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Ovid Metamorphoses Book

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Ovid Metamorphoses Book I


1.     In nova: neut acc pl. agreeing with corpora
       fert: 3 sing pres act ind > fero, -rere, tuli, latum
       mutatas: fem acc pl 4 pp > muto, -are, -avi, -atum


2.     corpora: neut pl acc > corpus, -oris (n) = body
       di: nom / voc masc pl > deus (di, deos, deum, dis, dis) = god
       coeptis: neut dat pl > coeptum, -i = beginning
       mutastis: synchopated > mutavistis > muto, -are, -avi, -atum


3.     adspirate: pl. imperative > adspiro, -are, -avi, -atum: I breathe on, blow at ( + dat)
       (singular imperative = adspira) (cf. spiro)


4.     perpetuus, -a, -um: continuous, forever, universal


My mind brings to speak about forms changed into new bodies: gods, (for you
have changed and so have those [bodies]), breathe my beginnings and bring down a
continuous song from the beginning of the world to my own time.


5.     mare: neut acc sing > mare, -is: sea (rem: this is a neuter i-stem noun)


6.     orbe: masc abl sing > orbis, -is (m) the world; a ring, circle or anything round


7.     dixere = dixerunt 3rd pl perf act ind > dico, -ere, dixi, dictum
       indigestus, -a, -um: disordered, unarranged, confused


8.     quicquam: relative pronound > quisquam, quisquam, quicquam (declines like
       quis, quis, quid + suffex quam) = anyone, anything (used only after a negative)
       congesta: 4th pp > congero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum: I build up; I bring together
                                                                                             2


9.     iunctarum: fem pl gen > iunctus, -a, -um: joined, united (4th pp > iungo, -are, -avi,
       -atum)
       semina (?):
In all the world of nature, before the sea and the lands and the sky which touches
everything, there was one aspect [face?], which they called Chaos – rough structures and
disordered things, nor anything but unmoving weight and built-up things in the same
[place], discordant semina [??] of things not well joined.


10.    adhuc (adv) = up to this point
       praebebat: 3rd sing imperf act ind > praebebo, -ere, praebui, praebitum = I show,
       supply, approve, allow
       lumina: neut acc pl >lumen, -inis (n) = light, lamp, the eye
       Titan, Titanis (m) = Titan. (In this context, Titan is a poetic word for sun. It is
       nominative, going with nullus = no sunlight).


11.    crescendo = gerund ( = growing)
       reparabat: 3rd sing impf act ind > reparo, -are = I repair, make new, restore
       cornua: neut acc pl > cornu, -us (n) / cornum, -i (n) = horn, as in horns of the
       moon (dat. with the compound verb reparo)


12.    circumfuso: abl masc sing 4th pp > circumfundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusum = I pour
       around, I surround
       aere: aer, aeris (m): the lower air, the atmosphere around us (the ‗a‘ & ‗e‘ are
       pronounced as separate vowels—this is not a diphthong!)
       tellus, -uris (f): the earth (nb: despite the –us ending, tellus is feminine).


13.    ponderibus: neut abl sing > pondus, -eris (n) = a weight; balance or equilibrium
       librata: 4th pp > libro, -are, -avi, -atum: I (hold in) balance; I swing, hold
       suspended, brandish.
       bracchia> bracchium,- i (n): arm, esp. the forearm.
                                                                                                3


14.    margine > margo, -inis (m/f): a border, edge, boundary (margine = abl. place
       where in this instance of Ovid)
       porrexerat > porrigo, -rigere, -rexi, -rectum: I stretch out, extend, reach
Up to this point, no Titian [i.e., no sun, no sunlight] supplied light to the world, nor did
Phoebe restore the new horns [of the moon] for the growing [world? with mundo in line
10?], nor did the world, having been suspended by its weight, hang in the poured-around
air, nor Amphitrite extend her arms upon the far edge of the world [i.e., the sea, aka
Amphitrite, did not wrap her arms, i.e., the circle of water, around the edges of the earth];


15.    utque: although (?)
       illic (adv): there, at that place


16.    instabilis, -e: unfirm, unstable, inconsistent
       innabilis, -e: something in which one cannot swim (>in+navis?)


17.    lucis> lux, lucis (f): light
       egens = nom. participle, agreeing with aer > egeo, -ere, -ui: I am in need of (+gen,
       as here with lucis); I want, desire (+ abl)
       maneo, -ere, mansi, mansum: I stay, remain, wait; with gen. (as here): I wait for,
       await


18.    obsto, obstare, -steti, -statum: I stand at, stand out; I stand against, resist, obstruct,
       hinder
       corpus, corporis (n): body, matter


19.    calidis > calidus, -a, -um: warm, hot.
       umentia = lit. ‗wet things‘ > umeo, -ere: I wet, moisten  umens, -entis = moist




20.    siccis > siccus, -a, -um: dry
                                                                                                4


       pondus, -eris (n): weight; burden [‗things having weight (fought) with things
       lacking weight‘]


[15-20]: and although there was earth in that place and sea and air, the earth was not firm,
       water was unswimable [i.e., too solid to swim through] and air [i.e., the sky] in
       need of light; her form awaited nothing, and one thing stood against another,
       because in [her] one body, cold fought with warm, wet with dry, soft with hard,
       and that which had no weight fought that which had weight.


21.    melior: comparative adjective of bonus (bonus, melior, optimus)
       litem > lis, litis (f): dispute, legal controversy or legal action.
       dirimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum: I separate, divide; I halt or interrupt a dispute.


22.    abscido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum: I cut off


23.    spissus, -a, -um: thick, dense, close
       secerno, -cenere, -crevi, -cretum: I separate, divide, part, sunder


[21-23] god and better nature separated this dispute. For he cut off lands from the sky and
       waves from the lands and divided water from denseness and air from sky [i.e.,
       divided the dense element that made water unswimable and divided the upper
       atmosphere from the air around us].


24.    Quae: neut. acc. pl. referring to the four elements mentioned in 22-23.
       evolvo, -volvere, - volui, -volutum: I roll out, roll forth; I unroll (a book, scroll)
       exemit > exemo, -emere, -emi, -emptum: I sort out?
       acervus, -i (m): a heap, pile
                                                                                               5


25.    dissociata > dissocio, -are, -avi, -atum: I separate, sever, divide
       locis: abl. respect
       concors, concordis (adj w/ comp. & super.): concordant, harmonious, agreeing
       pace: abl. means
       ligo, -are, -avi, -atum: I bind, tie, connect




26.    igneus, -a, -um: burning, fiery, glowing with heat > ignis, -is (m): fire
       convexus, -a, -um: vaulted, arched
       vis (acc: vim, abl. vi; plur vires, -ium) (f): power, strength, force
       pondus, ponderis (n): weight, balance, burden


27.    emico, emicare, emicui, emicatum: I shine forth, gleam; I spring forth
       summus, -a, -um: highest (super. of superus)
       locus, -i (m): place, location
       arx, arcis (f): fortress, citadel, stronghold


[24-27]: afterward, he unrolled these things, and sorted them out from a blind pile, he
bound them in their places [i.e., with respect to their places; each in their proper places]
in concord by means of peace: fiery strength of the sky, vaulted and without weight,
shone forth and it made for itself a place in the highest stronghold.


28.    levitas, -atis (f): lightness


29.    elementum, -i (n): element; first principle
       grandia > grandis, -e (adj): full-grown, great, large


30.    circumfluus, -a, -um: flowing around


31.    possedit > possido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I take possession of, have, hold
       coerceo, coercere, coercui, coercitum: I enclose, shut in
                                                                                                    6




[28-31] The air is closest to it [i.e., to the ether of the upper heavens] with respect to its
lightness and location; the earth is denser than those [i.e., denser than the upper or lower
atmospheres], and drags large elements and is pressed by its own weight; moisture,
flowing around, has the final things [i.e., has last place] and encloses the solid orb [of the
earth].


32.       dispono, -ponere, -posui, -positum: I put in different places, distribute
          quisquis >quisquis, quicquis (pronoun): whoever, whatever


33.       congeriem > congeries, -ei (f): a heap, mass, pile
          secuit > seco, secare, secui, sectum: I cut
          sectam> 4th pp of seco (see above)


34.       aequalis, -e (adj): equal, level; co-existent; same
          principo = abl. of time when (i.e., at first?)
          ne non aequalis: ‗ne non‘ is litotes, = ‗lest it (the earth) not be equal in from (in?)
          every part‘




35.       species, -ei (?) a seeing, view, look; shape, form, outward appearance; image
          glomero, -are, -avi, -atum: I form into a globe, sphere or rounded heap
          orbis, orbis (m): circle, ring, disc, sphere, globe, etc. (anything round)
          ‗in‘ should go before ‗speciem,‘ but is placed after the word it governs through
          anastrophe; therefore sc. ‗in speciem orbis.‘


[32-35] Thus when it was distributed, whoever of the gods he may have been, he cut a
heap and having compelled that which was cut into limbs, first the earth, lest it should be
uneven from every part [i.e., so that it would be even in every part], he rounded its form
into an orb of greatness.
                                                                                               7


36.     fretum, -i (n): a straight, sound, estuary or firth; in pl., the sea
        diffundi = pres pass infin > diffundo, -ere, diffudi, diffusum: I pour out
        tumesco, -ere, tumui, – : I (begin to) swell


37.     ambio, -ire, ambi(v)i, ambitum: I go around, surround
        terae = dative after a compound verb


38.     stagnum, -i (n): unmoving water
        lacus, -us (m): lake, large body of water; a hollow place (here it is acc pl)
39.     flumin, fluminis (n): a stream
        declivis, -e (adj): bent, sloping or inclined downward
        ripa, -ae (f): a river bank


40.     partim (adv > pars, parties (f)): partly
        sorbeo, -ere, -ui, -entum: I suck in, drink down, swallow
        ab ipsa = abl of agent, referring to the earth itself


