             Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme                                                      Integrate life cycle research into real life industry
                                                                                   applications to increase competitiveness of the maritime
Pre-requisites: None                                                               industry.
Research timescales: 2008 to 2011
Budget estimates: €4M

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3.2 Innovative Marine Equipment and Systems

3.2.1 More Efficient Propulsion                                         Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                 •  Large area propulsors integrated into new optimised hull
                                                                                  designs with efficient robust actuator technology
The primary requirement for merchant ships is very high efficiency             • Distributed propulsion concepts
combined with low levels of propeller cavitation, noise and vibrations.        • New high efficiency propulsor applications using, for
Integrated hull and propulsor design is required to optimise these simple         example drives with integrated rudder systems.
configurations under all conditions, including during manoeuvring.             • Prediction methods for operation in off-design conditions
Significant increases in efficiency will require more complex propulsor        • Integration of the prediction methods for ship propulsion,
configurations or radical new concepts such as biomechanical designs. New         manoeuvring, and propulsor cavitation characteristics
propulsion system designs are needed for mechanical and electric drive.        • Higher-efficiency waterjets for HSC ships
New hull forms such as trimaran, pentamaran and swath will require
                                                                               • Pods for new trimaran and pentamaran ship concepts
optimum propulsion system designs specifically developed for those
                                                                               • Robust propulsor designs to operate in ice
                                                                               New designs need to be integrated with other technologies
                                                                               and features to enhance the concept applications.    Research Programme                                                  • Modular design of pods for in service replacement
                                                                               • Rim driven propulsors and thrusters.
                                                                               • Low vibration and light weight water jet designs for HSC
Pre-requisites - None
                                                                               • New non-metallic propulsor materials
Research timescales 2008 - 2012

Budget requirements
                                                                        Expected Research Outcomes

                                                                               2012 Large scale bio-mechanical propulsors demonstrate big
                                                                               efficiency gains
                                                                               2012 Propulsor design integrated with hull design models
                                                                               2015 Large area propulsors integrated into new SSS designs

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3.2.2 Prime Mover Development                                              Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    The following topics are major technology areas to be
Further advances in prime mover efficiency are still possible over the high       • Medium speed 2 stroke engines
efficiencies achieved today, through the development of more capable              • Injection systems and intelligent engine management
materials allowing higher operating temperatures and pressures. Typical           • New high temperature materials
applications would include turbochargers and injection systems. Engines           • Combined cycle systems
must be designed for multi-fuel capability to enable efficient operation on       • Recuperator and heat exchanger design for long life in
new cleaner fuels. Future engines will have intelligent adaptive control             the marine environment
systems optimising their operating parameters for fuel type and emissions,
ambient conditions and load.                                               Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme
                                                                                  •   5 Years
                                                                                      • New high temperature engine materials
                                                                                  •   10 Years
Research timescales 2008 - 2012                                                       • Prime movers able to operate on synthetic oils and
Budget estimates                                                                      • Adaptive engine management systems

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3.2.3 Next Generation Power And Propulsion Concepts                      Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                  Power management for multiple engine/drive installations.
                                                                                • Engine load/efficiency optimisation
Energy efficient power management and propulsion system designs are             • Intelligent electrical power management systems
required for hybrid multiple engine/drive installations. System modelling       • Fuel cell system applications
tools are required to analyse the performance of a range of propulsion          • Propulsion system option Cost Benefit Analysis models
options for different vessel designs, operating characteristics and whole          • Hybrid electric/mechanical drives
product cycle environmental impact and cost, in order to optimise the              • Full electric propulsion
design at system level. Case studies of propulsion system life cycle costs
                                                                                • Availability, Reliability and Maintainability models
(LCC) will provide operating databases and model validation. The range of
                                                                                   • Risk analysis and redundancy optimisation
vessel types and their applications is constantly expanding, and operators
require machinery systems with higher power density, efficiency and                • Life Cycle Cost (LCC) modelling
greater flexibility in design and operation, all at lower cost. Whilst          • Alternative energy sources & energy storage
improvements to existing technologies will meet some of these                      • Photovoltaic conversion
requirements, radical changes in the powering and propulsion plants will be        • Sail design
necessary to meet the current and future environmental legislation.                • Wind/wave energy conversion
Expansion of electric propulsion options with increased efficiency and          • Case studies of propulsion system LCC to provide
environmental benefit could be achieved by the adoption of high power fuel         operating databases and model validation
cells. Alternative energy sources can be developed through photovoltaic and     • Options for Extension and Optimisation of operating life.
wind/wave energy conversion technology for propulsion and for hybrid            • The whole product cycle environmental impact
electricity generation on board.
                                                                         Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme
                                                                                Validated optimum propulsion system design models
Pre-requisites: - None                                                          New propulsion system configurations with minimum LCC.
Research Timescales: 2008-2012                                                  Opportunities for insertion of alternative energy sources.
Budget requirements:

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3.3 Tools for accelerated Innovation

3.3.1 State of the Art Design and Analysis Tools                           Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                   •   Tools and software for design, analysis and modelling of
                                                                                     composites, advanced structures and engineering systems
Tools for Accelerated Innovation are a cross industry topic, addressing              (FEM, SPH, VOF, etc.)
virtually all stakeholders in the Waterborne platform. Unified development       •   Prediction methods for failure, aging and durability,
will be a major asset in facilitating communication between parties in the       •   Knowledge management networks for shipyards
industry. The tools required are:                                                •   Life long learning programmes for European shipyards
• Advanced Design Tools                                                          •   Simulation tools for modelling the transport chain
• Knowledge management                                                           •   Development of systems for simulation and modelling of
• Simulation Software for Process Acceleration and Minimising Risk.                  ship operational life cycle costs
Research is needed to:                                                           •   Development of simulation tools for module design and
• Acquire ability for fast identification and evaluation of new knowledge            production processes
    and inventions regarding their possible use to improve or totally renew      •   Simulation tools for functional performance
    products and processes
• Shorten the time required to implement new knowledge or inventions       Expected Research Outcomes
    into the design of improved or new products and processes.
• Benchmark improved or new products and processes against existing              •   Accepted analysis tools as an option to execute approval
    relevant rules & regulations, propose modified/new if necessary.                 on basis of goal based regulation
• Create conditions for shortening the time needed to implement these            •   Software and know-how for management of design and
    designs in terms of human skills, production facilities etc                      production risk.
                                                                                 •   E-learning data bases driven by a multi-language    Research Programme                                                        shipbuilding dictionary
                                                                                 •   Tools for the analysis and ensuring of lifelong integrity
Pre-requisites: none
                                                                                 •   Communication protocols and software for co-design and
Research Timescales: 2010-2014
                                                                                     engineering by customer, contractor and subcontractor
Budget requirements:

