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o New England Colonies – English colonies of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode
   Island that were settled primarily by Puritans in search of religious freedom
o Puritans – English citizens that believed the Church of England was corrupt and needed to be
   „purified‟. After being persecuted in England they fled to the New England Colonies
o Mayflower Compact – Governing document written by the Separatists (Pilgrims) in 1620
o Direct democracy – Form of democracy where citizens chose „policy‟ in person. Government typically
   found in the colonial New England Colonies
o Covenant community – Group whose members bind themselves to one another through a promise
   (Mayflower Compact)
o Middle (Mid-Atlantic) Colonies – English colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and
   Delaware that were settled by many groups including English, Dutch, and German speaking immigrants
   seeking economic opportunity and religious freedom
o Southern Colonies – English colonies of Maryland, Virginia, South and North Carolina, and Georgia
   that were settled by Cavaliers and indentured servants seeking economic opportunity and African slaves
   that were forced to immigrate
o Cavaliers – English nobility that were granted large tracts of land in eastern Virginia from the King of
   England
o Artisans – Skilled craftsmen that settled in the Shenandoah Mountains and western Virginia
o Indentured Servants – Poor laborers that worked on a plantation for a set number of years (typically
   5 to 7) in exchange for their passage to the New World
o New World – Term given to the Americas by the Europeans after Christopher Columbus‟ voyage in
   1492
o Jamestown – First permanent English settlement in the New World. It was established by the Virginia
   Company in 1607
o Virginia Company of London – Joint-stock company that established Virginia
o Joint-stock company – Business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose (i.e.
   Virginia Company of London)
o House of Burgesses – First elected European assembly in the New World. Established by the 1640s
   to govern Virginia, it is known as the Virginia General Assembly today.
o General Assembly – Virginia‟s legislature today; was first established in the 1640s as the House of
   Burgesses
o Tobacco – Cash-crop first cultivated in Jamestown by John Rolfe. Its popularity is credited with saving
   Jamestown
o Slavery – Typically African immigrants, the forced labor became the main source of workers on
   Southern plantations by 1680
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o Theocracy – Government ruled by religious authority (i.e. Puritans in Massachusetts)
o Rhode Island – New England Colony founded by Roger Williams to shelter dissidents from Puritan
   communities
o Massachusetts – New England Colony settled by John Winthrop for Puritans seeking religious
   freedom
o ―Athenian‖ Direct democracy – Form of democracy where citizens chose „policy‟ in person.
   Government typically found in the colonial New England Colonies
o Middle (Mid-Atlantic) Colonies – English colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and
   Delaware that were settled by many groups including English, Dutch, and German speaking immigrants
   seeking economic opportunity and religious freedom
o Quakers – Members of the Society of Friends, a religious group persecuted for its beliefs in 17th c.
   England. Led by William Penn, they settled Pennsylvania
o Huguenots – French protestant group persecuted in France during the 16th and 17th c. Many
   eventually settled in New York
o Jew – Follower of Judaism. Many settled in New York during the Colonial Period
o Presbyterian – Swiss Calvinist sect that settled in colonial New Jersey
o Entrepreneurs – Small business owners prevalent in the Middle Colonies during the colonial period
o Southern Colonies – English colonies of Maryland, Virginia, South and North Carolina, and Georgia
   that were settled by Cavaliers and indentured servants seeking economic opportunity and African slaves
   that were forced to immigrate
o Cash-crop – A crop grown by a farmer for sale (i.e. tobacco, indigo, rice)
o Subsistence Farming – Growing only enough for personal use and not to sell
o  Church of England – English protestant church prevalent in the Southern Colonies during the Colonial
   Period
o ―Great Awakening‖ – A religious revival in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1750s
o Evangelical – Christian theological view that emphasizes personal faith (i.e. Methodists and Baptists)
o Indentured Servants – Poor laborers that worked on a plantation for a set number of years (typically
   5 to 7) in exchange for their passage to the New World
o African Slaves – The forced labor that became the main source of workers on Southern plantations by
   1680
o ―Middle Passage – The voyage that brought enslaved Africans to the West Indies and later to North
   America
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o Enlightenment – An 18th c. intellectual movement that emphasized the use of reason and the
   scientific method as means of obtaining knowledge
o John Locke – English philosopher from the Enlightenment that developed the idea of natural rights
   and social contract
o Thomas Paine – Author of Common Sense
o Common Sense – Written by Thomas Paine in 1776, the pamphlet called for separation of the
   colonies from Britain
o Declaration of Independence – The document, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, in which the
   Second Continental Congress declared the colonies‟ independence from Britain
o Thomas Jefferson – Author of the Declaration of Independence
o French and Indian War – A conflict in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763, that was a part of a
   world-wide struggle between France and Britain and that ended in defeat of France and the transfer of
   French Canada to Britain
o Proclamation of 1763 – An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west
   of the Appalachian Mountains
o Stamp Act – A 1765 law in which British Parliament established a direct tax on all printed materials
   made in the colonies
o Tea Act – 1773 British law that allowed the British East India Company to ship their goods directly to
   the colonies and sell their tea at a bargain price
o Sugar Tax – 1764 British law that taxes Molasses
o Boston Tea Party – The dumping 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor by the Sons of Liberty in
