Profile of the Regions by pengxuebo

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									     Profile of the Regions
                Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                               Phase 2 (1999-2000)




Network of Innovating
Regions in Europe
                                         RITTS / RIS


Interregional Co-operation
            Subgroup



  Profile of the Regions




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Profile of the Regions
          Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                         Phase 2 (1999-2000)




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                                                                                                                             Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                                                                                      Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                                                                                     Phase 2 (1999-2000)




                                                                                               Index
ALTMARK-HARZ-MAGDEBURG (D) ................................................................................................................................................................ 3
BALEARIC ISLANDS (E) ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
BRANDENBURG (D) ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
BREMEN (D) ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6
CALABRIA (I) ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7
DRESDEN (D) ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
EAST FINLAND (FIN) ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
EPIRUS (GR) .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 10
HALLE-LEIPZIG-DESSAU (D) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
HAME (FIN)................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12
LIMBURG (NL) ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
LISBON-TAGUS VALLEY (PT) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 14
LONDON (UK) ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 15
LORRAINE (F) ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
LOWER AUSTRIA (A) ................................................................................................................................................................................. 17
LUNEBURG (D) .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
NEUBRANDENBURG (D) ............................................................................................................................................................................ 19
NORTHERN EU (FIN/SE) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 20
OVERIJSSEL (NL) ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
RHEINLAND PFALZ (D).............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
SOUTH SWEDEN (SE) ................................................................................................................................................................................ 23
TIROL (A) ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24




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                                                                               Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                        Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                       Phase 2 (1999-2000)




                                                                                                                                  (D)
                                                                                                                                              Altmark-Harz-Magdeburg
The RAHM (RIS Region Altmark-Harz-Magdeburg) area covers the administrative district of Magdeburg, with 1,241,990
inhabitants on 11,700 sq.kms (‟97 figures). The region can be divided into three economically distinctive areas: Altmark is an
area with traditional strengths in agriculture and forestry. The Harz region is a mountainous business and tourism area
traditionally strong in the metal processing industry and the extraction and mining industries. Magdeburg is a growth
orientated production and service region, strong in engineering and equipment manufacture and centrally located on a
transport        hub         consisting        of        major         rail,         road         and            canal              links.


Since German reunification, the region has gone through a major restructuring process. Formerly state-owned industrial
conglomerates have been privatised and split into smaller units. Today, 99% of companies have less than 500 employees. The
unemployment rate is high with 22,4% in ‟98. However, the structural changes have also enabled regional SMEs to start
afresh and offer new and innovative products and services. A revival is currently being experienced in the engineering and
equipment manufacturing sectors, while other growth areas include manufacturing services, telematics and environmental
technologies. The area of plants/bio-technologies R&D is another promising sector.


The R&D capabilities of the region are largely based on historic developments. The Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg
is an important provider of know-how in the engineering and equipment manufacturing sectors. The Institute of Plant
Genetics and Cultivated Plant Research in Gatersleben and the Federal Institute of Plant Cultivation Research in Quedlinburg
set international standards. There are also three colleges within the region, in Magdeburg, Wernigerode and Stendal.


Many research institutes are closely linked to business. Only 9% of industrial companies carry out their own R&D, highlighting
the necessity for the existing innovation support and technology transfer system. This is based on the network of the above-
mentioned research institutes, four regional innovation and business founding centres as well as tti-Technology Transfer and
Innovation Support Magdeburg Ltd. with an incorporated Innovation Relay Centre. Various other private and public suppliers
complete                        the                       transfer                          support                              system.




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                                                                              Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                        Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                       Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The Balearic Islands region consists of the four well-known Mediterranean islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera,
with a total population of 760,379 mainly Mallorcan residents (690,150). The islands society is a clear reflection of the




                                                                                                                                              Balearic Islands (E)
booming development of the service sector (81,4% of GDP). The acceleration of tertiary sector activities, based mainly on
tourism, has enabled the Balearic Islands to reposition its formerly closed economy to take up a significant place within
Spain. The Balearic Islands have nearly reached the EU average GDP per inhabitant (97% versus 79% for Spain in ‟96).


Nevertheless, the specialisation of the Balearic economy and its excessive dependence on services also constitutes its principal
risk factor. Reorientation of effort, both public and private, is necessary to increase the potential of traditional industries and
to promote new technology sectors.


On the other hand, the existence of a tradition in respect of certain industries and quality products with an agricultural
origin which can contribute to re-balance the internal space and reducing the tensions which have been caused by the recent
explosive growth.


The education level is low among the populations of the Balearic Islands. There is only one university, which offers courses
on law, computer sciences, tourism, physics, biology, chemistry etc. Furthermore, there are the Mediterranean Institute for
Advanced Studies and the Oceanography Institute.


The Regional Government is making an effort for planning R&D initiatives. There is an Office of Transfer of Research‟s Result
(OTRI) at the University of Balearic Islands, which is the main agent dealing with innovation and technology transfer, together
with the Industrial Development Institute. The four Balearic Chambers of Commerce also offer services to innovative high tech
firms. The Regional Government sees scope for intra-regional co-operation in the area of Tourism, SME‟s, Public
Administration, Environment, Health and Education




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                                                                             Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                       Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                      Phase 2 (1999-2000)




                                                                                                                                             Brandenburg (D)
With a coverage of 29,476 sq.kms and a population of 2,554,441 („96), Brandenburg is the largest of the five new Länder
which joined the Federal Republic of Germany with re-unification in 1990. The German capital Berlin is located in its very
centre but is a separate federal Land.


