Sample Resume of Linux Admin

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					Unix Startup




 Guntis Barzdins
 Girts Folkmanis
  Juris Krūmiņš
               System Lifecycle: Ups &
                       Downs


Power                                         Power
 on                                            off
        Boot    Kernel   OS     RUN!   Shut
                 Init    Init          down
          Boot Terminology

 Loader:
     Program that moves bits from disk (usually)
   to memory and then transfers CPU control to the newly
   “loaded” bits (executable).
 Bootloader / Bootstrap:
      Program that loads the “first program” (the kernel).
 Boot PROM / PROM Monitor / BIOS:
      Persistent code that is “already loaded” on power-up.
 Boot Manager:
      Program that lets you choose the “first program” to load.
                  LILO: LInux LOader
 A versatile boot manager that supports:
      Choice of Linux kernels.
      Boot time kernel parameters.
      Booting non-Linux kernels.
      A variety of configurations.
 Characteristics:
      Lives in MBR or partition boot sector.
      Has no knowledge of filesystem structure so…
      Builds a sector “map file” (block map) to find kernel.
 /sbin/lilo – “map installer”.
      /etc/lilo.conf is lilo configuration file.
     Example lilo.conf File
boot=/dev/hda
map=/boot/map
install=/boot/boot.b
prompt
timeout=50
default=linux

image=/boot/vmlinuz-2.2.12-20
        label=linux
        initrd=/boot/initrd-2.2.12-20.img
        read-only
        root=/dev/hda1
                    LILO v.s. GRUB

 LILO
      Run LILO to modify mini-bootloader in the MBR
      Cannot read file system itself
 GRUB
      Multistage loader
      Can read file-system itself

 Parameter passing (runlevel, init) to kernel
      Actually hacking – modifies address and name inside kernel for
       the process to start
Init process (1)
                                            init
When the kernel has started itself (has been loaded into memory, has
started running, and has initialised all device drivers and data structures
and such), it finishes its own part of the boot process by starting a user
level program, init. Thus, init is always the first process (its process
number is always 1).

The kernel looks for init in a few locations that have been historically used
for it, but the proper location for it (on a Linux system) is /sbin/init. If the
kernel can't find init, it tries to run /bin/sh, and if that also fails, the startup
of the system fails.

When init starts, it finishes the boot process by doing a number of
administrative tasks, such as checking filesystems, cleaning up /tmp,
starting various services, and starting a getty for each terminal and virtual
console where users should be able to log in (see Chapter 10).
         Unix Process Hierarchy
                            [0]


/etc/inittab            init [1]


   Daemon               Login shell
  e.g. httpd


       Child                Child                Child




               Grandchild           Grandchild
     pstree




      Kernel threads, not real processes

Forked processes for network connections
                           Startup Sequence
                          Boot                      Create
                                       Load
 Power-on                loader                       init
                                       Kernel
                         LILO                       process

  hardware                              Linux




                            runlevel
 rc.sysinit                                     rc.local      Ready
                               0-6