   1773 to protest the Tea Act
o Boston Massacre – A clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the
   colonists were killed
o ―Minutemen‖ – Patriot civilian soldiers just before and during the Revolutionary War, pledged to be
   ready to fight at a minute‟s notice
o Lexington and Concord – Location of the first battle of the Revolutionary War
o Patriot – Colonist who supported American independence from Britain
o Patrick Henry – Virginian Patriot who rallied the cause for independence in his quote “Give me liberty
   or give me death”
o Loyalist (Tories) – Colonist who remained loyal to Britain during the Revolutionary War
o Neutral – Colonist who tried to stay as uninvolved in the Revolutionary War as possible
o Benjamin Franklin – Patriot who negotiated the Treaty of Alliance
o Treaty of Alliance – Agreement negotiated by Benjamin Franklin in which France pledged their aid to
   the colonies during the Revolutionary War
o George Washington – General of the Continental Army
o Battle of Yorktown – October 19, 1781 conflict where British General Cornwallis surrounded to
   General Washington and his French allies
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o Articles of Confederation – A document, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and
   finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the first government of the United States
o Supremacy Clause – Article VI, paragraph 2 of the U.S. Constitution that established the Constitution,
   federal statues, and U.S. treaties as the “supreme law of the land”
o Great (Connecticut) Compromise – The Constitutional Convention‟s agreement to establish a bi-
   cameral national legislature, with all of the states having equal representation in one house and each
   state having representation based on its population in the other house
o Senate – The upper house in the Legislative branch where each state receives equal representation
o  House of Representatives – The lower house in the Legislative branch where each state‟s
   representation is based on its population
o Three-fifths Compromise – The Constitutional Convention‟s agreement to count three-fifths of a
   state‟s slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation
o Checks and Balances – The provisions in the U.S. Constitution that prevent any branch of the U.S.
   government from dominating the other two branches
o Executive Branch – The branch of the government that administers and enforces the laws (Article II
   of the Constitution)
o Judicial Branch – The branch of government that interprets the laws and the Constitution (Article III
   of the Constitution)
o Legislative Branch – The branch of the government that makes the laws (Article I of the
   Constitution)
o George Washington – Former general of the Continental Army who served as President of the
   Constitution Convention. He later became a Federalist and the first President of the United States
o James Madison – Considered “Father of the Constitution” because of his contributions during the
   Constitution Convention: authored the Virginia Plan and the Bill of Rights and took notes of the
   Convention. He later became a Federalist.
o Virginia Plan – Drafted by James Madison and presented by Edmund Randolph to the Constitution
   Convention, the document proposed a strong central government composed of three separate but
   equal branches of the government
o Virginia Declaration of Rights – Penned by George Mason in 1776, the document proclaimed the
   inherent rights of man, including the right to rebel from a tyrannical government
o George Mason – Author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and Anti-Federalist
o Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom – Penned by Thomas Jefferson, the document prohibited
   the state from supporting a church. It was adopted in 1786.
o Thomas Jefferson – Author of the Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom
o United States Bill of Rights – The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution added in 1791 and
   consisting of a formal list of citizen‟s right and freedoms
o Federalist – Supporters of the Constitution and of a strong government
o Patrick Henry – Virginian Anti-Federalist
o John Marshall – John Marshall — Supreme Court chief justice between 1801 and 1835 that is
   known for strengthening the power of the judicial branch
o Judicial Review – The Supreme Court‟s power to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional
o Marbury v. Madison — An 1803 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that it had the power of
   judicial review
o McCulloch v. Maryland — An 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that Maryland had not
   right to tax the Bank of the United States, thereby granting Congress implied power and strengthening
   the supremacy clause
o Gibbons v. Ogden – An 1824 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that under the Commerce
   Clause of the U.S. Constitution Congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce
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o Bank of the United States — First created by Alexander Hamilton, one of two national banks (1791
   & 1816) that were funded by the federal government and private investors, established by Congress
o Jay Treaty – 1794 agreement between the United States and Great Britain that settled many
   remaining issues left over from the American Revolution and opened a decade of largely peaceful trade
   between the two countries
o Quasi-War – An undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France
   from 1798 to 1800
o Democratic-Republicans – Political party known for its support of strong state governments,
   founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792 in opposition of the Federalist Party
o Thomas Jefferson – Founder and leader of the Democrat-Republican Party and third President of the
   United States
o James Madison – Member of the Democratic-Republican Party and fourth President of the United
   States
o Election of 1800 — Election in which the Democratic-Republican candidate, Thomas Jefferson, was
   elected president. It was the first time power was transferred from one political party (Federalists) to
   another (Democrat-Republican)
o Federalists – Political party known for its support of a strong federal government, founded by
   Alexander Hamilton
o  Alexander Hamilton – Founder of the Federalist Party and as Secretary of the Treasury during Pres.