The urban centres of Brandenburg are Potsdam, Brandenburg city, Cottbus and Frankfurt/Oder. The region is characterised by
a low population density and large agricultural areas which suffer from structural changes. The rapid economic restructuring
after re-unification resulted in a wide-ranging reduction in the number of jobs, also in the agricultural sector. Today the level
of unemployment is high (16.2 %, „98). Nonetheless, the closeness and traditional trade relations with the expanding markets
in Central and Eastern Europe hold the potential for the region to become a European gateway between East and West.


Brandenburg has attracted investors such as Mercedes-Benz, BMW Rolls-Royce, Heidelberger Printing Machines and BASF, one
fifth of which are foreign companies. Traditional industries are steel, precision mechanics, electrical engineering, vehicle
manufacturing, petrochemicals and food technology. However, the economic mix of the region is shifting towards emerging
industries such as medical and biotechnology, traffic engineering, material- and environmental technology, IT and
communication technology and media. Employment in R&D is about 20,000.


Brandenburg has the world‟s most modern telecommunications infrastructure and further developments are focusing on the
expansion of the high-speed railway system, the construction of a magnetic high-speed train line Berlin-Hamburg and the new
Berlin/Brandenburg international airport. Due to the modern production and communication facilities, the traditional film and
television place Babelsberg is regaining importance as a media centre.


In emerging sectors, large enterprises, SMEs and the growing number of start-up companies from various scientific fields co-
operate directly with institutions and regional research facilities. However, it remains difficult for many SMEs to find the right
partners. An established network of technology transfer offices at the universities and technical colleges co-operates with the
Land‟s own technology and innovation agency in order to ease co-operation. Additionally, Brandenburg supports innovative
SMEs with 21 technology and start-up centres.




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                                                                           Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                    Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                   Phase 2 (1999-2000)




Located in the north west of Germany, Bremen is the smallest of the 16 German Länder. It is composed of the Cities of




                                                                                                                                          Bremen (D)
Bremerhaven and Bremen, their population adding up to a total of 681,722 inhabitants.


Agriculture does not play a visible role in the Land due to its entirely urban structure. Employment splits into 29.9% in
industry and 69.3% in services. Bremen is one of the major seaports of the country. It also has a varied industrial structure
- the automobile industry is represented as well as the electronics, steel, shipbuilding and aerospace industries. Bremen also
has some food and semi-luxury goods industry, and is thriving to become a major centre for services, high-tech and
conventions and trade fairs.


The education and research structure of the Land is well-developed. One university and three Fachhochschulen make up for a
dense network of higher education. In addition to a number of non-university research institutes, the German Centre for
Polar Research has it headquarters in Bremen.


Concerning technology and innovation promotion and transfer by the Land of Bremen, the Bremer Innovations-Agentur (BIA)
is the key partner institution for companies. It is responsible for all innovation promotion programmes in the Land and
manages them from the stage of bidding through implementation and monitoring. In addition BIA has initiated and organises
networks in different fields of innovation transfer.




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                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                     Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                    Phase 2 (1999-2000)




Calabria, located in the south of the Italian peninsula, is a mountainous region with 2 million. inhabitants on 15,080 sq.kms.




                                                                                                                                           Calabria (I)
It is characterised by a high level of unemployment, a low level of industrialisation and a prevalence of the service sector,
the latter with employment mainly in public services.


Business activities in Calabria are restricted to small-scale industry. Apart from a few large firms, industrial development is
usually induced by governmental intervention. The main sectors are the building industry, food and textiles. Agriculture
remains important in terms of employment: 23.7% of the working population are occupied in the primary sector, versus
18.2% in manufacturing and 58.1% in services (‟96). Competitiveness of the regional agriculture is inhibited by the small size
of agricultural holdings.


Economic strengths of Calabria lie in the potential of the agro-food industry to restructure agricultural activities, the
development of IT activities in the past decade, the recent establishment of a container port in Gioia Tauro and finally the
potential for tourism. With 800 kms of coastline and beaches, Calabria is one of Italy's best-suited regions for tourism.
However, the regional infrastructure still remains to be completed towards higher standards, despite improvements in recent
years.


An alarming feature is the illiteracy rate in the population which reaches almost 25%. Less than one third of students attend
high schools which prepare for university. The regional university system consists of the University of Calabria in Rende, the
University of Reggio Calabria and the Faculty of Medicine in Catanzaro. The Science and Technology Park of Calabria (Calpark
SpA) hosts around 60 organisations. Other innovation support organisations are: several research centres mainly promoted by
the National Research Council and the Universities, the scientific Informatics-Telematics pool, the network of Chambers of
Commerce, the BIC Calabria, the consortium InnovaReggio.


As a whole, innovation remains scarce since the regional system is characterised by marginal and specialised enterprises,
typical of a predominantly local market economy.