Initialisation Scripts
     Different Unix startup files..
 Unix systems are usually based in the
  AT&T System III & V or BSD work.
         Sun Mircosystems Solaris 2.X (formally SunOS) BSD-ish
         DEC OSF/1 is BSD-ish (DEC use to do Ultrix)
         IBM AIX (neither ATT or BSD but something else)
         HP HP-UX (BSD-ish)
         Silicon Graphics, IRIX (ATTish)
         SCO (Santa Cruz Operation) PC unix (ATT)
         Linux, kernel from Linus Torvalds (BSD-ish for admin,
          ATT-ish for programming)
            Distributions Slackware, Redhat, SuSE, Debian
         other free PC Unixs, NetBSD, 386BSD, free BSD
                          Startup files
 How to start other services not in kernel?
 BSD mode
      /etc/rc, /etc/rc.boot and /etc/rc.local
 System V
      Startup runlevels
            init process and /etc/inittab file
      On linux:
           0: shutdown and halt
           1 single-user mode
           2 multiuse mode, no file sharing
           3 full multiuser.
           4 unused
           5 X windows console
           6 shuts down and reboots
               Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                      /etc/rc.boot
 First rc script to run is /etc/rc.boot
      The first two lines set HOME and PATH environment variables
      Executes basic system commands during boot
      hostname file in /etc for each network interface
          enables IP networking on each interface
             Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                /etc/rc.boot (cont.)
 Address or hostname of default Internet gateway is read
  from /etc/defaultrouter
 non-local NW connections up prior to more complicated
  routing in boot process
 /usr filesystem read-only for system check to see if
  /fastboot exists
      Yes: system shut down cleanly~ filesystems in consistent state
      No: all filesystems listed in /etc/fstab checked in fsck
 If disks check cleanly~ rc.boot runs /etc/rc.single
             Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                   /etc/rc.single
 Commands in /etc/rc.single are executed at boot time
  even if not using single mode
 Remounts / and /usr filesystems read/write
      if not remounted~ system not able to come up
 Cleans out /etc/mtabfile and adds entries for / and /usr
      was previously mounted but not in mtab file because root
       filesystem not writable
 /usr/kvm mounted~ clean up shared library cache
              Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                    /etc/rc.single
 /etc/utmp file cleaned out
      contains user list of current log ins
 tzsetup command sets local time zone & status of daylight
  savings time (kernal is GMT)
 loadkeys command sets keyboard mapping
 rc.single exits~rc.boot exits
 No problems in autoboot mode the next init process is
  /etc/rc
 If problem~single-user (sh process) on console
             Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                      /etc/rc

 /etc/rc is the main system startup up script in autoboot
  after rc.boot
      if single-user: rc after shell is terminated
 if root filesystems not writable~ rerun rc.single
 clean up shared library cache
 remove /fastboot file
 /etc/passwd file edited ~system crashes
      vipw and /etc/rc script make sure password file not destroyed
       at crash
          Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                /etc/rc (cont.)
 Enable quotas
 /bin/ps -u cleans out the ps database (status of
  processes)
 /etc/nologin created by shutdown to prevent logins during
  shutdown
 executes rc.local script
 swapon -a to make use of all swap partitions listed in
  etc/fstab
 expreserve: looks in /tmp to find files that were edited
  when system went down
        Sample BSD Startup Scripts
              /etc/rc (cont.)

 Start standard system daemons (i.e., lpd, inetd,
  update, uushed)
          Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                 /etc/rc.local
 /etc/rc.local contains commands for local system
 portmap daemon maps RPC (remote procedure call)
  service numbers to the NW ports of appropriate servers
 NIS (NW info service) Domain Name set from /etc/default
  domain
 set subnet mask of all machines interfaces
 default route reset~ if no default routing daemon run
 list current configuration of NW interfaces on console
             Sample BSD Startup Scripts
                /etc/rc.local (cont.)
 All NFS filesystems mounted
 named (server for Domain Name system) maps between
  hostnames and Internet addresses
 Client side NFS daemon run (biod)
 syslogd: responsible for managing log messages
 save kernel core dump in /var/crash/hostname
      Image saved on swap partition~ save image to real filesystem
 Clean up temporary mail lock files and start sendmail
          Sample BSD Startup Scripts
             /etc/rc.local (cont.)
 Make machine NFS Server if filesystems need to be
  exported
 Daemon to support diskless clients
 rpc.statd and rpc.lockd manage advisory locks on
  NFS filesystems
 Start automount daemon
 3rd party vendor install scripts
 Appletalk protocol stack started
 Licensed software add-ons
           System V Run Levels

 Level 0 – shutdown
 Level 1 or S – single-user mode
 Level 2 thru 5 – multi-user mode
 Level 6 - reboot
         Startup Script Directories

 /etc/inittab tells init where scripts are
 /etc/init.d script directory
 /etc/rc2.d link to script directory
                                Startup files

 Understanding /etc/inittab
      Label:runlevel:action:process
            id:5:initdefault:

            # System initialization.
            si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

            l0:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 0
            l1:1:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 1
            l2:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 2
            l3:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 3
            l4:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 4
            l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5
            l6:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 6
              Some Linux inittab action valus
Action                      Meaning
Boot                        Runs when system boots
Bootwait                    Init waits for complete
Ctrlaltdel
Initdefault                 Set the detault runlevel
off                         Disable the entry
Once                        For every runlevel
Powerfail                   When init receive SIGPWR signal
Powerokwait                 SIGPWR and /etc/powerstatus has ok
Respawn                     Restart the process wheneven it termincates
Sysinit                     Before any boot
Wait                        Upon entrying the run mode and waits to
                            complete
      Linux startup - rc.sysinit script