   Washington‟s administration created the Bank of the United States
o John Adams – Second President of the United States and a member of the Federalist Party
o Louisiana Purchase – The 1803 purchase by the United States of France‟s Louisiana Territory –
   extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains – for $15 million dollars
o Lewis and Clark — Appointed by President Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase
o Sacajawea — American Indian woman that served as interpreter and guide for the Lewis and Clark
   expedition
o War of 1812 (Madison’s War) – 1812-1815 armed conflict between the United States and Great
   Britain concerning Britain‟s violation of American trading rights, impressments, and territory.
o Oregon Territory – The present day northwestern United States
o Adams-Onis Treaty — An 1819 agreement in which Spain gave over control of the Florida territory to
   the United States
o Monroe Doctrine — A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the affairs of the
   Western Hemisphere
o Eli Whitney — Inventor of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts
o Cotton Gin – A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
o ―Cotton Kingdom‖ – The cotton-producing region of the southern United States up until the Civil War
o The Alamo — A mission and fort in San Antonio, Texas, where Mexican forces massacred rebellious
   Texans in 1836. The event served as a rallying cry for those in support of Texas independence
o Mexican War – 1846-1848 armed conflict between the United States and Mexico in the wake of the
   U.S.‟ annexation of Texas. The major consequence of the war was the cession of the territories of the
   present southwestern United States to America
o Manifest Destiny — The 19th c. belief that the U.S. would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific
   Ocean
o Trail of Tears — The marches in which Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia in the
   Indian Territory in 1838-1840, with thousands of the Cherokee dying on the way
o Hartford Convention – 1814-1815 event in which New Englander‟s threatened to secede from the
   United States in protest of the War of 1812
o ―Age of the Common Man‖ (Jacksonian Era) – Beginning in 1824, the time period marked drastic
   changes in the American political philosophy. Among these changes included the ending of many
   restrictions on the electorate and a permanent two-party system
o Andrew Jackson — The seventh President of the United States. He was the first person from west of
   the Appalachians to serve as president
o Spoils System — Started by Andrew Jackson, it is the practice of winning candidates rewarding their
   supporters with government jobs
o Whigs – The political party formed in 1834 to oppose the policies of Andrew Jackson
o Know-Nothings – A name given to the American Party, formed in the 1850s to curtail the political
   influence of immigrants
o Democratic Party – Andrew Jackson‟s political party formed in 1824 to protest the “corrupt bargain”
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o Missouri Compromise (1820)— A series of agreements that included admitting Missouri as a slave
   state, Maine as a free state, and establishing the line 36º, 30‟ as the border between free and slave
   state. The agreements were passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power
   between slave states and free states
o Compromise of 1850 — A series of congressional measures intended to settle the disagreements
   between the free and slave states. These measures included admitting California as a free state,
   allowed New Mexico and Utah territories to decide the issue of slavery for themselves, and adopting the
   Fugitive Slave Act
o Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 — A law that established territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave
   their residents the right to decide the issue of slavery
o Popular Sovereignty — A system in which residents vote to decide an issue; in the case of the
   Kansas-Nebraska Act, the issue of slavery
o Bleeding Kansas — A name applied to the Kansas Territory in the years before the Civil War, when
   the territory was a battleground between proslavery and antislavery forces
o Republican Party — Political party formed in 1854 by opponents of slavery
o Tariff of 1831 (Tariff of Abominations) — John C. Calhoun‟s name for the 1828 tariff increase that
   seemed to Southerners to be enriching the North at their expense
o  Nullification Crisis — Sectional crisis during Andrew Jackson‟s presidency created by South Carolina‟s
   1832 nullification of the Tariff of 1831
o Abolition Movement — Movement to end slavery
o Nat Turner — African America slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia in 1831
o Gabriel Prosser — African American slave who led a slaver rebellion in Richmond, Virginia during the
   summer of 1800
o William Lloyd Garrison — Editor of the anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator
o Liberator — Anti-slavery newspaper edited by William Lloyd Garrison
o Fugitive Slave Act — A law enacted as part of the Compromise of 1850, designed to ensure that
   escaped slaves would be returned to bondage
o Women’s Suffrage Movement — Women‟s fight for the right to vote
o Seneca Falls Declaration (Women’s Declaration of Sentiment) — 1848 document written by
   Elizabeth Cady Stanton that proposed rights for women
o Elizabeth Cady Stanton — As leader of the women‟s suffrage movement she organized the Seneca
