Encyclopedia of Russian History Table of Contents

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					Abkhazians
   B. George Hewitt
Abortion Policy
    Sharon A. Kowalsky
Academy of Arts
   Rosalind P. Blakesley
Academy of Sciences
   Alexander Vucinich
Administration for Organized Recruitment
   Michael Ellman
Administration, Military
   David R. Jones
Admiralty
   William Craft Brumfield
Adyge
   Seteney Shami                           L I ST O F A RTI C LES
Adzhubei, Alexei Ivanovich
   William Taubman
Aeroflot
    Paul R. Gregory
Afghanistan, Relations with
    Roger Kangas
Aganbegyan, Abel Gezevich
   Michael Ellman
Agitprop
    K. Andrea Rusnock
Agrarian Party of Russia
    Nikolai Petrov
Agrarian Reforms
    Robert C. Stuart
Agriculture
    Robert C. Stuart
Aigun, Treaty of
    Steven I. Levine
Ajars
    B. George Hewitt
Akayev, Askar Akayevich
   Paul J. Kubicek
Akhmatova, Anna Andreyevna
   Diana Senechal
Akhromeyev, Sergei Fyodorovich
   Jacob W. Kipp
Akhundov, Mirza Fath Ali
   Gregory Twyman


                                                                    xv
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Akkerman, Convention of             Allied Intervention
    Bruce W. Menning                     Norman E. Saul
Aksakov, Ivan Sergeyevich           Alliluyeva, Svetlana Iosifovna
    Abbott Gleason                       Johanna Granville
Aksakov, Konstantin Sergeyevich     Altai
    Abbott Gleason                      Victor L. Mote
Alash Orda                          Altyn
    David R. Jones                      Roman K. Kovalev
Alaska                              Amalrik, Andrei Alexeyevich
    Johanna Granville                  Peter Rollberg
Albanians, Caucasian                American Relief Administration
    Robert H. Hewsen                   William Benton Whisenhunt
Alcoholism                          Anarchism
    Kate Transchel                     Carl A. Linden
Alcohol Monopoly                    Andrei Alexandrovich
    Patricia Herlihy                   Martin Dimnik
Alexander I                         Andrei Yaroslavich
    Jean K. Berger                     Martin Dimnik
Alexander II                        Andrei Yurevich
    Stephen M. Norris                  Martin Dimnik
Alexander III                       Andreyev, Leonid Nikolayevich
    Peter Waldron                      Peter Rollberg
Alexander Mikhailovich              Andreyeva, Nina Alexandrovna
    Martin Dimnik                      Jonathan Harris
Alexander Yaroslavich               Andropov, Yuri Vladimirovich
    Martin Dimnik                      Marc D. Zlotnik
Alexandra Fedorovna                 Andrusovo, Peace of
    Nicholas Ganson                    W. M. Reger IV
Alexandrov, Grigory Alexandrovich   Anna Ivanovna
    Denise J. Youngblood               Zhand P. Shakibi
Alexei I, Patriarch                 Anthony Khrapovitsky, Metropolitan
    Nathaniel Davis                    Robert L. Nichols
Alexei II, Patriarch                Anthony Vadkovsky, Metropolitan
    Nikolas K. Gvosdev                 Robert L. Nichols
Alexei Mikhailovich                 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
    Philip Longworth                    Raymond L. Garthoff
Alexei Nikolayevich                 Anti-Comintern Pact
    Nicholas Ganson                     Harold J. Goldberg
Alexei Petrovich                    Anti-Party Group
    Lindsey Hughes                      William Taubman
Alexeyev, Mikhail Vasilievich       Antonov Uprising
    Oleg R. Airapetov                   A. Delano DuGarm
Aliyev, Heidar                      Appanage Era
    Gerard J. Libaridian               Elvira M. Wilbur