 /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit - does a range of basic tasks including
    configures networking

    sets host name

    checks the root file system for repairs

    check root file system quota & turns quotas for groups and
      users
    mount non-root file systems and checks them for repairs

    turns on swapping (virtual memory subsystem)

    checks and loads modules (drivers)

          (see /var/log/messages)
                   Linux Run Levels

   Linux defines 7 run levels
   Each run level defines a set of commands that are run to stop and start
    processes.
   The actual commands are held in /etc/init.d directory
   The run level directories rc0.d, rc2.d…rc6.d contain links to the actual
    commands
   Each command is prefixed with S or K and a number 00-99
       S prefix means that a process should be started e.g.
        S10network
       K prefix means that a process should be stopped (killed)
        K70syslog
       The numbers determine the order in which the commands are
        run from lowest first to highest last
                Linux Run Levels 0-2

 Runlevel 0 Directory /etc/rc.d/rc0.d
     Actually shutdown sequence
          Kill all processes
          Turn off virtual memory system (i.e. swap partition)
          unmounts swap and file systems
 Runlevel 1 /etc/rc.d/rc1.d
     single user mode
     used for maintenance by system administrators when they
      need sole control of machine, e.g. reconfiguring hardware
      installing software
 Runlevel 2 /etc/rc.d/rc2.d
     Multi-user + networking (minus NFS)
                 Linux Run level 3-6

 Runlevel 3 /etc/rc.d/rc3.d
      Default run level
      multi-user + NFS
 Runlevel 4 /etc/rc.d/rc4.d
      not defined ( available for customization)
 Runlevel 5 /etc/rc.d/rc5.d
      Same as 3 under Redhat this but includes starting X windows
 Runlevel 6 /etc/rc.d/rc6.d
      reboot
      similar to 0 but allow allows option to shutdown (halt) or reboot
                           Shutdown

 shutdown allows...
      users to be warned the systems is going down
      the contents of disk caches to be written disk
      file systems to be marked as having been closed properly (
       avoid file system check on next startup)
 Access to the shutdown command is restricted (it is in
  /sbin)
 eg shutdown -h now

                       h = halt
                       r = reboot
               Init scripts in Gentoo

 Named (not numbered) run levels.
 Smart dependencies.
      Scripts can „use‟ or „depend‟ on others.
 Start / Stop / Pause.
 /etc/runlevels/default/.
                         Internet Daemon
     Daemon inetd started at boot time
     Configuration file /etc/inetd.conf
            Name, type, protocol, wait-status, uid, server,
             arguments
#
ftp      stream   tcp6   nowait   root   /usr/sbin/tcpd    in.ftpd
telnet   stream   tcp6   nowait   root   /usr/sbin/tcpd    in.telnetd
#
# Mail is a useful thing...
pop3     stream   tcp    nowait   root   /etc/mail/popper            popper -s
imap     stream   tcp    nowait   root   /etc/mail/imapd             imapd
                   Internet Daemon

 When to modify inetd.conf
     Disable a service
       Add a # at the beginning of the entry
       Send hang-up to inetd
          kill –HUP processid
     Enable a service
     Change the path
     Modify arguments
          Extended Internet Daemon

 Daemon xinetd
 Configuration file /etc/xinetd.conf and /etc/xinetd.d
      Attribute/value pair
      Diable = yes/no
              Setup automatic Mounting
/etc/fstab
/etc/vfstab

# Device    Mpoint FStype Opt Dump Pass
/dev/sd01sf /new ufs rw 0        2
/dev/da0b none swap sw 0 0
      Sample Directory Tree with
            Mount Points


                             /
                        /dev/hda9


  /boot        /usr       /home       swap         /var
/dev/hda1   /dev/hda5   /dev/hda6   /dev/hda7   /dev/hda8
     Mounting and Unmounting File
               Systems
 File Systems mounted with the mount command:
  mount [options] device directory
  For example:
  mount –o rw –t ext2 /dev/hda10 /tmp
 File systems umounted with the umount command:
  umount [-f] directory
  For example:
  umount /tmp
 File systems should only be umounted when they are not in use.
                     /etc/fstab