   Falls Convention and authored the Women‟s Declaration of Sentiment
o Susan B. Anthony — Leader of the women‟s suffrage movement
o Dred Scott Case — Supreme Court case Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) that declared slaves were not
   entitled rights as citizens and any effort by Congress to prohibit the spread of slavery unconstitutional
o Uncle Tom’s Cabin — Best-selling novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published in 1852, that portrayed
   slavery as a great moral evil
o Harriet Beecher Stowe — Author of Uncle Tom‟s Cabin
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o   Election of 1860 — Election in which the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, was voted into
   office. It resulted in the first southern states seceding from the Union
o Ft. Sumter — April 12-13, 1861 battle that marked the beginning of the Civil War
o Battle of Antietam — September 17, 1862 battle. Following the Union win Abraham Lincoln issued
   the Emancipation Proclamation
o Battle of Gettysburg — July 1-3, 1863 battle that is credited for turning the tide of the war in favor
   of the Union
o Appomattox Court House — Town where General Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1865, thus
   ending the Civil War
o Abraham Lincoln — 16th President of the United States that led the nation through the Civil War
o Jefferson Davis — President of the Confederate States of America
o Ulysses S. Grant — General of the Union Army during the Civil War and 18th President of the United
   States
o Robert E. Lee — General of the Army of Northern Virginia, following the Civil War he served as
   President Washington and Lee College
o Fredrick Douglass — Former slave who led the Abolitionist Movement, following the Civil War he
   continued to fight for African American civil rights and served as United States ambassador to Haiti
o Emancipation Proclamation — President Abraham Lincoln‟s executive order that freed the slaves in
   regions behind Confederate lines. It was issued on January 1, 1863 following the Battle of Antietam
o Gettysburg Address — Abraham Lincoln‟s famous speech in November 1863 at the dedication of the
   national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg. In the speech he stated that the purpose of
   the war was to preserve a union dedicated to the idea that all men are created equal
o Reconstruction Era — The period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War, during which defeated
   Confederate states were allowed back into the Union
o Andrew Johnson — 17th President of the United States that often faced resistance from congressional
   Radical Republicans during the Reconstruction era
o Radical Republicans — Congressional Republicans who, after the Civil War, wanted to destroy the
   political power of former slaveholders and give African Americans full citizenship and the right to vote
o 13th Amendment — Constitutional amendment outlawing slavery
o 14th Amendment — Constitutional amendment granting anyone born or naturalized in the United
   States citizenship and equal rights
o 15th Amendment — Constitutional amendment granting all male citizens the right to vote
o Compromise of 1877 — A series of Congressional measures under which Democrats agreed to accept
   the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes as president. The measures included the withdrawal of
   federal troops from Southern states, thus ending Reconstruction
o ―Jim Crow‖ era — Laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and
   black people in public and private facilities
o  Transcontinental Railroad — Completed in 1869, the railroad connected Sacramento, California and
   Omaha, Nebraska
o Washington College (Washington and Lee College) — A private, four-year liberal arts school in
   Lexington, Virginia that Robert E. Lee served as president following the Civil War
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o   Age of the Cowboy — Short time period in the mid-1800s where ranchers would participate in cattle
   drives. The growth of the railroad and the advent of farmers and barbed wire ended this era
o Cattle Drives — Journey where cowboys would herd Texas longhorns from their pasture to railroad
   heads.
o Homestead Act of 1862 — A U.S. law that provided 160 acres in the West to any citizen who would
   cultivate the land for five years
o Mechanical Reaper — Invented by Cyrus McCormick, the machine help industrialize farming by
   efficiently cutting grain
o Great Plains — The vast grassland that extends through the central portion of North America
o Rocky Mountain Region — Region adjacent to the Rocky Mountains in the western United States
o Ellis Island — Located at the mouth of the Hudson River between New York City and New Jersey, the
   island served as an immigration station between 1892 and 1954
o Statue of Liberty — The statue, located in New York harbor, came to symbolize an immigrant‟s arrival
   in the United States
o ―Melting Pot‖ — A mixture of people from different cultures and races who blend together by
   abandoning their native languages and cultures
o Assimilation — The process of absorbing culture or language
o Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 — A law that prohibited most Chinese from entering the United
   States
o Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 — Federal law that restricted the number of immigrants
   allowed to enter the United States from individual countries