xvi                                 E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                         L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Apparat                                                         Azerbaijan and Azeris
   James R. Millar                                                  Gregory Twyman
April Theses                                                    Babel, Isaac Emmanuyelovich
    Rex A. Wade                                                     Milton Ehre
Architecture                                                    Babi Bunty
    William Craft Brumfield                                         Brian Kassof
Archives                                                        Baikal-Amur Magistral Railway
    Patricia Kennedy Grimsted                                       Christopher J. Ward
Armand, Inessa                                                  Bakatin, Vadim Viktorovich
   Elizabeth A. Wood                                               Jacob W. Kipp
Armenia and Armenians                                           Bakhtin, Mikhail Mikhailovich
   George A. Bournoutian                                           Gary Saul Morson
Armenian Apostolic Church                                       Baku
   Paul Crego                                                      Audrey Altstadt
Armory                                                          Bakunin, Mikhail Alexandrovich
   Lindsey Hughes                                                  Albert L. Weeks
Arms Control                                                    Balaklava, Battle of
   Walter C. Clemens Jr.                                            Andrew Lambert
Artek                                                           Balalaika
    Jonathan D. Wallace                                             Serge Rogosin
Article 6 of 1977 Constitution                                  Balkan Wars
    Gordon B. Smith                                                 Richard Frucht
Assembly of the Land                                            Balkars
    Richard Hellie                                                  Paul Crego
Assortment Plans                                                Ballet
    Susan J. Linz                                                   Tim Scholl
Astrakhan, Khanate of                                           Baltic Fleet
    Roman K. Kovalev                                                Johanna Granville
Atomic Energy                                                   Banking System, Soviet
   Paul R. Josephson                                               Pekka Sutela
August 1991 Putsch                                              Banking System, Tsarist
   Ann E. Robertson                                                Martin C. Spechler
Austerlitz, Battle of                                           Banya
    Frederick W. Kagan                                             Roman K. Kovalev
Austria, Relations with                                         Barannikov, Viktor Pavlovich
    Hugh LeCaine Agnew                                              Jacob W. Kipp
Autocracy                                                       Barone, Enrico
    Zhand P. Shakibi                                                Richard E. Ericson
Avars                                                           Barshchina
   Paul Crego                                                       Elvira M. Wilbur
Aviation                                                        Barsov, Alexander Alexandrovich
    Albert L. Weeks                                                 Michael Ellman
Avvakum Petrovich                                               Baryatinsky, Alexander Ivanovich
   Cathy J. Potter                                                  Ronald Grigor Suny


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                      xvii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Bashkortostan and Bashkirs         Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Alexei Petrovich
    Daniel E. Schafer                  John T. Alexander
Basil I                            Birchbark Charters
    Mikhail M. Krom                    Simon Franklin
Basil II                           Birobidzhan
    Mikhail M. Krom                    Robert Weinberg
Basil III                          Biron, Ernst Johann
    Mikhail M. Krom                    John T. Alexander
Basmachis                          Black Earth
   Daniel E. Schafer                   Victor L. Mote
Batu                               Black Hundred
    Donald Ostrowski                   Jack Langer
Bauer, Yevgeny Frantsevich         Black Market
   Joan Neuberger                      Julie Hessler
Bazarov, Vladimir Alexandrovich    Black Repartition
   Vincent Barnett                     A. Delano DuGarm
Beard Tax                          Black Sea Fleet
    Brian Boeck                        Michael Parrish
Bednyaki                           Blat
    Martin C. Spechler                    Martin C. Spechler
Belarus and Belarusians            Bloch, Jan
    David M. Goldfrank                 Jacob W. Kipp
Belinsky, Vissarion Grigorievich   Blok, Alexander Alexandrovich
     Peter Rollberg                    Diana Senechal
Belovezh Accords                   Bloody Sunday
    Paul J. Kubicek                    Walter Sablinsky
Bely, Andrei                       Bobrikov, Nikolai Ivanovich
    Diana Senechal                     Tuomo Polvinen
Berdyayev, Nikolai Alexandrovich   Bolotnikov, Ivan Isayevich
    Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal          Chester Dunning
Beria, Lavrenti Pavlovichv         Bolshevism
    Amy Knight                         Robert C. Williams
Bering, Vitus Jonassen             Bolshoi Theater
    Ilya Vinkovetsky                   Tim Scholl
Berlin Blockade                    Bonner, Yelena Georgievna
     Thomas Parrish                   Lisa A. Kirschenbaum
Berlin, Congress of                Book of Degrees
     David M. Goldfrank                Gail Lenhoff
Berlin, Convention of              Boretskaya, Marfa Ivanovna
     Nikolas Gvosdev                   Gail Lenhoff
Beschestie                         Borodino, Battle of
    Nancy Shields Kollmann             Frederick W. Kagan
Bessarabia                         Borotbisty
    John Gledhill                      Serhy Yekelchyk