 Configuration file for all partitions known to the system.
 Entry format:
  /dev/device /dir/to/mount fstype
  parameters fs_freq fs_passno
  Sample entry:
  /dev/hda10              /tmp ext2 defaults 1 2
 For entries in /etc/fstab, can run mount command with just mount
  point:
  > mount /tmp
  To mount all file systems:
  > mount -a
      Scheduling processes - cron

   Many aspects of system administration require things to be
    done on a routine basis
        Rotating logs
        building help files
        checking disk space
        checking permissions
   Remembering to do thing is error prone
   Unix provides scheduling mechanism refereed to as cron.
   Cron has two parts
        Daemon - crond
        table of actions /etc/crontab
                              Cron

 the crond Daemon is started at boot time
 the daemon „wakes up‟ every minute to check its
  table of actions
      if their is something to do -> run command
      if nothing to do --> go back to sleep for 1 min
 Cron table is a list (time,commnd) pairs. The
  format is
 minute hour day month dayofweek command
                                Crontab

 Commands can be scheduled by
          minute (0 59)
          Hour ( 0 to 23)
          Day of the month (1 - 31)
          Month ( 1 to 12)
          Day of the week (0=Sunday 6 = sat, or use mon,tues,wed)
 Example
       01 * * * *         commnd2   # hourly at 1 minute past
       * 1 * * *          commnd2   # daily at 1 am
       04 1 * * *         commands 3 - run at 4 minute past
                                  1 each day
  * means ‘check every’
                                   Cron

 Under Redhat Linux the cron table is used to execute a
  set of commands in some special directories
      /etc/cron.hourly
      /etc/cron.daily
           contains logrotate, makewhatis,slocate,tmpwatch
      /etc/cron.weekly
      /etc/cron.monthly
           You can add you own commands to the appropriate directory,
            but remember they need to be ‘batch’ commands as they will run
            automatically
                        Crontab Files

   Minute 0-59
   Hour 0-23
   Day 1-31
   Month 1-12
   Weekday 0-6 (0=Sunday)
       * Matches everything
       1-3 Matches range
       1,5 Matches Series
                           Examples
15,45 10 * * 1-5
write garth % Hi Garth % get a job
30 2 * * 1 (cd /user/joe/p; make)
find /tmp –atime +3 –exec rm –f {} ‘;’
 Output mailed to owner of crontab file
            crontab commands

 crontab        Replace ^C exit
 crontab    –l List
 crontab    –e Edit
 crontab    –l > cronfile
 crontab    cronfile
     cron.allow
     cron.deny
         Common Uses for CRON

 Cleaning the filesystem
 Distribution of config files
 Rotating log files
 Backups
                      Webmin

 Webmin is a web-based interface for system
  administration for Unix. Using any browser that
  supports tables and forms (and Java for the File
  Manager module), you can setup user accounts,
  Apache, DNS, file sharing and so on.
 http://www.webmin.com
            Advanced Boot Concepts

 Initial ramdisk (initrd) – two-stage boot for flexibility:
      First mount “initial” ramdisk as root.
      Execute linuxrc to perform additional setup, configuration.
      Finally mount “real” root and continue.
      See Documentation/initrd.txt for details.
      Also see “man initrd”.

 Net booting:
      Remote root (Diskless-root-HOWTO).
      Diskless boot (Diskless-HOWTO).
             System initialization

 Overview of the PC Boot Process
     When a PC is powered on, the BIOS (Basic
      Input-Output System) runs first, followed by
      a boot loader and finally the operating
      system initialization routine.
                System initialization