o Corporation — A company whose ownership is spread out to two or more shareholders in such a way
   as to spread out the risk involved
o Bessemer Steel Process — A cheap and efficient process of making steel, developed around 1850
o Thomas Edison — Inventor of the light bulb
o Alexander Graham Bell — Inventor of the telephone
o Wright Brothers — Inventors of the airplane
o Henry Ford — Founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of the modern assembly line
o Assembly Line — A manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential
   manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product
o Andrew Carnegie — Captain of the steel industry during the late 1800s
o J.P. Morgan — An American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial
   consolidation
o John D. Rockefeller — Captain of the oil industry during the late 1800s
o Cornelius Vanderbilt — Captain of the railroad industry during the late 1800s
o Laissez-faire Capitalism — Allowing industry to be free of government restriction
o ―Jim Crow‖ Laws — Laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and
   black people in public and private facilities
o Plessy v. Ferguson — An 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in
   public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine
o Great Migration — The large-scale movement of African Americans from the South to Northern cities
   in the early 20th century
o Ida B. Wells — Early African American civil rights leader that fought for national legislation that
   banned lynching
o Booker T. Washington — Early African American civil rights leader who founded the Tuskegee
   Institute
o W.E.B. Du Bois — Early African American civil rights leader who helped found the NAACP and the
   Niagara Movement
o National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) — An organization
   founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality
o Progressive Movement — An early 20th century reform movement seeking to return control of the
   government to the people, restore, economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life
o “Square Deal‖ — President Theodore Roosevelt‟s program of progressive reforms designed to protect
   the common people against big business
o   ―New Freedom‖ — President Woodrow Wilson‟s program of progressive reforms designed to protect
    the common people against big business
o Gilded Age — Term coined by author Mark Twain to describe the age of extravagant displays of
    wealth and excess of America‟s upper-class during the late 1800s
o Robber Barons — A term common in the 19th century to describe businessmen and bankers who
    dominated their respective industries and amassed huge personal fortunes
o Referendum — A procedure by which a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to a vote of
    the people
o Initiative — A procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than
    by lawmakers
o Recall — A procedure for removing a public official from office by vote of the people
o Primary Elections — An election where voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent
    election
o 17th Amendment — An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1913, that provides for the
    election of U.S. senators by the people rather than by state legislatures
o Secret Ballot — A voting method intended to keep a voter‟s choices confidential
o Muckraking — Investigative reporting by one of the magazine journalists who exposed the corrupt
    side of business and public life in the early 1900s
o Knights of Labor — United States labor union that was known for its inclusiveness of many crafts and
    people
o Samuel Gompers — United States labor union leader and founder of the American Federation of
    Labor
o American Railway Union — One of the first United States labor unions and one of the few that
    unionized all railway workers despite trade or skill. Under the direction of Eugene V. Debs, the union
    helped organize the Pullman Strike
o Eugene V. Debs — As an United States labor union leader he helped found the International Labor
    Union and the Industrial Workers of the World
o International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union — United States labor union that organized
    primarily women
o Haymarket Square — May 4, 1886 Chicago protest in support of striking workers. The march ended
    in a clash between protesters and police that resulted in a bombing
o Homestead Strike — An industrial lockout and strike that began on June 30, 1892 at Andrew
    Carnegie‟s Homestead Mill. The strike ended a week later when Pinkerton Guards clashed with strikers
o Pullman Strike — A nationwide conflict between labor unions and the railroads in the United States in
    1894
o Sherman Anti-Trust Act — A law, enacted in 1890, that was intended to prevent the creation of
    monopolies by making it illegal to establish trusts that interfered with trade
o Clayton Anti-Trust Act — A law, enacted in 1914, that made certain monopolistic business practices
    illegal and protected the rights of labor unions and farm organizations
o Susan B. Anthony — Leader of the women‟s suffrage movement
o 19th Amendment — An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1920, that gives women the
    right to vote
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o Open Door Policy — Policy stated in a series of messages sent by Secretary of State John Hay to
  Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan, asking the countries not to interfere with U.S.
