Docstoc

IRREGULAR MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN MIGRANTS

Document Sample
IRREGULAR MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING IN MIGRANTS Powered By Docstoc
					        aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana


                                  saqarTvelo




                    migraciis saerTaSoriso organizaciis mier momzadebuli angariSi

                                                            Tbilisi, 2000 wlis seqtemberi




           REGIONAL OFFICE FOR THE CAUCASUS AND MISSION TO GEORGIA
     41 Gogebashvili Street  Mtatsminda District  Tbilisi 380008  GEORGIA
Tel: (995 32) 29 38 94  Fax: (995 32) 25 22 17  E-mail: iomtbls@access.sanet.ge
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi          aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                              saqarTvelo




sarCevi
                                                                                               gv

1. Sesavali: kvlevis mizezebis dasabuTeba da meTodologia                    3
2. aralegaluri migracia da adamianTa ukanono gadayvana                                yofil sabWoTa
   kavSirSi                                       5

3. saqarTvelo _ aralegaluri migraciis wyaro                         6

    3.1           saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa emigracia                                    6
    3.2           saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa ganacxadi vizis Taobaze
                  1999 wels                                                                    7

    3.3           ganacxadebi grZelvadiani da saimigracio vizebis
                  Taobaze 1999 wels                                                            10

    3.4           saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa ganacxadebi TavSesafris
                  maZiebelTa statusis mosapoveblad                                    11
    3.5           saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aralegaluri migraciis
                  ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi                                              13

    3.6           dasaqmebis saagentoTa da im SuamavalTa saqmianobani,
                  romlebic vizis mopovebas uzrunvelyofen.                             18

4. saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa ukanono gadayvana                                           22
   4.1       migrantTa ukanono gadayvana                                              22

    4.2           saqarTvelodan qalTa ukanono gadayvana                               23
    4.3           bavSvTa ukanono gadayvana                                                    26

    4.4           mediatorTa da ukanonod gadamyvanTa roli                             27
    4.5           saqarTvelos mTavrobis damokidebuleba ukanono
                  gadayvanis mimarT                                                            28




5. saqarTvelo _ aralegaluri migraciisa da ukanono
   gadayvanis satranzito qveyana                                                      29

    5.1           tranzituli migracia: axlo warsulis monacemebi             29

    5.2           tranzituli migracia: dRevandeli monacemebi                          31


6. daskvniTi monacemebi                                                               33
7. danarTebi                                                                          34


                                                 1
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi          aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                              saqarTvelo




    a)            kiTxvari saqarTveloSi akreditirebuli saelCoebis
                  sakonsulo departamentebisaTvis                                      35
    b)            kiTxvari samTavrobo departamentebisaTvis                            37




                                                 2
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                 aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                     saqarTvelo




Tavi 1    Sesavali: kvlevis mizezebis dasabuTeba da meTodologia

winamdebare angariSi saqarTvelodan aralegaluri migraciisa da adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis
sakiTxs exeba. mso-s Tbilisis ofisma es sakiTxi 2000 wlis umniSvnelovanes sakiTxad miiCnia da
sawyis etapze ganaxorciela mciremasStabiani kvleva, romelic miznad isaxavda saqarTvelodan da
saqarTvelos gavliT aralegaluri migraciisa da adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis xasiaTisa da
masStabis dadgenas. saqarTvelodan aralegaluri migracia ar aris axali sakiTxi da yvelasaTvis
cnobilia, rom migraciis es tipi arsebobs sabWoTa kavSirisagan saqarTvelos gamoyofis
periodidan. arsebobs niSnebi imisa, rom saqarTvelo warmoadgens aralegaluri migraciisa da
adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis ara mxolod wyaros, aramed satranzito qveyanas, magram
jerjerobiT ar Catarebula mniSvnelovani kvleva, romelic moicavda amgvari ukanono gadayvanis
bunebasa da mniSvnelobas.

am angariSSi aralegaluri migracia ganisazRvreba, rogorc:”im pirTa gansakuTrebulad
araorganizebuli migraciis yvela saxe da nakadi, romlebic ar iTvaliswineben migraciis
warmomSobi, tranzituli da/an mimRebi qveynebis Sesabamis kanonebsa da wesebs”.

adamianTa ukanono gadayvanas mso gansazRvravs, rogorc: ”migrantTa kanoniT akrZalul
dasaqmebas (daqiravebuli Sromis, motacebis, gayidvis da sxva safuZvelze) da/an migrantTa
gadaadgilebas qveynis SigniT an saerTaSoriso sazRvrebze, romlis saSualebiTac Suamavlebi
(gadamyvanebi) iReben ekonomiur an sxva saxis sargebels motyuebis, iZulebisa da/an
eqspluataciis sxva formebis gamoyenebiT, migrantTa im pirobebSi CayenebiT romlebic
adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa darRvevas iwvevs”.1

am gansazRvrebebiTa da mso-s mier msoflios masStabiT mopovebuli maCveneblebiT aSkaraa,
rom aralegaluri migracia da adamianTa ukanono gadayvana zogjer erTmaneTs emTxveva.
Tumca mainc sasargeblo iqneba calke gamovyoT ukanono gadayvana, radgan mas organizebuli
xasiaTi aqvs da masSi monawile kriminaluri elementebi did mogebas naxuloben migrantTa
monur pirobebSi CayenebiT.

winamdebare angariSi asaxavs mso-s mier 2000 wlis mais_ivlisSi Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebs.
mso-m agreTve daafinansa sami qarTuli arasamTavrobo organizacia aralegaluri migraciisa da
adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis kvlevis Catarebis mizniT. am proeqtebis Sedegebi
gamoqveyndeba 2000 wlis seqtemberSi da amitom ar aris CarTuli am angariSSi. Tumca mso-m
konsultacia gauwia am arasamTavrobo organizaciebs monacemTa Sekrebisa da informaciis
gacvlis mizniT.

mso-s winamdebare angariSi eyrdnoba informacias Semdeg wyaroebs:
 qarTvel migrantTa mimRebi ZiriTadi qveynebis saelCoebis sakonsulo departamentebi2
 saqarTvelos mTavroba3
 saqarTveloSi moqmedi saerTaSoriso aviaxazebi
 sainformacio saSualebebSi reklamis ganmTavsebeli saagentoebi, romlebic gvTavazoben
   dasaqmebas sazRvargareT da Suamdgomlobas vizis Taobaze
 qarTuli da saerTaSoriso sainformacio saSualebebi
1
  mso, 1999, migrantTa ukanono gadayvana: politika da reagireba..
2
   mso-m SearCia rva diplomatiuri warmomadgenloba saqarTveloSi. esenia safrangeTis, germaniis, saberZneTis,
israelis, TurqeTis, gaerTianebuli samefosa da amerikis SeerTebu;li Statebis saelCoebi da niderlandebis sakonsulo.
3
  mso daukavSirda ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis, sagareo saqmeTa da saxelmwifo uSiSroebis saministroebsa da saxelmwifo
sazRvris dacvis saxelmwifo departaments.


                                                       3
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                     aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                         saqarTvelo



   mso-Si, arasamTavrobo organizaciebsa                    da     samecniero      dawesebulebebSi        arsebuli
    xelmisawvdomi informacia

mso-m ganzrax ar SearCia sabWoTa kavSiris sxva yofili respublikebi am kvlevis miznad,
arsebuli statistikis ararsebobis gamo, rac nawilobriv aixsneba damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa
TanamegobrobaSi (dsT) arsebuli uvizo reJimiT.4 Tumca arsebobs ruseTSi qarTvelTa migraciis
kvlevis saWiroeba, umTavresad imitom, rom ruseTi kvlav rCeba maTi mTavari daniSnulebis
qveyanad.5

TbilisSi arsebulma yvela saelCom Tanxmoba ganacxada TanamSromlobaze da upasuxa kiTxvars
(romelic angariSis danarT a) warmodgenili). zogierT SemTxvevaSi gakeTda SekiTxvebis ufro
detalizebuli nusxa am angariSisaTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis Taobaze Semdgomi informaciis
misaRebad.

mso agreTve daukavSirda ramdenime samTavrobo struqturas, raTa daedgina, Tu ra politikas
axorcielebs saqarTvelos mTavroba aralegaluri migraciisa da adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis
winaaRmdeg da ra informacias flobs amis Taobaze. kiTxvari, romelsac mso iyenebda mTavrobis
warmomadgenlebTan gasaubrebisas erTvis am angariSs danarT b)-Si.

TbilisSi moqmedma samma aviaxazma _ avstriis, Sveicariisa da TurqeTis aviaxazebma _ mso-s
miawoda informacia mgzavrTa da maT mier ZalaSi myof da namdvil dokumentTa Semowmebis
maTeuli taqtikis Sesaxeb.

mso telefoniT daukavSirda ramdenime turistul saagentosa da dasaqmebis sferos Suamavlebs,
romlebic yovel kviras aqveyneben reklamas maT mier vizebis gakeTebasa da evropis qveynebsa
da CrdiloeT amerikaSi dasaqmebis SesaZleblobaze. kvlevis sawyis etapze mso ar Sexvedria
arcerT am Suamavals, magram acnobierebs, rom savizo brokerebisa da dasaqmebis SuamavalTa
moqmedebis gzebis srulad gacnobisaTvis saWiro iqneba am saqmianobebis ufro detaluri
Seswavla.




Tavi 2             aralegaluri migracia da adamianTa ukanono gadayvana yofil sabWoTa
                   kavSirSi6


4
  Tumca dsT-s zogierT qveyanaSi SeimCneva vizis dawesebis tendencia dsT-s sxva qveynebis moqalaqeebisaTvis.
1999 wels ruseTma sTxova saqarTvelos TanamSromloba or qveyanas Soris savizo reJimis dawesebis saqmeSi.
amJamad mimdinareobs molaparakebebi. msgavsi savizo valdebulebebi dsT-s qveynebis moqalaqeebisaTvis ukve
arsebobs TurqmeneTSi, cota xnis win ki uzbekeTma da tajikeTma xeli moaweres ormxriv SeTanxmebas, romlis
Tanaxmad am ori qveynis moqalaqeebs esaWiroebaT viza erTmaneTis teritoriaze Sesasvlelad.
5
  es informacia dasturdeba qarTuli arasamTavrobo organizaciis “mosaxleobis kvlevis erovnuli centris” mier 2000 wels
Sesrulebuli kvlevis winaswari monacemebiT. am kvlevas finansuri mxardaWera aRmouCina mso-m.
6
  meore TavSi mocemuli informacia miRebulia Semdegi wyaroebidan: sayovelTao gadarCenis qseli, 1997, danaSauli
da monoba: dsT-s qveynebidan prostituciis mizniT qalTa ukanono gadayvanis gamoaSkaraveba / mso, 1997, baltiis
marSruti: ukanono gadayvana litvis gavliT / mso, 1998, sainformacio kampania ukrainidan qalTa ukanono gadayvanis
winaaRmdeg, kvleviTi angariSi / qalTa forumis fondi, 1998, seqsualuri eqspluataciis mizniT qalTa ukanono gadayvana
/ euTo, 1999, adamianTa ukanono gadayvana, euTo-s daskvnebi / dona m. hiuzi, 2000, garigeba “nataSa”: qalTa
ukanono gadayvanis saerTaSoriso Crdilovani bazari.


                                                        4
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                  aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                      saqarTvelo


sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg warmoSobil damoukidebel respublikebSi sasazRvro kontroli
mniSvnelovnad Sesustda, ramac gamoiwvia dsT-s qveynebis karis gaReba kriminaluri qselisa da
migrantebisaTvis, romlebic samxreT aziidan da afrikidan dasavleT evropisaken miemarTebian.
dsT-s bevrma qveyanam, gansakuTrebiT ki ruseTma da ukrainam, romlebic strategiulad
aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris arian ganTavsebulni, Tavis Tavze iwvnia tranzitul migrantTa
intensiuri nakadebis tvirTi, romlebic an sakuTari iniciativiT miemgzavrebian, an organizebuli
ukanono gadayvanis msxverplni xdebian.

dsT-s qveynebi agreTve sul ufro xSirad gvevlinebian migrantebis warmomSob qveynebad,
saidanac adamianebi eZeben ukeTes cxovrebas dasavleT evropaSi, CrdiloeT amerikaSi an sadme
sxva adgilas. sabWoTa kavSiris yofil respublikaTa umravlesoba aris sabazro ekonomikisaken
gardamaval periodSi, magram dgas ekonomikuri krizisisa da warsulis tradiciuli socialuri
uzrunvelyofis gaqrobis winaSe. dsT-s bevr qveyanaze didi gavlena iqonia Sida da maTs
sazRvrebs gareT warmoebulma omebma da konfliqtebma, ramac gamoiwvia ltolvilTa da
adgilnacval pirTa masiuri nakadebi da sayovelTao siduxWire am qveynebSi. oTxmocdaaTiani
wlebis dasawyisidan moyolebuli bevrma adamianma datova TavianTi warmoSobis qveynebi,
raTa Tavi daeRwia omebisa da konfliqtebisaTvis, an ubralod moeZebna ukeTesi cxovrebis
perspeqtivebi. am xerxiT bevrma SeZlo sakuTari finansuri mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba da
xSirad isini samSobloSi cota fulis gamogzavnasac axerxeben TavianTi ojaxebis dasaxmareblad.
emigrantTa finansuri daxmareba ara marto Semosavlis mniSvnelovani wyaroa calkeuli
ojaxebisaTvis, aramed igi gaxda dsT-s qveynebis ekonomikis Semosavlis aucilebeli wyaro.

dsT-s zogierT qveyanaze did gavlenas axdens erTi gansakuTrebiT Semawuxebeli movlena _
adgilobrivi da saerTaSoriso kriminaluri dajgufebebis mier organizebuli adamianTa ukanono
gadayvana. am procesis yvelaze seriozul aspeqts warmoadgens qalTa da bavSvTa mimarT sastiki
mopyroba. maT ukanonod iyvanen samuSaoze, zogjer itaceben kidec kriminaluri dajgufebebi,
romlebsac isini gadahyavT centraluri da dasavleT evropis qveynebSi, CrdiloeT amerikasa da axlo
aRmosavleTis zogierT qveyanaSi.7 bevr qals izidavs dapirebebi kargi samsaxuris Sesaxeb,
magram isini Semdeg iZulebulni xdebian imuSaon damamcirebel pirobebSi, rogoricaa striptizis
barebi da saroskipoebi, agreTve maT hyidian suteniorebsa da meTvalyureebze maTi adamianTa
uflebebisa da Rirsebebis SelaxviT.

kvlevasa da ukanono gadayvanis sawinaaRmdegod mimarTul saqmianobebs axorcielebs mso da
sxva organizaciebi ruseTsa da ukrainaSi _ dsT-s am or qveyanaSi, romlebmac yvelaze metad
igrZnes adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis procesebi. aralegaluri migraciis sxva warmomSobi da
satranzito qveynebi arian belorusia, baltiispireTis respublikebi da moldaveTi. maCveneblebis
mixedviT Suaaziisa da amierkavkasiis respublikebi sul ufro xSirad asruleben aRmosavleTidan
dasavleTisaken satranzito qveynebisa da garkveulwilad warmomSobi qveynebis rols. am
informacias adasturebs mso-s bolo kvlevebi azerbaijansa da yirgizeTis respublikaSi.8


Tavi 3 saqarTvelo _ aralegaluri migraciis wyaro

ZiriTadi mimRebi qveynebis TbilisSi arsebuli saelCoebis sakonsulo ganyofilebis
TanamSromlebis mier mowodebuli informaciis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aralegaluri
migracia mniSvnelovan masStabebs iRebs. qarTvel mogzaurTa da migrantTa sakmaod didi

7
 es ZiriTadad exeba israelsa da arabeTis gaerTianebul saemiroebs.
8
 ix: mso-s ofisi baqoSi, 2000 wlis ivnisi, azerbaijanidan evropisken mimavali gzebi: migraciis potencialisa da
migraciis biznesis Seswavla, da mso-s ofisi biSkekSi, euTo-s centri biSkekSi da euTo-s domokratiul dawesebulebaTa
da adamianTa uflebebis ofisi, 2000, migantTa ukanono gadayvanis kvleva (yirgizeTis respublika, 2000).


                                                        5
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                 aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                     saqarTvelo


procentuli raodenoba rCeba sazRvargareT TavianTi vizis moqmedebis vadis gasvlis Semdeg an
iTxovs TavSesafars dasavleT evropasa da CrdiloeT amerikaSi. agreTve bevri qarTveli ukanonod
muSaobs sazRvargareT.

winamdebare TavSi ufro vrclad aris axsnili saqarTvelodan aralegaluri migraciis yvelaze
gavrcelebuli formebi da maTi maxasiaTebeli niSnebi.