41.     campus, -i (m): any level surface, including both land and sea surfaces
        recipio, -cipere, recepi, receptum: I hold back, retain; I draw back I take back; I
        recover


42.     liberioris = fem. pl. abl. comp. > liber, libra, librum: free
        pulso, -are, -avi, -atum: I strike, beat, knock


[36-42]: Then he commands the seas to be poured out and to swell by means of swift
winds and to flow around the shores of the surrounded lands [i.e., the lands are now
surrounded by the circle of ocean]; he added both springs and huge, unmoving bodies of
water, and lakes, and joined downward-flowing streams with slanting banks, which, in
various places, are partly sucked into itself [i.e., sucked into the earth], and partly flow
through in the sea, and, having been received in the wide expanse [ = campo] of more
freely flowing water [lit. of freer water], it strikes shores rather than (? pro ?) river banks.
                                                                                                 8




43.    extendi = pass infin > extendo, -ere, extendi, extensum: I stretch out
       subsido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I settle down, sink; I crouch down


44.    tegi = pass infin> tego, tegere, texi, tectum: I cover
       lapidosus, -a, -um: stony, rocky (with montes = ‗rocky mountains to rise‘)


45.    totidem (indecl. numerical adj): as many as; just as many
       ( > tot = so many + idem = the same)




46.    zona, -ae (f): terrestrial zones; a belt or girdle (as in Orion‘s belt or a money belt)
       ardentior = comp. adj more fiery, more burning (from the participle ardens, -entis
       > ardeo, -ere, arsi, arsum= I burn)


47.    onus, oneris (n): a load, burden, weight
       inclusum= 4th pp> includo, -cludere, -clusi, -clusum: I shut in, enclose, confine
       distinguo, -uere, distinxi, distinctum: I divide up; I mark off


48.    plaga, -ae (f): a flat surface; a zone, a region; also: a net; a wound, blow or stroke
       tellus, -uris (f): the earth


[43-48] He ordered [indirect speech:] the fields to be stretched out, the valleys to sink
down, the trees to be covered by foliage, rocky mountains to arise, and so two terrestrial
zones to cut the sky on the right with as many a part on the left [i.e., two zones south of
the equator and two zones north of the equator]. The fifth [i.e., the equatorial zone] is
hotter than those [others], thus the care of the god divided the shut in burden [i.e., the
earth, the burden shut in by the sky], with the same number, as many as the zones that are
pressed in on the earth.
                                                                                             9


49.     habitabilis, habitabile (adj): habitable
        aestus, -us (m): heat; boiling, seething; agitation, excitement


50.     nix, nivis (f): snow
        ‗alta‘ can mean high or deep. Prefer ‗deep‘ here.
        uterque, utraque, utrumque = each of two (> uter, utra, utrum = which of two)


51.     temperies, -ei (f): a proper mixture; mildness


52.     inmineo, -ere (also: immino, -ere): I project over, overhang; I threaten [compound
        verb, taking dative object]

        quanto = abl. degree of difference
53.     levius = comparative adverb = lighter
        tanto = abl. degree of difference
        onerosior = comp. > onerosus, -a, -um: heavy, burdensome


[49-53] It is the middle which, of these things, is not habitable because of the heat [aestu =
abl cause?];   deep snow touches two [zones]; as much as between each he placed and gave
mildness with cold having been mixed with heat. The lower are overhangs these things –
which, by how much the weight of water is lighter than the weight of earth, by that much
[the air] is heavier than [the weight (sc pondere again)] of fire.


54.     nebula, -ae (f): vapor, fog, mist
        consistere: lit. ‗to stand still,‘ but here ‗to reside‘


55.     motura = fut. act. ptcpl. > moveo, -ere, movi, motum = I move, stir up
        tonitruum, -i (n): thunder


56.     fulmen, fulminis (n): a stroke of lightning; a thunderbolt
        fulgur, -uris (n): a flash of lightning (i.e., sheet lightning)
                                                                                                10


57.   quoque (adv, placed after the word it modifies): too, also
      passim (adv): variously; here and there; up and down; far and wide


58.   aera: Greek masc. sing. acc. agreeing with ‗habendum‘ (cf ‗aether, line 68). (See
      Bennett 47 for Greek 3rd declension nouns in Latin).
      permitto, -mittere, -missi, missum: I permit, allow (+dat); I yield; I surrender
      obsisto, -sistere, - stiti, -stitum: I oppose, resist, withstand; I place in the way of


59.   cum= concessive (+subjunctive)
      quisque, quaeque, quidque (also quicquid): each, every, everyone, everything
      flamen, flaminis (n): a blowing, a blast of wind
      tractus, -us (m): track, trail; position; extent


60.   quin: (used in this instance for emphasis) but indeed
      lanio, -are, -avi, -atum: I tear to pieces, mangle lacerate


61.   recedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum: I go back, retire; I retreat, withdraw
      regnum, -i (n): kingdom (acc of dest. w/ ‗ad‘)


62.   subdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum: I place under, I lie under or near; I subject, subdue
      matutinus, -a, -um: early in the morning; pertaining to the morning


63.   vesper, -eris (m): evening; the west, as the sun, at evening, sets in the west.
      occiduus, -a, -um: setting; westerly; dying
      sole> sol, solis (m): the sun
      tepesco, -ere, tepui: I am lukewarm, tepid


64.   proximus, -a, -um: very near, nearest (of location or time); superl. of propior, -us
      (adj) (gen. = propius) = near, close
      triones, -um (m pl): ploughing oxen; the constellations Great Bear and Little Bear
                                                                                            11




65.    horrifer, -fera, -ferum: causing shudders of fear or cold
       invado, -ere, -vasi, -vasum: I attack, fall upon; I go in, enter; I undertake
       Boreas, -ae (m., not f.) the north wind
       contrarius, -a, -um: opposite, against; opposed, contrary


66.    adsiduus, -a, -um: constant, persistent; continuously in one place or engaged in
       one occupation
       madesco, -ere, madui: I become moist or wet ( > madeo = I am wet)
       Auster, Austri (m): the south wind; south
67.    liquidus, -a, -um: liquid; flowing, fluid; clear, bright
       careo, -ere, -ui, -itum (+abl): I lack, do without


68.    aether, -eris [acc = athera] (m): the upper air
       quisqam, quaequam, quicquam (or quidquam): anyone, anything (used with
       negatives or questions)
       terrenus, -a, -um: earthen, terrestrial; mortal, of the lower world
       faex, faecis (f): the dregs of a liquid, esp. wine


[54 -] And [post-positive ‗et‘] in this place he ordered mist, in this place clouds to reside
and [he ordered] thunder, destined to stir up [ = mortura] human minds, and winds
making lightning-flashes with thunderbolts.




[61-69] Erus receded to Aurora (i.e., the east) and the Nabatean realm and Persia and the
lands subdued by the morning rays; Vester (i.e., the west) and those shores made warm
by the setting sun were closest to Zephyer; cold-bristling Boreas fell upon Scythia and the
seven oxen (i.e., the north); the earth opposite that became wet with constant clouds and
rain from Austrus (i.e., the south). Above these things he placed flowing (bright? clear?)
aether, lacking weight and having nothing (lit. ‗nor anything) of earthly dregs.
                                                                                              12


69.    ita (adv): thus, so, in this fashion
       disaepio, -ire, -psi, -saeptum: I hedge off, separate; I divide


70.    caligo, -inis (f): fog, vapor, mist


71.    effervesco, -ere, -i: I boil up, I burst forth passionately; I break out into a glow


72.     neu = neve (adv): an not, or not, nor
       regio, -onis (f): a direction, line, a region or area marked by borders
       ullus, -a, -um (gen= ullius; dat= ulli) any (used mainly in negations or
       hypothetical situations; any one, anything (subst.)
       animal, -alis (n): a living being, animal
       orbus, - i (m) / orba, -ae (f): an orphan


73.    astrum, -i (n) a star, constellation; a great height; a glory, immorality
       caelestis, -e: heavenly, belonging to heaven, heavenly thing(s)
       solum, -i (n): bottom, lowest part (short ‗o‘)
       solus, -a, -um: alone, only (long ‗o‘)


74.    cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum: I go, proceed; I change; I go away, withdraw, retire
       nitidus, -a, -um: shining, glittering (>niteo, -ere: I shine)


[70-75] scarcely had they thus marked off everything with fixed borders when, those
things that had been obscured for a long time with pressing mist (quae referring to the
things that follow), the stars had begun to break into a glow through the sky; nor would
any region be lacking (lit: an orphan) its own animals (lit: life). The stars and the forms of
the gods (i.e., the constellations?) held the lower heavens, the waves, about to be
inhabited by shining fishes, changed (receded?), the earth adopted wild animals, the sky
(adopted) flapping birds.


75.    capio, -ere, cepi, captum: I take, seize; w/ places: I take up, choose, adopt
                                                                                             13




76.    sanctius (neut. sing. comp. adj.) > sanctus, -a, -um: holy, sacred, hallowed
       capacious (neut. sing. comp. adj.) > capax, -acis (is this an adj?) wide, roomy,
       able to hold much, broad


77.    huc (adv): up to this point, so far, hither to; with neg: not yet, still, even, now
       ceterus, -a, -um: the rest; the other (used w/ pl).
       posset = 3 sing impf act subj> possum, posse, potui: I can, am able
       dominor, -ari, -atus (dep): I rule, dominate
79.    opifex, opificis (m/f): a maker, creator, fabricator; a workman, artisan


80.    recens, entis (adj): new, fresh, young; vigourous
       seducta > seduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum: I take or lead apart
       nuper (adv): recently, not long ago


81.    aether, aetheris (>Grk. acc = aethera): the upper air; heaven
       cognatus, -i (m): a relationship on the father‘s side
       cognata, -ae (f): a relationship on the mother‘s side


[76-81] A more god-like being than these, and more capable with his noble mind (lit:
broader of noble mind), was absent to this point, and which would be able to rule over the
rest (purpose clause= ―in order to rule over the rest‖?). Man is born, whether the creator
of things made him from divine seed, the beginning of a better world, or whether the new
earth was holding back seeds of father sky, recently separated from the high ether.