 The BIOS
     When power is initially applied to the computer this triggers
      the RESET pin on the processor. This causes the processor to
      read from memory location 0xFFFFFFF0 and begin executing
      the code located there. This address is mapped to the Read-
      Only Memory (ROM) containing the BIOS. The BIOS must poll
      the hardware and set up an environment capable of booting
      the operating system. BIOS functionality can be broken into
      three areas: Power On Self Test (POST), Setup and Boot.
     The last action of the BIOS is to execute the 19h interrupt,
      which loads the first sector of the first boot device. Since this
      is the location of the boot loader, execution of the 19h interrupt
      transfers control to the boot loader.
              System initialization
 The Boot Loader
      Once the BIOS loads the first sector of the boot device into RAM,
       the boot loader begins execution. In the case of a hard drive, this
       first sector is referred to as the Master Boot Record (MBR). The
       MBR contains the partition table describing the partitions defined on
       the hard drive. It also contains a program, the boot loader, which
       will load the first sector of the partition marked as active into RAM
       and execute it.
      The size of the MBR is limited to one sector on disk or 512 bytes,
       since it is located within the first sector of the drive at cylinder 0,
       head 0, sector 1.
      Typically boot loaders have been highly integrated with the
       operating system that they support. This integration cuts down on
       the operations a boot loader must perform, making a 512 byte boot
       loader feasible. When more functionality is required, a multi-stage
       boot loader may be used.
      A multi-stage boot loader provides more function and flexibility by
       working around the 512 byte size limitation. Rather than consisting
       of a single program which loads the operating system directly,
       multi-stage boot loaders divide their functionality into a number of
       smaller programs that each successively load one another.
                System initialization

 OS Initialization
     Once the boot loader has loaded the OS image into memory,
      control is transferred to the OS.
     A large aspect of initialization for any operating system is the
      establishment of virtual memory management. On an Intel-
      based system this typically involves setting up the Global
      Descriptor Table (GDT), creating a Local Descriptor Table
      (LDT), switching the processor into protected memory mode,
      setting up page directories and enabling paging.
     Additional tasks include device driver initialization and the
      assignment of interrupts in the Interrupt Descriptor Table
      (IDT).
     Another major initialization task is establishing support for
      various file system types and mounting a root file system.
            System initialization
 OS Initialization
     The initial process must explicitly do for itself all the tasks
      accomplished by a call to fork(). This initial process,
      numbered 0 on UNIX systems.
     Process 0 must be able to self-generate its own process
      context. Once this context has been established, the system
      has the capability to suspend and resume execution of
      Process 0 just as it would any other process. Once
      established, the role of Process 0 differs by operating
      system.
     Process 1, commonly referred to as the init process, is the
      first process forked from Process 0.
     Once Process 1 has been forked from Process 0, often a
      number of additional kernel space processes are created to
      handle additional kernel space tasks. Once all of these are
      running, the kernel space operating system initialization is
      complete.
System initialization
                 System initialization
 OpenBSD employs a two-stage boot loading process, if one
  does not count the MBR as a separate “stage.” The first stage is
  handled by a boot loader program called biosboot, while the
  secondary boot loader is called simply boot.
 The boot program sets up an environment suitable for
  transferring control to the kernel image. It also provides an
  interactive prompt for user input of additional boot parameters.
  The main tasks of the boot program are:
    1. Switching the CPU into protected mode
    2. Probing for console devices and displaying subsequent
       messages to the discovered consoles
    3. Detecting memory, both that reported by the BIOS and
       extended memory
    4. Detecting if the BIOS supports Advanced Power
       Management (APM)
System initialization
System initialization
              System initialization

1. A “pagedaemon” process to handle page swapping for
   the virtual memory subsystem,
2. A “reaper” process to free the resources still allocated
   to dead processes,
3. A “cleaner” process to clear out dirty buffers found in
   the BQ_DIRTY buffer queue,
4. An “update” process for synchronizing the file systems,
5. An “aiodoned” process for handling completed
   asynchronous I/O operations,
             System initialization

 With all kernel threads running, only a few finishing
  touches are needed. The random number generator is
  seeded and the generation of process identification
  numbers is set up such that each successive process
  will be given a larger pseudo-random number than its
  predecessor. At this point, Process 0 finally enters its
  main loop by calling uvm_scheduler(). This function
  has Process 0 continually check for processes that are
  in a runnable state but not resident in memory and
  swaps them in. Control never returns to the main()
  function from this call and one could say the operating
  system is truly running.
System initialization
System initialization
System initialization
       Userspace system initialization

 Historically there are two initialization systems :
      System V
      BSD
 These two system differ with names, script running order,
  directory hierarchy which hold initialization scripts.
 Linux systems mainly use System V initialization system.
  Exclude Slackware, whose initialization system very
  similar to BSD.
      Userspace system initialization

 Kernel start up root file system in ro mode and run init process
 As a result we have:
     ro file system

     init process

 The next system step initializing user space environment greatly
  depends on init configuration file /etc/inittab
 It‟s very important to understand that until this moment it doesn‟t
  matter what initialization system will be used.
      Userspace system initialization