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                                                                                          Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                                    Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                                   Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The RITTS-region of Region Dresden has 1,03 Mill. inhabitants. Being located in the East of Germany, it still suffers from the




                                                                                                                                                          Dresden (D)
structural problems caused by the economic breakdown after the political transition in 1989/90. The region has an
unemployment rate of 16.9% and the service sector is not very well developed with an overall share of 32.7% in economic
activity.          34.4%       of   the         workforce       are     still      employed     in       the        manufacturing             sector.


The RITTS project covers five administrative districts with a diverse structure. The city of Dresden has the lowest
unemployment figures and has recently benefited from the establishment of new companies in the field of micro electronics
and services. In Riesa-Großenhain, the traditional steel industry is still dominant, but new sectors are developing. The district
of Weißeritz has a diverse economic structure with a high number of SMEs. In the district of Meissen, a mixture of
agricultural and industrial sectors can be found, whereas in the "Sächsische Schweiz" tourism and metal industry are
dominant.


The region hosts a number of R&D organisations, firstly the Technical University and the Hochschule für Technik und
Wirtschaft in Dresden. Other institutions include the Von Ardenne Institut für angewandte medizinische Forschung and the IMA
Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH. Among the largest companies are well known IT and microelectronics
manufacturers,             steel    manufacturing           firms      as        well      as        paper         production           companies.


In recent years, Saxony has been assisted in its efforts to become a thriving business region with a diverse economic
structure by the EU programmes Leader, KONVER and RESIDER. 100% of the population has been covered under Objective 1.
Its         main       emerging       sectors        are       micro        eletronics,    tourism           and      medical           technology.




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                                                                              Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                      Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                     Phase 2 (1999-2000)




                                                                                                                                            East Finland (FIN)
The RITTS region of East Finland covers three of the four counties in the NUTS II region of Itä-Suomi: Pohjois-Savo, Pohjois-
Karjala and Kainuu. It has almost half the length of the EU‟s border with Russia and is characterised by a very low
population        density         (525,115         inhabitants         on             66,000     sq.kms             in            ‟97).


Unemployment („98) ranges between 15% and 18% of the workforce (national average: 11.4%). East Finland is one of the
most important regions in Finland for primary production (timber, milk, meat, berries), but agriculture and forestry support
only 14% of jobs. With a large public sector contribution to GNP, there are needs to create new income-generating activities
in rural communities. Furthermore, the is a need to raise the international orientation and R&D investments of industrial
SMEs. More than 80% of all businesses employ less than 5 persons and only around 60 businesses employ more than 100
persons. Nevertheless, a wide diversity of manufacturing skills and technologies, and a wide ranging presence in export
markets, can be found within the larger and mid-size companies that do exist. The high-quality natural environment,
including an extensive system of lakes and waterways, is a particular focus for tourism promotion. One-third of the workforce
is employed in the public sector. The most important industrial sectors are metal-working and engineering (including
machinery, equipment and electronics), timber and wood products, food and beverages, pulp and paper, textiles and clothing,
printing and publishing, and chemicals and plastics. Construction, tourism and business services are of increasing importance.


Key areas of technological development in the region are bio- and health-care technologies, materials processing, electronics,
energy and environmental technologies, and information and communication technologies, including multimedia. The region
has two universities and three polytechnics; 2,242 people work in R&D (‟97). Interests for inter-regional co-operation are:
improving the supply and quality of services to SMEs, market access for key industry clusters through trans-national
partnerships, technology transfer for enhancing value added to primary production, benchmarking of regional strategies, use of
ICT      technologies       in     peripheral      regions       and        finally      the   promotion           of         tourism.




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                                                                             Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                     Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                    Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The region of Epirus is a mountainous border region of 10,170 sq.kms located in the north-west of Greece. Epirus has
338,948 inhabitants (‟91) and population density of 33 persons per sq.km, compared to a national average of 76.




                                                                                                                                           Epirus (GR)
Infrastructure remains a problem for Epirus, since the road network is in poor condition, thus aggravating the physical
isolation of the region and contributing to a lower than average annual private income. However, major improvements are
underway and will dramatically improve travel times. The primary sector still employs 46% of the working population, with
19% in manufacturing and 35% in services.


Epirus has an active marble mining industry, alongside the exploration of phosphorites and gypsum. Manufacturing activities
are limited to small plants and they do not meet the needs of Epirus, where imports exceed exports in value. Main exports
are various kinds of food products, processed marble and wood products. Food processing is another major activity of the
secondary sector. A large amount of agricultural products is mainly being produced on the small-holdings of the south- and
south-western lowlands. Sea and river fishing activities are to be found in the Ambracian gulf and in the numerous rivers.
Cattle raising is another traditional activity, supplemented by cheese, wool and leather products.


Epirus has a university located in Ioannina as well as a number of technical schools for agriculture and craft. However,
radical improvements need to be made to the existing economic infrastructure in order to resolve problems such as the low
capacity of manufacturing units, low productivity and lack of trained personnel. There is also a need for the development of
economic activities using the outstanding natural and cultural wealth of Epirus in an environmentally friendly way. Another
field of development are new technologies and services. Emerging sectors are to be found within the area of service
companies working for local SMEs and public and private organisations.