82.    satus > sero, -ere, sevi, satum: I sow, plant; I beget, bring forth: in pass. I am
       born, sprung from (+abl)
       Iapetus –i (m): a Titan, father of Atlas, Epimethius and Promethius
       quam = acc. referring to telus in line 80
       pluvaialis, -e: relating to, bringing or growing after rain
                                                                                                  14


83.    fingo, -ere, finxi, fictum: I shape, form mold; I arrange, put in order
       effigies, effigiei (f): an image, likeness; a shade, ghost
       moderantum = pres act ind gen ptcpl> modero, -ari, -atus (dep): I control, govern,
       direct; I set or keep within bounds
       cunctus, -a, -um: the whole, all
       mixtam > misceo, -ere, -ui, mixtum: I mix


84.    pronus, -a, -um: inclined or sloping forward; perhaps ‗hunched‘ in this context.
       specto, -are (freq. of specio): I look at carefully, contemplate, observe (used here
       in the subjunctive as part of a concessive [?] clause)


85.    sublimes, -e: uplifted, raised, lofty, elevated


86.    erectus, -a, -um ( > erigo, -ere, erxi, erectum: I raise, lift up): I am raised, lifted,
       upright, elevated
       vultus, -us (m): the face; the expression on a face
87.    rusis, -e: rough, uncultivated
       imago, -inis (f): image, likeness


88.    induo, -ere, -ui, -utum: I put on; I assume, take the shape or role; I engage in


[82-88] He born from Iapetus (i..e., Prometheus), shaped earth, mixed with growing
       waves, into the shape of the gods who rule everything. Although the rest of the
       stooped beasts looked at the ground, he gave an uplifted face to man; and he
       ordered the sky to see (man‘s face) and ordered those raised up (i.e. people) to lift
       their faces to the stars. Thus, the earth, which would have been only uncultivated
       and without a face (likeness? image?) was turned around, and assumed the
       unfamiliar shape of humans.


89.    sata est: was planted (> sero, -ere, sevi, satum = I sow, plant, beget).
                                                                                                          15


       vindex, -icis (c.): a protector, a claimant; an avenger, punisher (abl. of attendant
       circumstances, whch Hale says is translated using ‗with,‘ ‗in,‘ or ‗under.‘ So, ‗…with no
       protector…‘).



90.    sponte (abl) (spontis (gen). whch appear to come from ‗spons‘ though this latter form does not
       appear in the dictionary).   Of people: willing, voluntarily, of one‘s own accord. Of
       things: automatically, by itself, alone, for it‘s own sake.
       fidem: object of ‗colebat‘
       rectum: 4th pp > rego. as a neut. substantive = right, virtue


91.    poena, -ae (f): money paid as a fine; a punishment, penalty
       minantia: neut. pl. nom. ptcpl > minor, -ari, -atus sum: I threaten (deponent)


92.    supplex, supplicis (adj): kneeling, humbly entreating, suppliant


93.    os, oris (n): mouth; face; sight, appearance
       tutum, -i (n): safety; a safe place (subst. > tutus, -a, -um: safe, watched over. Tutus > tueor,
       tueri, tutus sum / tueo, -ere: I look at, behold regard; I look at with care for the purposes of
       protecting).



[89-93] The golden age, which was under no one‘s guidance (protection?), was created
       first. Of it‘s own accord, it cultivated fidelity and virtue without law. There was
       no punishment or fear, nor were threatening words, fixed in bronze, read (i.e.,
       Roman laws were engraved in bronze), nor did the suppliant crowd fear the face
       of its [i.e., the crowd‘s] judge; instead they lived without a protector of their
       safety.


94.    nondum (adv): not yet
       caesa: cut, felled, fallen, cut down (> caedo, -ere, cecidi, caesum = I cut, cut
       down; strike, beat)
       peregrinus, -a, -um: foreign, strange
                                                                                              16




95.    liquidus, -a, -um: liquid; flowing, fluid; clear, bright
       suis…montibus: dat. with the compound verb descendo


96.    norant = noverant (> nosco, noscere, novi, notum: I know)


97.    praeceps, praecipits (adj): of motion: headlong, quick; of places: steep
       precipitous; as neut. substantive: a steep place, precipice.
       cingo, -ere, cinxi, cinctum: I surround, encircle
       oppidum, -i (n): town
       fossa, -ae (f): a ditch, trench, channel


[94-] Not yet had the fallen pine descended its own mountain into the shining waves in
       order to visit forien lands (lit. ‗ the forieng world‘), and mortals knew nothing ( =
       nulla) beyond their own shores.




98.    derecti> derigo, -rigere, -rexi, rectum: I set straight; I direct; I aim (a weapon)
       aes, aeris (n): copper; money; something made of copper or bronze
       flecto, -ere, flexi, flexum: I bend, turn; I alter the direction of
       ‗directi‘ and ‗flexi‘ are not passive infinitives. ‗derigi‘ and ‗flecti‘ are passive
       infinitives. What are ‗directi‘ and ‗flexi‘?


99.    galea, -ae (f): helmet
       miles, militis (c.): a soldier
       usus, -us (m): use, application; practice, exercise


100.   securus, -a, -um: care-free, unconcerned, tranquil, safe, secure
       perago, -ere, peregi, peractum: I pass through (a place or time); I carry through,
       accomplish, complete
                                                                                            17


[97-100] The tuba had not been straightened, and the horn of brass was not curved, there
was neither helmet nor sword; without the use of soldiers (lit. 'soldery'), races passed
through the gentle leisure of peace (lit. 'of sercurit').




101.    quoque (adv, placed after the word it modifies): too, also
        inmunis, -e (immunis, -e): exempt, immune, free, without duty, exempt
        rastrum, -i (n): an instrument for scraping; a plough, hoe, rake


102.    saucius, -a, -um: hurt, wounded, injured
        vomer, -eris (m): a ploughshare




103.    contenti > contentus, -a, -um: content, happy. (sc. ‗homines‘ = ‗people, contented
        with food created by no one‘s effort…‘)
        cibus, -i (m): food, nourishment, fodder
        cogente = abl. sing. ptcpl. > cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum: I bring or draw together; I
        compel; I constrain, confine
        creatis, > creo, -are, -avi, -atum: I make, create, produce


104.    arbuteus, -a, -um: relating to the arbutum (wild strawberry) [‗arbutus‘ in English]
        fetus, -a, -um: pregnant; fruitful, fertile
        fetus, -us (m): bearing, bringing forth or hatching young; offspring
        fraga, -orum (n. pl.): strawberries
        lego, -ere, legi, lectum: I collect, gather


105.    durus, -a, -um: hard, tough, strong, enduring
        haerentia > haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum: I stick, adhere, hang on; I come to a
        standstill, get stuck; I am stuck, embarrassed
        morum, -i (n): a mulberry or a blackberry
        rubeta, -orum (n. pl.): brambles, thickets
                                                                                             18


       cornum, -i (n): a cornel-cherry


106.   decido, -ere, decidi, decisum: I fall dead, die; I sink (> de + cado); I cut off, I cut
       down, I cut short (de + caedo)
       patulus, -a, -um: standing open, spreading
       glans, glandis (f): acorn, chestnut, a mast


101-106: The earth itself, also immune (to work?) and untouched by the rake nor
wounded by the plough, gave everything of its own accord; content people collected ripe
arbuts berries and mountain strawberries and cornel-cherries, these foods created no
one‘s effort (lit. ‗with no one compelling‘ > nullo cogente); and they (collected)
blackberries stuck in unyielding (lit. ‗hard‘) brambles and chestnuts which had fallen
beneath the spreading tree of Jove (i.e., beneath an oak tree).


107.   ver, veris (n): spring
       placidus, -a, -um: gentle, quiet, still
       tepeo, -ere: I am lukewarm, tepid
       aura, -ae (f): air, wind, breath


108.   mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum: I stroke, touch gently
       zephyrus, -i (m): a warm west wind


109.   frux, frugis (f): fruits of the earth, food
       inaratua, -a, -um: unplowed, fallow (> in + aro)


110.   renovatus: renewed, renovated, restored (> renovo, -are)
       caneo, -ere, -ui: I amy hoary; I am white
       arista, -ae (f): the beard on an ear of grain; by metonym. The ear of grain itself
       ager, agri (m): land


111.   lac, lactis (n): milk
                                                                                           19


       nectar, nectaris (n): nectar


112.   virids, -e (adj): green
       stillo, -are: I drip, drip down; I drop
       ilex, ilicis (f): a holm-oak
       mella, -ae (f): mead
107-112: Spring was eternal, gentle winds, with warm breath, continuously caressed
flowers cultivated (lit. ‗born‘) without seed; soon even uncultivated land bore fruit,
renewed (i.e., cultivated) land didn‘t grow hoary with heavy heads of grain, and already
rivers of milk, already rivers of nectar, flowed, and yellow mead dropped from the green
holm-oak.


113.   tenebrosus, -a, -um: dark, gloomy


114.   proles, -is (f): offspring, descendants, posterity
       subeo, -ire, subii/subivi, subitum: I enter, approach
       argenteus, -a, -um: of silver, belonging to the silver age


115.   deterior, deterius (gen: deterioris) (comp. adj.): lower, inferior, pooer, worse
       (sup. = deterrimus, -a, -um)
       pretiosus, -a, -um: costly, precious, of great value


116.   tempus, -oris (n): a division, a section; a portion of time
       contraho = con + traho, lit ‗drag in, drag together‘ here, ‗shorten‘


118.   brevis, -e (adj): short (of space or time)
       spatium, -i (n): space, extent, room; here: ‗periods of time, seasons‘
       exigo, exigere, exegi, exactum: I complete; drive out; demand; examine
       annus, -i (m): a circuit; a circuit of the sun (i.e., a year)
                                                                                              20


113-118: Afterward, with Saturn sent down to gloomy Tartarus, the world was under [the
rule] of Jove, and descendants of the silver age appeared, worse than [people of the] gold
[age] but greater than [people of the] bronze [age]. Juppiter shortened the time of ancient
spring, and through winter, summer, uneven autumn and brief spring, he completed the
year with four seasons [lit. ‗four periods of time].