 INIT
     Starting from this point next system behavior greatly
      depend on how init program configuration created.
     Because kernel mount root file system in ro mode init
      process can access it‟s configuration file /etc/inittab.
     Userspace system initialization

1.   When it‟s time to create process, the kernel first of all try to run program
     mentioned in rdinit= boot option.
2.   If rdinit= boot option didn‟t specify path to init programm, kernel try to run /init
3.   If there‟s no /init program, kernel try to run program from init= boot option
4.   If init= option didn‟t specify path, kernel try /sbin/init
5.   If there‟s problem with /sbin/init, kernel try /etc/init
6.   It there‟s problem with /etc/init, then kernel try /bin/init
7.   If there‟s problem running /bin/init, then kernel try to run /bin/sh
8.   If there‟s problem with /bin/sh, then kernel panic with error message “No init
     found ….”
       Userspace system initialization
 Run levels
      There are 7 runlevels: 0-6
      System at any time working in one of this runlevels
      You, as administrator of the system can switch system from
       one runlevel to another using telinit or init programs
           0 runlevel – shutdown system
           1 runlevel – single user mode
           2 runlevel – in most cases same as runlevel 3 but without network file system,
            at least in RedHat or SUSE linux
           3 runlevel – multiuser mode.
           4 runlevel – In Slackware used for GUI login. RedHat and SUSE linux don’t
            use this runlevel.
           5 runlevel – RedHat and SUSE linux use for GUI login. Slackware don’t use
            this level
           6 runlevel – system reboot level
       Userspace system initialization

 Slackware system initialization:
      Slackware system initialization use BSD style system
       initialization scripts.
      All scripts are in /etc/rc.d directory
         Userspace system initialization

        /etc/rc.d/rc.S file
           Based in /etc/inittab file rc.S file will be executed the first one
            no matter which runlevel system will run.
    1.      Based on #!/bin/sh we can tell, that it‟s a shell script.
    2.      First of all we define PATH environment variable
            PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin
    3.      Then we mount proc filesystem to /proc diretory
            /sbin/mount -v proc /proc -n -t proc
       Userspace system initialization

4. Check if we can run hotplug system
if [ -w /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug ]; then
      if grep -w nohotplug /proc/cmdline 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null ; then
              echo "/dev/null" > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug
      elif [ ! -x /etc/rc.d/rc.hotplug ]; then
              echo "/dev/null" > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug
      fi
fi

5. Check if we can run devfs script and use devfs filesystem
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.devfsd ]; then
      /etc/rc.d/rc.devfsd start
fi
        Userspace system initialization
6. Check if we can use virtual sysfs filesystem
if [ -d /sys ]; then
      if cat /proc/filesystems | grep -w sysfs 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null then
             if ! cat /proc/mounts | grep -w sysfs 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null then
                         /sbin/mount -v sysfs /sys -n -t sysfs
             fi
      fi
fi

7.Check if it’s possible to run udev programm.
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.udev ]; then
      if ! grep -w nohotplug /proc/cmdline 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null; then
              /etc/rc.d/rc.udev
      fi
fi
           Userspace system initialization
8. Turn on all swap filesystem
     /sbin/swapon -a

9. Check what mode root filesystem have been mounted
READWRITE=no
if touch /fsrwtestfile 2>/dev/null; then
     rm -f /fsrwtestfile
     READWRITE=yes
else
     echo "Testing root filesystem status: read-only filesystem"
fi

10. Check is it necessary to force file system check:
if [ -r /etc/forcefsck ]; then
      FORCEFSCK="-f"
fi
   Userspace system initialization
11. Check if it‟s necessary to check root filesystem
if [ ! -r /etc/fastboot ]; then
      echo "Checking root filesystem:" /sbin/fsck $FORCEFSCK -C -a / RETVAL=$?
fi

12. Check fsck program return code
if [ $RETVAL -ge 2 ]; then
      if [ $RETVAL -ge 4 ]; then
             echo PS1="(Repair filesystem) \#"; export PS1
             sulogin
      else
             echo
       fi
      echo "Unmounting file systems."
      /sbin/umount -a -r
      /sbin/mount -n -o remount,ro /
      echo "Rebooting system."
      sleep 2
      reboot -f
fi
        Userspace system initialization

