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					Nanoscience in the Advanced Foods and
     Materials Network (AFMNet)
         Agriculture and Food
       Nanotechnology Workshop

                   Rickey Yada
               Scientific Director
          University of Guelph, Ontario,

•   What are NCEs?
•   Background of AFMNet
•   Definition of Nanotechnology
•   Are nanomaterials new?
•   Some issues regarding nanotechnology
•   Nanotechnology in AFMNet
•   Example of nanotechnology
•   Commercialization/governance and communication in AFMNet
What are NCEs?
• A 1989 flagship Canadian program to build multi-disciplinary research

• Internationally recognized and emulated by countries such as UK,
 Japan, Germany and France

• 22 Networks in areas critical to the Canadian economy and quality of

• Ground-breaking partnerships between universities, government,
What are NCEs?

• Strong vehicle for training young Canadian
  researchers and advanced technology workers for
  industry and the health sector

• Supported and overseen by CIHR, NSERC, SSHRC
  and Industry Canada and governed by strong
  external Boards

• Since 1999, static budget of $77.4M per year
Why Canada Built Networks


strengths       PrioNet
                MITACS          ISIS
                                       Auto21     IRIS
critical mass                                     CSN
                                       SCN        CAN
 About AFMNet:
• Purpose
 To develop knowledge and technology that result in foods and food
 processes that are commercially viable, socially acceptable and value-added.
• Vision
 Partnering with industry, government, not-for-profit organizations and
 national and international research institutions, AFMNet’s vision is for a
 healthier Canada.
• Location
 The Network is headquartered at the University of Guelph
• Birth Date
 AFMNet was established in 2003.
• Funding
 AFMNet is a not-for-profit corporation funded by the Networks of Centres
 of Excellence (NCE), Canada’s flagship science and technology program,
 with AFMNet being unique in its focus on food.
• Funded for a maximum of two 7-year cycles
• 20 Projects in 3 Themes
• 75 Professors in 24 Universities
• ca.100-150 HQP (Students, PDF’s, Res.
• ca. 20 Companies
• $5.4 Million per year from NCE
   – industrial partners cash and in-kind (ca $1.0M/yr)
   – individual research grants
AFMNet Research Themes:

Our projects address 3 broad themes:

   1. Structure, Dynamics and Function of Foods and Biomaterials

   2. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

   3. Genetics, Ethics, Economics, Environment, Law and Society
     Issues (such as regulations and consumer attitudes and
AFMNet Research Focuses On:
  • Developing new bio-materials.

  • Maintaining and promoting health.

  • Ensuring the quality of food.

  • Ensuring public confidence in the food supply.

  • Investigating issues related to the ethical, public policy

  • legal/regulatory and safety implications of new food technologies
   and products
Network Breadth
Definition of Nanotechnology

• Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve studying
  and working with matter on an ultra-small scale. One
  nanometre is one-millionth of a millimetre and a
  single human hair is around 80,000 nanometres in
  width. (Royal Society)
• Nanotechnology comprises technological
  developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1 to
  100 nm. (One nanometer equals one thousandth of a
  micrometer or one millionth of a millimeter.)
Are Nanomaterials New?

• Milk (human milk and colostrum)
   –    casein micelles (50-300 nm)
   –   whey proteins (4-6 nm)
   –   lactose (0.5 nm)
   –   fat globules (300 nm)
Some Concerns Nanotechnology

• Safety of food-related nanomaterials
   – Misinformation: absence of science based policy and
Development of Novel Biomaterials: Safety
• The size and composition of nanomaterials being
  employed (i.e., metals, proteins, etc.)
• The form of the nanomaterial (i.e., particles,
  laminates, composites, and other macromolecular
• Likeliness of exposure (i.e., food ingredient, food
  packaging, processing aid, etc.).
Nanotechnology in AFMNet