119.   fervor, -oris (m): boiling or seething heat
       uro, urere, ussi, ustum: I burn


120.   candeo, -ere, -ui: I glow with heat, I shine, I glitter
       ventus, -i (m): wind
       glacies, -ei (f): ice
       adstrictus, -a, -um: tight, compressed, drawn together (> adstringo, -ere, -strinxi,
       strictum: I tighten, compress, contract, draw together)


121.   subiere = syncopated form of subierunt > subeo (see line 114)
       anturm, -i (n) a cave, a hollow tree


122.   frutex, fruticis (m): a shrub or bush
       cortex, -icis (m or f): bark, rind, shell
       virga, ae (f): a green twig, a branch, a stripe of color
       vinco, -ere, vici (not ‗vinxi‘!), victum: I conquer, overcome, defeat, subdue


119-22: For the first time, the air glowed, burned by dry heat [lit. ‗heats‘] and compressed
ice [i.e., snow?] hung on the winds; then for the first time, they [i.e., the people of the
bronze age] entered houses; houses [domos] were caves, dense bushes and chopped [lit.
‗conquered‘] branches [covered] with bark.


123.   sulcus, -i (m): a furrow, trench or ditch; a furrow produced by plowing


124.   obruo, -ruere, - rui, -rutum: I cover, bury; I overwhelm; I obscure
                                                                                               21


       iugum, -i (n): yoke, collar
       gemuere = sychopated for ‗gemuerunt‘ > gemo, -ere, -ui, gemitum: I sigh, groan
       iuvencus, -i (m): a young bullock (substantive > iuvencus, -a, -um: young


125.   succedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum: I come after, succeed; I go under; I go from under,
       ascend, mount
       aeneus, -a, -um: made of copper or bronze; aenea proles: ‗the bronze age‘


126.   ingenium, -i (n): nature; the natural disposition, temperament or character of a
       person or thing


127.   scelero, -are, -avi, -atum: I pollute; I profane with guilt
       ―The final [sc. ‗age‘ or ‗people‘] is made out of hard iron [‗fero‘ is abl. of
       condition out of which; vid. Hale 406.3]


128.   protinus (adv): forward, further, further on
       inrumpo, -ere, inrupi, inruptum: I break in, burst in, rush in
       vena, ae (f): vein; a vein of metal; a watercourse; veins / streaks in wood or stone
       peioris = comp. > malus, -a, -um
       aevus, -i (m) or aevum, -i (n): eternity; life-time; a period of time


129.   nefas (n; indecinable): sin, crime, impiety
       fugere = syncopated form of ‗fugerunt‘ > fugio, -ere, -ui: I flee
       verum: this is a substantive > verus, -a, -um: true, real, genuine. As a substantive
       it can mean ‗the truth,‘ ‗reality,‘ but can also mean ‗right action,‘ ‗duty.‘ In this
       sense, which is how Ovid uses it here, it is the same as ‗veritas.‘


130.   subiere: see line 121.
       ‗in quorum subiere locum…‘ should be treated as ‗in locum quorum subiere…‘


131.   insidiae, -arum (f. pl.): snares, traps; deceptions; ambushes
                                                                                                22


        sceleratus, -a, -um ( > scelero, -are: I pollute, profane): polluted, profaned by
        guilt, wicked
        habendi: gerund and objective genitive. Treat as: ‗amor sceleratus habendi (res).‘
        = ‗wicked love of having (things).‘ (i.e., greed).


[125-131]: Third after that came the bronze age [lit. 'descendent of bronze'], more savage
with respect to temperaments, and quicker to frightful arms, but [the people of the bronze
age were] not profane; that is for the age of unyielding iron [lit. 'the final (age, sc. proles)
is from iron]. Later on, every evil erupted into an eternity of lesser mettle [lit. a baser vein
of metal; also a baser sort of people; i.e., the people of the iron age]: modesty, duty and
trustworthiness fled; in place of these things [quorum] arrived deceit, sadness, deception,
compulsion and the wicked love of having [things; i.e., greed].


132.    velum, -i (n): a sail; velum dare: to give sail, to set sail
        illos: this appears to be masc. pl. acc. > ille, -a, -ud = ‗that.‘ I think it agrees with
        ‗venis.‘


133.    navita = nauta, -ae (m, not f): a sailor
        prius = prior: (comp > primus, -a, -um: first) previous, earlier; prius as adverb:
        previously, earlier, before


134.    insultavere = syncopated > insulto, -are (freq. of insilio): I leap or prance in/on
        carnia, -ae (f): the keel of a ship; by meton., a ship


135.    comunis, -e (adj): shared, common, universal, public (opp. = proprius: individual,
        private)
        ceu (adv): as, like, like as (used in comparisons)
        lumin, -inis (n): light
        aura, -ae (f): air, breath, wind
        sc. ‗omnibus,‘ = ‗once common (to all) like the light of the sun and the winds.‘
                                                                                                 23


       ‗lumina‘ and ‗auras‘ seem to be acc. by association with ‗humum,‘ or else Ovid
       uses the acc. after ‗ceu‘ to indicate by case that ‗lumina‘ and ‗auras‘ are being
       compared to ‗humum.‘


136.   cautus, -a, -um: cautious, wary; guarded, forewarned ( > caveo, -ere, cavi,
       cautum: I am on guard; I beware; I take care for, provide [+ dat])
       humus, -i (f not m): ground, earth, soil; land, country
       singo, -are, -avi, -atum: I put a mark on, inscribe
       mensor, -oris (m): a measurer (oft. of land, i.e., a surveyor); an architect
       limes, -it is (m): a by way, path; a boundary line


137.   tantum: so much; (as adv.) so much, so far; only (tantum is a substantive > tantus,
       -a, -um: of such great size; so big, so great [sometimes used as ‗so small‘])
       seges, segetis (f): a corn field, a crop; a field, ground, soil; (fig). ground, source,
       origin; any thickly packed mass; profit
       alimentum, -i (n): food
       debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum: I owe; I am due (+ infin); I am bound, I ought
       dives, divitis (adj): rich, wealthy


138.   posco, poscere, poposci: I ask earnestly, I request (rem: ‘pop’ the question)
       itus, -us (m): a movement, going; a departure (?? This doesn‘t work in the context
       of the line. Is ‗itum‘ some how derrived from ‗eo‘?)
       viscus, -eris (n): flesh; internal organs (usu. found in pl: viscera, -um)


139.   Stygius, -a, -um: infernal, belonging to the underworld
       admoveo, -ere, -movi, motum: I move to, bring to; I apply; I direct; I devote
       umbra, -ae (f): shade, shadow


140.   effodio, -ere, -fodi, -fossum: I dig out; I excavate
       ops, opis (f): in sing = power (esp. power to aid); in pl (opes, opum): resources,
       wealth, means; as proper noun: Ops: mother of Jupiter
                                                                                               24


       inritamentum, -i (n): an incitment, incentive ( + gen)


141.   nocens > noceo, -ere: I hurt, harm, injure
       prodeo, -ire, -i, -itum: I go forth


142.   utroque (adv): to both sides, in both directions


143.   crepito, -are (freq. of crepo): I creak, rattle, rustle, clatter
       concutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum: I shake violently or together, agitate; I shatter,
       disturb; I impair


144.   vivitur: sc ‗vita‘ before ‗vivitur‘
       raptum > rapio: I take, snatch
       hospes, hospitis (m): a host; a guest or forigner


145.   soccer, soceri (m): a father-in-law
       gener, generi (m): a son in law
       gratia, -ae (f): pleasantness; favour with others, esteem; indulgence toward an
       offender; thankfulness


146.   exitium, -i (n): a going out or away; ruin, destruction
       coniunx, coniugis (c): a spouse, usu. a wife but sometimes a husband
       maritus, -i (m): a husband (substantive > maritus, -a, -um: matrimonial, conjugal)


147.   luridus, -a, -um: pale yellow, ghastly
       aconitum, -i (n): a poisonous herb, aconite, monk‘s hood
       noverca, -ae (f): a step-mother


148:   inquiro, -quirere, -quisivi, -quisitum: I investigate, look into; I look for evidence
       against someone
                                                                                               25


149.   pietas, pietatis (f): dutifulness (pietas toward the gods = ‗piety‘; toward one‘s
       country = ‗patriotism‘; from the gods = ‗compassion‘)
       iacio, iacere, iacui : I lie, recline (don‘t confuse this with iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum
       = I thorw)
       caedes, -is (f): a cutting down, slaughter ( > caedo = I cut down)


150.   caelestis, -e (adj): heavenly, belonging to heaven; as n. pl. substantive: the gods


151.   neve (adv): nor; or not; and not (also seen as neu; cf. seve/seu = whether, or if‘)
       adruus, -a, -um: steep, towering, lofty; difficult, hard to reach


152.   adfectasse: syncopated form of ‗adectavisse‘ the perf. infin > adficio, -ficere,
       -feci, -fectum: I influence, work upon; in pass. I am affected or influenced
       ferunt: can be used to mean ‗they say‘ or in the passive, ‗fertur‘ to mean ‗it is
       said.‘ Both introduce indirect speech.


153.   struxisse: perf. infin. > struo, struere, struxi, structum: I pile up; build, prepare


154.   perfringo, -fringere, -fregi, -fractum: I break through; I shatter
       omnipotens = ‗all powerful‘ rather than ‗all knowing‘


155.   excutio, -cutere, -cussi, -cussum: I shake out; I strike off, knock away, drive out; I
       shake down, examine a person, search
       Pelion and Ossa are the names of mountains that the giants piled on top of
       Olympus in their attempt to reach the gods in heaven. Jupiter struck Olympus
       with his lightning and then knocked Pelion off of Ossa.