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3.3.2 Technology Base                                                    Technology Tools and Processes    Research Objectives                                                Hydrodynamics, Hydromechanics and Oceanography
                                                                              • Shallow Water hydrodynamics
Pre-requisite for the Tools for Accelerated Innovation is a technology        • Multi-body hydrodynamic interaction
infra-structure with adequate understanding of the critical                   • In-stationary flow force solvers
technologies for water-borne structures. This infrastructure, in the          • Multi-phase flow force solvers
form of technology institutes and academia will supply the                    • Measurement technology for multi-phase flows
stakeholder industry in the Waterborne platform.                              • Hydrodynamic impact force calculation techniques
                                                                              • Extreme wave modelling
The application of the technology can differ widely over the topics
                                                                              • Improved statistical environmental modelling of
presented in the three pillars of this Implementation plan for the
                                                                                 oceans, shallow water basins and arctic basins
Waterborne Strategic Research Agenda. The present research topic
“Technology Base” will cover the critical technologies and the
                                                                              Structural Mechanics, Materials and Joining Technology
challenges to be met in order to enable the Waterborne TP industrial
objectives.                                                                   • Light construction technology and new materials for
                                                                                  shipbuilding and propulsor manufacturing
The critical technologies specifically for the Waterborne industry that       • Fatigue and ULS modelling of new materials
need specialized attention from specialised organisations are;                • Joining technology (bonding and welding)
                                                                              • Coating technology
•   Hydrodynamics, Hydromechanics and Oceanography
•   Structural Mechanics, Materials and Joining Technology               Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme                                                 •    Accepted technology enabling the development of
                                                                                   design and engineering/analysis tools
Pre-requisites: Continuing ICT development under other programmes             •    Software and know-how for new construction
Research Timescales: 2008-2014                                                     methods and maintenance support tools.
Budget requirements: 15M€                                                     •    Calculation protocols and software algorithms for
                                                                                   advanced flow calculation and material modelling.

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3.4 Next generation Production Processes

3.4.1 Leading Edge Integrated Shipbuilding Production                       Technology, Tools and Processes    Research Objectives                                                    For rapid identification and evaluation of innovation;
                                                                                  • Simulation tools for modelling the transport chain
The integration of the latest developments in ICT, logistics, and technology      • Development of systems for simulation and modelling of
into the local as well as the distributed shipbuilding process, in order to          ship operational life cycle costs
achieve leading edge productivity and efficiency world wide. Solutions to         For fast development of new products and processes:
develop and establish efficient co-operation (e.g. distributed design and         • Methods and supporting tools for simulation of
manufacturing, transport logistics) in shipbuilding result in the following          functional performance
research objectives                                                               • Development of a standard product model
• Process Optimisation & Control: Systematic investigations of                    • Tools and software for design, analysis and modelling of
    shipbuilding processes by means of simulation (the virtual enterprise) in        composites, advanced structures and engineering systems
    order to reduce time-to-market and building cost while improving value           (FEM, SPH, VOF, etc.)
    to the customer                                                               • Prediction methods for aging and durability,
• Shipbuilding Logistics Control: Systematic investigations into
                                                                                  • Failure mechanisms
    techniques to rationalise inventory management and process logistics by
                                                                                  • Simulation methods and supporting tools for module
    means of ICT
                                                                                     design and production processes
• Knowledge mobilisation in the shipbuilding production environment:
                                                                                  For fast implementation of innovations
    Systematic investigations into technology and learning schemes for IT-
    supported training and production assistance in the workshops                 • Knowledge management networks for shipyards
• Knowledge management in design & engineering: Research &                        • Life long learning programmes for European shipyards
    development into a distributed internet-supported framework for               • E-learning data bases driven by a multi-language
    harnessing knowledge of specialist service providers                             shipbuilding dictionary.
• Virtual prototyping to allow craft design to be optimised without
    recourse to prototype manufacture                                       Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme                                                     Reduction of lead times in production by 50%
                                                                                  Reduction of downtime costs by 80%
Pre-requisites:                                                                   Controlled distributed design and engineering processes
Research Timescales: 2010-2014
Budget requirements:

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3.4.2 Human Factors in the Shipbuilding Process                           Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                          Social aspects of shipyard work
                                                                                        Multicultural processes, and communication
The practice of outsourcing and off-shoring on Inter-European as well as a              Working conditions, health and safety in the
worldwide scale is growing. Workers from other EU member states are                     workplace and job satisfaction
more frequently seeking and finding employment throughout Europe. The                    Image of shipbuilding industry among younger
multicultural workplace poses a challenge that has implications in Health               generations
Safety and Environmental issues.                                                        Quality and productivity of the production process
                                                                                        Developing methods in cooperative improvement of
The image of Europe’s manufacturing industry is not sufficiently attractive             the production process
for young men and women. Besides a relatively low influx of young talent,               Interaction in multi-cultural working places and
the gender balance in the industry reflects this problem. Common solutions              production chains
to promote the image of manufacturing in Europe are the research objective.
                                                                          Expected Research Outcomes
A research project is required in European shipyards, aimed at finding the
best managerial and cooperative solutions to improve the production process      Expected outcomes of the projects are:
and productivity and address the above issues.                                         Reduction of industrial accidents in the shipbuilding
                                                                                       industry and diminished risks in the workplace    Research Programme                                                          More applicants for vocational training in
                                                                                       shipbuilding or metal industry
Pre-requisites:                                                                        New or at least better cooperative developing models
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                         in improving the production process
Budget requirements:                                                                   Better job satisfaction in shipbuilding industry
                                                                                       Better quality and higher productivity
                                                                                       Better interaction between general contractor and
                                                                                       suppliers on all levels of the production process
                                                                                       Better possibilities to career development on all
                                                                                       levels of the production process.