• Structure – Dynamics – Function
• Cross over - 2 other themes
               Structure Dynamics Function of Foods and Bio-materials
                                Biopolymer-based platforms for controlled release applications in foods
1   D. Rousseau     Ryerson     and biomaterials
                                Bacteria, Biofilms and Foods: Structure, Growth and Nanotechnology
2   J. Dutcher*     Guelph      Applications
                                Protein and Peptide Self-Assembly: Food-Derived Materials and
3   J. Lipowski**   Guelph      Interactions with Nanostructured Surfaces
                                Bacterial Porin Proteins: Their Importance in Uptake and Resistance to
4   T. Gill         Dalhousie   Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides
                                Resistance and control of biofilms on food and food processing
5   A. Hitchcock    McMaster    surfaces
    N. Low, M.                  Production, Characterization and Functionality of Plant-extracted
    Nickerson                   Oligosaccharides Towards Enhancing the Health-promoting Properties
    and D.                      of Encapsulated Probiotics
6   Korber          Sask
7   R. Hancock      UBC         Engineering new microbial agents for food safety
8   R. Aluko        Man.        Structure-function properties of novel bioactive peptides
                                Characterization of Plant-Derived Proteins and Carbohydrates and
9   B. Moffatt      Waterloo    Their Use to Improve Frozen Food Quality
Structure-Dynamics-Function Overview
• elucidate a fundamental understanding of
    – processes which determine structure & dynamics of
      food and bio-materials
    – how interplay between structure and dynamics
      influences the function of complex systems
        – structure-function, but also dynamics-function
• use this basic knowledge to develop new products
• use a multidisciplinary approach
    – unique training of research personnel
SDF Expertise
• world-class experts in a wide range of disciplines
    – food science           – physics
    – microbiology           – chemistry
    – mathematics            – chemical engineering
    – biochemistry           – molecular biology
    – plant science          – nutritional science
• 55 investigators at 22 universities/research institutes
• 15 Canada Research Chairs, 4 other Research Chairs
• combine state-of-the-art experiments with theory &
  computer simulations
Research Personnel in SDF Theme
• impressive number of personnel
    – 27 PDFs
    – 24 PhD students
    – 16 MSc & MASc students
    – 11 undergraduate students
    – 8 technical staff
→ total of 130 personnel trained during first three years
Research Facilities
• take advantage of huge influx of research infrastructure
  awarded by Canada Foundation for Innovation
• sophisticated experimental techniques
    – surface & bulk          – spectroscopic
    – imaging                 – genetic manipulation
• state-of-the-art computational techniques
    – shared computational networks
• capitalize on access to international large scale facilities
    – neutron scattering (Chalk River, NIST, SNS, ILL)
    – synchrotron facilities (CLS, APS, ALS, Brookhaven)
Links to Industry
• direct collaboration with 23 companies such as
    – Nestle, Ocean Nutrition, Ag West Bio, New Era
      Nutrition, Burcon Nutrascience, Iogen, Avanti
      Polar Lipids, Axcelon Biopolymers, Specialty
      Biopolymers, Syngene Biotek, Maple Leaf
      Foods, Inimex Pharmaceuticals, Nutri-Pea
• 7 government/university partners
• new companies
    – FloraPure BioSciences
Correlative Studies of Complex Systems
• correlative microscopy & scattering measurements of
  bacteria, biofilms & their components
    – TEM, AFM, confocal, STXM
    – neutron scattering

  TEM         AFM
              Dutcher/Beveridge               Hitchcock
  Bacteria as Materials Scientists
• bacteria consist of an amazing array of specialized biomaterials
• isolate and purify components
    – exploit unique properties in variety of applications
   membrane vesicles        nanowires
                                                                 1.4 µm

    J Bacteriol 2006      PNAS 2006
Proteins at Surfaces
                              • nanostructured surfaces
                                  – block copolymers
• tethered lipid membranes        – biosensors
  with electric potential