[143-155] (Life) was lived from plunder: host was not safe from guest, nor father-in-law
from son-in-law, and favor between brothers [subjective genitive?] was rare; man held the
destruction of wife over her head and she that of her husband, horrible mothers-in-law
mixed pale-yellow monk‘s hood, son searched for evidence against their father‘s old age
                                                                                                           26


before their day [i.e., sons, with no respect for their father‘s old age, searched for evidence to end their
fathers‘ lives before the appointed time]:   defeated dutifulness lay down, and the virgin Astraea,
last of the gods, left behind lands soaking with slaughter. Nor was high heaven safer than
those lands, for the giants intended to take action against the heavenly kingdom, and to
build piled-up mountains to the high stars. Then the all-knowing father shattered
Olympus with the thunderbolt he cast (=misso), and shook Pelion down from cast-down
Ossa.


156.     obruo, -ruere, - rui, -rutum: I cover, bury; I overwhelm; I obscure
         dira, -orum (n): curses, bad omens; substnt. > dirus, -a, -um: fearful, horrible, dire,
         cruel, frightful


157.     perfundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusam: I pour over, steep; I fill
         natorum = ―of her sons‖


158.     immadui (inf. immaduisse) = I have become moist, wet (> immadesco, in +
         madesco)
         cruor, oris (m): blood, gore, esp. the blood from a wound; fig. slaughter, murder
         anama(vi)sse = ―she breathed life into the warm blood…‖


159.     stirps, stirpis (f, sometimes m.): stock; root of a tree or family; foundation; source,
         origin
         monimentum = monumentum
         maneo, -ere, mansi, manum: I stay, remain; + gen: I wait


160.     facies, -ei (f): shape, form, figure; fig. character, nature
         propago, -inis (f): a layer, slip or shoot; offspring, race; posterity
         propago, -are: I spread, propagate; I enlarge, extend
         ‗illa‘ signals a change of subject from Tellus to propago (her offspring)
                                                                                                     27


161.     contemprtix, -ricis (f): one who despises or is contemptuous (masc = contemptor,
         -oris).
         avidus, -a, -um: vehemently desiring, longing for (often with gen. object)


162:     scires = 2 sing, impf. act. subj. > scio


[156-162]: Since (taking ‗cum‘ + subjunctive as causal, though I‘m not sure this is
correct) their bodies lay covered by their own structure, the Earth, they say
(=‗ferunt‘)grew wet, soaked over with so much blood of her offspring, and she breathed
life into the warm blood, and, lest no monument of her children should remain, she turned
it into the likeness of people; but these offspring too were contemptuous of the gods
above, they longed for savage slaughter and were violent: you know they were born from
blood.


163.     Saturnius, -a, -um: Saturnian, descended from Saturn
         ingem, -ere: I sigh, groan over


164.     vulgata > vulgo, -are: I make common, generally accessible, publish
         recens, recentis (abl. sing. = recenti): new, fresh, recent, young


165.     foedus, -a, -um: foul, horrible, filthy (NB: This is not the same as foedus, -eris [n]:
         treaty, agreement; league)
         Lycanonius, -a, -um: sprung from Laycaon, i.e., Callisto; adjectival form of
         Laocon, -onis (m): King of Arcadia, father of Callisto; he was turned into a wolf
         by Jupiter.
         convivium, -i (n): a feast, banquet, entertainment


166.     ingens, ingentis: vast, huge, monstrous
         dignus, -a, -um: worthy, deserving (of people); becoming, fitting, suitable,
         deserved (of things). (NB: dignus and indignus usually take abl., e.g., ‗dignas Iove‘ = ‗worthy
         of Jupiter.‘ Vid. Hale, p. 232, sec. 442 ).
                                                                                               28


        concipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum: I take together, hold together; I take in, absorb,
        begin to feel, conceive; grasp by the senses


167.    vocatos > voco, -are, -avi, -atum: I summon, call. Here, vocatos = ‗those (gods)
        having been called.‘


These things, the Saturnian father (i.e., Jupiter) saw from his high citadel, and he
groaned, recalling (referens) the foul banquet of the Lycaonian table, not yet widely
known (lit. having been published widely = ‗vulgata‘) as it was (too) recently done (facto
recenti = abl. cause), he felt in his mind a terrible anger (lit. angers), worthy of Jupiter
(abl. with ‗dignas‘): no delay held those summoned (i.e., the gods he called to his
consilium didn‘t hesitate to respond).


168.    sublimis, -e: high, lofty, elevated; lifted up
        serenus, -a, -um: clear, bright, fair, serene


169.    lacteus, -a, -um: milky, milky-white; of or relating to milk
        candor, -oris (m): dazzling white color
        notabilis, -e: notable, remarkable, striking


170.    hac (adv): this way, i.e., along this path (?)
        iter, iternis is NEUTER not feminine.
        superis: dat. of reference, ‗for those above,‘ ie, ‗for the gods‘
        tectum, -i (n): roof, covering; house, temple (substant. > tego, -ere, -texi, tectum: I
        cover; I conceal; I bury)


171.    domus, –us (f, not m): house
        laevus, -a, -um: left, left-hand; left-handed, foolish


172.    atrium, -i (n): the hall or entrance of a Roman house
        valvae, -arum (f): folding doors
                                                                                                 29


       clebro, -are, -avi, -atum: I visit frequently; I fill; I celebrate (a festival), honor,
       sing the praises of someone/thing


173.   plebs, plebes (f): the common people; the lesser gods
       habito, -are (freq. of habeo): I inhabit (transitive); I dwell (intransitive)
       locis: abl. of respect = ‗in separate place,‘ (i.e., diverse with respect to location; >
       locus,-i, m); modifying ‗plebs‘.


174.   caelicola, -ae (adj): heaven-dwelling; as substantive: gods
       carus, -i (m): famous, noble; the title applied to Roman noblemen
       posuere: truncated form of posuerunt > pono, ponere, posui, positum


175.   audacia, -ae (f): courage, daring (used approvingly); audacity, impudence (used
       reprovingly)
       detur: 3rd sing. perf. pass. ind. > do, dare, dedi, datum


176.   timeam: future less vivid


[168-176] The road is high, clearly visible in the peaceful sky; it has the name ‗milky,‘
remarkable in its own whiteness. For those above, this journey, along this path (= ‗hac‘),
is to the house and royal home of the great Thunderer: on the right and left of the gods,
the atria of the noble gods were filled, with the folding doors standing open. The lesser
gods live in other places (lit: the lesser gods dwell dispersed with respect to place): in this
area (i.e., the path followed by those gods going to Jupiter) the powerful and noble gods
place their household gods; this is the place which, if courage is given to my words, I
would hardly fear to call the Palatine of great heaven.


177.   sedere = truncated form of sederunt
       marmor, -oris (n): marble
       recessus, -us (m): a retreat, a going back; a place of retreat, a quiet place
                                                                                                  30


178.   celsus, -a, -um: upraised, high, lofty; eminent (referring to rank); haughty
       (referring to personality or disposition)
       innitor, inniti, innixus sum: I lean upon, rest upon, support my self
       eburn(e)us, -a, -um: ivory, made of ivory


179.   caput, capitis (n): head; life; the head or leader of a group; summit
       concutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum: I shake together; I violently agitate


180.   caesaries, -ei (f): hair, a head of hair


181.   talis, -e: of such a kind, such (abl. way or manner, Hale 445)
       inde (adv). thence, there upon, from there
       indignantia: participle >indignor, -are, -atus: I consider unworthy, am offended


182.   anxius, -a, -um: anxious, uneasy


183.   tempestas, -atis (f): a period of time, season; weather, esp. bad weather, a storm
       quisque, quaeque, quidque (also quicquid): each, every, everyone, everything
       ‗centum‘ modifies ‗bracchia‘; ‗qua‘ is an adv. = ‗when‘


184.   inicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum: I throw in or into; I cast, put into; I throw or cast over
       anguipes, -pedis (?): snake-footed. Ovid invented this word, which appears only
       here in all of Latin literature.




[177-184] So, when those above sat in the marble meeting room, (Jupiter) himself, in a
higher place (i.e., on a dais or raised chair so he is clearly above the other gods), and
leaned upon his ivory staff, he shook his terrible, long-locked head, three and four times,
with which he moves land, sea and stars. He moved his indignant lips [i.e., he spoke] in
this way: ―I have not been more worried for the kingdom of the world (even) during the
time, when everyone of the snake-footed (giants? titans?) prepared to throw his hundred
                                                                                            31


arms to the captive sky [i.e., around the captive sky?]. For although the enemy was
savage, that war, however, hung originated from one body and from a single source.




185.   quamquam (adv): although, though; nevertheless (when first word in a sentence)
       ferus, -a, -um: wild, untamed, savage, rough; uncultivated


186.   pendeo, -ere, pependi: I hang, suspend; I originate from (‗pendeo‘ is not the same
       as ‗pendo‘)


187.   qua (adv): whereby, in which way; where, on which side
       Nereus, -eois (or –ei) (m): a sea god, son of Oceanus and Tethys; father, by
       Doris, of the Nereids.
       circumsono, -sonare, -sonui: I sound all around, I cause to resound; I echo
       mihi: dat. of reference (?), i.e., ‗it is a concern to me that…‘
       qua (adv) = where, as far as


188.   genus, -eris (n not m): race, stock; birth, descent, origin; kind, variety, sort
       iuro, -are, -avi, -atum: I swear, take an oath
       flumen, -inis is neuter


189.   infer, -a, -um (same as inferus, -a, -um): low, below; as subst. the underworld
       lucus, -i (n): a wood, grove, a sacred grove
188-9. ‗labentia‘ seems to agree with ‗flumina,‘ as in ―I swear by the infernal waters
       beneath the earth that glide by the Stygian grove.‖


190.   sc. ‗sunt‘ before the gerundive.