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3.4.3 Electric power & propulsion component design                          Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    New power generation, control and drive machinery,
                                                                                  components and systems with higher power and torque
To research, develop and validate advanced concepts and technologies              density, efficiency and flexibility in design and operation, all
towards an all electric ship. To significantly enhance the overall efficiency     at lower cost, size and weight. New concepts to enable the
and cost effectiveness of electric power and propulsion systems, in order to      maximum benefits of electric propulsion, control,
enlarge the economically viable range of vessel applications by developing        manoeuvrability and low noise to apply to a wider range of
system designs and components for a range of generation/drive applications        vessels and operating speeds, all with lower build and
taking advantage of the latest technology, alternative energy sources and         operating costs. New transformers, frequency converters,
power management capability to increase efficiency and facilitate                 motor & generator designs that benefit from high speed
reductions of emissions.                                                          drives, Permanent Magnet and Super-Conducting component
                                                                                  technologies. Electrical actuation of major equipment that
                                                                                  provides reduced footprint, installation design flexibility and    Research Programme                                                     more controllable, reliable operation for new vessels. New
                                                                                  electrical power system and ship designs should enable
Pre-requisites:                                                                   operation from clean shore power supplies to eliminate
                                                                                  airborne emissions in harbour.
Research Timescales: 2008-2014
                                                                            Expected Research Outcomes
Budget requirements:
                                                                                  Electrical power, actuation and propulsion system designs
                                                                                  and models that demonstrate increased efficiency and cost
                                                                                  effectiveness for existing and new vessel concepts. New
                                                                                  validated component designs for high power generators and
                                                                                  propulsion systems.

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3.4.4 Electrical power networks                                            Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    • LV, HV distribution nets
                                                                                  • DC nets and bus bar systems
Electric systems on board consist of power generation, distribution systems,      • Cabling design
and power consumers. In order to reduce ship’s building costs and building        • Distribution principles
time the emphasis will be on improvements of the distribution part, where         • Power converters
cabling, routing and distribution principles used are key elements. Building      • Power friendly lighting
in modular sections will be facilitated.
                                                                                  • Power friendly HVAC systems
                                                                                  • Shore power connections/implications
Electrical systems will have to cope with ever increasing demand in
power/consumption, leading to the requirement for reduction in consumed           • Port facilities interface
power per application (lighting, HVAC, other systems). Overall system             Models and calculating/configuration tools for determining
reliability must achieve or exceed the present high standard. On board            optimal system configurations per (type of) vessel are
maintainability should be simplified because of expected limited available        needed.
manpower, capabilities and skill levels. Last but not least vessels must have     FMEA/MTBF calculations for overall system configurations
simplified shore power facilities to switch to shore power when in harbour,
which needs to be in line with anticipated shore power facilities.         Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme                                                     New electrical power system designs with reduced
                                                                                  production, operation and support costs.
Research Timescales: 2007-2001
Budget requirements:

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3.4.5 Modular control, navigation & communication                         Technology, Tools & Processes
                                                                                •   Distributed control by agents    Research Objectives                                                  •   Wireless and self-building networks
                                                                                •   Unified data standard
Next generation automation, navigation and control systems on-board of          •   Cross-sectional usable hardware platforms
commercial vessels need to be substantially improved in terms of reduced        •   Industrial based hardware and networks
hardware, but especially installation, commissioning and maintenance costs,     •   Reliable and maintenance free sensors/actuators
by 20% to 30% in order to remain competitive with latest Japanese and US        •   Artificial intelligence
developments. New builds at European shipyards, which are built up by           •   Ergonomics of information presentation & control
completely pre-manufactured and pre-equipped segments from different            •   Distributed network tools, agent builders
locations, require a new concept for electric wiring and control. The key       •   Configuration tools for I/O allocation
technology of distributed control systems is reduced build costs, where one
                                                                                •   Mimic configuration tools
segment can be equipped, tested and set into operation on its own and the
                                                                                •   Case studies for specific vessels
completed segments can be commissioned in a few hours.
                                                                                •   Concepts for wireless, self-building networks    Research Programme                                                   •   New concepts for data standards

                                                                          Expected Research Outcomes

Research Timescales: 2007-2001                                                  Control functions are completely performed on local level
                                                                                Control units communicate by wireless means
Budget requirements:                                                            Control units start-up automatically, configure automatically,
                                                                                and implement redundancy automatically
                                                                                Control functions can be tested in advance on local level and
                                                                                merged automatically as segments are put together

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3.4.6 Innovative materials and systems                                     Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                   Composite materials design and modelling tools

New materials and processing methods are needed to cope with new           Expected Research Outcomes
transport market trends and technological developments regarding:
• Escalation of aggressiveness of transported chemicals requires new             •   Innovative solutions in composites and matrices.
     materials and coatings                                                      •   Intrinsic material fire survivability
• Innovative duplex steel types with low alloy costs and enhanced                •   Efficient and affordable manufacture and assembly
     corrosion resistance and mechanical properties                              •   Integrated intelligent systems to monitor the health of
• Low-cost, leakage-free LNG insulation                                              structures during their service life
• Enhanced speed of panel line welding and avoid deformation by the use          •   Light metals (new alloys, nano-scale structures, re-
     of innovative hybrid laser welding (laser plus MAG welding). New                crystallisation models)
     generation of arc welding technology with lower heat input                  •   New nano-scaled structures (100-300 nm grain size)
• Innovative, multi functional coatings (including bio-coatings) are a               formed in Al alloys which increase mechanical strength
     high priority: They need to be resistant, require little inspection,            whilst preserving ductility;
     efficient to apply, reduce drag and have a low impact on working            •   New Al alloys with high-temperature fatigue resistance;
     conditions and the environment.
                                                                                 •   Environmentally-friendly materials
                                                                                 •   Smart materials,
Composites and concrete show great promise. Risk assessments regarding
corrosion, lifecycle costs, disposal, and in service inspection need to be       •   Bio-coatings
carried out in detail. They need to guarantee non-flammability and fire
resistance. Development of new materials, such as bio-composites,
optimised for the marine environment will support sustainable growth.    Research Programme

Research Timescales: 2010-2014
Budget requirements:

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3.5 Effective Waterborne Operations

3.5.1 Automated Ship Operations and LCC reductions                         Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    •   Propulsion system condition monitoring system models
                                                                                  •   Integrated satellite data links for ship monitoring and
All high value equipment needs to have Equipment Health Monitoring                    cargo management
(EHM) systems embedded into the design. Equipment through life                    • Intelligent data analysis algorithms and prognostics
reliability models will be required to provide the prognostic capability to       • Smart self monitoring materials
deliver condition-based maintenance. Development of in service                    • In service evaluation programmes and case studies are
performance databases and innovative intelligent pattern recognition tools            required to validate the modelling tools.
will deliver robust maintenance planning information This will maximise           • Models and intelligent algorithms are required to predict
the availability of the ship and its asset value. EHM systems should simplify         system and component condition from multi-parameter
operation and allow reduction of staff and engineers onboard. This                    databases.
functionality should be integrated with the ships automation and control          New maintenance processes and business models.
system and use common monitoring and communication systems. Remote                Condition Based Maintenance operating procedures need to
shore based EHM control centres need to be developed and linked to fleet          be developed and linked to classification society rules.
operators. Consistent with the risk/goal-based approach to design, approval
                                                                                  • Class surveys related to the scheme.
and production it will be necessary to develop risk/goal based techniques
                                                                                  • Development programmes are required for crew training
and tools to create maintenance schedules.
                                                                                      and shore based support.    Research Programme
                                                                           Expected Research Outcomes
                                                                                  Classification society approved Condition Based
• Completion of initial phase of FLAGSHIP Integrated Project
                                                                                  Maintenance processes enabled by remote analysis of
Research Timescales
                                                                                  continuous monitoring of in service equipment performance.
• 2009 to 2012
Budget requirements