3.1      saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa emigracia

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg damoukidebeli saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, iseve rogorc yofili
sabWoTa kavSiris yvela sxva moqalaqes, mieca sazRvargareT mogzaurobis saSualeba warsulis
yvela xelovnuri xelisSemSleli faqtoris gareSe. oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis pirveli sami wlis
ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo ramdenime dramatuli samoqalaqo omis winaSe idga, ramac moitana
qveynis SigniT adamianTa farTomasStabiani gadaadgileba da praqtikulad saqarTvelos mTeli
mosaxleobis socialur-ekonomikuri gaWirveba. 1993 da 1994 wlebi qveynisaTvis uZraobis
periodi iyo. mTeli ekonomika paralizebuli iyo eleqtroenergiis deficitisa da arastabiluri politikuri
mdgomareobis gamo. saqarTvelos bevrma moqalaqem gadawyvita daetovebina sakuTari qveyana
sxvagan ukeTesi cxovrebis mizniT. moqalaqeTa didi raodenobiT wavida emigraciaSi
gansakuTrebiT 1993_1997 wlebSi. am emigrantTa mniSvnelovani nawili ganekuTvneboda
eTnikur umciresobebs, romlebic amjobinebdnen TavianTi winaprebis samSobloebSi dafuZnebas
(am migrantTa ZiriTad daniSnulebis qveynebs warmoadgenen ruseTi, saberZneTi, israeli,
azerbaijani da somxeTi).

saqarTveloSi ar arsebobs migraciuli nakadebis sando statistika. statistikis saxelmwifo
departamentis monacemebiT 1990_1998 wlebSi 294,600 qarTvelma datova Tavisi qveyana,
Tumca damoukidebeli eqspertebi acxadeben, rom es cifri Zalian dabalia. maTi gamoTvlebiT
amave periodSi qveynidan wavida 1,638,000 qarTveli.9 es uzarmazari cifria, Tu
gaviTvaliswinebT, rom saqarTvelos mTliani mosaxleoba 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi iyo
5,421,700-sa (damoukidebeli eqspertebi) da 5,456,100-s (mTavrobis mier gamoTvlili cifri) Soris.
imave periodSi saqarTveloSi imigracia gacilebiT naklebi iyo, vidre emigracia, rac imas niSnavs,
rom wina dekadaSi migraciam gamoiwvia saqarTvelos mosaxleobis raodenobis Semcireba
minimum 5%-iT da maqsimum 20%-iT.10

90-ian wlebSi mTel emigrantTa aRricxuli 50% an kidev ufro meti gaemgzavra ruseTSi. maTi
umetesi nawili warmoSobiT rusi iyo, Tumca bevri qarTveli gaeSura ruseTs. sxva eTnikuri
umciresobebi, magaliTad ebraelebi da berZnebi, didi raodenobiT gaemgzavrnen TavianTi
winaprebis qveynebSi. erovnebiT qarTveli pirebi agreTve emigraciaSi wavidnen dasavleT
evropis bevr qveyanaSi, romelTagan yvelaze popularulia germania, safrangeTi, niderlandebi,
belgia da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi.11

sazRvargareT qarTvelebis emigraciis Tanamedrove moculobis sando aRricxva dResdReobiT ar
arsebobs. mso-s azriT Tanamedrove socialur-ekonomikuri krizisisa da axlo momavalSi
ukeTesobisaken Zvrebis realisturi perspeqtivebis ar arsebobis gamo bevr qarTvels surs
sazRvargareT wasvla droebiT an mudmivad sacxovreblad.


9
  sxva kvlevebis avtorebi acxadeben, rom mocemul periodSi emigraciaSi wavida 1 milionze naklebi qarTveli.
10
   giorgi wulaZe da irina baduraSvili, mosaxleobis kvlevis erovnuli centri, 1999, saqarTvelos demografiuli wliuri
gamocema..
11
   paata zaqareiSvili da guram svaniZe, Ria sazogadoeba _ iZulebiTi migarciis proeqtebi, 1996, saqarTvelodan
emigracia da misi mizezebi..


                                                       6
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                   aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                       saqarTvelo


3.2      saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa ganacxadi vizis Taobaze 1999 wels

cxrili #1 gvawvdis 1999 wels saqarTvelos moqalaqeebze gacemuli vizebis saerTo raodenobis
zogad suraTs. igi exeba mxolod moklevadian vizebs, romlebic uflebas aZleven mflobelebs
imyofebodnen TurqeTSi maqsimum erTi TviT, Sengenis qveynebSi12 sami TviT da gaerTianebul
samefosa da SeerTebul StatebSi eqvsi TviT. es cxrili agreTve moicavs evrogaerTianebis wevr
ramdenime sxva saxelmwifosac, romelTac ar gaaCniaT diplomatiuri warmomadgenloba
saqarTveloSi. safrangeTis saelCo gascems avstriis, belgiis, italiis, luqsemburgisa da niderlandebis
vizebsac, xolo germaniis saelCo _ portugaliisa da espaneTis vizebs.

             Cxrili 1: 1999 saqarTvelos moqalaqeebze gacemuli
                      moklevadiani vizebis raodenoba

             Avstria                417
             Belgia                 430
             SafrangeTi                     3,61113
             Germania                      11,876
             SaberZneTi                     6,500
             Israeli             2,44014
             Italia                      3,363
             Luqsemburgi                   10
             Niderlandebi           68915
             Portugalia                       12
             EspaneTi                         811
             TurqeTi                       39,00016
             GaerTianebuli samefo 5,07017
             SeerTebuli Statebi    7,29218

am kvlevaSi CarTul qveynebs Soris TurqeTSi yvelaze meti qarTveli miemgzavreba. es ZiriTadad
aixsneba am or qveyanas Soris intensiuri komerciuli kontaqtebiTa da TurqeTis naklebad mkacri

12
    Sengenis teritoria amJamad Sedgeba evrogaerTianebis wevri Semdegi saxelmwifoebisagan: avstria, belgia,
safrangeTi, germania, saberZneTi, italia, luqsemburgi, niderlandebi, portugalia da espaneTi. axlo momavalSi Sengenis
SeTanxmebaSi Seva daniac.
13
   raodenoba avstriis, belgiisa da safrangeTisaTvis gamoTvlilia mTeli wlisaTvis TbilisSi safrangeTis saelCos mier
1999 wlis agvistodan dekembramde gacemuli vizebis raodenobis safuZvelze (rac Sesabamisad Seadgenda 159, 171 da
1 425-s) da efuZneba mTeli 1999 wlis manZilze safrangeTis saelCos mier Sengenis eqvsive qveynisaTvis gacemuli
vizebis mTlian raodenobas (8 520). vizebis daaxloebiT 90% gacemulia saqarTvelos moqalaqeebze 10% ki mesame
qveynis moqalaqeebze.
14
   es cifri gamoyvanilia mTeli 1999 wlisaTvis israelis saelCos mier 1998 wlis ianvridan 2000 wlis maisis bolomde
gacemuli vizebis saerTo raodenobaze dayrdnobiT, rac Seadgenda 5 897-s.
15
   raodenoba italiis, luqsemburgisa da niderlandebisaTvis gamoTvlilia mTeli wlisaTvis TbilisSi safrangeTis saelCos
mier 1999 wlis agvistodan dekembramde gacemuli vizebis raodenobis safuZvelze (rac Sesabamisad Seadgenda 1327, 4
da 272-s) da efuZneba mTeli 1999 wlis manZilze safrangeTis saelCos mier Sengenis eqvsive qveynisaTvis gacemuli
vizebis mTlian raodenobas (8 520). vizebis daaxloebiT 90% gacemulia saqarTvelos moqalaqeebze 10% ki mesame
qveynis moqalaqeebze.
16
   es maCvenebeli gamoTvlilia TurqeTis saelCos TanamSromlis mier. is moicavs mxolod TbilisSi arsebuli saelCosa da
baTumSi arsebuli sakonsulos mier gacemul vizebs da ar iTvaliswinebs sasazRvro-gamSveb punqtebSi gacemul vizebs.
amitom saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisaTvis gacemuli vizebis saerTo raodenoba gacilebiT meti iqneba.
17
   gaerTianebuli samefos saelCos TanamSromlis SefasebiT, rom yovel wels gaicema 600-dan 700 vizamde da rom
maTi 65% gaicema gaerTianebul samefoSi xanmokle vizitisaTvis. es cifri moicavs karibis rigi saxelmwifoebisa da
britaneTis Tanamegobrobis sxva damoukidebeli teritoriebisaTvis gacemul ramdenime vizas.
18
    es aris vizebis raodenoba, romlebic gaica 1999 finansur wels, anu 1998 wlis 1 oqtombridan 1999 wlis 30
seqtembramde.


                                                         7
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi         aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                             saqarTvelo


savizo reJimiT. faqtiurad vizas iRebs yvela, vinc ki ganacxads gaakeTebs, Tu es piri ar figurirebs
Sav siaSi, romelic moicavs nasamarTleb pirebs an pirebs, romlebic deportirebulni iyvnen
TurqeTidan vizis vadis gasvlis an TurqeTis kanonebis sxva darRvevaTa gamo. saqarTvelos
pasportis mflobelebs SeuZliaT vizis miReba TurqeTSi Sesvlisas.

germania Zalian popularuli daniSnulebis qveyanaa yvela saxis qarTveli migrantisaTvis. es
SeiZleba iyos biznesmeni, romelsac surs germaniaSi manqanis yidva da saqarTveloSi sakuTari
manqaniT brundeba, studenti, romelic midis saswavleblad, an bedis maZiebeli, romelsac am
qveynis keTildReoba izidavs. germaniis saelCos mier warmoebuli savizo reJimi sakmaod
mkacria, rac aisaxeba vizaze uaris saSualo maCvenebelSi 20_30%.
germaniis vizebze ganacxadebis didi raodenobis erT-erTi mizezia is, rom bevri qarTveli Sengenis
teritoriaze franqfurtis aeroportiT Sedis da Semdeg sxvadasxva saxis transportiT miemgzavreba
Sengenis sxva qveynebSi. germaniis saelCos savizo reJimis kidev erTi specifiuri aspeqtia is, rom
vizebze ganacxadi ZiriTadad SeaqvT e.w. “karnetis” mflobelebs, romelic oficialurad daSvebulia
saqarTvelos saavtomobilo kompaniis mier, romelic partniorobs Tavis eqvivalent germanul
kompaniasTan “ADAC”. am partniorobas mxars uWers germaniis Sinagan saqmeTa saministro.
TbilisSi arsebulma germaniis saelCom urCia saqarTvelos saavtomobilo kompanias wevrTa
SerCevis mkacri politikis gatareba, yalbi savizo monacemebis miwodebis SesaZleblobebis
aRsakveTad.

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi qarTvelebisaTvis yovelTvis iyo sasurveli qveyana. 1999 wels
TbilisSi aSS-s savizo politikis Secvlis Sedegad vizaze uaris procentuli raodenoba mniSvnelovnad
gaizarda. 1996 wels uari eTqva vizis mosurneTa 17%-s, xolo 1999 finansur wels es raodenoba
gaizarda 50%-mde. 2000 wlis pirveli naxevris zogierT TveSi igi Seadgenda 70%-ze mets. aSS-s
saelCom acnoba mso-s, rom ukanasknel xanebSi ganmcxadebelTa finansuri mdgomareoba
gauaresda wina wlebTan SedarebiT.

saberZneTisa da saqarTvelos urTierToba uZveles droSi iRebs saTaves. berZnebi saqarTveloSi
cxovroben saukuneebis manZilze. sabWoTa kavSirisagan damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg
bevrma berZenma gadawyvita Tavisi winaprebis miwaze dabruneba. TbilisSi saberZneTis
saelCos monacemebiT saqarTveloSi kvlav cxovrobs 23,000 berZeni. agreTve bevri erovnebiT
qarTveli miemgzavreba saberZneTSi ZiriTadad sezonuri muSaobiT Semosavlis miRebis mizniT.
Tbilisidan aTenSi aris pirdapiri reisi salonikis gavliT. aris agreTve avtobusiT yoveldRiuri
momsaxureba Tbilissa da saberZneTs Soris. saberZneTis saelCo uariT istumrebs vizis msurvelTa
50%-ze mets, rac gamowveulia eWviT, rom bevr adamians surs saberZneTSi darCena vizis
moqmedebis vadis gasvlis Semdeg an yalbi dokumentebis wardgenis gamo, rogoricaa yalbi
dabadebisa da muSaobis damadasturebeli mowmobebi.

gaerTianebuli samefo sul ufro metad popularuli daniSnulebis qveyana xdeba qarTvelebisaTvis.
bolo xanebSi gaerTianebuli samefos saelCom gaaxSira uari vizis gacemaze. 1999 wels viza
miiRo msurvelTa 97%-ma, 2000 wlis pirvel naxevarSi ki uari eTqva 25%-s. es ZiriTadad
gamoiwvia gancxadebis SemtanTa finansuri mdgomareobis arastabilurobam warsulis
maCveneblebTan SedarebiT. gaerTianebuli samefos popularoba gaizarda studentTaTvisac. 1999
wels gaerTianebul samefoSi wasul qarTvelTa 35%-s studentebi Seadgendnen.

saqarTveloSi safrangeTis saelCo gascems vizebs Sengenis eqvsi qveynisaTvis. am qveynebs
Soris safrangeTi yovelTvis meti popularobiT sargeblobda, Tumca bolo xanebSi italia Zalian
mniSvnelovani daniSnulebis punqti gaxda. TbilisSi axlaxans daarsebuli italiis saelCo miiRebs
oficialur uflebas da daiwyebs saqarTvelos moqalaqeebze vizebis gacemas 2000 wlis
Semodgomaze. avstria, belgia da niderlandebi is qveynebia, romlebic izidaven turistebis mcire,


                                                8
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                 aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                     saqarTvelo


magram stabilur raodenobas saqarTvelodan xanmokle vizitis mizniT. avstria, franqfurtis
msgavsad, gamoiyeneba Sengenis teritoriaze pirvelad Casvlis adgilad, ukve ramdenime wlis
ganmavlobaSi Tbilissa da venas Soris arsebuli pirdapiri reisebis gamo. faqtiurad, reisebi
saloniki_aTenis, franqfurtisa da venis mimarTulebiT 2000 wlis ivnisamde Sengenis qveynebTan
saqarTvelos erTaderT pidapir kavSirs warmoadgenda.19

saqarTvelosa da israels mWidro kontaqtebi aqvT saqarTveloSi mcxovreb berZenTa didi
raodenobis gamo. komunisturi reJimis periodSi da agreTve damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg
bevri berZeni sacxovreblad israelSi gadavida. nebismier adamians, romelsac SeuZlia daamtkicos
sakuTari ebrauli warmomavloba, aqvs israelSi mudmivi cxovrebis ufleba.20 amJamad israelSi
mcxovrebi daaxloebiT 80 000 qarTveli ebraelia registrirebuli, Tumca faqtiurad maT
umravlesobas kvlav mWidro kavSiri aqvs saqarTvelosTan da umeteswilad saqarTveloSi
cxovroben. TbilisSi israelis saelCos informaciiT saqarTveloSi cxovrobs 10 000-dan 12 000-mde
ebraeli. isini arian ZiriTadad xandazmuli adamianebi, romlebmac saeWvoa, rom israelSi
emigracia arCion. israelis savizo politikis kidev erTi aspeqtia is, rom israelSi turistuli viziT Casul
qarTvelebs uproblemod SeuZliaT vizis ramdenjerme ganaxleba israelSive da praqtikulad israelSi
darCena erTi wliT an ufro xangrZlivad ganaxlebadi moklevadiani vizis safuZvelze.

TbilisSi germaniis saelCos informaciis Tanaxmad espaneTi ufro da ufro popularuli xdeba
qarTvelTaTvis. amis ZiriTadi mizezia dasaqmebis perspeqtivebi espaneTis swrafad mzard
turizmis seqtorSi.

3.3      ganacxadebi grZelvadiani da saimigracio vizebis Taobaze 1999 wels


grZelvadiani vizebi gaicema ZiriTadad ori kategoriis adamianebze _ studentebsa da
sazRvargareT samuSaod miwveul pirebze. saimigracio vizebi gaicema saqarTvelos
moqalaqeebze, romelTac mocemul qveyanaSi mudmivi cxovrebis nebarTva gaaCniaT.

saqarTveloSi arsebul saelCoTa umravlesoba iRebs ganacxadebs grZelvadian da saimigracio
vizebze, magram rogorc wesi administraciuli procedurebi da saboloo gadawyvetilebebi miiReba
mSobliur qveyanaSi an sxva qveynis saelCoSi. es imas niSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi arsebuli
saelCoebi ar floben detalur informacias grZelvadiani da saimigracio vizebis Taobaze.

TavianTi qveynis datovebis didi survilis miuxedavad Zalian cota qarTveli cdilobs dasavleT
evropis qveynebisaTvis grZelvadiani da saimigracio vizebis miRebas. amis mizezi albaT is aris,
rom qarTvelebi ucxo qveyanaSi Casvlas axlo momavalSi ukan dabrunebis ganzraxvis gareSe
arCeven moklevadiani vizebis gamoyenebiT, romelTa miRebac gacilebiT iolia. qarTvelTa
umravlesoba ar akmayofilebs maTi sasurveli qveynebis mTavrobaTa mier dawesebul mkacr
moTxovnebs muSaobis uflebis an saimigracio vizis misaRebad, Tumca zogierTi mainc cdis beds
ararsebuli damqiraveblis yalbi werilebis wardgeniT an raime arsebuli kompaniis yalbi blankis
gamoyenebiT. saelCoebi yuradRebiT amowmeben amgvar dokumentebs da regularuli kontaqti
aqvT maTi warmoSobis qveynebTan damowmebis mizniT.



19
   2000 wlis 16 ivnisidan qarTuli aviakompania “air zena” axorcielebs pirdapir frenas amsterdamSi kviraSi orjer.
pidapiri frenebi aris agreTve Tbilisidan stambulSi, londonsa da ciurixSi kviraSi ramdenjerme.
20
   amisaTvis saWiroa israelis saelCos waredginos damamtkicebeli sabuTi imisa, rom bebiebisa da babuebisagan erT-
erTi mainc ebraelia. es ufro naklebad mkacri meTodia tradiciulTan SedarebiT, romlis Tanaxmadac ebraelad
CaiTvlebian mxolod is pirebi, romelTa dedebic ebraelebi arian.


                                                       9
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                  aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                      saqarTvelo


muSaobis nebarTva gaicema mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sasurveli qveynis xelisufleba da misi
saelCo saqarTveloSi darwmunebulni arian, rom amgvari kompaniebi marTlac arseboben da
icnoben maT reputacias. 1999 wels safrangeTis saelCom gasca muSaobis 21 nebarTva qarTvel
ZiZebze safrangeTSi erTi wliT samuSaod. franguli kompaniisa da misi qarTveli partnioris sando
reputaciis miuxedavad bevri axalgazrda qali aRar dabrunda saqarTveloSi muSaobis nebarTvaSi
miTiTebuli drois gasvlis Semdeg. amgvarma gamocdilebam gamoiwvia is, rom sakonsulos
TanamSromlebi da mimRebi qveynebi Zalian frTxiloben grZelvadiani vizebis gacemisas.

yovelwliurad gaicema saimigracio vizebis sakmaod didi raodenoba berZnuli da ebrauli
warmoSobis adamianebze Sesabamisad saberZneTsa da israelSi maTi mudmivi cxovrebis
mizniT. 1999 wels TbilisSi israelis saelCoSi 897-ma adamianma Seitana gancxadeba saimigracio
vizis Taobaze, romelTagan viza miiRo 767-ma.

germania awarmoebs saqarTvelodan warmoSobiT germanelTa TavianT samSobloSi dabrunebis
xelSewyobis politikas. 1999 wels 49 germanelma datova saqarTvelo da sacxovreblad gadavida
germaniaSi. 1991 wels germaniis mTavrobam germaniaSi dafuZnebis saSualeba misca yofili
sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriaze mcxovreb ebraelebs, Tu isini SesZleben sakuTari ebrauli
warmoSobis damtkicebas. 1999 wels saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma 42-ma ebraelma isargebla am
SesaZleblobiT da sacxovreblad gadavida germaniaSi.

studentebze, romlebsac surT sazRvargareT saswavleblad wasvla ufro didi xniT, vidre amis
saSualebas iZleva moklevadiani viza, gaicema grZelvadiani vizis specialuri kategoria. zogierT
saelCoSi isini gadian imave proceduras, rasac saimigracio vizis mosurneebi, zogierTi saelCo ki
gascems specialur studentur vizas. TbilisSi gaerTianebuli samefos saelCos informaciiT 1999 wels
gacemuli vizebis 35% studenturi viza iyo, rac imas niSnavs, rom 1999 wels qarTvel studentTa
sakmaod didi raodenoba wavida saswavleblad did britaneTSi.