xviii                              E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                          L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Boyar                                                           Bureaucracy, Economic
    Sergei Bogatyrev                                                Paul R. Gregory
Boyar Duma                                                      Buryats
    Sergei Bogatyrev                                                Johanna Granville
Brazauskas, Algirdas                                            Butashevich-Petrashevsky, Mikhail Vasilievich
    Alfred Erich Senn                                               Dmitri Glinski
Brest-Litovsk Peace                                             Bylina
    Sally A. Boniece                                                Norman W. Ingham
Brezhnev Doctrine                                               Byzantium, Influence of
    Kieran Williams                                                Simon Franklin
Brezhnev, Leonid Ilich                                          Cabaret
    Richard D. Anderson Jr.                                        Johanna Granville
Brodsky, Joseph Alexandrovich                                   Cabinet of Ministers, Imperial
    Maria Eitinguina                                                John M. Thompson
Bruce, James David                                              Cabinet of Ministers, Soviet
    Johanna Granville                                               Gerald M. Easter
Brusilov, Alexei Alexeyevich                                    Cadres Policy
    Bruce W. Menning                                               Christopher Williams
Bryusov, Valery Yakovlevich                                     Calendar
    Mark Konecny                                                    Ann E. Robertson
Bucharest, Treaty of                                            Cantonists
    Radu R. Florescu                                               John D. Klier
Budenny, Semeon Mikhailovich                                    Capitalism
   Jonathan D. Smele                                                Thomas C. Owen
Bukhara                                                         Carpatho-Rusyns
   Seymour Becker                                                   Paul Robert Magocsi
Bukharin, Nikolai Ivanovich                                     Cathedral of Christ the Savior
   Carol Gayle                                                      Nicholas Ganson
   William Moskoff
                                                                Cathedral of St. Basil
Bukovina
                                                                    Lindsey Hughes
   John Gledhill
                                                                Cathedral of St. Sophia, Kiev
Bulgakov, Mikhail Afanasievich
                                                                    William Craft Brumfield
    Diana Senechal
Bulgakov, Sergei Nikolayevich                                   Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod
    Catherine Evtuhov                                               William Craft Brumfield

Bulganin, Nikolai Alexandrovich                                 Cathedral of the Archangel
    Roger D. Markwick                                               Lindsey Hughes

Bulgarians                                                      Cathedral of the Dormition
    Johanna Granville                                               Lindsey Hughes
Bulgaria, Relations with                                        Catherine I
    Kyril Drezov                                                    Lindsey Hughes
Bund, Jewish                                                    Catherine II
   John D. Klier                                                    John T. Alexander
Bunin, Ivan Alexeyevich                                         Catholicism
    Milton Ehre                                                     Gregory L. Freeze


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                        xix
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Caucasian Wars                    Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich
   Robert F. Baumann                  Andrew R. Durkin
Caucasus                          Cherkess
   Paul Crego                         Seteney Shami
Caves Monastery                   Chernenko, Konstantin Ustinovich
    David K. Prestel                  Marc D. Zlotnik
Caviar                            Chernobyl
    Victor L. Mote                    David R. Marples
Censorship                        Chernomyrdin, Viktor Stepanovich
    Charles A. Ruud                   Peter Reddaway
Central Asia                      Chernov, Viktor Mikhailovich
    Roger Kangas                      Sarah Badcock
Central Bank of Russia            Chernuhka
    Juliet Johnson                    Eliot Borenstein
Central Committee                 Chernyshev, Alexander Ivanovich
    Johanna Granville                 Frederick W. Kagan
Central Control Commission        Chernyshevsky, Nikolai Gavrilovich
    Nick Baron                        Victoria Khiterer
Central Statistical Agency        Chervonets
    Steven Rosefielde                 Juliet Johnson
Chaadayev, Peter Yakovlevich      Chesme, Battle of
   Raymond T. McNally                 John C. K. Daly
Chagall, Marc                     Chicherin, Georgy Vasilievich
   Mark Konecny                       Teddy J. Uldricks
Chancellery System                China, Relations with
   Peter B. Brown                     Steven I. Levine
Chapayev, Vasily Ivanovich        Chirikov, Alexei Ilich
   Denise J. Youngblood               John McCannon
Chapbook Literature               Chkalov, Valery Pavlovich
   E. Anthony Swift                  John McCannon
Charskaya, Lydia Alexeyevna       Chkheidze, Nikolai Semenovich
   Elizabeth Jones Hemenway          Stephen Jones
Charter of the Cities             Christianization
   George E. Munro                    Donald Ostrowski
Charter of the Nobility           Chronicle of Current Events
   Nickolas Lupinin                   Marshall S. Shatz
Chastushka                        Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR
   Roman K. Kovalev                   Marshall S. Shatz
Chayanov, Alexander Vasilievich   Chronicles
   Stephan Merl                       Gail Lenhoff
Chebrikov, Viktor Mikhailovich    Chubais, Anatoly Borisovich
    Amy Knight                       Stefan Hedlund
Chechnya and Chechens             Chuikov, Vasily Ivanovich
    Johanna Nichols                   David M. Glantz