Epirus seeks inter-regional co-operation in the areas of tourism, culture, preservation of monuments, food processing and
infrastructure upgrading.
Halle and Dessau form part of the German Land of Sachsen-Anhalt, while Leipzig falls under Saxony's jurisdiction.
Traditionally, chemistry and petro-chemistry have played a major role in this East German region, as well as coal and steel.
In addition, a highly productive agricultural sector evolved.




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                                                                              Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                       Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                      Phase 2 (1999-2000)




Reunification led to a complete breakdown of the traditional industrial structure and to a high level of unemployment




                                                                                                                                             Halle-Leipzig-Dessau (D)
(20.1%, ‟97). In 1999, 100% of the population are covered under Objective 1 of the EU Structural Funds. Today a large
number of state companies are privatised and the economy is undergoing a remarkable recovery. The emerging sectors
include the car industry, precision engineering, printing and chemicals. The main industrial sectors are now the chemical,
steel, engineering and automotive industry. Manufacturing makes up for 62% of employment, services for 35% and
agriculture for 3%.


With respect to its R&D potential, the region benefits from its specialisation. The Fraunhofer Institute Halle was already at
the forefront of research in materials technology before reunification and today works in microstructures, model formation
and calculation, microsensors and microactuators. Industrial research organisations include the Institut für Polymerwerkstoffe,
the Institut für Bioanalytik, Umwelttoxikologie und Biotechnologie, the Institut für Kunststofftechnologie und Recycling and
others. The universities of the region are the Universität Leipzig, the Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, the
Fachhochschule Merseburg, the Hochschule für Techik, Wirtschaft und Kultur, Leipzig and the Fachhochschule Anhalt, Köthen.


The innovation support system is based on research-oriented institutes and organisations more oriented towards practice.
Three innovation support agencies have been established under the aegis of the Chambers of Commerce and technology
transfer offices have been created in all universities and in most technical colleges. The RIS project of the region was initiated
by the county councils of Halle, Leipzig and Dessau and the project centres around networking efforts in the business-science
field, in innovation, medical technology, information society and bio-materials.




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                                                                             Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                    Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                   Phase 2 (1999-2000)




Recently, the region Häme, in the north of Helsinki, has been suffering heavily from a line of company closures which




                                                                                                                                          Häme (FIN)
resulted in employment moving to other regions such as Helsinki, thus further draining the already sparsely populated region
(799,000 inhabitants in 1999). Around Lahti in particular, the number of jobs decreased more rapidly than in any other part
of Finland.


To respond to this challenge, a specific development initiative has been implemented. Titled the "green triangle", it started
connecting research institutions, public agencies and companies in 1995. It gained the participation of more than 40
companies. In the Lahti and Häme areas, the education level is below national average. Tampere benefits from a higher level
in technological know-how and a larger number of highly-educated people.


Main industrial sectors are wood manufacturing, pulp, paper manufacturing, food and beverages, equipment, machines metal
products, textile, weaving apparel, basic metal industry. In the Häme area, agriculture and food production are particularly
strong because of the proximity of the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland. The Institute of automation in the technical
research centre of Finland specialises in industrial and machine automation, space technology, electronic testing and
measurement technology. New fields of research, such as environmental technology are growing rapidly. Activities covering
environmental management, waste management, recycling oriented product planning, planning of environmental training for
SMEs, fresh water research and environmental auditing are being developed.


Many institutional support organisations exist in the Region. Neopoli, the RITTS contractor, is the regional centre for
technological and entrepreneurial services, the first in Finland to implement the "one-stop-shop" model. Kera Ltd is a
corporation offering development and financing services to SMEs. Finn-Medi is an umbrella organisation providing services to
SMEs     in   the     field   of    R&D,     technology    transfer   and     creating    medical     technology          start-ups.




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                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                      Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                     Phase 2 (1999-2000)




                                                                                                                                            Limburg (NL)
Limburg is the most southern Province of the Netherlands, with 1.1 million. inhabitants living in a region bordering the
German Land North Rhine-Westphalia to the east and the Belgian Provinces of Liege and Limburg (BE) to the west and
south. Since the late 1970‟s Limburg, in particular the southern part, has seen a strong economic revival after being a
peripheral mining region which had to face the prospect of mass unemployment from the late 1960‟s onwards.


Benefiting from its central location in one of the EU‟s most densely populated economic areas, unemployment has been falling
steadily and, with a few local exceptions, the region has taken a modern and international outlook. Today, the industrial
tissue is dominated by a diverse number of industrial clusters: the chemical industry is located in the southern part of the
region, centred around the DSM (Dutch State Mines) and showing dynamism in the area of speciality chemicals. Furthermore,
activities focus on the automobile industry, with a manufacturing site at the centre of a fabric of specialised suppliers. These
companies find the region to be in an attractive distance to the biggest automotive production centres in the EU.


Another speciality is the manufacturing of building materials. In the northern part of the Province, the high-tech industry is
developing, with one company employing 1,100 personnel in R&D alone. Beyond the industrial clusters, other dynamic
speciality areas are intensive horticulture and agricultural equipment manufacturing as well as seeds and seed material.