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3.6 Technologies for New & Extended Marine Operations    Transport Operations In Cold Northern Waters                      Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                      New technology is required for a variety of operations
                                                                                      • Transhipment
The marine activity in the northern areas will increase in the years to come.         • Vessel/tanks for CNG / LNG
It will comprise exploratory and production drilling, installation of sub-sea         • New vessel designs with ice breaking capability
structures, pipe-laying and inspection of sub-sea equipment. Oil and gas              • River/sea transport in ice
will be transported from locations in the Barents Sea to the market and will          • Sea transport from ice condition to the ice free areas
require all support activities, from simple supply to disaster relief. The            • At sea gas transfer (STS operation)
challenges for ship and offshore operation are low temperatures,                      • Materials for low temperature operation
atmospheric icing, stability problems and equipment operation. Operational
                                                                                      • Reduction of atmospheric icing
challenges will include different ice conditions, sea ice, ice floes, icebergs,
                                                                                      • Increase automation for remote operation of systems
darkness and low visibility. International and national law/regulations have
                                                                                          in cold climate
to be updated and brought in line with the real risk factors i.e. the need for
                                                                                    Management of environmental risks and pollution requires
goal based regulation is apparent
                                                                                      • Risk analysis and effect modelling in local conditions
Research objectives are                                                               • Safety concepts for collisions and collision
• Data collection on year round conditions in the specific Northern                       prevention
   environment (low temperatures, darkness, atmospheric icing, sea ice and            • Emergency preparedness plans
   drifting icebergs)
• Development of goal based rules for the vessels, equipment and systems     Expected Research Outcomes
   at work in the environment
• Utilization of information to define design specifications to enable                 •   Specialised ships and equipment will be available to
   prolongation of the operational work season.                                            enable year-round operation in harsh climates
                                                                                       •   Efficient technology for exploration, production,    Research Programme                                                              transhipment and transport operations in harsh
                                                                                           climates will be available
Pre-requisites:                                                                        •   An inventory of environmental impacts and risks
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                         •   Disaster control routines and specifications for
Budget requirements:                                                                       specialised equipment are available

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3.6.2 Offshore Deep Sea Operations & Floating Equipment                      Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                      The following critical topics should be developed:
                                                                                    • New tools for hydrodynamic and structural analysis
With new discoveries in accessible zones, the ultra-deep offshore (1500m to             Hydro/Aerodynamic Load and Response tools, Coupled
3000m) is expected to account for a major share of production in the                    Response Model & Full-scale Testing, Ice Loading.
coming years. Technology today cannot produce at depths greater than
                                                                                    • New tools for risk analysis
about 1,800 m. To exceed this depth many new technologies must be
                                                                                        Decision making, Analytical modelling, Testing and
                                                                                        qualification, Risk assessment methodology.
Hydrodynamics, Structural analysis, Risk analysis, Mooring and Station              • New technology for Moored and DP systems
Keeping, Risers, Topside and Sub sea equipment, are essential research              Turret structures, Mooring line damping, Material and
topics. New innovative technologies are required that will define the future        hydrodynamic damping, New types of deep water anchors
floating structures and operations capability for the exploitation of the deep-     (torpedo anchors), Thruster modelling and power
sea natural resources. Research topics will be focused in the new innovative        management, Fuel saving control technology, Simulation for
ultra deep-sea vessels, ultra deep sub sea equipment and ultra deep robotics        DP assisted mooring.
technologies.                                                                       • New technology for Ultra deep sea vessels
                                                                                    Integration of new functions, Mobility, Power generation,    Research Programme                                                       Propulsion efficiency.

Pre-requisites: Development of the new innovative technologies identified    Expected Research Outcomes
by the thematic network TN3 (Floating Structures Technologies) that was
supported by DG Research                                                            The development of innovative technologies described above
Research Timescales: 2007-2020                                                      will make it possible to produce the natural resources with:
Budget requirements: 2007 to 2011 60 millions €                                                    2000 m within 5 years
                      2012 to 2016 80 millions €                                                   2500 m within 10 years
                      2017 to 2020 50 millions €                                                   3000 m within 15 years

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4 Growth & Infrastructure Implementation Plan
4.1 Accelerated development of New Port & Infrastructure Facilities

4.1.1 Planning Tools for Optimal Logistics Chains and                        Technology, Tools & Processes
      Hinterland Connections
                                                                                   The advantages enjoyed by terrestrial transport relative to    Research Objectives                                                     waterborne are primarily speed and the convenience of door-
                                                                                   to-door delivery. In this respect, rail has no significant
Research new techniques for cargo handling to encourage increased market           advantage over waterborne, other than in areas remote from
share of short sea shipping and reduce congestion of road and rail transport       the sea, or a suitable waterway. The challenge therefore is for
systems. The optimisation of waterborne transport chains, whether by sea, or       waterborne to match, or to move closer to the advantages of
inland waterway, has the potential to reduce congestion in road and rail           road transport.
transport. but should be supported by intelligent planning tools and reactive
agile real-time scheduling systems.                                                This can be achieved in various ways:
                                                                                   • Improvements to minor ports
Research efforts are needed to facilitate improvements to major and minor          • Improvements and extension of inland waterways
ports, enhance inland waterway capacity, develop improved container                • Improvements/changes in container systems and cargo
systems and cargo transfer and integrate ICT solutions and optimise modal             transfer
transfer points. This technology has an export spin off for European
companies in other regions                                                   Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme                                                     5 years - Research programme to identify key areas for
                                                                                  improvement or development of new techniques or methods.
Pre-requisites: - Industry expert workshop to agree opportunities for             10 years - Develop the new tools and innovative methods
innovation in cargo handling and ICT solutions. Inter-industry liaison            necessary to maximize cargo handling potential across
workshop to agree priorities and to finalise timescales and budgets.              maximum range of port size and to minimize the transit time
Research Timescales: See                                                  from producer to consumer across all transport modes.
Budget requirements           Years 1 to 5     €5,000,000                         15 years - Trial new tools and methods in a selected range of
                             Years 6 to 10 €15,000,000                            representative ports.
                             Years 11 to 15 €25,000,000