13. Ir 12 pint are ok, then remount root filesystem in rw mode
/sbin/mount -w -v -n -o remount /
if [ $? -gt 0 ] ; then
     echo
     read junk;
fi
        Userspace system initialization
14. Set system time
     if [ -x /sbin/hwclock ]; then
              if grep "^UTC" /etc/hardwareclock 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null ; then
                         echo "Setting system time from the hardware clock (UTC)."
                         /sbin/hwclock --utc --hctosys
              else
                         echo "Setting system time from the hardware clock (localtime)."
                         /sbin/hwclock --localtime --hctosys
              fi
     fi

15. Try to load kernel modules
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.modules -a -r /proc/modules ]; then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.modules
fi
         Userspace system initialization

16. Try to load sysctl kernel configuration
if [ -x /sbin/sysctl -a -r /etc/sysctl.conf ]; then
      /sbin/sysctl -e -p /etc/sysctl.conf
fi

17. If there‟s no /etc/fastboot file, then other file systems will be checked.
if [ ! -r /etc/fastboot ]; then
      /sbin/fsck $FORCEFSCK -C -R -A -a
fi

18. Mount all file systems from /etc/fstab file except ntfs and smbfs file systems
/sbin/mount -a -v -t nonfs,nosmbfs,noproc
        Userspace system initialization
19. Repeatedly turn on swap filesystem
/sbin/swapon -a

20. Delete temporary files
( cd /var/log/setup/tmp && rm -rf * ) /bin/rm -f /var/run/utmp /var/run/*pid /etc/nologin
     /var/run/lpd* \ /var/run/ppp* /etc/dhcpc/*.pid /etc/forcefsck /etc/fastboot

21. If kernel use initrd technology, then turn off RAM disk, delete initrd directory and free
      memory
if [ -d /initrd ]; then
      /sbin/umount /initrd 2> /dev/null
      rmdir /initrd 2> /dev/null
      blockdev --flushbufs /dev/ram0 2> /dev/null
fi
       Userspace system initialization

22. Create utmp file
touch /var/run/utmp
chown root.utmp /var/run/utmp
chmod 664 /var/run/utmp

23. Create motd file
echo "$(/bin/uname -sr)." > /etc/motd

24. If it‟s necessary we can use System V initialization scripts
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.sysvinit ]; then . /etc/rc.d/rc.sysvinit
fi
        Userspace system initialization

25. Create everything for random number generator
if [ -f /etc/random-seed ]; then
       echo "Using /etc/random-seed to initialize /dev/urandom."
       cat /etc/random-seed > /dev/urandom
fi
if [ -r /proc/sys/kernel/random/poolsize ]; then
       dd if=/dev/urandom of=/etc/random-seed count=1 \
       bs=$(cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/poolsize) 2> /dev/null
else
       dd if=/dev/urandom of=/etc/random-seed count=1 bs=512 2> /dev/null
fi
chmod 600 /etc/random-seed
     Userspace system initialization

 /etc/rc.d/rc.modules user direct modprobe program
  execution to load kernel modules. All you have to do –
  uncomment needed module, ex.:
  /sbin/modprobe 3c503
 /etc/rc.d/rc.modules is also used for loading network card
  modules, by the means of executing
  /etc/rc.d/rc.netdevice script
   if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.netdevice ]; then
       . /etc/rc.d/rc.netdevice
   fi
     Userspace system initialization

 /etc/rc.d/rc.S script used for:
    Activating swap space

    File system check

    File system mounting

    Loading kernel modules, loading network drivers and

      so on, by executing /etc/rc.d/rc.modules script
    Some other system startup behavior
          Userspace system initialization

/etc/rc.d/rc.M script
           /etc/rc.d/rc.M script used to bring system to 2, 3 and 4 runlevel.
     1.     Going multiuser:
            echo "Going multiuser..."