Although to a limited level available at regional level, Limburg is within easy access of a very complete public and
international technical research infrastructure, such as one of largest technical universities in the EU, the Rheinisch-
Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany) and higher education and R&D institutions in Liege and Hasselt
(Belgium). Limburg has an extensive infrastructure of intermediary organisations supporting knowledge transfer to SMEs.




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                                                                              Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                       Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                      Phase 2 (1999-2000)




                                                                                                                                             Lisbon-Tagus Valley (PT)
With 3.3 Mill. inhabitants, the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region is also Portugal‟s main technological centre. The main regional
activities lie in services (more than 2/3 of the total output of the region). The industrial structure is characterised by SMEs
although there is a tendency of large firms developing. The region still has a share of 40% in the national output in the
agricultural sector. The economy of Lisbon and the Tagus Valley represents almost half of the GNP of Portugal. The Expo '98
in Lisbon had positive effects on regional development and infrastructure improved considerably. Main industries are general
services, insurance and banking, transport and communication, commerce, hotels, restaurants and manufacturing. Emerging
sectors are the financial sector and specialised services.


This area is characterised by a strong concentration of active population (49.6%). Only 7.4% of the population has a degree,
0.5% has a PhD. Since it includes Lisbon, the region benefits from a high number of technological, human and capital
resources              as              well             as             technology            support                  infrastructures.
It has important functions in terms of overall technological development in the country. Nonetheless, it lacks regional
networks and a dependency on EU funds for R&D activities is seen as a danger by some. The level of R&D activities at
enterprise level is low (1/3 of the total R&D activities in the region).


The Lisbon and Tagus Valley region absorbs about 60% of the national expenditure in R&D and therefore concentrates a
disproportionate weight in the country's sources of technological expertise. A large number of universities and
research/technology transfer centres are located here, as well as national public bodies in charge of R&D.


In terms of institutional support, six different types co-exist: sectoral technological centres, horizontal new technologies
institutions (ITEC, INESC, UNINOVA, ICAT) technological transfer centres, three business innovation centres, three technological
parks and three venture capital funds. Most of these organisations are young, without a specific market (companies)
established        and          have          only           a      limited         impact      on            the             industry.




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                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                      Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                     Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The London Wandle Valley is strategic regeneration sub-region of Greater London formed by the London Boroughs of Croydon,




                                                                                                                                            London (UK)
Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth, and the Training & Enterprise Councils of AZTEC and SOLOTEC. Although the valley has
been associated with industry for 1000 years, manufacturing industry has recently been in decline, with light engineering all
but disappearing.


The area is densely populated and has more than 21,000 businesses. It has mixed urban characteristics ranging from Inner
City conditions with important ethnic minority communities to prosperous Suburban residential districts. 99% of all businesses
in the Wandle Valley are SMEs, 93% employ fewer than 50 and 90% fewer than 10 personnel. There is a high proportion
of family-owned businesses, especially in the North of the region, while the central areas have a higher concentration of
manufacturing. The Southern section has a clustering of technology-based banking, financial and business services. A science
park is under development. The redevelopment of Battersea Power Station as a leisure complex is expected to create 6,000
jobs in leisure-related companies.


There are no full universities and only one research institute (specialising in toxicology) within the Wandle Valley but a large
number of world-wide known Universities and research centres of excellence are located within easy reach, i.e. Imperial
College and the National Physical Laboratories. On the other hand, skills training and support for businesses is well catered
for by two Training & Enterprise Councils (TECs) and two Business Links and six Colleges of Further Education and by
numerous smaller training and support agencies. A special initiative called Point Digital advises and trains small businesses
and individuals on the many business applications of multi-media solutions. The London Wandle Partnership has been running
the UK‟s largest ADAPT programme since 1996 and will continue under ADAPT III with massive involvement with the
University for Industry initiative.


Economic activity has been moving away from traditional manufacturing and towards the service industries, following a
London-wide trend. Distribution, Retailing and a mix of Financial Services typify this change. However, new business growth in
the region is notable for the number of businesses entering the markets of the future – media, electronic publishing, IT and
communications technology, bio-technology – a development which the new science park will undoubtedly help to accelerate.




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                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                     Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                    Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The Lorraine region covers an area of 23,547 sq.kms in eastern France, bordering Germany, Luxembourg and Belgium. With




                                                                                                                                           Lorraine (F)
a population of 2.311 million., the region is marked by contrasting geographical areas extending from agricultural plains to
the Vosges mountain range. The demographic and economic centre of the region is the Moselle valley, where the two major
regional urban centres Metz and Nancy are located.


The region has seen a slow demographic decline since the mid-seventies, largely due to emigration from the region. It was
induced by an economic downturn which negatively effected employment opportunities. Lorraine based its traditional industrial
prosperity on its abundance of natural resources: salt, iron ore, coal, wood and water power. Early industrialisation favoured
mass production and large traditional industries to the detriment of SMEs. Therefore, the amount of SMEs today lies far
behind the economic potential of the region (1,500 SMEs, excluding agriculture).


Agriculture employs 3% of the working population, manufacturing 29.1% and the service sector 66.9%. Unemployment,
although at 10.7% for all age groups in 1998, particularly affects the young generation (24.3%). 47,000 employees living in
Lorraine commute to work abroad on a daily basis. Economic reconversion in the region has not gone far enough yet to
secure sufficient and sustainable growth.