191.   ense = abl. sing. of ensis, ensis (m) = sword; here, knife, scalpel
       recido, -ere, -di, recisum: I cut back, cut off. (NB: This verb has a long ‗i,‘ unlike
       recido, -ere, -cidi, -asum: I fall back, recoil, fall, descend.)
                                                                                          32


       sincerus, -a, -um: whole; genuine; clear, pure; earnest, sound, honest


But that which is untreatable must be cut off [sc. ‗est‘ before ‗ricidendum‘ for a
gerundive of obligation] with the blade of treatment [ense curae], the whole part be
infected [lit. ‗dragged‘ down, > ‗trahatur‘].


192.   numen, -inis (n): divine will or power; a god
       monticula, -ae (m, not f): highlander (Ovid created this word)
       Silvanus, -i (m): a god of the uncultivated lands


194.   quoniam (conj): since, seeing that
       honor, -oris (m): honor, esteem
       certe (adv): of course, assuredly; at least


195.   ‗quas‘ refers to ‗terras‘


196.   an: or, perhaps; surely not
       credo, -ere, credi, creditum: I trust, belive, think, suppose, have faith in


198.   insidiae, -arum (f. pl.): ambushes, snares, traps
       feritas, -ae (f): wildness, savagery


Since we do not yet dignify those (lesser gods) with the honour of the sky, at least (certe)
let us permit them to live on the lands which we gave (to man?). Surely it is not enough,
O Gods, to think [‗credite fore‘?] them safe, when Lycaon, known for his savagery, built
traps for me, who holds the thunderbolt and rules you.


199.   confremo, -ere, -ui: I murmur aloud
       studium, -i (n): enthusiasm; affection; partisanship; study, literary work
       ausum, -i (n): enterprise
                                                                                                    33


200.   deposco, -scere, - posci: I demand (legal term demanding someone be punished)
       talia > talis, -e: of such a kind. ‗Talia‘ functions as a direct object of ‗ausum‘:
       ―demanded an enterprise of such sorts.‖
       saevio, -ire, -ii, -itum: I rage, rave


202.   attonitus, -a, -um: thunderstruck, terrified, astonished; inspired
       tantus, -a, -um: such, so great/so little


203.   genus is neuter
       perhorresco, -escere, -ui: I shiver, tremble; I am horrified at


204.   gratus, -a, -um: pleasing, welcome, dear, thankful; deserving thanks
       minus (adv): less
206.   murmur, -is (n): hum; rumbling, roar
       con(com)primo, -primere, -pressi, -pressum: I squeeze; I check, restrain, I
       suppress, with hold
       ‗qui‘ refers to Jupiter, who restrains the murmuring of the gods with his voice and
       hand.


207.   subsisto, -istere, -titi: I stand still, halt, remain; I hold out; I resist (+ dat) (these
       are all intransitive meanings); I lie in wait for (this is the transitive meaning)


209.   quidem (adv): in fact (emphatic); at any rate (qualifying); it is true (concessive);
       for instance (alluding)
       poena, -ae (f): penalty, punishment


210.   vindicta, -ae (f): punishment, revenge; the rod used in manumitting a slave;
       defense, deliverance
       admissim, -i (n): crime
                                                                                             34


211.   contingo, -ingere, -contigi, contactum: I touch, hold; I partake of; be near, border
       on; reach, come to; touch on, affect, concern
       aures: ‗ears‘; ‗aurum‘ is gold


212.   dlabor, -labi, lapsus sum: I fall down, fly down, sink
       ‗quam‘ refers to ‗falsam‘ in 211


213.   humanus, -a, -um: human, humane, kind; cultured, refined, well educated
       lustro, -are: I scan, survey, review ; I purify; I traverse
       lustrum, -i (n): a purificatory sacrifice held every 5 years; also a den, lair, brothel


214.   nox, noxae (f): a hurt, harm, offence; guilt; punishment
       quantum (adv): how much, as much as
       ubique (adv): anywhere, everywhere
       reperio, -ire, repperi, repertum: I find (out), discover; I get; I devise, invent


216.   Latebra, -ae (f, usually in pl.): a hiding place, lair; subterfuge, loophole
       ferus, -a, -um: wild, savage, rough; uncultivated


217.   gelidus, -a, -um: icy, cold, frosty
       pinetum, -i (n): pinewood, pine forest


218.   hinc (adv): from here, hence; from this cause
       sedes, -is (f): a seat, chair, throne; home, abode; temple; grave


219.   sera, -ae (f): a bolt for fastening a door (short ‗e‘)
       serus, -a, -um: late (long ‗e‘)
       crepusculum, -i (n): twilight


222.   experior, experiri, expertus sum: I try, test, prove, put to the test; I know from
       experience
                                                                                                       35


       discrimin, -inis (n): that which divides, a dividing line; an interval; a distinction,
       difference; a turning point, critical moment; a crisis, danger
       apertus, -a, -um: open, uncovered, clear (related to ‗aperto, -are‘ = ‗I lay bare,‘
       used by Pliny)


222-3. sc. ‗experiar utrum [adv. = ‗whether‘] deus sit hic … an sit mortalis‘ But why are
       ‗deus‘ and ‗mortalis‘ nominative? Shouldn‘t they be accusative subjects after
       ‗experiar‘?


223.   mortalis, -is (m): a mortal man (substantive > mortalis, -e: mortal, subject to
       death)
       dubitabilis, -e: doubtful, uncertain (appears for the first time here in Ovid)


224.   gravis, -e: heavy, weighty
       necopinus, -a, -um: unexpected, not expecting
       What do ‗necopina‘ and ‗morte‘ agree with? Are the abl. attendant circumstances,
       i.e.: ‗he prepared to destroy me, heavy with sleep, in a night not expecting
       death.‘?


225.   comparo, -are: I prepare, get ready; I arrange, settle; I provide, furnish; also: I
       couple, form into pairs
       (paro, -are: I set, put; I prepare, make ready; provide, furnish)
       [‘comparat’: thelatinlibrary.com (from where the text I’m using came) begins line 225 with
       ‘comparat’. However, the text provided by William S. Anderson (whose commentary I’m
       using) says line 225 begins with ‘me parat.’ Prefer the ‘me parat’ reading, since ‘gravem’ has

       to agree with something, and the latinlibrary.com version has nothing for it to agree with ].

       experientia, -ae (f): a trial, testing; knowledge gained by experience


226.   obses, obsidis (c.): a hostage; a surety, security or pledge


227.   mucro, -onis (m): a sharp point or edge; a sword‘s point or edge; sharpness; the
       edge of a piece of land, boundary
                                                                                                            36


       iugulum, -i (n): the throat
       resolvo, -ere, -solvi, -solutum: I unbind, untie, loosen, open; here: ‗cut‘ or ‗slit‘


228.   seminex, seminecis (not found in nom.) half dead
       partim (adv > pars, parties (f)): partly
       artus, -us (m): the joints or limbs


229.   mollio, -ire: I make pliable, soft
       torero, -ere, -ui, tostum: I burn, parch, dry up with heat or thirst
       ignis, -is (m): fire (abl. of means/instrument) [NB: 3rd declension i-stem nouns
       originally took an ‘i’ in the abl. sing., but this ending has been replaced in some words with

       ‘e.’ Ignis, -is is found with both ‘e’ and ‘i’ in the abl. sing. See Hale 88.2 or Bennet 37 & 38 ].



230.   inpono (impono), -ere, -posui, -positum: I put, set lay or place in; I put, set, lay or
       place upon; I impose a burden or duty upon
       vindex, -icis (c.): a protector, a claimant; an avenger, punisher


231.   the word order is mixed up to save ‗penates‘ for the final place in the sentence. It
       could be re-ordered this way: ‗vindice flamma, ego everti tecta in penates, (sc. qui
       fuerant) dignos domino.‘ I.E., with my avenging flame (i.e., his lightning bolt), I
       brought down the house upon his household gods, (who were) worthy of such a
       master. [Rem: dignus and indignus usually take abl. object, e.g., ‘dignas Iove’ =   ‘worthy of Jupiter.’

       (Met. 166) Vid. Hale, p. 232, sec. 442]



232    nactus > nanciscor, -i, nactus (also ‗nanctus‘): I obtain, get; I come upon, find
       silentium, -i (n): silence, quiet, stillness
       rus, ruris (n): countryside; a farm, estate


233.   exululo, -are: I howl out or loudly (intransitive); I invoke with cries (transitive)
       frustra (adv): in vain, without effect; for no reason
       conor, -are, -atus: I attempt, try, undertake, endeavour, strive
                                                                                               37




234.   colligo, -ere, collegi, collectum: I gather together, collect, bring together; I tie,
       bind, fasten together; I detain, hinder, stop
       rabies,-ei (f): madness, rage, fury
       solitus, -a, -um: accustomed, habitual, usual (> soleo, -ere, solitus sum: I am
       accustomed, used to)


235.   veritur > verto, -ere, versi, versum: I turn
       pecus, -udis (f): a beast, animal; a cow or sheep
       gaudeo, -ere, gavisus sum: I rejoice, am glad


236.   villus, -i (m): shaggy hair
       abeo, -ire, -ii, -itum: I go away; I change
       vesis, -is (f): a covering, garment; clothing
       crus, cruris (n): the shin, shin-bone, leg; the supports of a bridge
       lacertus, -i (m): the upper arm, the bicep


237.   ‗fit‘ > fio = I become
       servo, -are: I watch over, observe; I keep, retain, preserve


238.   canities (f): a whiteish-grey color, esp. of the hair (acc. = canitiem; abl. = canitie;
       no gen. or dat.)
       violentia, -ar (f): violence, vehemence, impetuosity


240.   unus, -a, -um: ‗one‘ but also ‗only one,‘ ‗just one‘ or ‗one alone‘ [‗one house fell,
       but not one house alone was worthy to perish‘]
       pereo, perire, peri(v)i, peritum: I die, am lost, wasted; I perish