Major Research Accomplishments

• production of nanoporous films with applications to
  biosensing & protein analysis
• discovery of immunomodulatory effect of glycopeptides/
  glycoproteins in gut epithelial cells
• modeling of bacteria/biofilms on different length scales,
  interaction of antimicrobial compounds with outer membrane
Major Research Accomplishments
• production of phase-separated, multicomponent hydrogels
  & diffusion of compounds through gels
• identification of defense compounds secreted by plants
• synthesis of hundreds of active antimicrobial peptides
  & study of mechanism of action
• engineering of antimicrobial peptides into plants
•isolation, purification & characterization of antihypertensive
  peptides from pea protein
                         Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals
     A. El-                   Nutrigenomics and Biomarkers of Chronic Disease
10   Sohemy      Toronto

11   J. Friel    Manitoba     Bioactive Compounds in Human Milk

                              Nutrigenomic and proteomic approaches for the study of
12   Y. Mine     Guelph       functional peptides and amino acids to improve gut health

                              The beneficial effects of fish nutrients on the obesity-linked
                              metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk profile. An
13   A.Marette   Laval        integrative genomic and metablolic phenotyping project.
                              Conjugated Linoleic Acid as a Nutraceutical for Health
14   P. Jones    Manitoba     Promotion in Humans
     B.                       Manipulation of intestinal bacterial populations; an
15   Selinger    Lethbridge   investigation on the impact of dietary fibre and prebiotics
        Genetics, Ethics, Economics, Environment, Law & Society (GE LS)

                             Understanding Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and
16   T. Henson    Guelph     Nutraceuticals
                             Natural Health Product Regulations: Perceptions and Impact
17   H. Boon      Toronto
     D.           Ottawa     Social Issues in Nutritional Genomics: The Design of Appropriate
     Castle/T.    and        Regulatory Systems and Issues of Public Representations and
18   Caulfield    Alberta    Understanding
     C.Forsberg   Guelph     Omics for Novel Plant and Animal Food Product Assessment and
     and M.       and        Risk Identification
19   Fortin       McGill
     C. Brunk                Factors Accounting for Expert and Non-Expert Positions on the
     and S.                  Ethical Issues in Animal Biotechnology and the Implications for
20   Hartley      Victoria   Public Policy
An example of Food Nanoscience

         and Nutrition Delivery
               Taiyo Kagaku Co., Ltd., Japan
                AFMNet, Industrial Partner
      Water-soluble   Oil-soluble           Mineral
         vitamin        vitamin           (insoluble)

                           Super Dispersion Technology
                           Super Emulsion Technology
     Oil Barriers

                           Super Coating Technology
                           Super Entrapping Technology
   Emulsion layers
                Nutrition Delivery System
Stable against heat, pH and
oxidation in food processing
No unpleasant taste or color
Mild on the stomach because of
its insolubility in gastric juices
Sustained release, high
absorption and bioavailability
Problems with Iron Fortification
  Unpleasant iron taste and color

  Instability, precipitation

  Toxicity, nausea, vomiting, poor
  appetite, diarrhea and constipation

  Poor bio-availability
            Iron Dissolution Model

    Ferric                             SunActive Fe
pyrophosphate          Super-

                            Superdispersed ferric pyrophosphate
   Ferric pyrophosphate
                            Emulsion layers
                                                              Particle Size Distribution

Distribution Density (Q3/g)

                              35               SunActive Fe
                                               (ave size 0.3 µm)



                                                                        Ferric pyrophosphate
                              10                                        (ave size 5.2µm)

                                   0.1   0.5    0.9   1.6   2.4   3.2     4      4.8      8       30

                                                        Particle Size (µm)
                                                                    Laser diffraction particle counter
                                                                    Supersonic wave: 2 min.
Stability of Iron Sources in Solution

  SunActive Fe   Ferric pyrophosphate   Ferrous sulfate   Sodium ferrous citrate
Clear               White               Brown                Yellowish-
                    precipitation       precipitation        brown

              5 mg Fe / 100 ml, pH 7.0, stored at 40˚C
                       under dark conditions
             Storage time: SunActive Fe for 3 months,
                          all others 2 days
Stability of Vitamin C with Iron Powders
Fortified Rice                          Premix rice (Fe: 500mg/100g)/ 6 months stored in RT