     2. Set terminal parameters:
             /bin/setterm -blank 15 -powersave powerdown -powerdown 60

     3. Check /etc/HOSTNAME file and set system hostname
     if [ -r /etc/HOSTNAME ]; then
               /bin/hostname $(cat /etc/HOSTNAME | cut -f1 -d .)
     else
               echo "darkstar.example.net" > /etc/HOSTNAME /bin/hostname darkstar
     fi
           Userspace system initialization
4. Save all kernel messages to /var/log/dmesg file:
    /bin/dmesg -s 65536 > /var/log/dmesg

5. Start up SYSLOG daemon:
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.syslog -a -x /usr/sbin/syslogd -a -d /var/log ] then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.syslog start
fi

6. Starp up pcmcia controller support
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.pcmcia ] ; then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.pcmcia start
      if [ -r /var/run/cardmgr.pid ]; then
                sleep 5
      fi
fi
        Userspace system initialization
7. Start up network phase 1 initialization
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 ]; then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1
fi

8. Hotplug support start up
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.hotplug -a -r /proc/modules ]; then
      if ! grep nohotplug /proc/cmdline 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null ; then
      echo "Activating hardware detection: /etc/rc.d/rc.hotplug start"
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.hotplug start
      fi
fi
        Userspace system initialization
9. Start up network phase 2 initialization
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.inet2 ]; then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.inet2
fi

10. Remove temporary files
/bin/rm -f /var/lock/* /var/spool/uucp/LCK..* \
     /tmp/.X*lock /tmp/core /core 2> /dev/null

11. Change root directory access mode and set sticky bit on /tmp and /var/tmp directory
chmod 755 / 2> /dev/null
chmod 1777 /tmp /var/tmp
          Userspace system initialization
12. Create dynamic loadable library cache
if [ -x /sbin/ldconfig ]; then
      echo "Updating shared library links: /sbin/ldconfig"
      /sbin/ldconfig
fi

13. Start simple DNS cache server
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.dnsmasq ]; then /etc/rc.d/rc.dnsmasq start
fi

14. Starp up CUPS un LPRng print system
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.cups ]; then
      /etc/rc.d/rc.cups start
elif [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.lprng ]; then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.lprng start
fi
           Userspace system initialization
15. Start up support for “BSD accounting” subsystem
if [ -x /sbin/accton -a -r /var/log/pacct ]; then
      /sbin/accton /var/log/pacct
      chmod 640 /var/log/pacct
      echo "Process accounting turned on."
fi

16. Start cron daemon
if [ -x /usr/sbin/crond ]; then
      /usr/sbin/crond -l10 >>/var/log/cron 2>&1
fi

17. Start atd
if [ -x /usr/sbin/atd ]; then
      /usr/sbin/atd -b 15 -l 1
fi
           Userspace system initialization
18. Start up disk quota mechanism
if grep -q quota /etc/fstab ; then
     if [ -x /sbin/quotacheck ]; then
               echo "Checking filesystem quotas: /sbin/quotacheck -avugm"
               /sbin/quotacheck -avugm
     fi
     if [ -x /sbin/quotaon ]; then
               echo "Activating filesystem quotas: /sbin/quotaon -avug"
               /sbin/quotaon -avug
     fi
fi

19. Start up sendmail system
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail ]; then
      . /etc/rc.d/rc.sendmail start
fi
     Userspace system initialization

20. The last one will be /etc/rc.d/rc.local script, which
  is used for customize system start up and execute
  applications without System V or BSD initialization
  scripts.
     Userspace system initialization

 If we need to execute script upon system start up we
  need to set execution permissions on this script
 And vice versa, if we don‟t need to execute this service,
  don‟t make it executable.
 Every start up script – relatively simple shell script. It may
  handle command line parameters like: start – to start
  service, and stop – to stop service
 If you don‟t have initialization script for certain application
  we handle this situation in 2 different way:
     Userspace system initialization

1.    Make /etc/rc.d/rc.local script execute this program
2.    Write down your own start up script and add
      information about new script to /etc/rc.d/rc.M
   Userspace system initialization
 Script example for custom service using /etc/rc.d/rc.M start up mechanism
#! /bin/bash
start()
{
     echo “Program started”
     program_start
}
stop()
{
     echo “Program stoped”
     killall program
}
case $1 in
     start) start ;;
     stop) stop ;;
     restart) stop sleep 2 start ;;
     *) echo “Usage: Program start|stop|restart”
esac
   Userspace system initialization
 Add this script to /etc/rc.d/rc.M script by entering

   if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.script ]; then
            . /etc/rc.d/rc.script start
   fi

				
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