241.   qua (adv): where; by which way, on which side
       pateo, -ere: I lie open; I am exposed; I spread, extend
       ferus, -a, -um: wild, untamed, savage, rough; uncultivated
                                                                                                       38


       regno, -are: I rule, have sway, mastery
       Erinys, -yos (f): a fury; a scourge, curse


242.   facinus, -orus (n): a deed, action; a crime, wicked deed
       iurasse: truncated perf. infin > iuravisse > iuro, -are, -avi, -atum: I swear; I swear
       allegiance to (w/ in + acc; ‗iurasse in facinus‘ = to swear allegiance to
       wickedness)
       sc. ‗omnes‘ or ‗omnes viri‘ before the infinitive.
       dent: jussive subjunctive > do, dare, dedi, datum
       ocius (adv): swiftly, more swiftly


243.   meruere: truncated form of meruerunt > mereo, -ere, -ui, -itum: I deserve, earn,
       obtain
       sententia, -ae (f): a way of thinking, thought, opinion


244. pars, parties (f): some; the singular noun sometimes appears with a plural verb
       meaning ‗some.‘
       probo, -are: I approve; I recommend as good; I show, prove, demonstrate
       stimulus, -i (m): a goad used for driving cattle or slaves; a stimulus, incentive; a
       pointed stake used to halt the advance of enemy troops
       fremo, -ere, -ui, itum: I roar; I murmur; I growl


245.   adicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum: I throw to; I add; I outbid at auction
       adsensus, -us (m): assent, agreement; echo
       inpleo (impleo), -ere, -plevi, -pletum: I fill in, fill up, fill to full; I fulfill; I play a
       part


246.   iactura, -ae (f): loss, sacrifice




247.   omnibus = dat. of possession?
                                                                                             39


       dolori = dat. by attraction to ‗omnibus‘? i.e.: ‗the loss of the human rase is,
       however, to everyone a grief.‘ Vid. Bennett 190. (Normally, I think ‗dolori‘
       would be nom. ‗dolor‘ i.e., ‗iactura humani generis est dolor omnibus‘).
       ‗omnibus‘ would be, I think, a dative of reference, rather than an indirect object,
       as the loss of the human race is a concern to all the gods.
       terrae = dat. of possession.
       orba, ae (f): orphan
       mortalibus = abl. of separation. (Verbs and adj. of lacking, depriving and freeing
       take abl. seperation. Vid. Bennett 214.) I.e., ‗They ask what future form shall
       there be to the earth, an orphan from mortals.‘


248.   forma, ae (f): shape, figure, form
       laturus = future active participle > fero
       ara, -ae (f): an altar; a hearth; hearth, home
       ‗rogant‘ and ‗sit laturus‘ are subjunctive because indirect questions take
       subjunctive verbs, not acc. + infin. See Bennett 315.


249.   tus, turis (n): incense, frankincense
       freisne = dat. or abl. > ferus, -a, -um = wild?
       populo, -are: I destroy, devastate, lay to waste
       trado, -ere, -didi, -ditum: I hand over, give up, surrender


250.   talis, -e: of such a kind
       fore = future infinitive > sum (irreg. form)
       sibi = dat. of reference (―the rest of the cures to be a care to himself‖?)


251.   trepido, -are: I am busy; I am anxious; I bustle about
       veto, -are, vetui, vetitum: I forbid
       suboles, -is (f): offspring, race; a shoot, sprout
                                                                                             40


       prior, prius: former, first (gen. = prioris) dat. separation (?) dat with a compund
       adj derived from a compound verb? i.e., ‗and he promised offspring from a
       miraculous origin (abl source), different from the earlier population.‘


252.   promitto, -mittere, -misi, -misum: I promise; I send forward; I let grow
       mirus, -a, -um: wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary


253.   sparsus erat: future active participle with sum = ‗…was about to…‘
       sparsus > spargo, -ere, sparsi, sparsum: I sprinkle, scatter, divide


254.   fortis, -e: strong, powerful; as adverb: strongly, bravely
       sacer, sacra, sacrum: holy, sacred
       tot (indcl. num. adj.): so many
       aether, -eris (n; acc. = aethera) the upper air


255.   axis, -is (m): the axis of the earth, which extends to heaven; by metonym. the
       heavens
       concipio, -ere, -cepi, ceptum: of fire: to catch; of fluids or air: to suck or draw in;
       more generally, I take in completely, absorb; also: I take or hold together; I grasp
       by the senses, conceive.
       ardesco, -ere: I take fire; become inflamed; blaze up.


256.   fatum, -i (n): fate, destiny; the will of the a god, divine utterance
       reminiscor, -i, --: I call to mind, recollect
       adfore (= adesse?): to be present, i.e., ―there would be a time‖


257.   corripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum: I seize violently, lay hold of, take up
       regius, -a, -um: royal, regal, kingly; as substantive: regium, -i (n): royal dwelling,
       place; the royal family


258.   obsido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I blockade, besiege
                                                                                         41


       moles, -is (f): a shapeless mass; a massive structire


259.   telum, -i (n): a missile, spear; a weapon; lightning (when used of Jupiter)


260.   poena, -ae (f): punishment, penalty; a fine
       diversus, -a, -um: different; opposed, hostile; turned away
       sc. ‗ei‘ after ‗placet,‘ i.e., ‗a different punishment is pleasing to him.‘


261.   nimbus, -i (m): a cloud, esp. a dark rain cloud; a violent thunder storm
       ‗ex omni caelo‘ = ‗from every sky‘ or in English, ‗from every part of the sky‘


262.   protinus (adv): further on, forward; continuously; immediately
       Aeolius, -a, -um: of or descended from Aeolus, ruler of the winds
       Aquilo, Aquilonis (m): the North Wind


263.   flamen, -inis (n): a blast (of wind, of a trumpet, etc).
       induco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum: I cover, spread over; I bring in, lead in/on
       fugo, -are: I put to flight, chase away; I dismiss, avert
       ―Whatever blasts (of wind) scatter the gathering (inductas) clouds are put to flight
       with the north wind.‖


264.   Notus, -i (m): the South Wind
       madidus, -a, -um: wet, moist
       alis > ala, -ae (f): wing
       evolat > evolo, -are: I fly out, forth


265.   piceus, -a, -um: pitch; pitch black
       picea, -ae (f): spruce-fir tree
       tectus, -a, -um: covered, concealed (> tecto: I cover)
       caligo, -inis (f): fog, vapour, mist
       tectus: a middle, taking ‗vultum terribilem‘ as its object.
                                                                                             42




266.   barba, -ae (f): beard
       nimbus, -i (m): a cloud
       gravis is nom (gravis, -e), not abl. Don‘t let the endings confuse you!
       fluo, -ere, fluxi, fluxum: I flow. But what is ‗fluctum‘?


267.   frons, frontis (f) forehead, brow
       roro, -are: I casue dew, I drip; I am moist; I bedew; I water or let fall in drops
       penna, -ae (f): a feather, wings (in pl); flight
       sinus, –us (m): a fold or bend; clothes (in pl).


268.   latus, -a, -um: wide, broad, extensive; of people: proud, haughty
       nubilus, -a, -um: cloud-covered, overcast; as substantive: cloudy weather (sing) or
       clouds (pl, nubila, -orum).
       ‗manus‘ is fem. sing. agreeing with ‗lata‘ which can only be abl. because its final
       ‗a‘ is long.


269.   fit > fio, present passive of facio. Here, ―a crash is made…‖
       fragor, -oris (m): a breaking, noise of breaking; a crack, crash
       hinc (adv): thence, there; thereupon


270.   nuntia, -ae (f) or nuntius, -i (m): a messenger
       varius, -a, -um: manifold, diversified; various, changeable, diverse, fickle


271.   concipio: I take or hold together; I express in a certain form; I take in completely,
       absorb; I draw or suck in (this is how it is used here); of fire=to catch; I conceive;
       I take, gain
       alimentum, -i (n): food; fuel; maintenance


272.   sterno, -ere, stravi, stratum: I stretch or spread out; I lie down; I cast or throw
       down violently, I strike to the ground, overthrow
                                                                                             43


       deploro, -are: (intrans) I weep bitterly, lament; I give up, regard as lost
       coloni: gen. sing, but some mss have ‗colonis‘ dat. pl. here.


273.   perit > pereo
       inritus, -a, -um: void, invalid; vain, ineffectual, useless; without doing anything


275.   caerulus, -a, -um: blue (often of eyes, ocean or sky)
       auxilias, -e: helping, assisting
       iuvo = help, not ―order (iubeo)‖


276.   amnis, -is (m): a river or stream
       qui referring to the amnes entering the house of their master (tyranny …sui)


277.   intravere = interaverunt > intro, -are:I go into, enter
       hortamen, -inis (n): an encouragement, exhortation


278.   utor, -i, usus sum: I use, make use of, employ (often w/ abl.; see Ben. 218—this is
       abl. means); I am in possession of; I enjoy; I associate or am intimate with; (of
       persons): I find
       ―a long exhortation is not to be used now…‖ or ―now is not the time for a long
       exhortation…‖
       vires = strength, not men


279.   mole remota = abl abslte? ―with the dam removed, let loose every reign to your
       waves…‖ or ―with obstacles to your waves removed, let loose every reign‖


280.   inmitto, -ere, -misi, missum: I send in, let loose; I set or launch against
       habena, -ae (f): that by which anything is held; a strap, bridle or reigns; w/ ‗dare‘
       or ‗fundere‘ = to give reign to; to loosen from the reign
                                                                                             44


281.   redeo, -ire, redidi, reditum: I go back; I come back, return; I come back to
       something; I reduce to
       relaxo, -are: I loosen, widen, relax; I ease, lighten
       fons, fontis (m): fountain, not frons = forehead


282.   defrenatus, -a, -um: unbridled, unrestrained (abl. place where w/out preposition,
       Ben. 228d)
       aequor, -oris (n): any flat, level surface such as a lake or a field; a plain
       volvunter = the fountains are unrolled, not the (demi)gods Nepture has just
       spoken to.
284.   intremo, -ere: I quake, shake
       patefacio, -facere, -feci, -factum: I open; I throw or lay open; I make accessible; I
       reveal, bring to light (in pass: pateifo, -fieri, -factus sum)
       motu: abl means: ―by (means of) this motion, he spread out a road of water