3.4      saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa                 ganacxadebi         TavSesafris       maZiebelTa         statusis
         mosapoveblad

cxrili #2 asaxavs 1999 wels saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa mier evropis qveynebSi TavSesafarze
ganacxadebis raodenobas. gaerTianebuli samefosaTvis zusti cifrebi ver moviZieT.

      cxrili 2: 1999 wels saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis mier evropaSi TavSesafarze
                 ganacxadebis raodenoba21

      Avstria                                       38
      belgia                                       887
      BulgareTi                                                5
      dania                                                48
      SafrangeTi                                          184
      Germania                                              1,100
      SaberZneTi                                               0
      Irlandia                                                47
      italia                                        36
      Luqsemburgi                                             6
      Niderlandebi                                 321

21
  gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, dsT-s qveynebis moqalaqeTa mier evropis qveynebSi TavSesafarze
Setanili ganacxadebi..


                                                         10
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi               aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                   saqarTvelo



     Norvegia                                             62
     PoloneTi                                             28
     EspaneTi                                            269
     SvedeTi                                              41
     Sveicaria                                         325

     sul – evro-gaerTianebis qveynebSi    2,977
     sul - evropaSi                    3,397

am maCveneblebis Sedarebas 1999 wels gacemuli vizebis raodenobasTan saintereso
daskvnebamde mivyavarT. espaneTSi oficialuri viziT Casul qarTvelTa erTma mesamedma (269
SemTxveva 1999 wels gacemuli 811 vizidan) am qveyanaSi TavSesafari iTxova. es Sedareba
absoluturad sandod ver CaiTvleba Sengenis teritoriis SigniT Ria sazRvrebis gamo, magram
mainc iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom espaneTSi samogzaurod wasul qarTvelTa umravlesoba
Tvlis, rom am qveyanaSi advilad SeiZleba TavSesafris miReba.

es cifrebi xazs usvams im faqts, rom germania TavSesafris maZiebel qarTvelTaTvis yvelaze
popularul qveyanad rCeba. Tumca germaniis saelCos TanamSromelma ganacxada, rom
aRiniSneba qarTvelTa mier germaniaSi TavSesafarze ganacxadTa Semcirebis tendencia (1997
wels gakeTda 2 916 ganacxadi, 1998 wels ki es ricxvi Camovida 1 982-mde) da yuradRebam
gadainacvla sxva qveynebisaken, rogoricaa belgia da espaneTi. am ori qveynisaTvis saqarTvelo
Sedis TavSesafris maZiebelTa warmoSobis 10 ZiriTadi qveynis SemadgenlobaSi. cxra sxva
evropuli qveynisaTvis (bulgareTi, dania, germania, irlandia, italia, luqsemburgi, norvegia,
poloneTi da Sveicaria) ki saqarTvelo Sevida 20 ZiriTadi qveynis SemadgenlobaSi.22 msgavsi
statistika 2000 wlis pirveli meoTxedisaTvis gviCvenebs, rom daniasa da espaneTSi TavSesafris
qarTveli maZieblebi Sevidnen 10 ZiriTadi erovnebis SemadgenlobaSi Sesabamisad 32 da 27
adamianiT.23

aRsaniSnavia, rom poloneTSi TavSesafari iTxova 28 qarTvelma. TviT poloneTi warmoadgens
TavSesafris maZiebelTa warmomSob qveyanas (1999 wels mxolod evropaSi 2 90424) da
amavdroulad erT-erT mTavar WiSkars evropisaken ukanonod gadayvanil migrantTaTvis.
poloneTSi TavSesafars Txouloben dsT-s sxva qveynebis moqalaqeebic, ZiriTadad somxebi da
azerbaijanelebi (1999 wels Sesabamisad 796 da 32 adamiani).25 am maRal maCvenebelTa erTi
SesaZlo mizezia zogierT migrantTa ukanono gadayvana ruseTidan dasavleTis mimarTulebiT
poloneTis gavliT. mizezTa gamo zogierTi migranti aRar midis germaniaSi da TavSesafris Ziebis
process iyenebs poloneTSi dasarCenad.

dsT-s sxva qveynebTan SedarebiTi analizi gviCvenebs, rom saqarTvelo mexuTe adgilzea 1999
wels evropaSi TavSesafris maZiebelTa Soris. Tu SevadarebT TavSesafris maZiebelTa ricxvs
dsT-s calkeuli qveynebis saerTo mosaxleobasTan, saqarTvelo albaT mesame adgils daikavebs
somxeTisa da azrbaijanis Semdeg. es adasturebs, rom amierkavkasiis regioni evropaSi
TavSesafris maZiebelTa ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgens. 1999 wels igi Seadgenda am sami



22
   gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, evropis qveynebSi TavSesafarze Setanili ganacxadebi 1999 wels.
23
    gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, evropaSi TavSesafris qveynis 10 ZiriTadi erovneba 2000 wlis
ianvar_martisaTvis.
24
   gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, evropis qveynebSi TavSesafarze Setanili ganacxadebi 1999 wels.
25
   gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, dsT-s qveynebis moqalaqeTa mier evropis qveynebSi TavSesafarze
Setanili ganacxadebi 1999 wels.


                                                     11
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                   aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                       saqarTvelo


qveynis 18 029 moqalaqes, rac aris am wels dsT-s qveynebis moqalaqeTa mier evropisaTvis
gakeTebuli ganacxadebis 46%.26

aRsaniSnavia, rom 1998 welTan SedarebiT 1999 wels evropaSi TavSesafari iTxova naklebma
qarTvelma. saqarTvelo iyo dsT-s erTaderTi qveyana, sadac Semcirebis tendencia dafiqsirda,
radgan dsT-s sxva qveynebSi am maCvenebelma sagrZnoblad imata.27 2000 wlis pirvel
meoTxedSi evropaSi TavSesafris qarTvel maZiebelTa ricxvi kvlav mcirdeba (660, 1999 wlis
bolo meoTxedSi 800-sTan SedarebiT), Tumca Semcireba dafiqsirda dsT-s sxva qveynebSic.28
Semcirebis tendencia gagrZelda 2000 wlis aprilsa da maisSic, rodesac evropaSi TavSesafari
iTxova Sesabamisad 235-ma da 213-ma qarTvelma, martis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT, romelic
25029 Seadgenda.

yvela mimRebi qveyana, evrogaerTianebis wevri qveynebis CaTvliT, awarmoebs TavSesafris
sakuTar politikas. zogierTi qveyana awarmoebs Zalian mkacr politikas, zogi ki naklebad mkacria.
1999 wels germaniam cno qarTvel ganmcxadebelTa mxolod 1,5% deportaciisagan dacul pirTa
CaTvliT. safrangeTis xelisufleba ki TavSesafars aZlevs qarTvel ganmcxadebelTa 80%-s. 1999
wels niderlandebma TavSesafris 321 maZiebelTagan ltolvilis statusi mianiWa mxolod 7-s. kidev
63-ma pirma miiRo meoradi humanitaruli statusi, rac imas niSnavs, rom maT uari eTqvaT
TavSesafarze, magram ufleba aqvT darCnen niderlandebSi humanitaruli mizniT. Tumca es maT
sabolood ar aZlevs ltolvilis statusis miRebis garantias.

TavSesafris qarTvel maZiebelTa umravlesoba acxadebs, rom isini saqarTveloSi politikur devnas
ganicdian. isini acxadeben, rom arian im politikuri partiebis wevrebi, romlebic misdeven yofili
prezidentis, zviad gamsaxurdias, ideologias, an mxedrionis wevrebi, romelic adre amJamindel
prezident SevardnaZesTan iyo aliansSi, Semdeg ki politikur arenas CamoaSores. 1998 wlis
Semodgomasa da zamTarSi uecrad bevrma adamianma ganacxada, rom mas aviwroebdnen im
wlis oqtomberSi akaki eliavas mier mowyobil samxedro buntSi viTomda maTi monawileobis
gamo. sxva ZiriTadi mizezia devna mamaTmavlobis an samxedro dezertirobis gamo.

germaniaSi TavSesafris maZiebel qarTvel moqalaqeTagan bevri qurTuli da ieziduri
warmoSobisaa da surT SeuerTdnen iq mcxovreb TavianTi ojaxis wevrebs. TbilisSi germaniis
saelCos erTi TanamSromeli TavSesafris qarTvel maZiebelTa ganacxadebebis namdvilobis
ikvlevs. safrangeTis saelCos konsulma acnoba Tavis ufrosobas parizSi, rom ganacxadTa
umravlesoba gayalbebulia, magram jerjerobiT amas ar gamouwvevia uaris maRali maCvenebeli.
ukrainaSi holandiis saelCom, romelis moqmedeba vrceldeba saqarTvelozec, ganacxada, rom
TavSesafarze qarTvelTa ganacxadebis umravlesoba yalbia da/an ar eyrdnoba 1951 wlis
konferencias ltolvilTa statusis Sesaxeb.

3.5      saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aralegaluri migraciis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi

wina or TavSi moxseniebuli iyo aralegaluri migraciis zogierTi mimarTuleba. praqtikulad yvela
saelCom aRniSna, rom bevri qarTveli ama Tu im gziT CarTulia dasavleT evropisa da CrdiloeT
amerikis mimarTulebiT aralegaluri migraciis romelime formaSi. winamdebare TavSi am
aralegeluri migraciis maxasiaTeblebi aRwerilia ufro detalurad.

26
   iqve.
27
   iqve.
28
   gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, TavSesafarze Setanili kvartaluri ganacxadebi evropaSi. .
29
   gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariati, 2000, evropis qveynebSi TavSesafarze Setanili ganacxadebi 2000 wlis aprilsa
da maisSi..




                                                         12
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi         aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                             saqarTvelo




3.5.1    savizo reJimis darRveva

yvelaze aSkara tendenciaa moklevadian da grZelvadian vizebSi miTiTebuli darCenis periodis
ugulvebelyofa. bevri qarTveli rCeba sazRvargareT vizis moqmedebis vadis gasvlis Semdeg,
radgan surs am qveyanaSi muSaoba da Tvlis, rom vizaSi miTiTebuli xanmokle drois manZilze
ver SesZlebs sakmarisi fulis dagrovebas. savizo reJimis darRvevis cifruli asaxva Znelia, radgan
daniSnulebis qveynebi, rogorc wesi, ar awarmoeben amis statistikur aRricxvas da xSirad ar
akontroleben datoves Tu ara qveyana amgvarma pirebma.

statistikis Tanaxmad savizo reJims arRvevs safrangeTSi Casul qarTvelTa 25%. saberZneTSi
qarTvelTa mier savizo reJimis darRveva Cveulebrivi movlenaa. savizo reJimis damrRvevTa 70%
rCeba samuSaod da zogjer saqarTveloSi brundeba mxolod sami an oTxi wlis Semdeg.
aRsaniSnavia, rom TbilisSi arsebuli saberZneTis saelCo axal vizebs gascems zogierT im
qarTvelze, romelsac adre darRveuli aqvs savizo reJimi. pirebi, romlebsac saberZneTis saelCo
vizaze uars eubneba, sul ufro xSirad cdiloben italiis vizis aRebas, raTa dasavleTidan Sevidnen
saberZneTSi. isini iZulebulni arian airCion es marSruti, radgan italiis vizis gacemisas safrangeTis
saelCo iTxovs TviTmfrinaviT, da ara avtobusiT an kerZo manqaniT, mgzavrobas. Tumca es ar
gamoricxavs darRvevebs. safrangeTis saelCom aRricxa pirebi, romelTac italiis vizis misaRebad
waradgines moqmedi bileTi orive mimarTulebiT, vizis miRebis Semdeg ki bileTi daabrunes
turistul saagentoSi da saberZneTSi manqaniT an avtobusiT gaemgzavrnen.

saimigracio policia gaerTianebul samefoSi Sesvlis Semdgom Semowmebas aRar awarmoebs,
ZiriTadad TanamSromelTa naklebobis gamo. Tumca iTvleba, rom savizo reJimis darRveva aq
sakmaod mniSvnelovan zomebs aRwevs. studentebi gansakuTrebiT arad agdeben TavianT
studentur vizebSi miTiTebul drois monakveTs, an saerTod ar swavloben, yovel SemTxvevaSi,
miwvevis gamcem dawesebulebaSi. am mimarTebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom gaerTianebul samefoSi
ucxoel studentebs oficialurad aqvT muSaobis ufleba, rac xsnis im faqts, rom 1999 wels studentur
vizaze ganacxadi Seitana uamravma qarTvelma, romelTagan bevri arc apirebda gaerTianebul
samefoSi swavlas.

aSS-s studentTa zedmeti xniT darCenis amgvarive problema aqvs. aSS-s saelCos gamoTvlebiT
saswavleblad Casuli ramdenime aTasi qarTveli aralegalurad cxovrobs aSS-Si. zogierT periodSi
saqarTvelodan aSS-Si saswavleblad wasul studentTa 80% arRvevda savizo reJims.

3.5.2    aralegaluri muSaoba da socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemis borotad gamoyeneba

rogorc adre aRvniSneT, savizo reJimis darRvevis SemTxvevaTa umetesoba ukavSirdeba
muSaobisa da samSobloSi darCenili ojaxisaTvis fulis gagzavnis survils. bevri qarTveli sezonurad
muSaobs saberZneTsa da TurqeTSi, sadac isini dakavebulni arian turizmis seqtorSi an dabal
anazRaurebad samuSaoebze, rogoricaa jandacvis dabali rangis muSakebi, damlageblebi da
ZiZebi. isini iq rCebian zafxulSi, saqarTveloSi ki brundebian zamTris periodSi, rodesac
samuSaos Sovna Zneldeba. saberZneTSi sezonurad momuSaveTa umravlesoba arRvevs savizo
reJims, TurqeTSi sezonurad momuSaveebi ki zogjer brundebian saqarTveloSi, raTa ganacxadi
Seitanon axal vizaze sanam wina vizas vada gauva. geografiuli siaxlovis gamo es sakmaod
advilia, radgan axali vizis aReba SesaZlebelia baTumSi arsebul TurqeTis sakonsuloSi, rac
TurqeTTan sazRvris maxlobladaa. ganmcxadebelTa umravlesobas Seadgens am or qveyanas
Soris regularuli mcire moculobis vaWrobiT dakavebuli pirebi. TurqeTis xelisufleba Sewuxebulia
im faqtiT, rom saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi turistul vizas iyeneben TurqeTSi muSaobis mizniT, rac


                                                13
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi        aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                            saqarTvelo


arlegaluria. turistuli vizis mflobelebi, romlebic TurqeTSi muSaoben, eqvemdebarebian jarimebsa
da qveynidan gaZevebas.

saberZneTis naklebad mkacri politika savizo reJimis damrRvev qarTvelTa mimarT SeiZleba
aixsnas im faqtiT, rom qarTvelebi ZiriTadad dakavebulni arian nakleb anazRaurebadi
samuSaoebiT, romelTa Sesruleba berZnebs ar surT. kidev erTi mizezi SeiZleba iyos qarTvelTa,
rogorc patiosani da mSromeli xalxis, reputacia, radgan isini, sxva qveynebidan Casuli
imigrantebisagan gansxvavebiT, ar arian CarTuli kriminalur saqmianobebSi. saerTo religiac
mniSvnelovan faqtors warmoadgens.

aralegaluri migracia israelSi naklebad aris dakavSirebuli samuSaosTan, aramed ufro imasTan,
rom qarTvel ebraelebs xeli miuwvdebaT israelis socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemaze. 80 000
qarTvel ebraelTagan, romlebic oficialurad emigrirdnen israelSi, bevri faqtiurad iq ar cxovrobs,
aramed weliwadSi erTi-orjer miemgzavreba socuzrunvelyofis xelmZRvanelobisagan fulis
asakrebad, ris Semdegac brundeba saqarTveloSi. maT aRebuli aqvT israelis saxelmwifos
pasporti, magram amavdroulad uari ar uTqvamT saqarTvelos moqalaqeobazec, rac daSvebulia
israelis kanoniT, magram saqarTvelosaTvis ukanono qmedebaa. isini SesaZleblobis farglebSi
mgzavroben qarTuli pasportebiT, raTa ar aRZran israelis xelisuflebis eWvi, rom isini iyeneben
gadasaxadis gadamxdelTa fuls, faqtiurad ki israelSi ar cxovroben. TbilisSi arsebul israelis
saelCos surs amgvar SemTxvevaTa gamoaSkaraveba da daJinebiT moiTxovs amgvar pirTagan,
imgzavron israelis pasportiT.

3.5.3    iZulebiTi dabruneba da uari Sesvlaze

rodesac iWeren savizo reJimis damrRvev qarTvelebs, maT, rogorc wesi, ubrZaneben qveynis
datovebas. es SeiZleba moxdes sakuTari nebiT, magram Tu pirs ar surs qveynidan gasvla,
mimRebi qveynis xelisufleba mas gaaZevebs, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ZaliTac. aseT
SemTxvevvebSi xelisufleba yidulobs TviTmfrinavis bileTs erTi mimarTulebiT, riTac aixsneba
pirTa mier nebayoflobiT dabrunebaze uaris Tqmis mizezi.