  trading rights in China
o Dollar Diplomacy — President William H. Taft‟s policy of using the United States‟ economic power to
  exert influence over other countries
o William H. Taft — As the 27th President of the United States he instituted the U.S. foreign policy of
  Dollar Diplomacy
o Spanish American War — 1898 war between the United States and the Spanish Empire. At the end of
  the war, the United States laid claim to Guam, the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico and marked the
  country‟s rise as an imperial power
o Panama Canal — An artificial waterway cut through the Isthmus of Panama to provide a shortcut
  between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, opened in 1914
o Theodore Roosevelt — 26th President of the United States that set the country down the path towards
  becoming a world power by strengthening the navy and organizing the construction of the Panama Canal
o Hawaii — Annexed by the United States in 1898 after businessmen organized the overthrow of the
  Pacific island‟s monarchy
o Philippine-American War — 1899 to 1902 war between the United States and Filipinos, led by Emilio
  Aguinaldo, concerning the archipelago‟s independence
o Allied Powers — World War I alliance that included Great Britain, France, Russia, and, later, Italy and
  the United States
o Central Powers — World War I alliance that included Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and the Austria-
  Hungarian Empire
o Neutrality — United States policy of non-commitment during the first three years of World War I
o Unrestricted Submarine Warfare — Germany‟s policy to stop merchant ships traveling to enemy
  ports during World War I
o Zimmerman Telegram — A message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German
  ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas,
  New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I
o Woodrow Wilson — As the 28th President of the United States he instituted the Missionary policy and
  led the nation through World War I
o Fourteen Points — The principles making up President Woodrow Wilson‟s plan for world peace
  following World War I
o Self-determination — The freedom of a people to decide their own political status and how they
  should be governed without any undue influence from any other country
o Freedom of the Seas — The policy of free trade on the seas included in the Fourteen Points
o League of Nations — An association of nations established in 1920 to promote international
  cooperation and peace
o Mandate System — The system envisioned in the Fourteen Points that would allow the League of
  Nations to govern former European colonies along the path to eventual self-determination
o Treaty of Versailles — The 1919 peace treaty at the end of World War I which established new
  nations, borders, and war reparations
o Big Four — The four nations, Great Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, that negotiated the
  major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
o Isolationism — The United States foreign policy of non-involvement following World War I
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o ―Jazz Age‖ — The period after the end of World War I, through the Roaring 20s, and ending with the
  onset of the Great Depression that challenged societal norms
o Fireside Chats — President Franklin D. Roosevelt‟s radio talks about issues of public concern and
  explaining New Deal measures
o ―Talkies‖ — A motion picture with synchronized sound technologically coupled to the image that first
  appeared in the United States during the 1920s
o Scopes Trial — A sensational 1925 court case in which the biology teacher John T. Scopes was tried for
  challenging a Tennessee law that outlawed the teaching of evolution
o Flappers — One of the free-thinking young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes
  of the 1920s
o 19th Amendment — An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1920, that gives women the
  right to vote
o Ku Klux Klan (KKK) — A secret white supremacist organization that had a resurgence in the 1920s
o 18th Amendment — An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1919, that prohibited the
  manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol
o Speakeasies — A place where alcoholic drinks were sold and consumed illegally during Prohibition
o 1929 Stock Market Crash — Event on October 29, 1929 when shareholders frantically tried to sell
  their stocks before prices plunged event lower
o Overspeculation — Buying stocks and bonds on the chance of a quick profit, while ignoring the risks.
  This was often accomplished by buying on margin
o Credit — An arrangement in which consumers agreed to buy now and pay later for purchases. This was
  often in the form of an installment plan
o Bank Run — When scared investors try to quickly withdraw money from a bank forcing the institution to
  close due to lack of funds
o Federal Reserve — A national banking system, established in 1913, that controls the U.S. money
  supply and the availability of credit in the country
o Tariff of 1930 (Hawley-Smoot Act) — 1930 Congressional act that established the highest protective
  tariff in United States History
o New Deal — President Franklin Roosevelt‟s program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression,
  focusing on relief for the needy, economic, recovery, and financial reform
o Franklin D. Roosevelt — As the 32nd President of the United States he lead the nation through the
  Great Depression and World War II
o Relief Measures — New Deal legislation that provided for direct payment to people for immediate help
  (i.e. the WPA)
o Works Progress Administration (WPA) — An agency, established as part of the Second New Deal,
  that provided the unemployed with jobs in construction, garment making, teaching, the arts, and other
  fields
o Recovery Programs — New Deal legislation that was designed to bring the nation out of depression
  over time (i.e. AAA)
o Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) — A law enacted in 1933 to raise crop prices by
  paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowing production
o Reform Measures — New Deal legislation that corrected unsound banking and investment practices
  (i.e. FDIC)
o Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) — An agency created in 1933 to insure individuals‟
  bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures
o Social Security Act — A law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with
  disabilities, and families with dependent children
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o Fascism — A political philosophy that advocates a strong, centralized, nationalistic government headed
  by a powerful dictator
o Nazis Party — German political party, led by Adolf Hitler, that believed in extreme nationalism, racism,
  and militaristic expansionism
o Adolf Hitler — Fascist leader of Germany from 1933 to 1945
o Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact — 1939 act between Germany and the Soviet Union that pledged
  neutrality between the two countries. It was broken by Germany in 1941.
o Allied Powers — In World War II, the group of nations — including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and
  the United States — that opposed the Axis Powers
o Axis Powers — The group of nations — including Germany, Italy, and Japan — that opposed the Allies
  in World War II
o Battle of Britain — The air campaign waged by the German Air Force against Great Britain in 1940
o Isolationism — Opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries
o Neutrality Acts — A series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent U.S. arms sales and loans to
  nations at war
o Destroyer-for-Bases Agreement — 1940 agreement between the United States and Great Britain
  that transferred 50 destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British
  possessions in the Caribbean Sea.