The four most dominant industrial sectors in order of importance are metallurgy (50% in terms of employment), the farm
produce sector (12%), wood and forestry, and textile/clothing industry. The future of the region‟s economy will largely be
determined by the progressively emerging industries such as plastics, precision mechanics, electronics, non-food agrochemicals,
environment and logistics. Furthermore, the urban zones of Nancy and Metz have managed to preserve a dynamic economy
due to the composition of their service industry: High-tech parks have made possible the creation of a network of innovative
SMEs in the electronics, IT and communications, biomedical research and services sectors, amongst others. Additionally, the
national Research Institutes CNRS, INRA, INSERM and INRIA have 2-5% of their national staff based in the Lorraine region.




                                                                                                                                  17
                                                                               Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                         Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                        Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The Land of Lower Austria is the largest of Austria's 9 provinces and is located in the north-east of the country, near the




                                                                                                                                               Lower Austria (A)
Austrian capital city and province of Vienna. Benefiting from a good communication infrastructure (river Danube as the
central link, Austria's largest airport, rail and road connections), has meant that the region has always influenced the political
and economic development.


Positive synergy effects with Vienna are realised in terms of firms' access to services and markets (1.6 million. inhabitants),
or educational institutions. Structural problems remain, however, in old industries, in the agricultural sector which still makes
up for 11.1% of economic activity and is undergoing adaptation processes, as well as due to the economic dependence on
Vienna. The region suffers from deficits in the fields of innovation and technology mainly due to the under-representation of
future technology sectors and R&D SMEs. Nonetheless, Lower Austria has a good quality of living and a few excellent firms
too.


Several universities and research institutions are located in the region, such as the Donau University Krems, the
Fachhochschule Wiener Neustadt, the Academy of the Land Niederösterreich in Krems and the Austrian Research Centre
Seibersdorf, the country‟s biggest industrial research institute. The inter-university research centre for agro-biology IFA Tulln is
a scientific co-operation between two universities in Vienna.


The regional development and innovation support structure is diverse and not always well co-ordinated. ECO Plus, the
regional development agency of the Land, promotes business creation, co-ordinates the management of industrial and business
parks, and financially supports innovative projects. It holds the shares of the Land in various regional development
infrastructures, such as the Regional Innovation Centre (RIZ NÖ-Süd) in Wiener Neustadt. Other innovation agencies include
the so-called "regional-management" units in the 4 sub-areas and local offices of the Chamber of Economy. The financing
organisation NÖBEG provides start-up capital for innovative businesses.




                                                                                                                                      18
                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                     Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                    Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The Lüneburg region is a district in Lower Saxony and covers an area of 15,505 sq.kms. The district lies in the proximity of
Hamburg, Bremen and Hannover. As the position between these urban areas indicates, the region is not a homogeneous rural




                                                                                                                                           Lüneburg (D)
area but consists of structurally differing economic zones. On the one hand, there are rural areas surrounding the urban and
suburban regions which consequently benefit from the close proximity to the cities. On the other hand, structurally weak
areas are located far away from the urban areas. The population of 1,637,024 („98) is spread across three distinctive zones.


A number of predominantly rural counties are located around the cities of Cuxhaven and Celle, an area where the
agricultural, food production and tourism sectors are dominant. Secondly, the area surrounding Hamburg is characterised by
the proximity of this large urban centre. Consequently, the economic activities of main towns such as Lüneburg, Harburg and
Stade cover mechanical engineering, chemical industry and service industries. The third area consists of the counties of Verden
and Osterholz, near the city of Bremen, and is defined by a large service and food production sector.


The above-average agricultural sector employment rate of 6.8% highlights the rural character of some of the region. However,
it has to be noted that the district is also home to a large number of well-known companies such as DASA, Dow Chemical,
SFK, Nestle, Rheinmetall, Contitech, ITAG, Beckergroup, Brilliant, Effem, Babcock and Wolff, to name but a few. Furthermore,
emerging industries are active in high-tech areas such as environmental technology and telecommunications.


The region is home to three Higher Education bodies (University of Lüneburg, College of Lüneburg and Technology Center
Nord-Unterliess) as well as a number of industrial Research Organisations (Wolff Walsrode AG / chemical, DASA Stade /
aerospace, Artesan / pharmaceutical and Babcock / mechanical engineering). Approximately 12,000 people are employed in
R&D activities (‟97).




                                                                                                                                  19
                                                                               Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                    Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                   Phase 2 (1999-2000)




This Region is located in the East of the German Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Within this Land, Neubrandenburg is a




                                                                                                                                          Neubrandenburg-Greifswald (D)
peripheral region to the extreme east of the European Union, bordering Poland and the Baltic Sea. It remains a very rural
and maritime area, which has never been very industrialised, the industrial activity tending to be related to the food, metal
work / ship building, construction and materials industries. Neubrandenburg also benefits from environmental assets which are
intended to be developed through touristic activities. Sparsely populated, its 9,660 sq.kms are inhabited by 631,000 people.