1999 wels holandiis xelisuflebam saqarTvelos 226 moqalaqes oficialurad ganucxada, rom maT
niderlandebis teritoria unda daetovebinaT. am pirebs Tavad unda moeZebnaT saqarTveloSi
dabrunebis gzebi. maTgan 167 sakuTari nebiT wamovida, danarCeni 59 ki faqtiurad gaaZeves
saqarTveloSi. Tumca danamdvilebiT aravin icis am qarTvelTa didi nawili marTlac dabrunda
saqarTveloSi, Tu sadme sxvagan wavida, radgan maTi gadaadgilebis kontroli xorcieldeba maTs
misamarTebze regularuli vizitebiT. Tu isini aRar cxovroben Zvel misamarTze, iTvleba rom maT
datoves qveyana.

1999 wels germaniidan deportirebuli iyo 283 qarTveli. maTi umravlesoba iyo TavSesafris
maZiebeli, romelTac ganacxadze uari eTqvaT. gasul wels cxra maTganis deportacia ver
moxerxda maTi janmrTelobis mdgomareobisa da hospitalizaciis gamo, ramac gamoiwvia
deportaciis gadavadeba.

TbilisSi arsebuli safrangeTis saelCosaTvis cnobilia 11 qarTveli, romlebic gasul wels samSobloSi
gamoaZeves. 1999 wels israelidan saqarTveloSi deportirebul iqna 164 adamiani. sxva qveynebi
ar acnobeben saqarTveloSi sakuTar saelCoebs deportirebul pirTa zust ricxvs, magram
miuTiTeben, rom iZulebiTi dabrunebis SemTxvevebi sakmaod xSiria. aralegalurad momuSave
an kanonis sxvagvarad damrRvevi qarTvelebi iZulebis wesiT toveben TurqeTis teritorias.
TurqeTis policias mihyavs isini saqarTvelos sazRvramde. es pirebi Setanili iqnebian Sav siaSi da
momavalSi veRar miiReben TurqeTis vizas. aSS-s saelCosaTvis cnobilia samSobloSi qarTvelTa


                                               14
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                      aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                          saqarTvelo


deportaciis SemTxvevebi, magram mas Cveulebriv ar mimarTaven daxmarebisaTvis. 2000 wlis
dasawyisSi ohaios Statidan gaaZeves xuTi qarTveli. aSS-s xelisuflebam isini Casva Tbilisisaken
mimaval venis TviTmfrinavSi.

iZulebiTi dabrunebis gansxvavebuli forma Cndeba, rodesac mesazRvreebi migrants uars
eubnebian SeSvebaze am piris mier savizo reJimis darRvevis Zlieri eWvis safuZvelze. sasazRvro
kontrolis ganmaxorcielebeli xelisuflebas ufleba aqvs qveyanaSi ar SeuSvas piri im
SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu am pirs oficialuri viza aqvs.

saberZneTis sasazRvro xelisufleba TveSi saSualod 7 qarTvels eubneba uars saberZneTSi
Sesvlaze, radgan Zlieri eWvi aqvT, rom isini daarRveven savizo reJims an saberZneTis sxva
kanonebs. am mgzavrebs ukan abruneben imave TviTmfrinaviT. gaerTianebul samefoSi hiTrous
aeroportis xelisufleba Sesvlaze uars eubneba TveSi daaxloebiT 25 qarTvels. Sveicariis sasazRvro
xelisufleba SeSvebaze saSualod uars eubneba TveSi saqarTvelos 4 moqalaqes.30

germaniis sasazRvro kontrolis xelisufleba amowmebs aqvT Tu ara qarTvelebs germaniaSi Sesvlis
ufleba da mgzavrebs akontrolebs franqfurtis aeroportSi TviTmfrinavidan maTi gadmosvlis
momentidan. sazRvramdeli kontrolis es saxe xels uwyobs qveyanaSi Sesvlaze uaris Tqmas im
mxriv, rom piri SeiZleba datovon TviTmfrinavSi, romelic ramdenime saaTis Semdeg TbilisSi
brundeba. msgavsi sazRvramdeli Semowmeba zogjer sxva qveynebSic gamoiyeneba.

3.5.4       dokumentTa gayalbeba

yvela saelCos yoveldRiurad mimarTaven ganmcxadeblebi yalbi dokumentebis wardgeniT. es
gayalbebebi SeiZleba iyos yalbi werilebi, romlebic adastureben, rom pirebi muSaoben
saqarTveloSi da namdvilad dabrundebian ukan, an yalbi mowvevebi daniSnulebis qveynidan, an
dabadebis yalbi mowmobebi da Zveli sabWoTa samxedro pasportebi.

ukanasknel xanebSi gaerTianebuli samefos saelCom ganixila saqarTvelos sabaJo
departamentidan yalbi sarekomendacio werilebis 9 calkeuli SemTxveva, sadac gayalbebuli iyo
sabaJos arsebuli TanamSromlis xelmowerac ki. gayalbeba gamoaSkaravda, rodesac sakonsulos
TanamSromelma dareka sabaJo departamentSi werilis namdvilobis dasadgenad.

Sengenis qveynebSi samogzaurod wasvlis mosurne qarTvelTaTvis am qveynebis moqalaqeTa
mowveva unda akmayofilebdes ramdenime moTxovnas. yvelaze mniSvnelovani pirobaa is, rom
ara-evrogarTianebis qveynebis moqalaqeTa mimwvevma pirma an dawesebulebam unda
waradginos adgilobrivi an erovnuli xelisuflebis mier oficialurad damowmebuli standartuli
mowveva. eWvis aRZvris SemTxvevaSi sakonsulos TanamSromlebs SeuZliaT Seamowmon am
mowmobis namdviloba maTs samSobloSi darekviT. zogierT qveyanaSi mimwvev pirebs
SeiZleba daekisroT finansuri an samarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba, Tu maTi ucxoeli stumari
daarRvevs savizo reJims, magram es wesi Tanabrad ar vrceldeba Sengenis yvela qveyanaze.
magaliTad, safrangeTSi ucxoeli stumris mier savizo reJimis darRvevis an sxva saxis ukanono
qmedebis gamo mimwvevi piris pasuxismgeblobis politika ar tardeba.

cota xnis win aSS-s saelCom miiRo seriozuli saxis mowveva aSS-Si moqmedi kompaniidan,
romelic saqarTvelos moqalaqes samuSaod iwvevda aSS-Si. Tumca ar iyo gaTvaliswinebuli erTi
mniSvnelovani detali _ aSS-Si ar gamoiyeneba standartuli A-4 zomis qaRaldi. Tumca aSS-s
saelCos sakonsulos TanamSromelma ganacxada, rom yalbi dokumentebis aRmoCena yovelTvis

30
     kontaqtebi Sveicariis aviaxazebis TanamSromlebTan, 2000 wlis 7 ivlisi.


                                                           15
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi        aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                            saqarTvelo


ase ioli rodia da rom xSirad is saWiroebs gacilebiT ufro Rrma analizs, vidre mxolod qaRaldis
zomis SeniSvnas.

saberZneTis saelCo regularulad aRmoaCens yalb dokumentebs, rogoricaa dabadebis mowmobebi
da Zveli sabWoTa samxedro pasportebi, romelTa saSualebiTac adamianebi adastureben TavianT
berZnul warmomavlobas. saberZneTis warmomadgenelma oficialurma pirebma SeimuSaves
amgvar gayalbebaTa swrafi aRmoCenis specifiuri meTodi da acxadeben, rom momentalurad
SeuZliaT namdvili da yalbi dokumentebis garCeva. israelis saelCoc msgavsi problemis winaSe
dgas, magram sakonsulos pasuxismgebeli TanamSromeli acxadebs, rom zogjer adamianebi
waradgenen namdvil dokumentebs, romlebic Sesyiduli aqvT saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi
ebraelebisagan. zogierTi ebrauli ojaxi Tavs irCens ebrauli warmomavlobis damadasturebeli
dokumentebis kompleqtebis gayidviT, erTi kompleqti _ 2500 aSS dolari Rirs. am namdvili
dokumentebis Semsyidveli zogierTi piri sruliadac ar aris ebraeli, magram xelidan ar uSvebs
qveynis datovebis Sanss. TbilisSi arsebuli israelis saelCos SefasebiT israelSi wasul imigrantTa
30-40% sinamdvileSi ar aris ebrauli warmoSobis.

3.5.5    mTavrobis warmomadgenelTa zewola sakonsulos TanamSromlebze

bevri saelCo regularulad dgeba damabneveli faqtis winaSe, rodesac mTavrobis
warmomadgenlebi dakavebulni arian TavianTi naTesavebis, megobrebisa da nacnobebisaTvis
vizebis aRebiT. zogjer oficialur samTavrobo delegaciebTan erTad sazRvargareT
miemgzavrebian pirebi, romelTac aSkarad aranairi oficialuri Tanamdeboba ar ukaviaT. isini
waradgenen sarekomendacio werilebs maRali instanciebidan, TviT prezidentis aparatidanac, da
iTxoven sakonsulos TnamSromelTa daxmarebas TavianTi nacnobebisaTvis vizis gacemis
saqmeSi. bevr SemTxvevaSi es pirebi aRar brundebian saqarTveloSi. sakonsulos
TanamSromlebma ician amis Sesaxeb, magram ver xedaven am tendenciis SeCerebis
SesaZleblobebs, Tumca zogierT SemTxvevaSi isini uars acxadeben vizis gacemaze mTavrobis
warmomadgenlebis mxridan zewolis miuxedavad.

mTavrobis warmomadgenel maRali Tanamdebobis pirTa mxridan sakonsulos TanamSromlebze
zewolis SemTxvevebze oficialur informacias gvawvdis israelis saelCoc. zogjer saelCos sakonsulo
departamentSi midis cnobili piri, rogoricaa ministris moadgile, saparlamento komitetis
Tavmjdomare an opoziciis lideri, da miaqvs 10 an 15 Tavisi nacnobis pasporti. sakonsulos
TanamSromeli yovelTvis uars acxadebs amgvari ganacxadebis ganxilvaze da sTxovs
ganmcxadeblebs, individualurad Seitanon sabuTebi. VIP mediatori albaT trabaxobs Tavis
megobrebSi, rom uproblemod SeuZlia israelis vizis gakeTeba nebismieri msurvelisaTvis. bevri
klienti mas sakmao Tanxas uxdis, zogjer 2 000 aSS dolars. uaris SemTxvevaSi sakuTari
warumateblobis misaCqmalad mediatori acxadebs, rom israelis konsulma fuli qrTamad aiRo,
sinamdvileSi ki fuls Tavd itovebs. mediatoris klientebs misi versia Cveulebriv simarTled
miaCniaT. maT demonstraciebic ki moawyves israelis saelCosTan da sakonsulos
TanamSromlisagan iTxovdnen TavianT kuTvnil Tanxas.

gaerTianebuli samefos saelCo daJinebiT moiTxovs, rom vizaze gancxadebis Semtani yvela piri
unda mivides sakonsulo ganyofilebaSi sakonsulos TanamSromlebTan gasaubrebis gasavlelad, im
SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu es pirebi oficialuri samTavrobo delegaciis wevrebi arian. Tanamdebobis
zogierTma pirma aSkarad gamoxata ukmayofileba am wesis gamo, magram gaerTianebuli
samefos saelCo amtkicebs, rom es erTaderTi saSualebaa mTavrobis warmomadgenelTa mier
Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. gaerTianebuli samefos saelCos
sakonsulo ganyofilebis TanamSromelma aRniSna, rom mTavrobis warmomadgenelTa amgvar




                                               16
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi          aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                              saqarTvelo


intensiur monawileobas TavianTi nacnobebis mier vizis aRebis proceduraSi ukuSedegebamde
mivyavarT.

3.6      dasaqmebis saagentoTa da im SuamavalTa saqmianobani, romlebic vizis
         mopovebas uzrunvelyofen

                    “inglisi, holandia, da portugalia. evroviza swrafad da iafad”

 “gogonebi 18-da 25 wlamde au-paris programiT germaniaSi. erTwliani saswavlo programebi
                                samuSaos SeTavsebiT”

      “dasaqmeba TurqeTSi qalebisa da mamakacebisaTvis, kvebiTa da sacxovrebeli adgilis
                                      uzrunvelyofiT”

         “dasaqmeba – irlandia, italia, espaneTi, protugalia, CexeTi, aSS-sa da inglisSi”

yovelkvireulad, didi raodenobis gancxadebebi qveyndeba gazeTebSi, sadac Suamavali
saagentoebi avrceleben informacias TavianTi SesaZleblobebsa da momsaxurebaze vizis
yovelgvari problemebis gareSe mopovebis Sesaxeb. am saagentoTa umravlesoba, romelTa
Sorisac arian individualuri pirebi da zogi araoficialurad Seqmnilic ki, aRniSnul servisTan erTad
sazRvargareT dasaqmebasac uzrunvelyofen.

mso daukavSirda ramodenime aseT saagentos da aseve moipova informacia im individualuri
pirebisagan, romlebsac am saagentoTa da SuamavalTa samsaxuriT usargebliaT. sawyisi kvlevis
maStabis simciris gamo mso-s ar gaugrZelebia kvleviTi samuSaoebi SuamavalTa saqmianobebis
Sesaxeb. Tumca momavalSi saWiro iqneba am SuamavalTa moqmedebis meTodTa ufro Rrmad
gaanalizeba, raTa ufro naTeli suraTi Seiqmnas Tu ra rols TamaSoben isini ukanono migraciasa
da saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis ukanonod gadayvanis saqmeSi.

mso-s mier gamokiTxuli yvela sakonsulo samsaxuris warmomadgenelTa gancxadebiT,
SuamavalTa mier Semotanil savizo anketebze gaicema uaryofiTi pasuxebi. sakonsulo
samsaxurebi daJinebiT moiTxoven, rom yvela pirma individualurad mimarTos maT. wina
droisgan gansxvavebiT, dResdReobiT naTelia, rom zogierTi piri, romelic iyenebs SuamavalTa
samsaxurebs vizis mopovebis saqmeSi arRvevs savizo reJims an saerTod aRar brundeba.
magaliTisTvis, 1999 wlis savizo kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis Setanis Semdeg amerikis
SeerTebuli Statebis saelCo kategoriulad uars acxadebs SuamavlebTan TanamSromlobaze.
swored es aris erTerTi mizezi, imisa rom bolo wlebis manZilze mniSvnelovnad gaizarda vizis
gacemaze uaryofiTi pasuxebi.
savizo kanonmdeblobis aseTi mkacri SezRudvebi ar aSinebs da xels ar uSlis Suamavlebs, rom
gaagrZelon TavianTi saqmianobebi, gamoaqveynon gancxadebebi, romelic “ocnebis” qveynebSi
ukeTesi cxovrebis pirobebs sTavazobs xalxs.

dasavleTis qveynebis vizis uzrunvelyofis minimaluri safasuri Seadgens 700 aSS dolars. firmebi
iTxoven iseT pasportebs, sadac vizis gacemis uaryofiTi SeniSvnebi ar aris aRniSnuli da
arwmuneben klientebs, rom privilegiebiT sargeblobs iseTi pasportebi, sadac adre gacemuli
vizebia aRniSnuli. Cveulebriv, firmebis warmomadgenlebi ar iZlevian damakmayofilebel
informacias telefonze saubrisas da iTxoven, rom dainteresebulma pirebma damatebiTi
informaciisaTvis uSualod mimarTon firmebs. mso-s smenia imis Sesaxebac, rom vizis
Suamavlebi iTxoven gansakuTrebulad did Tanxas, daaxloebiT 4000, xandaxan 5000 aSS
dolarsac ki, rasac isini TiTqos sakonsulo samsaxurebis oficerTa an turistuli vizis gacemis


                                                 17
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                    aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                        saqarTvelo


proceduraSi Cabmuli saelCoebis TanamSromelTa mosyidvaSi iyeneben. Worebis doneze
arsebobs vizis Sesyidvis am saxis SesaZleblobebi, Tumca mso-s ar gaaCnia amis damadasturebeli
faqti. aseve dadis xmebi, rom Suamavlebi iReben garkveul Tanxebs yovelgvari samsaxuris
gawevis gareSe.

qarTul gazeT “alia”-Si, gamoqveynda ucnobi avtoris statia turistuli saagentoebis muSaobis
Sesaxeb. avtori eWvqveS ayenebs mTavrobis moxeleTa saqmianobas, TiTqosda isini iyeneben
turistul saagentoebis saqmianobebs TviT-gamdidrebis miznebisaTvis. samoqalaqo moxeleebi
borotad iyeneben sakuTar oficialur Tanamdebobebs, mimarTaven ra saelCoTa sakonsulo
samsaxurebs TbilisSi, sakuTari klientebisaTvis vizis mopovebis mizniT oficialuri samTavrobo
mogzaurobis mizezis safuZvelze. Tanxis umetesi nawili gankuTvnilia am oficialur
moxeleTaTvis, mxolod mcire procenti rCeba dainteresebul turistul saagentoebs.31

saberZneTis saelCos gancxadebiT vizis Suamavlebs SemuSavebuli aqvT saberZneTis oficialuri
vizis mopovebis specifiuri midgoma. yovel SuadRes, saberZneTis saelCos SenobasTan axlos,
gaurkveveli pirebi akvirdebian saelCodan viziT gamomaval pirebs. isini miyvebian maT, paraven
an Zalis gamoyenebiT arTmeven am pirebs pasportebs. amis Semdeg pasportidan oficialuri vizas
iReben da hyidian daaxloebiT 2500 aSS dolarad. saberZneTis saelCo usafrTxoebis politikis
gasaumjobeseblad, saberZneTis sazRvris dacvis Stab-binaSi agzavnis yvela im pirTa
fotosuraTebs vizec gacemulia oficialuri viza. es sakmaod kargi saSualebaa, raTa Tavidan iqnas
acilebuli im pirTa Sesvla saberZneTSi, romlebzec viza ar aris gacemuli.