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4.1.2 Advanced Field Measurement Techniques                                Technology, Tools & Processes     Research Objectives                                                  The requirement is to develop improved methods of data
                                                                                 collection that are operated remotely, such as by satellite,
Advanced field measurement techniques are important to deep sea, coastal         airborne, or from free moving vessels. These will include:
and inland navigation. An essential ingredient for successful project            o           Wave height and direction
construction is the thorough and appropriate investigation of the physical       o           Sediment transport
characteristics of the development site. These include: sea conditions,          o           Temperature
ground conditions and the local ecology. Failure to collect adequate and         o           Coastal changes
accurate data can and often does result in delay and cost over-run. However,     o           Bathymetry
the collection of real data in the marine environment is expensive and time      o           Nutrient concentrations
consuming, often being restricted to summertime when conditions are less         o           Water quality indicators
hostile, though still unpredictable.
                                                                           Expected Research Outcomes     Research Programme                                                   A reduction in the time and cost of the investigation of the
                                                                                 physical conditions within which estuarial, coastal and inland
Pre-requisites: -                                                                waterway development is planned
                                                                                 Improvement in the ability for industry to deliver projects
Inventory on existing research programmes on advanced monitoring                 within the time frame and budget foreseen and a reduction in
techniques based on remote sensing such as for example the RESTSCOD              the frequency and scale of disputes.
project in the Netherlands.                                                      Leading edge technology from European industry marketed
Research Timescales: See                                                  2 years : - Establish state of the art and pan-European
                                                                                 research in progress, identify key areas for improvement,
Budget requirements: €7,000,000                                                  specify research and development programmes.
                                                                                  5 years : - Prototype developments complete
                                                                                  5 to 10 years Progress from prototypes to off-the-shelf
                                                                                 manufactured products.
                                                                                 10 to 15 years: - Continued developments with input from
                                                                                 field experience by users.

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4.1.3 Non Intrusive Measurement                                                Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives
                                                                               Expected Research Outcomes
Intrusive methods of investigation are slow, expensive and weather
dependent. As a result, projects are frequently delayed due to inadequate            A reduction in the time and cost of the investigation of the
data. More rapid, but reliable methods are urgently required to measure:             physical conditions within which estuarial and coastal
                                                                                     development is planned
   • In-situ soil density
   • High-resolution geophysical methods of sub-bottom profiling                     Improvement in the ability for industry to deliver projects
   • Measurement of shellfish population extent and density                          within the time frame and budget foreseen and a reduction in
The outcome of these research and development programmes will be:                    the frequency and scale of disputes.
   • Reduced time from project conception to construction
   • Better design                                                                   Leading edge technology from European industry marketed
   • Reduced cost and delay                                                          worldwide.
   • Reduced risk of dispute.
These are important objectives. It is too often the case that projects suffer        5 years        Assess current state of technology and primary
programme over-run and increased costs through inadequate advance                    research targets to provide optimum return. Select key
understanding of the physical conditions at the construction site.                   research targets. Commence selected research programmes.    Research Programme                                                        10 years       Develop prototype tools and subject to field
                                                                                     trials. Expand programme to embrace 2nd Phase research
Pre-requisites: Inventory on existing research programmes on non intrusive           topics.
measurements . Special focuss on integration of know how from geophysics
applied in raw material and energy sources exploration.                              15 years       Continue development of tools and methods.
Research Timescales: 10 years to develop prototypes and maximum 10
years to produce commercial applications.
Budget requirements: €6,000,000

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4.2 Interoperability Between Modes

4.2.1 High Quality and Efficient Inter-modal Services                      Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                   •   Information technology and logistics must be integrated
                                                                                     to form the “smart supply chain”, embedded in a
Intermodal transport requires high quality and very efficient services from          common EU inter-modal, cross-border strategy;
all modes. Technology platforms like ERRAC, EIRAC and ERTRAC                     •   IT system to control all points in the supply chain (based
promote research that is needed for the single modes. Research goals are             on harmonized information availability and automated
therefore proposed related to the interlinking of modes on the European              tracking & tracing features), including terminals and
coastal and inland waterways.                                                        trans-shipment points;
                                                                                 •   Methodologies and tool for global repositioning of
To be competitive with single mode transport, inter-modal transport should           loading units;
deliver a high quality service (seamless, fast, and reliable) and be highly      •   Co-operation and liabilities between transport operators
efficient. Though ‘Integrated Freight Transport Management Logistic                  (service quality, reliability, cargo conditions of carriage,
Systems’ have been examined and developed in a number of projects, there             legal, competition and insurance issues, loss and damage
is still an apparent need to ensure that these issues are further developed.         issues);
                                                                                 •   Harmonisation of document handling and customs    Research Programme                                                        procedures, contracting, and permitting;

Pre-requisites:                                                            Expected Research Outcomes
Research Timescales: See                                                 An improvement in the efficiency of door-to-door transport
                                                                                 with opportunities for an increase in the market share for
Budget requirements:                                                             small to medium ports.
Years 1 to 5 €10,000,000                                                         5 years Identify weaknesses in existing systems.
Years 6 to 10 - total €50,000,000                                                          Identify optimum solutions.
Years 11 to 15 (refinement only)  €5,000,000                                               Develop web-based software and trial at selected
                                                                                 10 years Install system in all major European ports
                                                                                 15 years Install system throughout Europe.