Unemployment is high: the Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has the highest unemployment rate in Germany, with one person
in three out of work (including people who only work reduced hours). The remainder of the workforce is divided among
sectors as follows: services 46.8%, manufacturing 30.2%, agriculture 6.6%. There are almost no large companies in the
region, the largest having no more than 300 employees. Communications are still very much dominated by the north-south
axis. 100% of the region is eligible for EU funding under Objective 1 („99).


One university is located in the region, in Greifswald: the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität. Neubrandenburg houses an advanced
Technical College, Fachhochschule. 650 people work in R&D.


The innovation and technology transfer support system in the Region comprises the following structures: the Chamber of
Commerce and Industry of Neubrandenburg, the Technology Centre Vorpommern in Greifswald, the Centre for Technology,
Innovation and Firm Creation in Neubrandenburg and the Public Economy Association. In addition, the Agencies for
Technology Transfer and Innovation Support in Greifswald and Neubrandenburg have several initiatives.


The technology areas foreseen for the future are the renewable energies, environmental technologies, food industry,
biotechnology and metal work. It is in these areas that the RITTS project Neubrandenburg-Greifswald has its focus.




                                                                                                                                 20
                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                      Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                     Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The northern-most part of the EU consists of the regions Northern Ostrobothnia, Kainuu and Lapland in Finland, and




                                                                                                                                            Northern EU (FIN/SE)
Norrbotten in Sweden. The economic development in this region has been severely affected by unemployment (23% in
Northern Ostrobothnia, 8% in Norrbotten), particularly in basic industry. Despite less than optimal conditions agriculture still
accounts for 12% of the working force of Northern Ostrobothnia (only 2% in Norrbotten). The service sector has traditionally
been proportionally large compared to manufacturing sectors.


The overall situation in the growth centres Oulu and Lulea has improved remarkably in the last decade, one of the reasons
being   the      university-based   technological   development   with    technology   parks.    In    Northern        Ostrobothnia,
telecommunications/electronics, forestry and metal industries are the main industries, in Norrbotten mining, manufacturing and
construction. As a whole, this area benefits from an unspoilt environment, a vibrant high tech sector and a good road and
telecommunications network. Its remote location, however, coupled with a lack of entrepreneurship, a limited international
outlook and a low level of education and income, hinders its development.


The technological development in the area mainly depends on two technology "engines" which form the inter-regional cluster
of know-how in information technology and telecommunications: the Oulu Technolopolis which is a science park linked to the
university and research centres and which generates more than 1,000 million ECUs in annual sales of software and sensors to
opto-electronics and lasers, and the Lulea University and technology centre. The Aurorum Science Park in Lulea has increased
the number of high tech jobs from 200 to 700 in 3 years.


The technical level of companies, even in SMEs, is satisfactory but there is need for international networking and marketing.
New initiatives in the field of business services have been launched: the Oulu Centre of expertise programme (co-operation
between private and public sector) and the RITTS initiative in Northern Sweden. Venture capital activities, however, have been
rather modest.




                                                                                                                                   21
                                                                              Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                        Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                       Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The Overijssel region is an area of 3,420 sq.kms located on the border of Germany. Lying at the crossroads of many road,




                                                                                                                                              Overijssel (NL)
river and rail routes between the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia, the region has a population of 1,032,419 ('90). The
most important sectors of industry are metal-electronic, construction, chemical, automotive, machine building, food and
printing/publishing. The reconversion of the traditional textile and metal work sector has not yet been completed and partly
explains the unemployment rate of 7.3% (‟96). Emerging industries are medical technology and bio-materials. In the service
sector, commercial services, transport and tourism are the emerging activities but they are still under-represented compared
to the national average. Due to its excellent transport infrastructure, Overijssel has attracted international firms specialised in
transport and distribution.


Overijssel has a well-qualified workforce. Although fewer people than average graduate from higher education or universities,
apprenticeship schemes are well developed in the area. The University of Twente, also called the "Entrepreneurial University",
specialises in research for firms (telematics, membrane technology, bio-medical technology, laser and micro-electronics, sensors,
material engineering, and actuators), and offers incubation services to young entrepreneurs in the high technology sector.
There are also three Polytechnics: Enschede, Ijsselland and Zwolle.


R&D expenditure within regional enterprises is below the national average, due to the large percentage of SMEs and the
importance of the agricultural sector. Many firms in Overijssel belong to holdings with headquarters and laboratories located
elsewhere. In 1996, a total of 2,466 man years have been completed in commercial R&D. The innovation support structure
consists of the Innovation Centre Overijssel, the Institute for Small Businesses (IMK), the Transfer centres of the University and
higher vocational training institutes. The regional development company (OOM) focuses on regional SMEs through several
venture capital funds.


Key issues of the RITTS project Overijssel have been to establish new industrial clusters and employment through innovation,
to further develop technology transfer infrastructure and to design innovation and technology transfer policy at provincial
level.




                                                                                                                                     22
                                                                           Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                   Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                  Phase 2 (1999-2000)




Located in Germany‟s Southwest, the Land of Rheinland-Pfalz shares common borders with France, Luxembourg and Belgium




                                                                                                                                         Rheinland-Pfalz (D)
and is part of the fast-growing economic region of Rhein-Main and close to industrial urban centres such as Karlsruhe-
Stuttgart and the Rhein-Ruhr.