zogierTi Suamavali amaragebs sakuTar klientebs yalbi dokumentebiT. zogierTi saagento
sakmaod maRali donis yalb dokumentebsac amzadebs, rogorc es aRniSnulia 3.5.4 paragrafSi,
Tumca zogierTi saagento arc ki fiqrobs xarisxze da hyidis Zalian dabal doneze damzadebul
gayalbebul dokumentebs, romelsac saelCos personali martivad aRmoaCens xolme.
dasaqmebis erT-erTi saagento sTavazobda dainteresebul pirebs samsaxurebs portugaliaSi, italiasa
da espaneTSi ZiZis, jandacvis       (movla-patronoba) da sastumros personalis samuSaos
Sesasruleblad. Tviuri anazRaureba Seadgenda 500 aSS dolars, romelic sakmaod aRemateba
saqarTvelos moqalaqis xelfass da TavisTavad sakmaod mimzidvelia. aseT samuSaoze SerCeul
pirebi miemgzavrebian moskovSi, Semdeg ki avtobusiT xmelTaSua zRvisken. saagento aseve
uzrunvelyofda maTTvis vizebs da gaweuli samsaxurisatvis iRebda 1700 aSS dolars. igive
saagento sTavazobda klientebs dasaqmebas didi britaneTisa da CrdiloeT irlandiis gaerTianebuli
samefos qarxnebSi, anazRaurebiT 1000 aSS dolari TveSi. saagento uzrunvelyofda vizasa da
sastumros pirveli xuTi dRis ganmavlobaSi 900 aSS dolaris safasurad. dainteresebul pirebs
TviTon unda uzrunvelyoT transportireba da gansaxlebis xarjebi. aseTi maRali gadasaxadebi,
miuxedavad dapirebuli maRali xelfasebisa da moskovis gavliT pirebis savaldebulo gamgzavrebis
faqti metyvelebs rom saagento SesaZloa ar iyos sando da savaraudod SesaZlebelia
TanamSromlobdes ruseTis saagentoebTan, romelTa umravlesobac cnobilia adamianebis
dasavleTSi ukanono gadayvanis saqmianobiT.32

erT-erTi qalbatoni, warmoSobiT quTaisidan, da misi ramodenime nacnobi, daukavSirda
adgilobriv Suamavals niderlandebSi soflis meurneobis seqtorSi samuSaos uzrunvelyofis mizniT.
mas unda miemarTa am adgilobrivi SuamavlisaTvis da gadaeca sakuTari pasporti, romelic
Semdeg gagzavnil iqna moskovSi. moskovSi, dasaqmebis saagentos unda mieRo gadawyvetileba
da moepovebina misTvis viza. dadebiTi gadawyvetilebis SemTxvevaSi qarTvelTa jgufi unda
gamgzavrebuliyo jer moskovSi da Semdeg avtobusiT niderlandebSi. gadasaxadi SuamavalTaTvis
31
  “alia”, 27 ivnisi 2000 weli.
32
  Global Survival Network, 1997, Crime and Servitude: an exposé of the traffic in women for prostitution from the
Newly Independent States.


                                                         18
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi        aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                            saqarTvelo


Seadgenda 800 aSS dolars da dapirebuli Tviuri xelfasis odenoba Seadgenda 1500 aSS dolars. es
Tanxa gansakuTrebiT saeWvoa, radganac niderlandebSi adgilobriv mosaxleobasac ki ara aqvs
aseTi maRali xelfasebi.

erTi gogona, warmoSobiT Telavidan, aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan, 2000 wlis maisSi wavida
kordobaSi, samxreT espaneTSi, ZiZad. man mTlianobaSi Suamavals gadauxada 3000 aSS dolari
or nawilad, romelmac uzrunvelyo viza, mgzavroba da ojaxi espaneTSi. mas ar hqonda aranairi
sakontaqto informacia wasvlamde, Tu sad an romel ojaxSi midioda samuSaod espaneTSi.
miuxedavad mis mier gadaxdili didi Tanxisa, igi unda gamgzavrebuliyo espaneTSi avtobusiT da
igi winaswar gafrTxilebul iqna rom mgzavrobisas sastumro da kveba sakuTari xarjebiT unda
daefara.

sakmaod bevri saagento dabali kvalifikaciis personals sTavazobs samsaxurs TurqeTSi. isini
aRniSnaven, rom aseT samuSaoze Tviuri xelfasi Seadgens 250 aSS dolars da aqedan
gamomdinare Suamavluri momsaxureobisaTvis, romelSic Sedis vizisa da avtobusis bileTis
mogvareba, iTxoven 300 aSS dolaris odenobiT. TurqeTis saelCo ar uwevs angariSs mesame
mxaris mier gaweul saSuamavlo samsaxurs da daJinebiT moiTxovs, TiToeulma pirma
damoukideblad mimarTos TurqeTis saelCos.

zogjer xalxi dainteresebulia gancxadebebiT mimzidveli samuSaoebis Sesaxeb. erT-erT aseT
SemTxvevaSi, Tbilisis mTavar prospeqtze ganTavsebulma firmam miiRo 400 axalgazrda
mamakacis gancxadeba, romlebic dainteresebuli iyvnen sazRvargareT dasaqmebiT. maT unda
SeevsoT anketa da gadaecaT sakuTari pasportebi firmisaTvis, romelic Sesabamis
dokumentebTan erTad gadaagzavnida moskovSi, sadac tardeboda monawileTa SerCeva.
SerCeuli kandidatebs moeTxovaT pasportebi moskovSi ucxo qveynis vizis mosapoveblad da 400
aSS dolaris gadaxda anketirebis proceduris uzrunvelsayofad. warumateblobis SemTxvevaSi es
Tanxa ar anazRaurdeboda.

aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac qveyndeba gancxadebebi seriozuli reputaciis mqone saagentoebis
mier. erT-erTi aseTi firma Suamavlobas uwevs qarTvel qalebs, romelTac surT safrangeTsa da
germaniaSi erTi wliT muSaoba aupearis programis safuZvelze. maT moeTxovebaT
administraciuli gadasaxadis gadaxda 100 aSS dolaris odenobiT, xolo Tviuri anazRaureba
germanul ojaxSi ganisazRvreba 400 germanuli markis (daaxloebiT 200 aSS dolari) odenobiT da
1700 franguli frankis (daaxloebiT 225 aSS dolari) odenobiT safrangeTSi. Cveulebriv firma
sTavazobs klients swavlis saSualebas muSaobisagan Tavisufal saaTebSi. qalebma, vizis
misaRebad unda mimarTon sakonsulo samsaxurebs damoukideblad, firma am SemTxvevaSi
mxolod sarekomendacio werils uzrunvelyofs. firmis warmomadgenelTa TqmiT aseTi saxis werili
Cveulebriv efeqturi gzaa vizis mosapoveblad. miuxedavad firmis seriozuli saqmianobisa, firma ar
iZleva dainteresebul pirTa uflebebisa da Rirsebis dacvis srul garantias. kargadaa cnobili, rom
qarTvelTa umetesoba, evropul standarTebTan SedarebiT sakmaod dabal anazRaurebaze
muSaobs sazRvargareT, da ZiriTadad ar iReben kompensacias zedmeti samuSaos
SesrulebisaTvis.

xdeba isec, rom Suamavlebi arc ki fiqroben raime samsaxuris gawevis Sesaxeb. daaxloebiT xuTi
wlis win, adamianebis garkveulma jgufma reagireba moaxdina gancxadebaze, romelic
xmelTaSua zRvis mimarTulebiT iaf mogzaurobas sTavazobda mkiTxvels. Tbilisis aeroportSi
maT daxvdaT gidi, romelic registraciisa da sapasporto kontrolis gavlis Semdeg gahyva turistebs
TviTvmfinavamde, gaafrTxila jgufi, rom daekavebinaT sakuTari adgilebi da daecadaT
viTvmfrinavis ekipaJisaTvis. sinamdvileSi aravin gamoCenila da turistebi aRmoCndnen
gamoyenebisaTvis uvargis TviTmfrinavSi. gidi da firmis warmomadgenlebi aRar gamoCenilan.


                                               19
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                       aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                           saqarTvelo


aseTi saqmianobebiT dakavebuli firmebi xSirad icvlian adgilmdebareobasa da telefonis nomrebs,
raTa Tavidan aicilon motyuebuli klientebisa da samarTaldamcavi organoebis warmomadgenelTa
gamoCena. es SemTxveva gviCvenebs, rom am saqmiT dakavebul Suamavlebs sakmaod farTo
qseli gaaCniaT da samTavrobo struqturebis moxeleebTan erTadac ki axerxeben TavianTi
kriminaluri saqmianobebis realizebas. es faqti aseve miuTiTebs, rom uyuradRebo klientebi
saSualebas aZlevs aseT firmebs iarsebon, radgan isini arc ki interesdebian Seadaron
SeTavazebuli fasi da gaweuli momsaxurebis xarisxi.

saqarTvelos mTavrobisaTvis cnobilia dasaqmebis saagentoTa da SuamavalTa saqmianobebis
Sesaxeb. Tumca aralegaluri migraciisa da migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb
kanonmdeblobis naklebobis gamo samarTaldamcavi organoebi ver axerxeben iseTi politikis
SemuSavebas, romelic uzrunvelyofda amgvari ukanono saqmianobis SeCerebasa da mogvarebas.
erTerTi xelisSemSleli piroba aseve aris SezRuduli biujeti, romliTac samTavrobo struqturebs
uwevT muSaoba.

mso-m moipova informacia dasaqmebis saagentoTa rolis Sesaxeb daniSnulebis qveynebSi. 1999
wlis Semodomaze, qarTvelTa eqvskaciani jgufis wevrebi, erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad
gaemgzavrnen amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi. isini Sexvdenen erTmaneTs bruklinis brington biCis
monakveTSi cxovrebisas. am adgilas Tavmoyrilia yofili sabWoTa kavSiris sxvadasxva
qveynebidan Camoculebi. aq isini Sexvdnen erT wyvils, romelic dapirda maT kentukis StatSi
samuSaosa da Sesabamis dokumentacias. isini Cavidnen sakmaod Rirseba moklebuli samuSaos
Sesasruleblad, Tumca mainc moxarulebi iyvnen napovni samsaxuriT, radgan ukeTesi
anazRaureba hqondaT vidre saqarTveloSi. aRniSnulma wyvilma qarTvelebs savadasxva
qviTrebisa da qiris gadasaxadi Tanxa gamoarTva da mxolod saxlSi dasabrunebeli da saWmlis
fuli dautova. qarTvelebi darwmunebulebi iyvnen da sjerodaT, rom maTi samuSao sabuTebi
wesrigSi iyo. mxolod adgilobrivi policiis mier Catarebuli Semowmebisas aRmoCnda, rom wyvils
maTTvis yalbi samuSao dokumentebi miucia. wyvili daapatimres, xolo qarTvelebi deportirebulni
iqnen samSobloSi.33


Tavi 4. saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa ukanono gadayvana

rogor ukve avRniSneT, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis aralegaluri migracia sakmaod gavrcelebuli
movlenaa da amas sakmaod mravalferovani statistikuri monacemebi da faqtebi adastureben.
moxsenebis am nawilSi erTadaa gaerTianebuli yvela is informacia, rac mso-s mier iqna
mopovebuli saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb, Tumca es srulebiT ar aris
sakmarisi srulyofili suraTis warmosadgenad da saqarTvelodan adamianebis ukanono gadayvanis
xasiaTis dasadgenad.

4.1 migrantTa ukanono gadayvana

adamianebis ukanonod gadayvana dsT-s qveynebidan sakmaod mzardi xasiaTisaa. yovelwliurad
dsT-s qveynebidan aTasobiT mamakaci da qali, gansakuTrebiT axalgazrda mamakacebi
ukanonod arian gadayvanilni dasavleTisa da sxva qveynebSi, sadac iaf da morCil muSa xelze
didi moTxovnilebaa. axalgazrda qalebis umravlesoba, iZulebiTi prostituciiTa da sxva
saqmianobebiT arian dakavebulni, dapirebuli mimzidveli samuSaosa da sacxovrebeli pirobebis
gaumjobesebis nacvlad. yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebidan, ukraina, ruseTi da moldaveTi
gaxlavT is qveynebi, sadac migrantebis ukanono gadayvana yvelaze metadaa gavrcelebuli. igive

33
     kentukis kurieri, 2000 wlis 13 aprili, amerikuli ocneba koSmarad iqceva.


                                                            20
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi        aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                            saqarTvelo


magram gacilebiT ufro naklebi masStabiT aRiniSneba belorusiasa da baltiis qveynebSi. gacilebiT
naklebi damadasturebeli faqtebi arsebobs Sua aziisa da kavkasiis respublikebSi, Tumca mso-s
safuZveli aqvs, ifiqros, rom arc es regionebia dazRveuli aralegaluri migraciisagan.

arsebul literaturisa Tu erovnuli sainformacio saSualebebis masalebis gamoyenebiT, mso-m
Seagrova monacemebi aralegaluri migraciis Sesaxeb da ukanono gadayvanis sakiTxi daayena im
qveynebis saelCoTa sakonsulo samsaxurebis warmomadgenelTa interviuirebis dros, romlebic
ufro metad warmoadgenen saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa emigraciis punqtebs.

mxolod erTma saelCom miawoda mso-s detaluri informacia saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis ukanono
gadayvanis Sesaxeb. maT xelT arsebuli ukanonod gadayvanili qarTvel migrantTa jgufze arsebuli
ingformaciis Tanaxmad, TavSesafris maZiebel saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa umravlesoba, sakuTari
xarjebiT gadayvanilia am qveyanaSi migrantebis ukanonod gadamyvanTa mier. saqarTvelos
moqalaqeebi Cadian qveynis sazRvarze vizisa da oficialuri samgzavro dokumentebis gareSe,
romelTac anadgureben am gadamyvanTa rCeviT. fiqroben albaT, rom maT pirad ganacxads ufro
meti privilegia eqneba ofiialuri dokumentebTan SedarebiT. rogorc sCans ukanonod gadayvanil
migrantTa umravlesobas axalgazrda martoxela mamakacebi warmoadgenen, romlebic aseve
sakuTari saxsrebiT, damoukideblad, miemgzavrebian ruseTsa an ukrainaSi da iq ukavSirdebian
adgilobriv turistul saagentoebs. isini ki maT exmarebian dasavleTis qveynebSi moxvedraSi.
amasTanave agentebi afrTxileben TavianT klientebs ar miawodon informacia daniSnulebis
qveynis samTavrobo uwyebebs maTi mgzavrobisa da SuamavalTa rolis Sesaxeb. ukrainaSi
dasavleTis qveynebis mimarTulebiT gasvlis ZiriTad punqtebad iTvlebian qalaqebi kievi da lvovi.
aqedan migrantebi isini Sedian poloneTSi, sadac migranTa ukanonod gadamyvani pirebi
exmarebian maT sazRvris gadakveTaSi dasavleT evropis mimarTulebiT.

aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aseTi farTo maStabiani, organizebuli saxis
ukanonod gadayvanis faqtebi arc erT evropul qveyanas ara aqvs aRricxuli.

saqarTvelos ara-samTavrobo organizacias “xalxTa harmoniuli ganviTarebis fondi” aqvs
informacia saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa, evropis sxvadasxva qveynebSi SromiTi ukanono
gadayvanis SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb, kipris, safrangeTis, niderlandebisa da espaneTis CaTvliT. es
SemTxvevebi ar aris dokumentaciiT dadasturebuli da ar moicavs informacias ukanono
gadamyvanTa mier gamoyenebuli im meTodebis Sesaxeb, romelTac isini iyeneben.

safrangeTis saelCos gancxadebiT, e.w. turistuli saagentoebi cdiloben warmoadginon erTi an ori
individualuri piri oficialuri samTavrobo delegaciis wevrebad. sakmaod Znelia sakonsulo
samsaxurma gamoarCios aseTi adamianebi jgufidan, amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqtic, rom
es pirebi waradgenen maRali rangis samTavrobo moxeleTa sarekomendacio werilebs. rogorc
ukve aRiniSna 3.6 paragrafSi, Cveulebriv, samTavrobo delegaciis mgzavrobis Semdeg, jgufis
ramdenime wevri ar brundeba samSobloSi. es ki iZleva imis safuZvels, vivaraudoT, rom ukanono
gadamyvanebi maRali rangis samTavrobo gzebis da arxebis saSualebiT, sakuTari interesebis
sasargeblod axerxeben TavianTi ukanono biznesis warmarTvas.

zogierTi saelCos warmomadgenelTa azriT, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs ar sWirdebaT ukanono
gadamyvanTa daxmareba dasavleT evropaSi mosaxvedrad, radgan isini Tvlian, rom sakmaod
advilia vizis aReba. saqarTvelos zogierTi moqalaqe iyenebs SuamavalTa daxmarebas yalbi
mowvevis an sxva dokumentis mosapoveblad, sakonsulo samsaxurSi warsadgenad. vizis miRebis
Semdeg isini yovelgvari daxmarebis gareSe agvareben qveynidan gasvlas.




                                               21
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                  aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                      saqarTvelo


iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac ramdenime qarTveli cdilobda meqsikidan aSS-Si gadasvlas.
qarTvelebis mier am marSrutis gamoyeneba sakmaod iSviaTia da miuTiTebs SuamavalTa mier
SeTavazebul samsaxurze, maTTvis saintereso daniSnulebis qveyanaSi SeRwevis mizniT. es
informacia arsad ar aris detalurad registrirebuli, amdenad ar arsebobs ukanono gadamyvanTa
mamxilebeli faqtebi maT mier gamoyenebuli meTodebisa da marSrutebis Sesaxeb. 2000 wlis
ivnisSi, saqarTvelos erT erTi moqalaqe, romelic iZebneboda saqarTvelos samarTaldamcavi
organoebisa da interpolis mier dapatimrebul iqna aSS-Si. igi Sevida aSS-Si meqsikidan sxva
pasportiT, romelic man warudgina aSS sazRvris dacvis samsaxurs.34

4.2      saqarTvelos qalTa ukanono gadayvana

saqarTvelos qalTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb informaciis mopoveba sakmaod rTulia. arsebobs
qalTa ukanono gadayvanis SemTxvevebi, Tumca amgvari movlenebi xasiaTdeba, TiTqosda
Tavidanve xelisSemwyobi pirobebis uqonlobiT. informaciis nakleboba gamowveulia am sakiTxis
irgvliv naklebi kvlevis gamo. amave dros ukanonod gadayvanil qalebs ar surT isaubron sakuTari
uiRblo Tavgadasavlebis Sesaxeb.

yvelasaTvis kargadaa cnobili, miuxedavad damadasturebeli faqtebis naklebobisa, rom qarTveli
qalebi dakavebulni arian gasarTob seqtorSi, TurqeTSi. TbilisSi, TurqeTis saelCos miTiTebiT,
TurqeTis vizis misaRebad, ganmcxadebelTa 80% qalebi Seadgenen. maTi umravlesoba Tvlis,
rom dakavebulni arian wvrili vaWrobiT, Tumca zogierTi maTgani miemgzavreba saqarTvelos
sazRvarTan axlo mdebare TurqeTis patara qalaqebSi, arTvini, samsuni da trapizoni, gasarTob
seqtorSi samuSaod. TurqeTis saelCos SefasebiT, savizo reJimis damrRvevTa ricxvi arc ise
maRalia da maTi umravlesoba droulad brundeba saqarTveloSi xelaxla, mokle-vadiani, erT Tviani
vizis asaRebad.