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4.3 More Effective Ports & Infrastructure

4.3.1 Ship/ shore systems integration & fast cargo handling                 Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    A holistic approach to docking automation and cargo
                                                                                  handling. It also includes sensors and intelligent monitoring,
The ship/shore interface needs to be designed as an integrated system for         prediction and control systems.
maximum efficiency. Ship time in port needs to be minimised for maximum
operational cost effectiveness. The research and development must include         •   Automated mooring of vessels
mooring technology, the design of link spans and ramps, automated guided          •   Modularised links between vessel and quay (link span,
vehicles and cargo handling equipment. Improved personnel safety during               ramp, etc) with integrated harbour services.
all harbour operations will be a key objective. ICT systems for increased         •   Cargo handling processes and equipment, interacting
levels of automation, including intelligent control and monitoring must be            with the processes and equipment for port terminal cargo
developed in order to increase port effectiveness and reduce risk to the              handling.
operational personnel and support onboard ships or in ports, locks etc.           •   Enabling ultra large container vessels in ports
                                                                                  •   VTS traffic management and slot entrance planning on
The design of the vessel links to the shore should investigate integrated
                                                                                      the basis of vessel risk indices and safety assessment
bunkering and shore power supplies. Modularised systems are required so
                                                                                  •   Role of tugs as essential part of the effective and safe
that the optimum design of port facilities can be developed to suit port size
                                                                                      port with ever increasing number and size of vessels and
and cargo volumes. Emphasis needs to be put onto improved methods of
                                                                                      extending into exposed areas
handling bulk cargoes to reduce the number of cargo handling operations
carried out between supplier and customer
                                                                            Expected Research Outcomes    Research Programme
                                                                                  New procedures to ensure safety and security of operations.
Research Timescales: 2007-2010
                                                                                  Modularised designs of docking systems available for a
Budget requirements: : €5,000,000 p.a
                                                                                  range of port requirements.

                                                                                  The majority of new European short sea and inland waterway
                                                                                  vessels are equipped with automatic mooring devices.

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4.3.2 Vessel Shore Energy Systems                                           Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    Infrastructure design and construction; energy facilities
                                                                                  design and construction; vessel-shore energy interfaces;
To minimise local pollution caused by diesel generated power sources on           vessel energy equipment
ships in port.
Development of an integrated and innovative clean energy supply in port
with the infrastructure and corresponding vessel interfaces, for both major    Expected Research Outcomes
and small ports.
                                                                                  Reduced, clean and more efficient use of energy by ships
                                                                                  when in port and a consequent reduction in local carbon    Research Programme                                                     emissions.

Pre-requisites:                                                                   All vessels, while in ports, will be able to receive energy
                                                                                  from specific port facilities. This should lead to an
Research Timescales: 2010-2014                                                    immediate emission reduction in the port area."
5 years        Joint research programme between
Shipbuilders/Owners/Ports to develop suitable power supply systems and            Lead to be taken by port authorities together with energy
ship to shore ‘hook-up’,                                                          industry, port construction works and terminal operators.

10 years       Install prototype systems in selected vessels and ports
representative of range of potential vessel and port users.

15 years      Expand installation throughout Europe for appropriate
vessels and ports.

Budget requirements:
Years 1 to 5    €25,000,000
Years 6 to 10 – total  €75,000,000
Years 11 to 15 – development only     €10,000,000

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4.3.3 New Generation Inland Navigation                                      Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    •   Development of new and modular inland vessel types
                                                                                      (Container, Tanker, RoRo, Bulk and General Cargo)
In order to compete successfully on the worldwide market and to contribute        •   Design processes involving operational analysis and
efficiently to EU transport policy and to accommodate the forthcoming                 simulation of integrated transport chains
economical growth and transport demand of the new member states the               •   New hull forms and technologies for reduced resistance
trans-European inland waterways and the Danube Corridor offer                         and enhanced manoeuvrability in restricted waters.
tremendous potential for transport of goods.                                      •   New propulsion and auxiliary energy systems (biological
Development and integration of new transport solutions requires:                      fuels, fuel cell) and improved waste water management.
• Improved port and hinterland logistics                                          •   Development of (double) hull structures and new
• Integrated logistic concepts for door to door transport in the EU-25                materials (composite, sandwich structures) and increased
• Innovative ship design and modernisation for local conditions, logistic             crash worthiness to reduce risks
    concepts and minimum Life Cycle Costs                                         •   Improved and innovative cargo handling systems.
• New and specialised cargo handling systems                                      •   Development and implementation of unified rules and
• Safe operation in limited and shallow water conditions addressing                   guidelines for inland shipping, preferably goal based
    resistance & propulsion, manoeuvring on waterways and in
    loading/unloading areas, and overtaking manoeuvres.                     Expected Research Outcomes
• Analysis of collision, grounding, failure mechanisms and residual
    strength requirements                                                         •   Unified rules for the transport of goods within EU-25
• Reduced environment impact; emissions to air and water                          •   Availability of collision proof ship designs with optimal
An integrated project could encompass development, establishment and                  hydrodynamic properties for max size transport units,
demonstration of transport management applications and services by all                with reduced risk and increased efficiency of transport
actors involved in the entire logistics supply chain (e.g. deep sea shipping,     •   Renewal of the existing fleet focused on efficiency,
short sea shipping, inland navigation, rail, road and terminals)                      safety and cargo handling
                                                                                  •   New designs for integrated logistic concepts for    Research Programme                                                         Container, Tanker, RoRo, Bulk and General Cargo
                                                                                  •   Increased transport of goods on the inland waterways,
Pre-requisites: Completion of CREATING EU Project                                     relieving congestion on road and rail and fostering
Research Timescales: : Rolling 15 year programme                                      incentives for international industrial investors
Budget requirements 20 MEuro

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4.4 Intelligent Transportation Technologies and Integrated ICT Solutions

4.4.1 Ports network and Data Exchange                                       Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    Multi-user Web-based software system development, taking
                                                                                  into account VTS and RIS
To achieve a secure Web-based system of vessel and cargo tracking
accessible to all operators and users.                                      Expected Research Outcomes
To maximise the efficiency of the real time transport opportunities and           5 years       Software development and testing.
vessel utilisation it is necessary to develop a web-based system of port
networking to identify and exchange vessel locations, planned routes, cargo       10 years      Installation with key ports and users
facilities and dates and times of movement. This will allow users to quickly
identify the most efficient and cost effective waterborne transport               15 years      Refinement and Installation with all ports and
opportunities with the potential for increased market share, improved vessel      users
utilisation and reduced costs. The system will also provide increased
security by allowing vessel location, course and speed to be tracked at any       An increase in the speed, efficiency and security of vessel
time through satellite positioning and unique vessel identification code.         utilisation and cargo movement    Research Programme

Pre-requisites: Finalisation of EFFORTS

5 years Software development and testing.
10 years Installation with key ports, vessels and users
15 years Refinement and Installation with all vessels, ports and users

Budget requirements
Years 1 to 5 €10,000,000
Years 6 to 10 - total €50,000,000
Years 11 to 15 (refinement only)  €5,000,000

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4.4.2 Cargo Logistic Management                                               Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                    •   Ship and port design
                                                                                  •   Cargo handling re-engineering
Integrated ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) and ITS               •   Tracking and tracing
(Intelligent Transport Solutions) are required for more efficient planning,       •   Logistics simulation
booking, simulation, routing and control of cargo along the different             •   Planning and scheduling tools
transport modes as well as supporting efficiency, safety and security. The
objective is to achieve efficient and effective inter-modality. Automated
control of vessels approaching/departing port using intelligent systems and      Expected Research Outcomes
improved navigational aids could increase efficiency and safety of ship
handling. The technological aspects of such development should be                 5 years -      New real-time scheduling systems
investigated along with a consideration of the legal and regulatory aspects.      10 years -    New cargo handling equipment and re-
                                                                                                engineered processes with better, fit for purpose
Improved control and decision-making requires introduction of new                               ship and port designs enabling smooth
management tools to ensure the maximum utilisation of vessels at all times.                     processing of goods
Such systems could be used to predict real-time customer demand and to
optimise the price and availability of products and services.