o Franklin D. Roosevelt — As the 32nd President of the United States he led the country during the
  Great Depression and World War II
o Lend-Lease Act — A law, passed in 1941, that allowed the United States to ship arms and other
  suppliers, without immediate payment, to nations fighting the Axis Powers
o Militarism — The policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and their use
  as a tool of diplomacy
o Pearl Harbor — Naval base on O‟ahu, Hawaii that was attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941
o December 7, 1941 — The date when Japanese forces attacked the United States naval base at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared it “a day that will live in infamy”.
o ―Defeat Hitler First‖ — Allied Powers‟ strategy in which military resources would be targeted to defeat
  the Axis Powers in Europe first
o ―Island Hopping‖ — United States military strategy in which the military would seize islands closer and
  closer to Japan and using them as bases for air attacks on Japan
o Battle of El Alamein — 1942 battle between the Axis and Allied Powers in North Africa. The Allied
  victory prevented the Axis Powers from capturing the Suez Canal.
o Battle of Stalingrad — 1942 to 1943 battle between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union for control of
  the city of Stalingrad. The Soviet Union‟s victory prevented Germany from capturing Soviet oil fields and
  marked an important turning point on the Eastern Front.
o Normandy Invasion (D-Day) — A name given to June 6, 1944 — the day on which the Allies
  launched an invasion of the European mainland during World War II
o Battle of Midway — World War II battle that took place in early June 1942. The Allies decimated the
  Japanese fleet at Midway, an island lying northwest of Hawaii. The Allies, then took the offensive in the
  Pacific and began to move closer to Japan
o Battle of Iwo Jima — 1945 battle where the United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo
  Jima from Japan
o Battle of Okinawa — 82-day-long 1945 battle between the United States and the Japanese on the
  Japanese homeland of Okinawa
o Harry Truman — 33rd President of the United States that took office after the death of Franklin D.
  Roosevelt
o Hiroshima and Nagasaki — Japanese cities destroyed at the end of World War II by the first two
  atomic bombs used in warfare
o Tuskegee Airmen — A group of African American pilots who fought in World War II as the 332nd
  Fighter Group of the U.S. Army Air Corps. They were the first African American military aviators in the
  United States armed forces
o Nisei Regiment — All Asian-American military regiment that fought in the European Theater during
  World War II
o Navajo Code-Talkers — United States soldiers of Navajo descent who used the Navajo language for
  secret communications on World War II battlefields
o Geneva Convention — Four treaties and three additional protocols that set standards in international
  law for humanitarian treatment of the victims of war
o Prisoner of War (POW) — A combatant who is held by an enemy during wartime
o Bataan Death March — The 60-mile forced march of United States and Filipino prisoners of war
  captured by the Japanese in the Philippines
o Holocaust — The systematic murder of Jews and other groups in Europe by the Nazis before and
  during World War II
o ―Final Solution‖ — Adolf Hitler and Nazis Germany‟s plan to exterminate the Jewish people
o Genocide — The deliberate and systematic extermination of a particular racial, national, or religious
  group
o Nuremberg Trials — The court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which
  Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes
o Zionism — Political movement that supported the reestablishment of a homeland for Jewish people
o Israel — Country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea that was founded in 1947 as a Jewish
  homeland
o Rationing — A restriction of people‟s right to buy unlimited amounts of particular foods and other
  goods, often implemented during wartime to ensure adequate supplies for the military
o War Bonds — Bonds sold by the United States government to raise money for the Allied cause
o Draft/Selected Service — A required enrollment in the armed forces
o Rosie the Riveter — Cultural icon the represented the American women who worked in war factories
  during World War II
o Double ―V‖ Campaign — The World War II era effort by African Americans to gain “a Victory over
  racism at home as well as Victory abroad”
o Executive Order 9066 — President Franklin D. Roosevelt‟s 1942 presidential order to detain Japanese-
  Americans in internment camps
o Japanese Internment — The forcible relocation and internment of Japanese-Americans by the United
  States government during World War II
o Korematsu v. United States (1944) — Supreme Court case that ruled the President had the
  constitutional power to detain Japanese-Americans during World War II
o Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) — Supreme Course case that ruled the President had the
  constitutional power to set curfews during wartime
o Censorship — The suppression of speech which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or
  inconvenient to the government
o Propaganda — Form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some
  cause or position
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o Marshall Plan — The program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which
  the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II
o United Nations — An international peacekeeping organization to which most nations in the world
  belong, founded in 1945 to promote world peace, security, and economic development
o Democracy — A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by
  them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free
  elections
o Capitalism — An economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of
  production and use them to earn profit
o Totalitarianism — Characteristic of a political system in which the government exercises complete
  control over its citizens‟ lives
o Communism (Socialism) — An economic and political system based on one-party government and
  state ownership of property
o Truman Doctrine (Containment Policy) — A U.S. policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in
  1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal and external
  opponents
o North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) — A defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten
  Western European countries, the United States, and Canada
o Warsaw Pact — A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European
  satellites
o Richard Nixon — As the 37th President of the United States he instituted a policy of détente that
  involved building a relationship with China and withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1974, he resigned in wake of
  the Watergate Scandal
o Massive Retaliation — The military doctrine, began by President Eisenhower, that committed the
  nation to retaliation in much greater force in the event of an attack
o Korean War — A conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950 to 1953, in which
  the United States, along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans and China
  fought on the side of the North Koreans
o Vietnam War — Cold War conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1959 to 1975.