1997 wels, interpolis monacemebis Tanaxmad 98 qali, saqarTvelos moqalaqe dakavebul iqna
TurqeTSi prostituciis gamo.35 saqarTvelos moqalaqe qalTa TurqeTSi prostituciiT saqmianobis
erT-erT mizezs, ra Tqma unda, fulis gamomuSaveba warmoadgens da naklebad sasircxviloa
maTTvis meZaveoba saqarTvelos farglebs gareT. qalebi xSirad miemgzavrebian wvrili vaWrobis
sababiT, magram rCebian ufro didi xniT prostituciisa da ufro meti fulis gamomuSavebis
mizniT.36 2000 wlis 10 ivliss, 126 qali dsT-s qveynebidan trapizonidan, TurqeTis policiis mier
iqna deportirebuli. isini prostituciiT iyvnen dakavebulni da yvelas savizo reJimi hqonda
darRveuli. aranairi informacia am qalTa moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb ar yofila warmodgenili.37

saqarTvelos moqalaqe qalTa garkveuli nawili ar miemgzavreba sakuTari iniciativiT, aramed isini
ukanonod arian gadayvanilni TurqeTSi. 2000 wlis aprilis bolos, axalgazrda gogonas mier moklul
iqna masze ufrosi asakis qali, gogonas pasportze momxdari Cxubis Sedegad. pasporti gamoerTva
gogonas im mizeziT, rom qalbatons misTvis TurqeTis viza unda gaekeTebina. gogonam eWvi
Seitana qalbatonis ganzraxvaSi da moiTxova pasportis ukan dabruneba. qalma uari ganacxada da
kamaTi CxubSi gadaizarda. yvelaferi imiT damTavrda, rom gogonam TavSi qals boTli Caartya.
sainformacio saSualebaTa gancxadebiT, policias auRniSnavs, rom qalbatoni iyo saqarTvelos
moqalaqeebisagan Semdgari bandis wevri, romlebsac ukanonod gadahyavdaT axalgazrda
gogonebi saqarTvelodan TurqeTSi.38

34
   rusTavi-2 samauwyeblo kompania, 2000 wlis 26 ivnisis sainformacio gamoSveba.
35
   gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis ganviTarebis programa (UNDP), 1999, qalis mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi, gverdi
33.
36
   msoflio banki, 1999, saqarTvelo siRaribe da Semosavlis ganawileba, me2 tomi.
37
   ABC- axali ambebi, 10 ivlisi 2000.
38
   rusTavi-2 samauwyeblo kompania, sainformacio gamoSveba, 29 aprili 2000 weli.


                                                       22
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                   aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                       saqarTvelo




ara-samTavrobo organizaciam “xalxTa harmoniuli ganviTarebis fondi” acnoba mso-s erTi
SemTxvevis Sesaxeb, rodesac 15 wlis gogona, warmoSobiT quTaisidan, sakuTari survilis
sawinaaRmdegod, mezobelma waiyvana qalaq trapizonSi, TurqeTSi. gogona miiyvana
sastumroSi, meZavad iZulebiT samuSaod. gogona mihyides sastumros mepatrones 2000 aSS
dolarad. aTi dRis Semdeg gogona gamoiqca sastumrodan da moaxerxa dakavSireba trapizonSi
saqarTvelos sakonsulo samsaxurTan. TurqeTis policiam daapatimra sastumros mepatrone.

TurqeTSi qalebis ukanonod gadayvana SemTxveviT xasiaTs ar atarebs da es mtkicdeba kidev
urfo wina periodis istoriiT, romelic 1996 wliT TariRdeba. TurqeTis policiis mier dakavebul iqna
cxra qali, romelTac darRveuli hqondaT savizo reJimi da ar gaaCndaT saWiro samgzavro
dokumentebi. rogorc Semdeg gairkva, maT dapirdnen mocekvavis samuSaos, magram TurqeTSi
CasvlisTanave aiZules meZaveebad emuSavaT. qalebis pasportebi ukanono gadamyvanTa xelT
iyo da aRarc daubrunebiaT.

moskovSi dafuZnebuli ara-samTavrobo organizaciis informaciiT qalebi saqarTvelodan aqtiurad
arian Cabmulni prostituciaSi ruseTSi, gansakuTrebiT ki moskovSi. zogierTi maTgani
ukanonodaa iq gadayvanili. maT Sesaxeb rusul presaSi gancxadebebi qveyndeba, rogorc aziuri
warmoSobis egzotikur qalebze da isini sakmao popularobiT sargebloben ucxoel turistebsa da
saqmosnebs Soris.39
saberZneTis saelCos saqarTveloSi arasodes miuRia informacia saberZneTSi saqarTvelos
moqalaqe qalTa prostituciiT saqmianobis Sesaxeb. interpolis monacemebiT 1997 wels,
saberZneTSi prostituciis gamo daakaves 4 qarTveli qali.40

israelis saelCosTvis cnobilia, ramdenime wlis win momxdari SemTxvevis Sesaxeb, roca israelis
bordelSi dakavebul iqna 5 saqarTvelos moqalaqe qali. isini daapatimres da daabrunes
saqarTveloSi. es pirebi israelSi sakuTari iniciativiTa da surviliT gaemgzavrnen prostituciis
biznesSi fulis gamomuSavebis mizniT.41 qalTa didi raodenobis ukanonod gadayvana xdeba dsT-s
qveynebidan israelSi prostituciis biznesSi dasasaqmeblad, magram saqarTveloSi israelis saelCos
konsulis gancxadebiT es qalebi ara kavkasiuri, aramed rusuli da ukrainuli warmoSobis arian,
radgan klientebi israelSi upiratesobas Ria feris qalebs aniWeben. israelSi, qalebis ukanono
gadayvanasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis sxva wyaroebic ar moixsenieben da ar exebian
saqarTvelos moqalaqe qalebs.42

ufro seriozuli simptomebi israelSi wasvlasTan da ukanono gadayvanasTan dakavSirebiT
SeiniSneba qarTul presaSi fiqtiuri qorwinebis gancxadebebis saxiT. es gancxadebebi reklamas
uwevs Sesaferis israelel mamakacTan qorwinebas. qorwineba xdeba kiprSi da TiTqmis yvela
SemTxvevaSi qorwinebis Semdeg qalebi aRar Canan.

evropis uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlobis organizaciam (euTo) gamosca moxseneba ukanono
gadayvanis Sesaxeb, sadac saqarTvelo aRniSnulia, rogorc ukanonod gadayvanili migrantebis
erTerTi potenciuri qveyana.43 saqarTveloSi euTos misiis Tanaxmad, es midgoma ZiriTadad
emyareba saqarTvelos moqalaqe qalTa belgiaSi ukanonod gadayvanaze arsebul niSnebze. mso

39
   instituti MiraMed, urTierToba mso-sTan 2000 wlis 17 maiss.
40
   gaerTianebuli erebis ganviTarebis programa (UNDP), 1999, qalTa statusi saqarTveloSi.
41
   am qalTagan ori iyo skolis maswavlebeli, erTi ki teleJurnalisti.
42
   Amnesty International, 2000, dsT-s qveynebidan israelSi prostituciis mizniT ukanonod gadayvanil qalTa adamianis
uflebebis darRveva/ maikl speqteri, niu iork Taimzi, 1998, ukanono gadamyvanTa axali tvirTi: gulubryvilo slavi
qalebi.
43
   evropis uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlobis organizacia, 1999, adamianTa ukanono gadayvana: euTo-s Sedegebi.


                                                        23
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                      aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                          saqarTvelo


daukavSirda migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis winaaRmdeg brZolis arasamTavrobo organizaciis
warmomadgenlebs belgiaSi, romlebmac daadastures saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa moRvaweoba
antverpSi, belgiis CrdiloeTSi, qalTa ukanono gadayvanis saqmeSi.44

rogorc sCans saqarTvelo qalTa ukanonod gadayvanis satranzito qveyanadac gvevlineba. erT
erTma avtorma TurqeTsa da xmelTaSua zRvis sxva qveynebSi rusi da ukraineli qalebis
ukanonod gadayvanis tranzitul punqtad saqarTvelo daasaxela. ramdenime wlis win dakavebul
iqna organizebul kriminalTa jgufi, romelic saqarTvelos farglebs gareT moRvaweobda. jgufma
Seisyida saqarTvelos pasportebi rusi da ukraineli warmoSobis qalTaTvis. saqarTvelos pasporti
Cveulebriv, TurqeTSi iolad gadasvlis garantias iZleva.45 aSS mTavrobis mier momzadebul iqna
kidev erTi moxseneba rus qalTa tranzitul, ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos gavliT. es
pirebi axerxeben saqarTvelos pasportebis mopovebas da pirdapir gzavnian maT TurqeTsa da
saberZneTSi. warmodgenili moxseneba adasturebs, rom saqarTvelo, qalTa ukanono gadayvanis
wyarosac warmoadgens da tranzitis qveyanasac.46

mso-m Seiswavla dsT-s qveynebidan qalTa ukanonod gadayvanasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis
SesaZlo sxva wyaroebi, magram ver aRmoaCina sxva damatebiTi informacia saqarTvelodan
qalTa ukanonod gadayvanis Sesaxeb.

4.3         bavSvTa ukanono gadayvana

ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros (lgs) mier Segrovebulia saqarTvelodan bavSvTa ukanono
gadayvanis SemTxvevebi sazRvargareT gaSvilebis mizniT. mravalma qalma, 90-iani wlebis
dasawyisSi, samoqalaqo omSi dakarga meuRle, finansuri saxsrebis naklebobisa da fsiqologiuri
problemebis gamo ver SeZles Svilebis gazrda da movla. im periodSi, sakmaod bevri bavSvi
darCa oblad, orive mSoblis gareSe. 1993 – 1994 wlebSi, afxazeTis konfliqtis dasrulebisas, didi
siswrafiT gaizarda ucxo firmebis moRvaweoba ojaxTa mier qarTvel bavSvTa sazRvargareT
gaSvilebis Suamavlobis saqmeSi. es firmebi ZiriTadad dafuZnebuli iyo aSS-Si da gaxsnili
hqondaT filialebi saqarTveloSi.

1996 wlis seqtembridan dekembramde, lgs-s mier ganxorcielda monitoringi Tbilisis saerTaSoriso
aeroportSi da saeWvo garemoebebis qveS bavSvebis sazRvargareT gadayvanis sakmaod bevri
SemTxveva iqna aRmoCenili. yofila SemTxvevebi, rodesac ufrosi asakis adamiani mgzavrobs
10-15 bavSvTan erTad. TiTqos am bavSvebs esaWiroebaT sazRvargareT samedicino
mkurnaloba an apireben sakuTari ojaxis monaxulebas. Cveulebriv aseTi pirebi warmoadgenen
saWiro dokumentacias, romelic adasturebs, rom isini kanonieri, bavSvebze pasuxismgebeli da
uflebamosili pirebi arian. ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministros ar gaaCnia sxva monacemebi
saqarTvelodan bavSvTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb, radgan jer kidev saqarTvelos mTavrobis
mier ar aris ganviTarebuli migraciuli moZraobis statistikis aRmricxveli raime saxis zusti sistema.
ltolvilTa da gansaxlebis saministrosaTvis aseve ucnobia qveynis gareT gayvanil bavSvTa bedi.

1997 wels ZalaSi Sevida prezidentis brZanebuleba, romelic miznad isaxavda sazRvargareT
bavSvTa “eqsportirebis” aRkveTas. lgs-s TanamSromelTa azriT, am brZanebulebam
garkveulwilad dadebiTad imoqmeda da samTavrobo organizaciebisaTvis ufro naTeli gaxda


44
     2000 wlis 15 ivniss mso-saTvis petsi siorensenis, evroparlamentis wevris, mier mowodebuli informacia.
45
  doq. luis Seli, transnacionaluri danaSaulisa da korupciis kvlevis centris direqtori, Testimony at the
hearing of June 28 1999 before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
46
 aSS saxelmwifo departamenti, demokratiis, adamianis uflebebisa da Sromis biuro, 2000, 1999 wlis qveynis
moxsenebebi adamianTa uflebebis praqtika.


                                                           24
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                   aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                       saqarTvelo


problemis aqtualoba da imav droulad saqarTvelodan bavSvTa ukanono gadayvana TiTqosda
mniSvnelovnad Semcirda.

sazRvris dacvis TanamSromlebis gancxadebiT, Tbilisis aeroportSi regularulad aRiniSneba
bavSvTa ucxo qveynebSi mogzaurobis faqtebi da maTi azriT zogjer arsebobs eWvi, rom isini
ukanonod arian gadayvanilni. Znelia uTxra adamians an adamianTa jgufs uari saqarTvelodan
gasvlaze, radgan sazRvris dacvis moxeleebi ver adastureben sakuTar eWvebs mgzavrTa mier
Cveulebriv vargisi dokumentebis warmodgenis gamo.

msoflio bankis moxseneba saqarTvelos Sesaxeb exeba bavSvTa ukanono gadayvanas prostituciis
mizniT. moxsenebaSi aRniSnulia, rom saqarTveloSi moqmedi saerTaSoriso organizaciebi, 1996
wels trapizonSi, TurqeTis Crdilo-aRmosavleTSi, Sexvdnen saqarTvelos arasrulwlovan
moqalaqeebs.47     avtori adasturebs, rom oboli bavSvebi ukanonod arian gadayvanilni
saqarTvelodan TurqeTSi, sadac maT aiZuleben imuSaon meZavebad. zogierTi gogonas asaki ar
aRemateba 15 wels.48 damatebiTi informacia, Tu rogor, an vis mier iqnen ukanonod gadayvanilni
arasrulwlovanni, ar moipoveba.

aseve moxseniebulia qarTvel bavSvTa sazRvargareT gadayvana da maTi iZulebiT donorebad
gamoyeneba, Tumca mso-m ver SeZlo amgvar saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis
damadasturebeli faqtebis mopoveba.

4.4      mediatorTa da ukanonod gadamyvanTa roli

adamianebis ukanonod gadayvana organizebulia individualuri pirebisa an adamianTa jgufis mier,
romlebic sargebels iReben saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aqtualuri interesidan, sxva qveynebSi eZion
ukeTesi cxovreba. saqarTveloSi am ukanono gadamyvanTa rolisa da moqmedebis meTodebis
naTeli suraTi Znelad dasadgenia. am sferoSi mso-s jer ar ganuxorcielebula kvleva, amdenad am
paragrafSi warmodgenili informacia ZiriTadad emyareba literaturasa da sxvaTa mier Catarebuli
kvlevebis monacemebs.

aSS-s mTavrobis saxelmwifo departamentma gamosca sruli publikacia aSS-Si qalTa ukanonod
gadayvanis Sesaxeb. kvlevis SedegebSi moxseniebulia saqarTvelo da kriminaluri jgufebis
monawileoba saqarTvelodan aSS-Si saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis ukanonod gadayvanaSi. upirveles
yovlisa unda aRiniSnos, rom moxsenebaSi bulgareTis Sinagan saqmeTa saministros mdivani,
bozidar popovis TqmiT rusi kriminalebi sxvebTan erTad axorcieleben saqarTvelos moqalaqe
qalTa ukanono gadayvanas dasavleT evropis qveynebSi, TurqeTis, saberZneTisa da sxva
qveynebis gavliT, prostituciis mizniT. kvleva aseve imowmebs 1998 wels, TbilisSi, aSS-s
saelCos mier momzadebul moxsenebas qarTuli kriminaluri jgufebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb, qalTa
ukanonod gadayvanaSi. am jgufebs axlo kontaqtebi aqvT rusul organizebul, borotmoqmedebTan
da funqcionireben dasaqmebis saagentoTa saxiT. zogierTi jgufi, yuradRebas prostituciis mizniT
qalTa ukanono gadayvanaze amaxvilebs, maSin rodesac sxvani orientirebas SromiT
eqspluataciaze akeTeben. axalgazrda qalebi TavianT saqmianobas prostituciiT amTavreben,
Tumca gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom 45 wels gadacilebuli qalebi SesaZloa ukanonod
iqnen gadayvanili monuri SromisaTvis, romelic kontraqtis safuZvelze xorcieldeba.49


47
   msoflio banki, 1999, saqarTvelo, siraribe da Semosavlebis ganawileba, tomi 2.
48
   2000 wlis 16 ivniss mso-sTvis miwodebuli informacia q-n n. dadvikis mier, msoflio bankis Stab-binis ufrosi
mecnier-muSaki socialur sakiTxebSi.
49
   Amy O’Neill Richards, DCI Exceptional Intelligence Analyst Program, April 2000, International Trafficking in
Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime.


                                                        25
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                      aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                          saqarTvelo


am moxsenebis daskvniTi nawili SesaZloa srulad emTxveodes mso-s mier mosamzadebel etapze
miRebul Sedegebs, im TvalsazrisiT, rom cnobilia dasaqmebis saagentoebis mier, moskovis
gavliT, xalxis dasavleT evropis qveynebSi gadayvana, Tumca gaurkvevelia am xalxis
mogzaurobis mizezi ruseTis gavliT.

evropis parlamentis belgielma wevrma da antverpenSi dafuZnebuli ara-samTavrobo organizaciis
(daxmarebas uwevs ukanonod gadayvanil qalebs) yofilma prezidentma, petsi sorensenma acnoba
mso-s antverpenSi saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa kriminaluri saqmianobis Sesaxeb, romlebic
monawileoben qalTa ukanonod gadayvanaSi. qalebma, romlebic maTTan uSaoben, ar isurves
esaubraT arasamTavrobo organizaciis warmomadgenlebTan am sakiTxze, amdenad araferia
cnobili am meZavTa warsulis Sesaxeb.