Programme could be joined with 4.4.1 Ports network & Data Exchange.    Research Programme

Research Timescales: See
Budget requirements: €30,000,000 total.

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4.5 Understanding the Environmental Impact of Infrastructure Building and Dredging

4.5.1 Determination Of Real Baseline Conditions against which              Technology, Tools & Processes
      the Effect of Infrastructure Development may be Measured
                                                                                 o Pan European ‘State of the Art’ review of knowledge and    Research Objectives                                                     on-going research on the effects and impact of natural
                                                                                   and anthropogenic activity in the wet environment.
To provide a proper understanding of the effect on the aquatic environment       o Coastal and estuarial sediment suspension and dispersion
of natural events and unrelated anthropogenic activities, so that the true         during storm conditions.
relative effect of infrastructure development may be properly evaluated.         o Coastal and estuarial sediment suspension and dispersion
Research is urgently needed to improve understanding of events and                 during high river flows.
activities within the marine environment that occur independently of             o Coastal and estuarial sediment suspension and dispersion
construction and infrastructure. These will include the naturally occurring        resulting from commercial fishing.
effects of storms and floods, but also the effects of commercial fishing.
Improved understanding of these will provide a baseline against which the    Expected Research Outcomes
potential impact of construction activity may be properly judged. This is a
major challenge that will be best met by the combined and coordinated            Improved understanding of the effects of natural events
work of Europe’s leading academics and scientific practitioners.                 within the marine environment, plus the effects of regulated
                                                                                 activities, such as commercial fishing. Thus providing    Research Programme                                                    ‘benchmark’ conditions against which the potential effects of
                                                                                 proposed and actual developments may be properly judged.
Pre-requisites: Inventory of existing research programmes on                     This will allow more rapid and efficient planning processes.
anthropogenic effects on the marine environment.
                                                                                 2 years Implement and complete ‘State of the Art’ review.
Research Timescales: See                                                 5 years Establish and report a programme of field
                                                                                          measurement at representative selection of European
Budget requirements:                                                                      coastal and inland sites to accurately measure the
      Year 1                                                 €5,000,000                   effects of storms, floods, global warming, water
      Year 2                                                €15,000,000                   extraction, pollution and commercial fishing..
      Years 3 to 10                                         €12,000,000          15 years Continuation of the above, but with greater
      Years 10 to 15                                         €7,500,000                   refinement through focus on subjects of highest
                                                                                          impact, or greatest uncertainty.

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4.5.2 Improved understanding of the potential impact of                     Technology, Tools & Processes
                                                                                  •   Source Research into coastal and estuarial sediment    Research Objectives                                                        suspension, re-suspension and dispersion resulting from
                                                                                      dredging and construction activities.
The short-term effects of marine construction on ecosystems need to be            •   Long-term field measurements as function of the
investigated by extensive field measurements and laboratory research. The             development of new ports and waterways.
results of which can be used to prepare predictive models. Research will          •   Ecosystem dynamics.
involve physical, chemical and biological disciplines in effect chain             •   Development and validation of predictive mathematical
analysis. In order to develop a better understanding of long term effects of          models.
coastal engineering on the environment it is essential to use an integrated
approach and look at cumulative effects over the lifetime of a marine       Expected Research Outcomes
infrastructure project. This type of research will result in the design of
marine infrastructure that does not endanger good ecological status or even
                                                                                  Improved understanding of the effects of engineering in the
may contribute to a better ecological status in the vicinity of the project.
                                                                                  marine and aquatic environments, with identified ‘safe’,
                                                                                  ‘marginal’ and ‘unsafe’ thresholds, such that projects may be    Research Programme                                                     designed with minimum impact, or enhancement of the
                                                                                  environment and be fully in tune with the aspirations of the
Pre-requisites:                                                                   Habitats and Water-framework Directives.

Research Timescales: : See 4.5.2                                                  2 years: Implemented research program on physical impacts,
                                                                                       sediment behaviour and ecosystem dynamics related to
Budget requirements: Euro                                                              port development and waterway construction.
      Year 1                                                  €3,000,000          5 years: Established and ongoing program of field
      Year 2                                                  €4,000,000               measurements at representative selection of European
      Years 3 to 10                                          €24,000,000               port development projects.
      Years 10 to 15                                         €10,000,000          15 years: Continuation of the above, but with greater
                                                                                        refinement on subjects of highest impact, or greatest
                                                                                        uncertainty. Established models to predict ecological

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4.5.3 Refinement of Environmental Regulation to Remove                        Technology, Tools & Processes
      Inconsistency, Conflict & Duplication    Research Objectives                                                Expected Research Outcomes
In the past decade the regulatory system in Europe has expanded rapidly.           A substantial reduction in the time scale for the planning,
The objective of these various regulations is to maintain, or improve, the         consent and implementation of new developments of
natural environment within which man, wildlife and flora must co-exist and         waterborne infrastructure.
to avoid damage to eco-systems. This is undeniably good, but only if
regulation and its application is properly conceived and interpreted in a          A substantial reduction in resources given to the investigation
consistent way. So that the aspirations of commerce and the concerns               and study of proposed projects and in particular the
regarding the environment may be mutually satisfied, it is necessary to            elimination, or at least reduction, in wasted high level
streamline and standardise the planning process and the implementation of          resources.
regulations. Two essential steps are necessary to achieve this: to identify
(and later eliminate) duplication and conflict between different regulations       5 years Identify anomalies and conflict with existing
and to provide a Europe-wide agreed system to steer projects expediently           regulations, quantify the adverse effects, propose appropriate
through regulations via a logical, efficient and consistent route. Research is     amendments, and draft a coordinated road map to lead
needed in the form of analysis and comparison of the relevant European             industry efficiently and expediently from project conception
Directives and National regulations concerning the environmental impact of         to the granting of all necessary consents and compliance
maritime development and maintenance activities. The output of this study          without unnecessary delay and cost.
should be the identification of conflict and anomalies within regulations and
a step-by-step guide to the achievement of harmonious compliance with all          Establish permanent ‘Expert Advisory Group’ with watching
relevant regulations in a cost effective and expedient way.                        brief to monitor new or amended legislation and Directives to
                                                                                   avoid conflict or impossible, or impractical requirements.    Research Programme
                                                                                   10 years       Continue permanent ‘Expert Advisory Group’
Pre-requisites: To continue and combine with research carried out by prof.         with watching brief to monitor new or amended legislation
van Hooijdonk on DG TREN under 6th framework.                                      and Directives to avoid conflict or impossible, or impractical
Urgent, process to be completed within 5 years.
Budget requirements: Initial €5,000,000, thereafter €1,000,000 p.a.