285.   exspatior, -ari: I deviate from a course; I digress
286.   arbustum –i (n): a plantation, vineyard; trees (in poetry)
       pecudes = ? Flocks?
       sata, satorum: crops (substant. > sero, -ere, sevi, satum: I sow, plant) Abl.
       accompaniment (Ben. 222)


287.   penetralis, -e: passing through, penetrating; as subst. penetrale, -is (n): inner
       chamber; interior; innermost shrine of a temple
       sacris> sacrum, -i (n): holy thing; holy place; as adj. sacer, sacra, sacrum: holy,
       sacred, consecrated


289.   indeiectus, -a, -um: not thrown down
       culmen, -inis (n): an upright thing, stalk; the top, summit; the ridge of a roof


290.   lateo, -ere, -ui: I lie hid, concealed; I am sheltere; I am unknown
       gurges, -itis (m): a whirlpool, eddy; troubled water; a flood
                                                                                           45


       tego, -ere, texi, tectum: I cover


291.   discrimin, -inis (n): that which divides; a dividing line, border; turning pint;
       danger


292.   erat: sing. verb by attraction to ‗pontus‘ but ‗omnia‘ is the subject of the sentence.
       Some mss. have a plural verb here
       derant > desum: I fail; I am lacking, wanting; I am down


293.   cumba, -ae (f): a small boat


294.   remus, -i (m): an oar
       illic, illaec, illuc: that there (ille + ce)
       nuper (adv): recently, not long ago
       aro, -are: I plough. Here it is imperfect; some mss. have ‗ararat‘ = ‗araverunt‘
       perfect


295.   mergo, -ere, mersi, mersum: I dip, plunge, immerse; I sink
       deprendo, -ere, deprendi: I seize upon, catch hold of; I detect, catch; I observe
       ulmus, -i (f): elm tree


296.   deprendo, -ender, -endi, -ensum: I seize upon, catch hold of.
       ulmus, -i (f): elm tree


297.   figo, figere, fixi, fixtum: I fix, fasten, secure, attach
       viridis, -e: green; trees, herbs (presumably this is a substansive)
       fors, forte (no gen. acc. or dat. forms) (f): chance, luck
       ancora, -ae (f): an anchor; w/ tollere = to weigh anchor; w/ figere or pangere = to
       cast anchor
       pratum, -i (n): a meadow
                                                                                         46


298.   tero, -ere, trivi, tritum: I rub, wear away
       vinetum, -i (n): a vineyard
       carina, -ae (f): the keel of a ship


299.   gramen, -inis (n): grass, turf


300.   deformis, -e: deformed, misshapen, ugly
       pono, -ere, posui, positum: I set down, place; I lay down, rest
       phoca, -ae (f): seal
       corpus, -oris (n) takes ‗a‘ in the plural, despite the ‗us‘ ending in the sing.


301.   lucus, -i (m): a sacred grove or wood


302.   Nereis, -idis (f): a daughter of the sea god Nereus
       delphinus, -i (m) or delphin, -inis (m): dolphin


303.   incurso, -are (freq. of incurro): I run against, strike, attack, assault
       ramus, -i (m): a branch, bough, twig
       robur, -oris (n): hardwood, esp. oak.
       agito, -are (freq. of ago): I put in constant motion; I vex, agitate


304.   nat > no, nare, navi: I swim
       veho, -ere, vexi, vectum: I carry, convey


305.   ape, apri (m): a wild boar
       sc. prosunt (from 306) as the verb for 305


306.   crura > crus, cruris (n): leg, shin bone
       ablato > abfero: I carry away
       prosum, prodesse, profui: I am useful; I do good, benefit
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       cervus, -i (m): a stag, deer (a male deer as opposed to ‗cerva‘ being a female
       deer?)


307.   sisto, sistere, stiti, statum: I (cause to) stand; I set in place; I place myself, stand
       myself; I stand firm
       quaesitis … teris = abl. abslt.? ―With land having been sought for a long time…‖


308.   lasso, -are: I make weary, tire out, exhaust
       volucris, volucris (gender not given): bird (a substantive > volucer, volucris,
       volucre: flying, winged)
       vagus, -a, -um: wandering, roaming
       decedo, -ere, decessi, decessum: I move away, withdraw, retire


309.   obruo, -ere, obrui, obrutum: I cover over, bury; I fall, collapse; I swamp, drown
       licentia, -ae (f): freedom, leave, liberty; dissolutness, licentiousness


310.   montanus, -a, -um: of a mountain, found on a mountain
       cacumen, -inis (n): extreme point, tip, zenith, top


311.   parco, parcere, peperci, parsum: I spare (+dat)


312.   domo, -are, domui, domitum: I tame, break in; I conquer, subdue
       inops, inopis: helpless, without means
       ieiunium, -i (n): a fast, abstinence from food; hunger
       victos, -us (m): living; nourishment, food; a way of life
       ‗a long hunger from lack of food (inopi victu) subdued those (illos) whom
       (quibus, dat w/ a form of ‗parco‘) the water spared.‘


313.   arvus, -a, -um: ploughed, cultivated


314.   ferax, feracis: fruitful, fertile, prolific
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       sc. ‗fit‘ after ‗illo‘ = ―but in that time, (it became) part of the sea and the wide
       expanse of sudden waters.‖


316.   vertex, vertices (m): that which turns, a whirl; a whirlwind or eddy of water; the
       crown of the head; the summit of anything (by extension from the crown of the
       head, which can be called ‗vertex‘ because of the whirl of hair growing there).


317.   supero, -are: I go above, overtop, project; I rise above, surmount; I exceed,
       surpass, excel; I overcome, conquor

319.   torus, -i (m): any swelling or proturberance; a muscle; a couch or bed; a mound of
       earth (this doesn‘t seem to work here. Could ‗tori‘ be dat, going with the
       compound verb? Could it be an i-stem abl?)
       vectus > veho, -ere, vexi, vectum: I carry, convey
       adhaeresco, -haerescere, -haesi, -haesum: I hang to, adhere; transfig.: I cling to,
       remain


320.   adoror, -are (ad+oro): I speak to, address a god; honor, worship
       Corycides nympae: nymphs of the Corycian caves on Mt. Parnassus


321.   fatidicam (fatum + dico): fate-uttering, prophetic
       Themis: goddess of justice who occupied Delphi before Apollo
       oracla = oracular. the ‗u‘ is dropped through syncope to fit the meter. Oraculum
       could be either the divine utterance (i.e., prophecy) or the place where an oracle is
       given.


233/4. The comparatives are taken from the participial stem, which is rare. Both take an
       objective genitive.


324.   palus, -udis (f): a swamp, bog, marsh


325.   supersum: I am left; I remain
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       milibus > milia, -ium: thousands, countless, innumerable (substantive)


327.   innocuuls, -a, -um: harmless; safe; innocent, blameless
       abo, -ae, -o: both, two together. This is a dual. ‗Duo‘ can be m. or n. nom, or m. or
       n. acc. However, the m. acc. also appears as ‗duos.‘ See Ben. 80.2.
       cultor, -oris (m): cultivator, farmer; laborer
       numinis > numen, -inis (n): a god


328.   nubilus, -a, -um: cloud covered, overcast
       disicio, -ere, disieci, disiectum: I throw in different directions, cast asunder; I ruin,
       disperse, break up
       nimbus, -i (m): cloud


329.   ostendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentum/-tensum: I hold out, show, display
       ‗aethera‘ is m. acc. sing. > aether, -eris (m): upper air


331.   rector, -oris (m): ruler, governor, director, guide ( > rego/rectum)
       pelagus, -i (n, not m): the open sea
       profundus, -a, -um: deep; profound; high; boundless; as subst. the sea; an abyss;
       depth


332.   extantem: pres. act. ptcpl. > exto: I stand out; I project
       murex, -icis (m): a shell fish that gave purple dye; the shell blown by Triton
       umerus, -i (m): the upper arm
       umeros…tectum: a passive particple used in the middle, taking a direct object


333.   Tritona is accusative
       ‗caerulem‘ goes with ‗profundum‘ from 331. It can‘t go with ‗Tritona‘ because
       the ending of ‗caerulum‘ is neuter, not masculine like ‗Tritona.‘
       sonanti = ‗echoing‘
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334.   inspiro, -are: I breathe upon, blow upon ( + dat)
       fluctus, -us (m): waves, billows
       flumen, -inis (n): stream
       both ‗fluctus‘ and ‗flumen‘ > ‗fluo‘ therefore signify ‗a flowing‘ but each
       indicates a different kind of flowing.


335.   cavus, -a, -um: hollow, concave
       bucina, -ae (f): a crooked trumpet, often a military trumpet; here: Triton‘s horn
       illi: dat. of agent. Normally an abl. of agent would be used, but Ovid excercises
       poetic licence here.


336.   tortilis, -e: twisted, twined
       lauts, -a, -um: wide, broad. ‗in latum … crescit‘ = ‗grows wide/borad‘
       turbo, -inis (m): a circular movement; an eddy; a whirl; a child‘s toy; a reel or
       spindle
       imus, -a, -um: superl. > inferus, -a, -um: below, lower
       ‗…which grows twisted in width from a lower whirl‘ (?)


337.   concipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum ( > cum capio): I take together, hold together; I take
       completely, take in, absorb; I receive, take in, grasp by the senses; conceive, feel
       aera = acc. > aer, aeris (m): the lower air, the air around us


338.   repleo, -ere, -plevi, -pletum: I fill again; I fill up; I make full; I satisfy
       utroque (adv): to both sides, in both directions; both ways; at each point
       sub utroque…Phoebo = ‗in the east and west‘; lit: ‗beneath Apollo (i.e., the sun)
       in both directions
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