  The war was fought between communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the
  government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States
o John F. Kennedy — As the 35th President of the United States, he led the nation through the “Bay of
  Pigs” and the Cuban Missile Crisis and committed the first U.S. troops to the Vietnam War. He was
  assassinated in Dallas, Texas in 1963
o Lyndon B. Johnson — As the 36th President of the United States, he is best known for his escalation of
  U.S. troops in the Vietnam War
o ―Vietnamization‖ — President Nixon‟s strategy for ending U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War,
  involving the gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops and their replacement with South Vietnamese forces
o Fall of Saigon — The capture South Vietnam‟s capital, Saigon, by the North Vietnamese Army on April
  30, 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War
o Watergate Scandal — A scandal arising from the Nixon administration‟s attempt to cover up its
  involvement in the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate
  apartment complex
o Fidel Castro — Cuban president and one of the main leaders of the Cuban Revolution between 1959
  and 1976
o ―Bay of Pigs‖ — An unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern
  Cuba to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro
o Cuban Missile Crisis — A confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in
  October 1962 over the installation of Soviet missiles in Cuba
o Alger Hiss — United States civil servant accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury
  in connection with the charge in 1950
o Julius and Ethel Rosenberg — United States citizens convicted in 1953 for conspiracy to commit
  espionage
o Joseph McCarthy — U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until 1957. He was most
  visible as the chairman of the House of Un-American Activities Committee
o McCarthyism — The attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people
  suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s
o Pentagon — The five sided office building in Arlington, Virginia that serves as the headquarters of the
  Department of Defense
o Mikhail Gorbachev — As the Soviet Union‟s head of state he began a series of social and economic
  reforms to deal with rising internal problems within the country.
o ―Glasnost‖ — The open discussion of social problems that was permitted in the Soviet Union in the
  1980s
o ―Perestroika‖ — The restructuring of the economy and the government instituted in the Soviet Union in
  the 1980s
o Ronald Reagan — As the 40th President of the United States he instigated a series of steps placing
  moral, military, and economic pressure on the Soviet Union. These steps eventually led to the end of the
  Cold War
o George H.W. Bush — As the 41st President of the United States he led the nation through the Persian
  Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm)
o Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) — A 1991 military operation in which UN forces, led by
  the United States, drove Iraqi invaders from Kuwait
o William J. Clinton — As the 42nd President of the United States he signed the North American Free
  Trade Agreement (NAFTA), opened full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, lifted sanctions against South
  Africa, and led NATO action in former Yugoslavia in 1995 and 1999
o North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) — 1994 agreement signed by the governments of
  the United States, Canada, and Mexico creating a trilateral trade block in North America
o South Africa Apartheid — A system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party
  government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black
  inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained
o Kosovo — 1999 United States led NATO bombing of Serbia in response to Serbian acts of genocide
  towards Kosovo Albanians
o George W. Bush — As the 43rd President of the United States he led the country through the events of
  September 11, 2001 and instigated the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
o September 11, 2001 Attacks — A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda members upon
  the United States
o War in Afghanistan — Military conflict began on October 7, 2001 that was launched in response to the
  September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States
o War in Iraq — Military campaign which began on March 20, 2003, with the invasion of Iraq by a
  multinational force led by troops from the United States and the United Kingdom

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o Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) — A case in which the Supreme Court ruled that
  “separate but equal” education for black and white students was unconstitutional
o Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County (1952) — One of four cases combined
  into Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
o Thurgood Marshall — The first African American to serve on the Supreme Court
o Oliver Hill — The NAACP lawyer that led the fight for desegregation in Davis v. County School Board of
  Prince Edward County (1952)
o Massive Resistance — State laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation after the
  Supreme Court‟s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
o White Flight — Term used to denote the trend where white people flee urban communities as the
  minority population increases
o March on Washington — Large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963
  to fight for African American civil rights. The march marked a decisive point for the non-violent, mass
  protest movement
o Martin Luther King, Jr. — As leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) he fought
  for African American civil rights through non-violent, mass protest
o Civil Rights Act of 1964 — A law that banned discrimination on the bases of race, sex, national origin,
  or religion in public places and most workplaces
o Voting Rights Act of 1965 — A law that made it easier for African Americans to register to vote by
  eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the
  local level
o Lyndon B. Johnson — As the 36th President of the United States he signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964
  and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law
o National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) — An organization
  founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality

								
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