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4.5.4 Marina & Leisure Facility Development                                    Technology, Tools & Processes    Research Objectives                                                       Identify and develop efficient and compact mooring,
                                                                                     handling and storage systems of small craft harbours.
One of the critical factors limiting the further growth of the recreational
craft and marine leisure industry is the lack of space to moor new craft.      Expected Research Outcomes
This drives up prices and places barriers to participation for many people.
More stringent planning and environmental controls make the expansion of             Increased capacity for leisure craft within the constraints of
current facilities, and the creation of new facilities, increasingly difficult.      existing land space with a consequent increased opportunity
Developing new and innovative ways to ensure that users can access the               for participation on waterborne recreation.
water cost effectively is an important issue that must be addressed. This is
an issue both for coastal and inland facilities.    Research Programme


Research Timescales:
5 years      Design and develop new systems.

10 years          Install prototype system at selected test sites.

15 years          Refine and adapt designs.

Budget requirements:
Years 1 to 5          €2,500,000
Years 6 to 10 – total €10,000,000
Years 11 to 15        €5,000,000

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                                          Cross Reference Index

                                Page          vessel                         Environment
Anthropogenic                          Data                                        alternative fuels
      impact activities                      methods of collection                 eco-ship
Automation                                   port networking                       low emissions vessels
Automatic                              Design                                Environmental impact
      docking                                cabling                                cruise, ferry, RoPax
      mooring                                docking systems                        ships
Ballast water                                inland ships                           ecosystems
Capsizing                                    methods and                            recreational craft
      operational guidance                   procedures                             regulations
Cargo                                        risk/goal based design          Equipment
      bulk                                   spans and ramps                       health monitoring
      fast handling                          tools                                 (EHM)
      handling processes               Development                                 offshore floating
      logistic management                    new port &                      Hydrodynamic(s)
Coatings                                     infrastructure                        analysis tools
Collision                              Dredging                                    extreme waves
Competitiveness                              impact on                             large volume vessels
      marine equipment                       environment                           multi-body interaction
      production                       Electric                                    multi-phase flow
      short sea ships                        component design                      shallow waters
      vessels, floating                      networks                              deep sea
      structures                             propulsion                      Failure mechanism
      waterborne operations                  wiring                                modelling
Congestion                             Emissions                                   vessel systems
      road and rail transport                cruise and ferry ships                vessel structures
Corrosion                                    recreational craft              Fatigue
Crash worthiness                       Energy                                Field
      design                                 lifetime efficiency                   measurement
      inland ships                           shore systems                         techniques

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Fire                                 marine equipment                    sub-bottom profiling
       resistance                    systems                             techniques for field
       survivability                 vessels                       Methods
FPSO                           Integration                               probabilistic
Fuel                           Intermodal                          Modal
      alternative                    systems                             inter-modal services
      onboard storage          IT systems                          Model
      supply and systems             in the supply chain                 accidents,
      synthetic                Life cycle                                consequences
      treatment                      analysis                            cargo spills
Fuel cell                      LNG                                       ecosystems
      fuel processing                insulation                    Modelling
      fuel reformation         Logistic(s)                               security systems
Grounding                            cargo management                    failure mechanism
Hull                                 inland navigation             Modular
      advanced structures            integrated systems                  inland ships
Life Cycle                           shipbuilding                        systems for port
      costs                    MAG                                       facilities
      tools for analysis       Manoeuvring                         Mooring and docking
Logistic systems               Management                                deep sea
      integrated freight             knowledge                           technology
      transport                      waste                         Navigation
      optimal chains           Materials                           Offshore
ICT                                  composites                          deep sea operations
      risk/goal based design         duplex alloys                       floating equipment
Infrastructure                       innovative                          pipe line systems
Inland                               light metals                  Planning
      navigation                     nano-scale                    Planning tools
      ships                          sandwich                            for optimal logistic
Innovation                     Measurement                               chains
      tools for accelerated          data collection               Pollution
Innovative                           non intrusive                       control
      floating structures            soil density                        in port

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Ports                               water jets                    Structures
     improvement              Recreational craft                        advanced hull
     infrastructures          Risk                                      analysis
Power                               analysis                            failure mechanism
     components                     collision and                       inland ships
     converters                     grounding                           response to loads
     electric                       personnel onboard                   sandwich
     distributed bar          Safety                                    slender
     generation                     cruise ships                  Survivability
     shore                          personnel                           fire
Prime movers                        recreational craft                  smaller vessels
     combined cycle                 small vessels                 Systems
     developments                   standards                           communication
     medium speed             Security                                  control
     injection systems              cruise ships                        distributed control
     recuperator                    unmanned vehicles                   electric
Production                                                              HVAC
     accuracy control         Sustainable                               innovative
     cost                           recreational craft                  navigation
     distributed              Services                                  (green) ship
     environment                    inter-modal                         ship/shore
     lead time                Ship                                      shore energy
     preparation                    all electric                  Techniques
     risk                           shore interface                     field measurement
Propulsion                          short sea                     Technology
     distributed concepts           ship systems                        mooring
     electric drive           Shipping                                  platform
     prime movers                   deep sea                      Tools
     next generation                inland                              accelerated
Propulsor                           short sea                           innovation
     integrated with rudder   Simulation                                design
     large area                     numerical                           hydrodynamic
     pods                           security                            analysis

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     life cycle analysis
     chain optimisation
     cooperation operators
     northern environment
Water ways
     Danube corridor
Wireless networks

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