4.1 paragrafSi warmodgenili informacia, ruseTidan da ukrainidan niderlandebSi ukanonod
gadayvanil qarTvel mamakacTa Sesaxeb da saqarTvelodan da mis gavliT TurqeTSi da
dasavleTis qveynebSi ruseTis gavliT qalebis ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb, iZleva safuZvels, rom
saqarTvelodan namdvilad arsebobs adamianTa ukanonod gadayvanis Camoyalibebuli sistema.
qarTvel kriminalur jgufTa saqmianobis organizebisa da gayalbebis done sCans, jer kidev ar aris
kargad ganviTarebuli, Tumca es SesaZloa Seicvalos momavalSi. adamianebiT vaWroba sakmaod
momgebiania, amis gamos savaraudoa saqarTveloSi adamianebis ukanonod gadayvanis
SemTxvevebi gaizardos.

Catarebuli kriminaluri kvlevis Sedegad gairkva, rom yofili sabWoTa kavSiris yvela sxva
qveynebis msgavsad, saqarTveloSic kargadaa ganviTarebuli organizebuli danaSauli. saqarTvelo,
pirvel rigSi ganicdis post-sabWoTa sistemis mier memkvidreobiT datovebul kanonis aRiarebisa
da pativiscemis deficits, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ararsebobas, borotmoqmedTa farTo samyaros,
korufciasa da demobilizirebul samarTaldamcav da iuridiul aparats. miuxedavad amisa,
saqarTvelos bevri wingadadgmuli nabiji aqvs gakeTebuli, ramac SezRuda post-sabWoTa
organizebuli danaSaulis zrda. mravalma cnobilma damnaSavem datova qveyana da gadavida
dsT-s qveynebsa da dasavleT evropaSi. saqarTvelos hyavs demokratiuli parlamenti, SedarebiT
Tavisufali presa, uSiSroebis samsaxurebi ki arc Tu ise aqtiurad monawileoben organizebuli
danaSaulSi. Tumca arseboben sxva faqtorebic, romlebic xels uwyoben organizebuli danaSaulis
ayvavebas saqarTveloSi. farTod gavrcelebuli korupcia, samTavrobo struqturebis moxeleTa dabali
xelfasebi, eTnikuri konfliqtebi afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi, da bolos saqarTvelos strategiuli
mdebareoba Sav zRvaze iwvevs da xels uwyobs narkotikebiTa da iaraRiT vaWrobis
ganviTarebas. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis mdgomareobis SecvliTa da farTo mastabiani
ekonomikuri diferenciaciis gaerTianebiT qmnis organizebuli danaSaulis axali formebis
ganviTarebis safuZvels.50

4.5         saqarTvelos mTavrobis damokidebuleba ukanono gadayvanis mimarT

saqarTvelos mTavrobisaTvis kargadaa cnobili aralegaluri migraciis, adamianTa ukanono
gadayvanis faqtebis, aseve im SuamavalTa mier gamoyenebuli meTodebis arsebobis Sesaxeb,
romlebic arakanonieri gziT axorcieleben saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa gayvanas sazRvargareT.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, samarTaldamcav organoebs, migrantTa ukanono gadayvanasTan
dakavSirebuli kanonmdeblobis uqonlobis gamo, adamianTa ukanonod gadayvanis winaaRmdeg
sabrZolvelad mxolod SezRuduli zomebis miReba SeuZliaT. adamianebis ukanonod
gadamyvanebi, darwmunebulni imaSi, rom maT mimarT, maTi ukanono saqmianobis gamo, ar


50
     doqtor. luiz Seli, 1999, organizebuli danaSauli yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi: saqarTvelos ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi.


                                                           26
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                     aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                         saqarTvelo


iqneba gamoyenebuli damsjeli zomebi imoqmedeben Tavisuflad, manam sanam ar iqneba
miRebuli Sesabamisi kanonmdebloba.

2000 wlis Tebervlis, prezidentis brZanebuleba iTvaliswinebda qalTa winaaRmdeg Zaladobis
aRmkveTi samoqmedo gegmis Sedgenas. qalTa ukanono gadayvana erTerTi sakiTxia, romelic
gansakuTrebuladaa aRniSnuli brZanebulebaSi. brZanebuleba gansazRvravs Tu ra zomebi unda
iqnas miRebuli seqsualuri eqspluataciis mizniT ukanono gadayvanis aRsakveTad. brZanebuleba
aseve iTvaliswinebs ukanono gadayvanaze orientirebuli kanonmdeblobis ganviTarebas,
saqarTvelodan qalTa ukanono gadayvanis SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb kvlevis ganxorcielebasa da
adamianTa ukanonod gadayvanis aRmofxvris mizniT Sesabamis saministroTa Soris kavSiris
Seqmnas. brZanebulebis Sesrulebaze uflebamosilni ariani: Sinagan saqmeTa saministro, ltolvilTa
da gansaxlebis saministro, saqarTvelos parlamenti, prokuratura da dainteresebuli arasamTavrobo
organizaciebi.51

2000 wlis Tebervlis Semdeg saqarTvelos mTavrobas ar ganuxorcielebia adamianTa ukanono
gadayvanis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli mniSvnelovani saqmianobebi, magram zemoxsenebuli
brZanebulebis arseboba imas mowmobs, rom saqarTvelos xelisufleba acnobierebs adamianTa
ukanono gadayvanis safrTxes.


Tavi 5. saqarTvelo – aralegaluri migraciisa da ukanono gadayvanis satranzito qveyana

saqarTvelo, aralegaluri da migrantTa ukanonod gadayvanis potenciuri qveynis garda
garkveulwilad tranzituli qveyanacaa, im migrantebisaTvis, romlebic dasavleTisaken mieSurebian.

iseTi qveynebi, rogoricaa ruseTi da ukraina iRebs tranzituli migrantebis sakmaod did nakads
ganviTarebadi qveynebidan centraluri da dasavleT evropisa da CrdiloeT amerikis mimarTulebiT.
Cveulebriv, dadgenilia, rom tranzituli migrantebis didi raodenoba ukanonodaa gadayvanili maTi
warmoSobis qveynebidan. rogorc sCans, ukanono gadamyvanebi, sakuTari “klientebis”
gadasayvanad, dsT-s qveynebis gavlas aniWeben upiratesobas, radgan ufro martivia am
qveynebSi Sesvla da gasvla. jerjerobiT, rogorc irkveva saqarTvelos ara aqvs tranzitul migraciaSi
didi wili, Tumca ukanono gadamyvanebi Cveulebriv iTvaliswineben arsebuli marSrutis
upiratesobebs da SeuZliaT erT dReSi Seicvalon marSruti da dasavleTSi Caiyvanon TavianTi
“tvirTi”.

5.1         tranzituli migracia: axlo warsulis monacemebi

1995wlidan 1998 wlamde mso axorcielebda saqarTveloSi daleqil migrantTa samSobloSi
nebayoflobiT dabrunebis programas. am programis oficialuri saxelwodeba gaxldaT “mgzavrobis
daxmarebis programa”(HTAP).
progamis saSualebiTYSegrovda mniSvnelovani informacia aralegaluri migraciisa da saqarTvelos
gavliT sazRvargareTis moqalqeTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb. 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi mso
saqarTvelodan samSobloSi abrunebaSi daexmara daaxloebiT 90 adamians. maTi umravlesoba
saqarTveloSi darCa uasxsrobisa da /an mgzavrobisas pasportebis dakargvis gamo. rogorc Semdeg
gamoirkva zogierTi am migrantTagani samSoblodan ukanonod gadahyavdaT dasavleTSi
kavkasiis gavliT, magram kontrabandistebma piroba ver Seasrules.



51
     saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebuleba No. 64, 25 Tebervali, 2000 weli.


                                                           27
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                 aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                     saqarTvelo


migrantTa umravlesoba, romlebic saqarTvelos tranzitad iyeneben, warmoSobiT samxreT aziidan
arian (HTAP saSualebiT mso-s mier dabrunebul pirTa 62%). danarCeni 26% modis axlo
aRmosavluri warmoSobis migrantebze, xolo 8% afrikel migrantebze. samxreT aziidan
sWarbobda pakistaneli da bangladeSeli migrantebi, 32 da 17 migranti Sesabamisad. mso-m aseve
daxmareba gauwia 12 sirielsa da 6 iordanels samSobloSi dabrunebaSi. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom
sxva erovnebis pirebi mniSvnelovani raodenobiT ar yofilan warmodgenilni. rTul mdgomareobaSi
aRmoCenil migrantTa umravlesoba axalgazrda mamakacebi iyvnen da mxolod ramodenime
maTgani mgzavrobda ojaxTan erTad.

maTma umravlesobam datova sakuTari warmoSobis qveyana, dasavleTSi wasasvlelad, samuSaos
mizniT, Tumca ar hqoniaT winaswar mofiqrebuli Tu konkretulad romel qveyanaSi unda
Casuliyvnen. rasakvirvelia, arsebobs sxvadasxva gzebi da marSrutebi, romelTac isini
saqarTveloSi Camosasvlelad iyeneben da es damokidebulia maTi warmoSobis qveynis
adgilmdebareobaze, Tumca arsebobs saerTo xasiaTis garemoebebi, romelTac tranzituli
migrantebis umravlesoba iTvaliswinebs. TiTqmis yvela samxreT afrikeli mogzaurobda baqos
gavliT, sadac isini samSoblodan pirdapiri reisiT, TviTmfrinaviT, TurqmeneTis gavliT avtobusiT
an kaspiis zRvis gavliT gemis saSualebiT Cadiodnen. tranzituli migrantebi sxva saxmeleTo
marSrutebsac iyeneben somxeTisa da TurqeTis gavliT, Tumca Sri lankelebi Cadiodnen
TviTmfrinaviT moskovSi da iqidan TbilisSi. yofila ramdenime SemTxveva, roca tranzituli
migrantebi Camovidnen TviTmfrinaviT stambulidan.

garkveul etapze, sakmaod naTeli gaxda, rom usaxsrod darCenili migrantebi, ukanonod iyvnen
gadmoyvanilni., gansakuTrebiT es pakistanelebs exeboda. rva kaciani pakistanelelTa erTi jgufi
TviTmfrinaviT Cavida baqoSi, sadac maT daxvdaT Suamavali, romelmac gamoarTva maT
pasportebi da dapirda jgufs, rom gadaiyvanda dasavleT evropaSi, Tumca sinamdvileSi isini ver
gascdnen saqarTvelos farglebs, sadac aRmoCndnen yovelgvari saxsrebisa da pasportebis gareSe.
sxva SemTxvevaSi, pakistaneli ukanonod iqna gadmoyvanili saqarTveloSi, iranisa da somxeTis
saxmeleTo gzis gavliT. jer kidev pakistanSi yofnisas Suamavali mas dapirda saberZneTSi
samuSaoTi uzrunvelyofas, magram “klienti” ar gauSves saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT
arasrulyofili samgzavro dokumentebis warmodgenis gamo. sxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebic
(indoelebi, Sri lankelebi, sirielebi da iordanielebi) ucxadebdnen mso-s, rom maT CamorTmeuli
hqondaT pasportebi Suamavlebis mier, romlebic dapirdnen maTTvis mogzaurobis organizebas.

kidev erTi TavSesafris maZiebel erayeli wyvilis SemTxvevaa aRricxuli, romlebmac datoves
TavianTi qveyana da Cavidnen TurqeTSi. iqedan daiwyo xangrZlivi mogzauroba dsT-s sam
qveyanaSi, ris Semdegac isini Camovidnen TbilisSi 1995 wlis agvistoSi. isini aRmoCndnen
finansuri saxsrebis gareSe, radgan 6500aSS dolari gadauxades erTerT Suamavals, romelic maT
dapirda germaniis vizas, da romelsac sinamdvileSi aranairi daxmareba ar aRmouCenia maTTvis.
mTeli es mogzauroba erayel wyvils daujda 17000 aSS dolari, vizis SuamavalTaTvis samgzavro
gadasaxadebis, jarimebis xarjebisa da qrTamis dasafaravad.52

mso, ruseTis federaciaSi tranzituli migraciis Sesaxeb kvlevaSi, ramdenjerme aRniSnavs, rom
afrikeli migrantebi, saqarTvelos tranzitul qveynad iyeneben, ruseTSi gadasvlis mizniT. qurTebis
jgufi erayidan da TurqeTidan Cveulebriv ruseTSi gadadian saqarTvelos gavliT. xSirad, maT
ukanonod umogzauriaT, vizisa da xandaxan pasportis gareSec ki, sazRvris gadakveTis mizniT ki
xSirad qrTamis saxiT gadauxdiaT garkveuli Tanxa.53


52
  Tamaz guguSvili, 1998, saqarTvelos gare migracia da demografiuli problemebi.
53
  mso, 1994, tranzituli migracia ruseTis federaciaSi.


                                                       28
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi                      aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                          saqarTvelo


rogorc 4.1 paragrafSia aRniSnuli, ukanonod gadayvanili migrantebisagan sakmaod Znelia
sakmarisi informaciis Segroveba faqtebis Sesaxeb, radgan Cveulebriv isini gafrTxilebulni arian
ukanono gadamyvanTa mier ar gaumJRavnon maTi gamgzavrebisa da SuamavalTa mier
gamoyenebuli meTodebis Sesaxeb informacia ucxo pirebs. xSirad maT, maT ojaxebze muqariT
aSineben. mso-s mgzavrobis humanitaruli daxmarebis programiT dadasturebuli faqtebi iZleva
eWvis safuZvels, rom pakistanSi moqmedebs ukanono gadayvanis jaWvi, romelsac mWidro
kavSiri aqvs baqoSi, azerbaijanSi mcxovreb pakistanelebTan.

5.2     tranzituli migracia: amJamad arsebuli monacemebi
saxelmwifo uSiSroebis saministrom Seagrova sando informacia saqarTveloSi mcxovreb tranzitul
migrantTa arsebobis Sesaxeb. maTi umravlesoba samxreT aziuli warmoSobisaa (pakistani,
indoeTi da Sri lanka), Tumca mcire raodenobiT warmodgenili arian nigerielebic. savaraudoa, rom
maTi umravlesoba saqarTveloSi Camovida dasavleT evropisaken gzis gagrZelebis mizniT,
magram mizezTa gamo mouxda saqarTveloSi darCena. saqarTveloSi aralegalurad, anu vizis da
zogjer pasportis gareSec, cxovrobs daaxloebiT 600-mde amgvari tranzituli migranti. maTi
mxolod Zalian mcire nawili dakavebulia profesiuli saqmianobiT, umravlesoba ki dausaqmebelia.
saxelmwifo uSiSroebis saministro eWvobs, rom ucxoeTis zogierTi moqalaqe TavianT
Tanamemamuleebs exmareba saqarTvelos sazRvris gadakveTaSi dasavleTSi gadasvlis mizniT,
nawili ki savaraudod dakavebulia saqarTvelos teritoriis gavliT narkotikebiT vaWrobaSi.
zemoxsenebuli saxis yvela migranti mamrobiTi sqesisaa.

tranzituli migraciis Sesaxeb sando informaciis kidev erT wyaros warmoadgens sazRvris dacvis
departamentis oficialuri pirebis mier Tbilisis aeroportSi Sekrebili kompiuteruli statistikuri
monacemebi. samwuxarod jerjerobiT xelmisawvdomi ar aris msgavsi informacia sxva sasazRvro
punqtebisaTvis, Tumca mso-m ukve daiwyo ramdenime sasazRvro gamSvebi punqtis teqnikis
gaumjobeseba azerbaijanTan ZiriTadi sasazRvro gamSvebi punqtis CaTvliT. es ukanaskneli
punqti Zalzed mniSvnelovania tranzituli migraciisaTvis, radgan azerbaijanidan saqarTveloSi da
Semdeg TurqeTSi mimaval avtobusTa umravlesoba da yvela matarebeli saqarTveloSi am
punqtidan Semodis.

Tbilisis aeroportSi Semosul sazRvargareTis moqalaqeTa raodenobas ver mivyavarT aralegalur
tranzitul migraciasTan dakavSirebul mkafio daskvnebamde. savaraudoa, rom dasavleTisken
mimaval am aralegalur migrantTagan Zalian cota isargeblebs am aeroportiT. umravlesoba
avtobusiT an matarebliT miemgzavreba azerbaijanidan saqarTvelos gavliT TurqeTSi an Savi
zRvis sanapiroze. aziisa da afrikis Semosul moqalaqeTa raodenoba, romelTa umetesobac arian
migrantebi, romlebic saqarTvelos gavliT dasavleTis qveynebSi midian, ara aris mniSvnelovani da
ar miuTiTebs, rom Tbilisis aeroporti adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis centrad gvevlineba.
magaliTad 1999 wels Tbilisis aeroportidan saqarTveloSi oficialurad Semovida 574 indoeli, 477
Cineli, 297 pakistaneli, 174 Sri lankeli da 21 nigerieli.54 informacia saqarTveloSi maTi Camosvlis
mizezebis Sesaxeb sakmaod zedapirulia, ase rom am statistikidan daskvniTi monacemebis
miReba faqtiurad SeuZlebelia.
ramdenime saelCom mogvawoda informacia tranzituli migraciisa da saqarTveloSi
sazRvargareTis moqalaqeTa arsebobis Sesaxeb.

zogierTi saelCo gascems vizebs sazRvargareTis moqalaqeebze, zogierTi ki amgvar
ganmcxadeblebs uariT istumrebs. Cveulebriv, sakonsulos TanamSromlebi naklebad arian
mowadinebulni, gascen viza mesame qveynebis moqalaqeebze, Tu isini oficialurad ar muSaoben
da/an ar cxovroben saqarTveloSi ara nakleb erTi wlisa.

54
     mso Tbilisi, 2000, 1999 wels Tbilisis aeroportSi Semosuli mgzavrebi.