Small and medium-sized industrial, technology and service companies form the backbone of the diversified economy of the
Land. But Rheinland-Pfalz is also home to economic powerhouses such as BASF, one of the world‟s largest chemical companies
and Schott Glas, a specialised manufacturer of glass products. Subsidiaries of multinational corporations such as IBM,
Mercedes-Benz, General Motors (Opel), Procter & Gamble, ITT, Kimberly Clark and Michelin also have significant operations in
the state. Unemployment was at an average rate of 9.8% in 1998. The service sector employs 60.2% of the working
population, with the remaining 38.4% in manufacturing and 1.4% in agriculture.


Rheinland-Pfalz exports 42.1% of its products, more than any other German state. Many of these exports are made by small
and medium-sized companies. The automotive sector leads the category followed closely by chemicals. In a category of its
own is wine. Rheinland-Pfalz accounts for 70% of Germany‟s total wine harvest. The state produces some of Germany‟s best
known wines on the hills along the Rhein, Mosel, Saar and Nahe rivers.


Rheinland-Pfalz has a total of four universities plus seven “Fachhochschulen” (polytechnic institutions) with over 80,000
students enrolled in technology-oriented education and R&D. A similar number of people is working in high-tech industries.
There are several research institutes - among them the renowned Max-Planck-Institute for Chemical and Polymeric Research,
the Institute for Micro-technology, the Institute for Surface Treatment and Analysis Technologies and the German Research
Centre for Artificial Intelligence.


Areas of interest in inter-regional co-operation are the interregional innovation policies for SMEs and activities helping to
build up new business ventures.




                                                                                                                                23
                                                                             Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                      Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                     Phase 2 (1999-2000)




The South Sweden region covers three areas: Malmö, Kristianstad (and the surrounding area) and Kalmar, which are all




                                                                                                                                            South Sweden (SE)
located on Sweden‟s southern coastline. Overall population is 1,350 000 inhabitants ('96). The region is currently undergoing
major economic change.


Previously, textiles, leather and ship-building industries were particularly developed in the Malmö area, but they have almost
disappeared today. The service sector (including private, personal services), manufacturing and trade, however, have tended to
grow. In Kalmar, the closing-down of large car manufacturing plants in 1993 had a deteriorating impact on the economy.
Fortunately, this area benefits from a higher employment in agriculture, manufacturing technologies, telecommunications and
construction industries.


Five colleges and the University of Lund (the largest institution for research and higher education in Scandinavia) are located
in this region. Furthermore, the Lund Institute of Technology is specialised in chemistry, mathematics, physics, electrical
engineering,     computer      sciences,    mechanical        and    civil   engineering     and      building         environment.


The innovation support initiatives in South Sweden are: The Ideon Research Park that hosts an incubator facility. Teknopol AB
owned by the Lund University and the technology transfer foundation called "Teknikbrostiftelsen" makes the link between
universities in the region and Ideon research park and industry in the region. A department of Teknopol is "Kunskapsbron",
the knowledge bridge to SMEs. TeknoSeed AB and Research Patent AB are the tools for venture capital and IPR for new
university start-up companies. Teknopol is a partner in the IRC - Innovation Relay Centre of Western and Southern Sweden.
Other innovation support actors are ALMI, the regional development agency, liaison offices in the cities and the municipalities,
the Export Council (govermental service), the South Sweden Chamber of Commerce, the Euro-Info-Centre, the Kalmar Centre of
Competence, SME associations, New start-up centres, Regional councils and NUTEK, the Swedish National Board for Industry
and                                                      Technical                                                     Development.




                                                                                                                                   24
                                                                            Profile of the Regions
                                                                                                     Interregional Co-operation Subgroup
                                                                                                                    Phase 2 (1999-2000)




With a population of 661,901 on 12,648 sq.kms, Tirol is among the less densely populated regions of Austria. Its local




                                                                                                                                           Tirol (A)
economy was characterised by agriculture for a long time. During this century tourism brought about major changes and also
problems of mass tourism in the ecologically sensible region of the Alps.



Today, out of the 250,457 people employed, only 1% work in the agricultural sector. 28.3% are employed in manufacturing
and the remaining 67.7% in the large service sector. Although in public perception tourism seemed to dominate the regional
economy during the last decades, industry and small and medium-sized enterprises were always and still are of major
importance. The main sectors of the region are the glas industry, the chemical industry and the metal working industry.
Apart from a few 'big players' like Swarovski, Biochemie Kundl and Plansee Reutte, the local economy of Tirol has always
been characterised by SMEs which are highly sucessful with high quality products.


Through good education and research facilities provided by technical and commercial colleges, the University of Innsbruck and
other institutions of higher and further education, companies are provided with a constant flow of highly qualified and
trained employees. About 800 people work in the R&D sector. Institutions like the University of Innsbruck, TechTirol and TIZ
and the infrastructure provided by the so-called 'Gewerbe- und Wirtschaftsparks‟ make the unbureaucratic and fast
establishment of companies possible.


Tirol has recently participated in INTERREG II, Leader, and ERDF and ESF funded programmes. Areas of interregional co-
operation interest are tourism, technology transfer, telecommunication, SMEs, manager training and transport policy.




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