        Extruded                      Extruded                     Coated          Coated
     Ferrous Sulfate                SunActive Fe               Ferrous Sulfate   SunActive Fe

           Comparison of Color (L Value)
White 70

                                                                 Extruded :
      50                                                          SunActive > Ferrous Sulfate

      40                                                         Coated :
Black 30                                                          SunActive ≫ Ferrous Sulfate
           Ex Ferrous      Ex        Co Ferrous       Co
            Sulfate     SunActive     Sulfate      SunActive
SunActive Fe in Finished Products
Characteristics of SunActive Fe

  Dispersible in liquid formulations
  No unpleasant iron taste or color
  No reactive iron source

  High bioavailability
  Sustained release of iron
  Mild on the stomach
      Particle Size in the Liquid-Liquid Dispersion Model
           Emulsion                                               Micelle
                                      100 nm
Normal Emulsion                                    Super Emulsion                 Micelle

                                                     30 - 50 nm                   5 - 10 nm
                      200 - 300 nm
    2000 nm
   Milky white        Blue white     Translucent                    Transparent

       Emulsion is easily                                   Retort OK. High-stability
     broken and aggregated
     Super Emulsion Oil-Soluble Vitamin Agent
   The application of oil-soluble vitamins for water-soluble foods,
   O/W emulsion technology is required.

   O/W emulsion is unstable.


                                                Development of
                                                Super Emulsion
                 300 - 2000 nm
Poor Stability                                 30 - 50 nm
Large Size                                     Excellent Stability
                                               Uniform Small Size
                           Particle Size of Super Emulsion

Frequency (%)

                                   Average Particle Size               Average Particle Size
                                   = 33 nm                                  = 1,740 nm



                      10             100                       1,000           10,000
                                             Particle (nm)

                       Super Emulsion VE-102          Commercial vitamin E emulsion
               Effect of Super Emulsion
          Vitamin E drink (Vitamin E content 10 mg / 100 ml)

                      Commercial         Super Emulsion
                  Vitamin E Emulsifier      Vitamin E

By the use of Super Emulsion Vitamin E series transparent drink containing
vitamin E can be produced. “Super Emulsion Technology”
R2B – The TechNet Program

“To aid & encourage commercialization of Canadian science by
   providing access to fundamental commercialization tools and
   modern business methods for AFMNet researchers and to the
   broader research community.”
Commercialization – R2B Team of Experts

•   Venture Capitalist
•   Scientist turned Entrepreneur
•   IP & Patent Lawyer
•   Financial Expert
•   University-Industry Liaison Office
Start-Up Companies

• FloraPure BioSciences Inc. (Brett Poulis, UVic)
   – antibacterial and antifungal compounds from conifers.
   – cosmetic and medicinal applications such as skin-
     based therapies and unique and cost-effective
 Strategic Transition & Application of Research
 program (STAR)

• Exploit research results and developments (IP) that
  promise to advance knowledge and technology
  transfer in emerging areas related to foods and bio–
  materials research by supporting Proof of Principle
  and Knowledge Mobilization projects which are of
  benefit and relevance to the social and economic
  health of Canada
• Funding of up to $150,000 per project (one year, non-
  renewable) is available.
STAR Projects
• new program for Strategic Transition & Application
  of Research (STAR)
    – trans fat free shortening
    – natural nanoparticles for industrial & medical applications
    – yogurt for immune deficient patients
    – product to slow decay of apples
    – natural source alternatives to antibiotics

•   Network Researchers
•   Theme Leaders
•   Research Management Committee
•   International Scientific Advisory Board
•   Administrative Centre
•   Board of Directors

• Director of Communications
• Student Writers Program
   – ADVANCE magazine (wide distribution, awards)
• Working with other groups (e.g., dieticians, family
Some Nanoscience Food for Thought

           Thank You

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