                                                           29
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi         aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                             saqarTvelo




safrangeTis saelCo Tavisi vizebis daaxloebiT 10%-s gascems sazRvargareTis moqalaqeebze.
maTi umravlesoba aris iseTi qveynebidan, rogoricaa pakistani, Sri lanka, CineTi, erayi da nigeria.
maTze viza gaicema mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini daamtkiceben, rom muSaoben da
cxovroben saqarTveloSi erT welze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi. sakonsulos TanamSromlebi
mudmivad akontroleben ganacxadTa da ganmcxadebelTa mier wardgenili dokumentebis
namdvilobas.

mesame qveynebis moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT vizisaTvis mimarTon TbilisSi arsebul germaniis
saelCos mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT amis uflebas miscems TavianT mSobliur qveynebSi
arsebuli germaniis saelCoebi.

TurqeTis xelisufleba iyenebs odnav gansxvavebul sistemas, rac ZiriTadad imas gulisxmobs, rom
zogierTi qveynis moqalaqisaTvis TurqeTis vizis aReba ufro advilia, vidre sxva qveynebis
moqalaqeTaTvis. magaliTad, nigeriis moqalaqe vizas ver miiRebs verc TbilisSi arsebul TurqeTis
saelCoSi da verc sazRvarze, maSin rodesac sxva qveynebis moqalaqeTaTvis nebarTva ankaraSi
gaicema. es wesi mkacrad tardeba. iyo SemTxveva, rodesac pakistanis moqalaqes, romelic
msoflio bankSi muSaobda 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi da flobda gaeros diplomatiur samgzavro
dokuments, uari uTxres TurqeTSi Sesvlaze, radganac mas TurqeTis vizaze ganacxadi ar hqonda
Setanili TviTmfrinavSi Cajdomamde.

TbilisSi arsebuli gaerTianebuli samefos saelCo agreTve ganixilavs sazRvargareTis qveynebis
moqalaqeTa ganacxadebs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini saqarTveloSi cxovroben cxra Tveze
meti xnis ganmavlobaSi. am wesidan gamonaklisi SeiZleba daiSvas saerTaSoriso organizaciebSi
momuSave ucxoelTaTvis.

sakonsulos warmomadgenelTa informaciiT saqarTvelos gavliT xorcieldeba tranzitul migrantTa
ukanono gadayvana. isini Cveulebriv saqarTveloSi Semodian azerbaijanidan da an pirdapir
agrZeleben mogzaurobas, an cota xniT rCebian saqarTveloSi. magaliTad, 1999 wels jgufi Sri
lankas 35 moqalaqis SemadgenlobiT Camovida Tbilisis aeroportSi da avtobusiT gaemarTa Savi
zRvis foTis portisken, sadac isini Casxdnen dasavleT evropoisaken mimaval gemSi.

TbilisSi arsebul gaerTianebuli samefos saelCos regularulad mimarTaven nigerielebi. TbilisSi
cxovrobs daaxloebiT 200 nigerieli, romelTa umravlesoba ar muSaobs da ZiriTadad fulis
naklebobas ganicdis. isini saqarTveloSi Camodian turizmis mizniT gacemuli moklevadiani vizis
safuZvelze da zogjer rCebian ori wliT vizebis moqmedebis vadebis gagrZelebis gareSe.

TbilisSi cxovrobs daaxloebiT 150-dan 200-mde Cineli, romlebic ZiriTadad muSaoben Cinur
restornebSi. restornebis mflobeli da TbilisSi mcxovreb sxva CinelTa umetesoba CineTis erTi da
igive provinciidan arian, rac imas migvaniSnebs, rom maTs samSoblosa da maTs droebiT
maspinZel qveyanas struqturuli kontaqtebi gaaCniaT.

gaerTianebuli samefos saelCo agreTve iRebs vizaze ganacxadebs indoelebisa da
pakistanelebisagan, romlebic saqarTveloSi Camovidnen dubaisa da erevanis gavliT. maT
umravlesobas uariT istumreben. TbilisSi agreTve cxovroben saswavleblad Camosuli samxreT
azielebi, romelTa didi nawili leqciebs ar eswreba enobrivi barieris arsebobis gamo. maT ubralod
dro gahyavT da saqarTvelos universitetebs iyeneben samecniero xarisxis miRebis iol wyarod.

sakonsuloebis zogierTi TanamSromeli fiqrobs, rom TbilisSi aqtiurad moqmedebs adamiaTa
mcire dajgufeba, romelic xels uwyobs dasavleTisaken tranzitul migrantTa gadayvanas. am


                                               30
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi        aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                            saqarTvelo


dajgufebas saTaveSi udgas pakistanis moqalaqe da misi qarTveli meuRle, romlebic
TanamSromloben saqarTvelos kidev erT moqalaqesTan. rogorc amtkiceben, organizaciisa da
daxvewilobis done ar aris maRali, magram saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi sazRvargareTis moqalaqeebi
iTxoven daxmarebas dasavleT evropaSi CaRwevaze.

mso flobs informacias, rom arc Tu ise didi xnis win TbilisSi arsebul erT-erT turistul saagentos
daukavSirdnen adamianTa ukanono gadamyvanebi garigebis mizniT. saagentos mimarTes
TxovniT, moegvarebina saqarTveloSi ukanonod mcxovreb sazRvargareTis moqalaqeTa
gamgzavreba dasavleT evropaSi. TiToeuli SemTxvevisaTvis saagento miiRebda 1500-dan 2000
aSS dolaramde. saagentom uari ganacxada, magram es SemTxveva migvaniSnebs, rom
adamianTa ukanono gadamyvanebi cdiloben respeqtabelur saagentoebSi SeRwevas, raTa ar
dauSvan sakonsulos TanamSromlebisa da samarTaldamcavi xelisuflebis mier maTi aRmoCena.

Tavi 6 daskvniTi monacemebi

saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa aralegaluri migracia mniSvnelovan masStabebs iRebs. maTi didi
raodenoba arRvevs savizo reJims dasavleT evropis qveynebsa da CrdiloeT amerikaSi. maTi
umravlesoba albaT aralegalurad muSaobs maspinZel qveynebSi, raTa iSovon maTTvis metad
saWiro fuli. zogierT qveyanaSi qarTvelebi sezonurad muSaoben da saqarTveloSi brundebian
aqtiuri sezonis dasrulebis Semdeg. saqarTvelodan evropaSi regularulad moedineba TavSesafris
maZiebelTa nakadi, romelic, amJamindeli statistikis monacemebiT, jer ar Sewyvetila.
saqarTveloSi arsebuli ramdenime diplomatiuri misiis sakonsulos TanamSromlebis gancxadebiT
mTavrobis warmomadgenlebi zewolas axdenen TavianTi nacnobebisaTvis vizebis gacemaze.
dabolos, savizo brokerebi da dasaqmebis Suamavlebi ukanono gzebiT uwyoben xels saqarTvelos
moqalaqeebs sazRvargareT wasasvlelad saWiro vizebis aRebaSi.

adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb naklebi monacemebia. dasavleT evropis qveynebSi
mimavali qarTvelebi Sengenis teritoriaze Sesasvlelad mediators mimarTaven. savaraudoa, rom
saqarTvelos zogierTi kriminaluri dajgufeba CarTulia TurqeTSi, da SesaZloa dasavleT evropasa
da aSS-Sic, qalTa ukanono gadayvanaSi. SesaZloa isini damoukidebladac muSaoben, magram
bevri faqtori mianiSnebs, rom bevri ukanono gadamyvani saqarTveloSi eyrdnoba ruseTsa da,
SedarebiT naklebad, ukrainaSi dafuZnebul ukanono gadamyvanTa gamocdilebasa da qsels. mso-
s mier presaSi aRmoCenil yvelaze saeWvo reklamebs saerTo hqondaT is, rom ruseTi
warmoadgens pirvel satranzito qveyanas da adgils, sadac xdeba klientTaTvis vizebis gakeTeba.
mso-m agreTve moiZia informacia rus da ukrainel qalTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb
saqarTvelos gavliT TurqeTsa da xmelTaSuazRvispireTis sxva qveynebSi. agreTve Segrovda
informacia saqarTvelodan bavSvTa ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb. zogierTi mcirewlovani bavSvi
sazRvargareT waiyvanes dasavleTis qveynebSi gaSvilebis mizniT, zogierTi qarTveli mozardi ki
aiZules prostituciisaTvis mieyo xeli TurqeTSi.

saqarTvelo agreTve aris aralegaluri migraciisa da migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis satranzito
qveyana. mso-m Seagrova monacemebi amis Taobaze warsulSi, magram rogorc Cans tranzituli
migracia saqarTvelos gavliT dResac arsebobs. tranzitul migrantTa umravlesoba modis samxreT
aziidan an axlo aRmosavleTidan da zogierTi maTgani aSkarad ukanonod aris gadayvanili Tavisi
warmoSobis qveynidan. saqarTvelo kvlav nakleb intensiurad gamoiyeneba tranzitul qveynad
mesame msoflios migrantTa dasavleTisaken ukanonod gadasayvanad, magram situacia SeiZleba
Seicvalos Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saqarTvelos strategiul mdebareobas, rogorc WiSkars
evropisaken, da umetes mezobel qveyanasTan arsebul naklebad dacul sazRvars.




                                               31
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi          aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                              saqarTvelo


es angariSi 2000 wlis aprilidan ivlisamde mso-s mier warmoebuli kvlevis Sedegs warmoadgens.
mso-m gamoiyena saqarTveloSi dasavleTis rva saxelmwifos diplomatiuri misiis sakonsulo
departamentebis mier mowodebuli informacia. mso agreTve daukavSirda ramodenime
samTavrobo struqturas, raTa gacnoboda saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier aralegaluri migraciisa da
adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis winaaRmdeg mimarTul politikasa da saqmianobas. informaciis
kidev erT mniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgenda qarTuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier
mowodebuli cnobebi da saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da samTavrobo
dawesebulebebis mier internetSi gamoqveynebuli angariSebi.

winamdebare angariSi iqneba aralegaluri migraciisa da saqarTvelodan adamianTa ukanono
gadayvanis ZiriTadi kvlevis sawyisi etapi. saWiroa ufro Rrma analizi, raTa ukeTesad
gacnobierdes aralegaluri migraciis am formaTa buneba da xarisxi da saSualeba mieces mso-s
Seqmnas myari safuZveli momavalSi saqarTveloSi adamianTa ukanono gadayvanis winaaRmdeg
mimarTuli saqmianobebisaTvis.


Tavi 7            danarTebi

danarTi a)                 kiTxvari saqarTveloSi arsebuli saelCoebis
                           sakonsulo departamentebisaTvis

danarTi b)                 kiTxvari samTavrobo departamentebisaTvis




                                                 32
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi           aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                               saqarTvelo




                                               danarTi a

        kiTxvari saqarTveloSi ucxo qveynebis saelCoTa sakonsulo samsaxurebisaTvis


1)       gascems vizas Tqveni saelCo an sakonsulo samsaxuri?

2)       Tu gascems, romeli qveynisTvis?

3)       ra saxis vizebs gascemT da ra xangrZlivobiT?

4)       ramdeni savizo ganacxadi miiReT 1999 wels? gTxovT dayoT vizis tipisa da
         xangrZlivobis mixedviT

5)       1999 wels Semosuli savizo ganacxadebidan ramdenia saqarTvelos moqalaqe?

6)       ramdeni viza iqna gacemuli 1999 wels? gTxovT dayoT vizis tipisa da xangrZlivobis
         mixedviT.

7)       ra aris savizo ganacxadze uaris umTavresi mizezi?

8)       saqarTvelos ramdenma moqalaqem moiTxova Tqvens qveyanaSi cxovrebis nebarTvis
         grZelvadiani nebarTva darCenis mizniT 1999 wels?

9)       maT Soris ramdenze gaica viza?

10)      ra aris cxovrebis nebarTvis ganmcxadebelTaTvis uaris Tqmis umTavresi mizezi?

11)      saqarTvelos ramdenma moqalaqem mimarTa Tqvens qveyanas TavSesafris mizeziT
         1999 wels?

12)      saqarTvelos moqalaqeebidan ramden ganmcxadebels mieniWa TavSesafari 1999 wels?

13)      ra aris ganacxadebaze uaris umTavresi mizezi?

14)      valdebulni arian Tu ar ganmcxadeblebi warmoadginon oficialuri mowvevis werili
         daniSnulebis qveynidan, vizis misaRebad?

15)      Tu ki, ra forma da pirobebia amisaTvis saWiro?

16)      ramdeni savizo ganacxadi Semodis SuamavalTa mier wliurad?
17)      ras warmoadgenen es Suamavlebi? (turistuli saagentoebi, individualuri pirebi, sxva)?

18)      ramdeni viza gaica SuamavalTa mier warmodgenili ganacxadebidan 1999 wels da
         ramden pirze?

19)      sxva SemTxvevebSi ra pirobebia gasaTvaliswinebeli am ganacxadebis
         dasakmayofileblad?



                                                  33
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi               aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                                   saqarTvelo


20)      Tu gaqvT informacia saqarTvelos moqalaqeebze, romelTac darRveuli aqvT savizo reJimi
         an nebismieri sxva ukanono formiT cxovroben Tqvens qveyanaSi?

21)      gaqvT Tu ara aRricxuli iseTi SemTxvevebi, rodesac saqarTvelos moqalaqe Sevida
         Tqvens qevyanaSi vizis an Tundac oficialuri samgzavro dokumentebis gareSe? Tu ki,
         ramdeni aseTi SemTxvevaa dafiqsirebuli 1999 wels?

22)      gaqvT Tu ara registrirebuli saqarTvelodan migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis55
         SemTxvevebi (igulisxmeba rogorc saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi aseve sxva qveynis
         moqalaqeebi, tranzituli migrantebi)?

23)      Tu ki, orive kategoriis ra raodenobaa registrirebuli 1999 wels? Tu SesaZlebelia, gTxovT
         warmoadginoT damatebiTi informacia (sqesi, asaki da a.S)

24)      Cveulebriv, ra tipis migrantebi gadahyavT sazRvarze ukanonod (SromiTi migrantebi,
         TavSesafris maZiebelni, tranzituli migrantebi da sxva)?

25)      gaqvT Tu ara raime informacia sazRvarze migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis organizatorTa
         Sesaxeb? gTxovT miuTiToT.

26)      saqarTvelodan Tqvens qveyanaSi migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis romeli marSrutia
         yvelaze metad gamoyenebuli?

27)      saqarTvelos ramden moqalaqes gaewia daxmareba Tqveni qveynidan samSobloSi
         dabrunebis mizniT gasul wels?

28)      ra umTavres aspeqtebs moicavs Tqveni qveynis kanonmdebloba, romelic migrantebis
         ukanono gadayvanas exeba?

29)      Tqveni azriT, ra zomebi unda iqnas miRebuli migrantTa ukanono gadayvanisa da
         aralegaluri migraciis sxva formebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad?


                                                danarTi b

                              kiTxvari samTavrobo struqturebisaTvis




1)       ra kanonmdebloba, debulebebi an brZanebulebebi arsebobs migrantebis ukanono
         gadayvanis Sesaxeb?56

55
   adamianTa ukanono gadayvanas mso gansazRvravs, rogorc:”migrantTa ukanono SromiT dakavebas (samuSaoze
ayvaniT, motacebiT, gayidviT da a.S.) da/an gadayvanas erovnul an saerTaSoriso sazRvrebze, ris saSualebiTac
Suamavlebi (gadamyvanebi) iReben ekonomiur an sxva saxis sargeblobas motyuebis, iZulebisa da/an eqspluataciis
sxva formebis gamoyenebiT, migrantTa fundamenturi adamianis uflebebis darRvevis pirobebSi”.55
56
   adamianTa ukanono gadayvanas mso gansazRvravs, rogorc:”migrantTa ukanono SromiT dakavebas (samuSaoze
ayvaniT, motacebiT, gayidviT da a.S.) da/an gadayvanas erovnul an saerTaSoriso sazRvrebze, ris saSualebiTac
Suamavlebi (gadamyvanebi) iReben ekonomiur an sxva saxis sargeblobas motyuebis, iZulebisa da/an eqspluataciis
sxva formebis gamoyenebiT, migrantTa fundamenturi adamianis uflebebis darRvevis pirobebSi”.56


                                                     34
mso-s regionaluri warmomadgenloba kavkasiaSi         aralegaluri migracia da migrantTa ukanono gadayvana
saqarTvelos misia                                                                             saqarTvelo




2)       romeli saministroebi an/da samTavrobo struqturebi arian pasuxismgebelni zemoT
         aRniSnuli kanonebis, debulebebisa da brZanebulebebis ganxorcielebaze?

3)       awarmoebs Tqveni saministro statistikuri an werilobiTi informaciis aRricxvas
         migrantebis ukanono gadayvanis Sesaxeb?

4)       dadebiTi pasuxis SemTxvevaSi, SegiZliaT mso-s miawodoT Semdegi informacia:

        a) saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa raodenoba, romlebic ukanonod iqnen gadayvanilni mesame
            qveyanaSi?
        b) romeli qveynebia, sadac saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi iqnen ukanonod
        gadayvanilni?
        g) sxva qveynis moqalaqeobis mqone tranzituli migrantebis raodenoba, romlebic
            ukanonod iqnen gadmoyvanili saqarTveloSi an mesame qveyanaSi saqarTvelos
            gavliT?
         d) romelia am tranzituli migrantebis warmoSobisa da daniSnulebis
        adgilis qveynebi?
        e) migrantebis ukanonod gadayvanis ganxorcielebisaTvis, ra marSrutebia gamoyenebuli
        saqarTvelodan da saqarTvelos gavlisas?
        v) gaqvT Tu ara raime iseTi informacia, im jgufebis/firmebis/individualuri pirebis
        Sesaxeb -saxelebi da samuSao meTodebi - romlebic Cabmulni arian migrantebis
        saqarTveloSi da mesame qveyanaSi ukanonod gadayvanis saqmeSi?

5)      Tqveni azriT, ra unda gakeTdes saqarTveloSi migrantTa ukanono gadayvanis
        winaaRmdeg sabrZolvevlad?




                                               35

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:968
posted:8/10/2011
language:English
pages:36