xx                                E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                        L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Chukchi                                                         Committee for the Operational Management of the
   Gail A. Fondahl                                              National Economy
                                                                    Peter Rutland
Chukovskaya, Lydia Korneyevna
   Jacqueline M. Olich                                          Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers
                                                                   Jacob W. Kipp
Chukovsky, Kornei Ivanovich
   Elizabeth Jones Hemenway                                     Committees of the Village Poor
                                                                   A. Delano DuGarm
Church Council
   George T. Kosar                                              Commonwealth of Independent States
                                                                   Paul J. Kubicek
Church Council, Hundred Chapters
   Debra A. Coulter                                             Communism
                                                                   John M. Thompson
Chuvash
   Daniel E. Schafer                                            Communist Academy
                                                                   David Brandenberger
Cimmerians
   Roman K. Kovalev                                             Communist Bloc
                                                                   Yaroslav Bilinsky
Circus
    Rósa Magnúsdóttir                                           Communist Information Bureau
                                                                   Gale Stokes
Civic Union
    Michael Ellman                                              Communist International
                                                                   William J. Chase
Civil War of 1425–1450
                                                                Communist Party of the Russian Federation
     Richard Hellie
                                                                   Luke March
Civil War of 1917–1922
                                                                Communist Party of the Soviet Union
     Donald J. Raleigh
                                                                   Graeme Gill
Class System
                                                                Communist Youth Organizations
    Lewis H. Siegelbaum
                                                                   Anne E. Gorsuch
Climate
                                                                Congress of People’s Deputies
    Victor L. Mote
                                                                    Thomas F. Remington
Cold War                                                        Congress of Russian Communities
    Mark Kramer                                                     Nikolai Petrov
Collective Farm                                                 Consistory
    Robert C. Stuart                                                Vera Shevzov
Collective Responsibility                                       Constituent Assembly
    Brian Boeck                                                     Michael Melancon
Collectivization of Agriculture                                 Constitutional Court
    Robert C. Stuart                                                Gordon B. Smith
Colonial Expansion                                              Constitutional Democratic Party
    Richard Hellie                                                  Melissa K. Stockdale
Colonialism                                                     Constitution of 1918
    Daniel Brower                                                   Albert L. Weeks
Command Administrative Economy                                  Constitution of 1936
   Richard E. Ericson III                                           Karen Petrone
Commanding Heights of the Economy                               Constitution of 1977
   Martin C. Spechler                                               Peter B. Maggs
Commissar                                                       Constitution of 1993
   Sharon A. Kowalsky                                               Gordon B. Smith


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                      xxi
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Constructivism                           Cuban Missile Crisis
    Hugh D. Hudson Jr.                      Hugh Phillips
Control Figures                          Cuba, Relations with
    Martin C. Spechler                      Cole Blasier
Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty     Cult of Personality
    Johanna Granville                        Karen Petrone
Cooperatives, Law on                     Cultural Revolution
    Carol Gayle                              Sheila Fitzpatrick
    William Moskoff                          Benjamin Zajicek

Cooperative Societies                    Custine, Astolphe Louis Leonor
    William Moskoff                          Peter Rollberg
    Carol Gayle                          Customs Books
Copper Riots                                 Jarmo T. Kotilaine
    Jarmo T. Kotilaine                   Cyril and Methodius Society
Corporal Punishment                          Serhy Yekelchyk
    Boris N. Mironov                     Cyrillic Alphabet
                                             Ann E. Robertson
Corporation, Russian
    Thomas C. Owen                       Cyril of Turov
                                             Norman W. Ingham
Cosmopolitanism
   Karl D. Qualls                        Czartoryski, Adam Jerzy
                                             Johanna Granville
Cossacks
    Bruce W. Menning                     Czechoslovakia, Invasion of
                                             Kieran Williams
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
   Daniel R. Kazmer                      Czechoslovakia, Relations with
                                             Ann E. Robertson
Council of Ministers, Soviet
   Derek Watson                          Dagestan
                                            Paul Crego
Counterreforms
   Daniel Orlovsky                       Daniel, Metropolitan
                                            David M. Goldfrank
Country Estates
                                         Daniel, Yuli Markovich
   Priscilla Roosevelt
                                            John McCannon
Court, High Arbitration
                                         Danilevsky, Nikolai Yakovlevich
    Peter B. Maggs
                                            Albert L. Weeks
Court, Supreme                           Dargins
    Peter B. Maggs                          Paul Crego
Crimea                                   Dashkova, Yekaterina Romanovna
    Taras Kuzio                             Michelle Lamarche Marrese
Crimean Khanate                          Dashnaktsutiun
    Alan Fisher                             Gerard J. Libaridian
Crimean Tatars                           Decembrist Movement and Rebellion
    Alan Fisher                              Elena Zemskova
Crimean War                              Decree on Land
    David M. Goldfrank                       Stephen K. Wegren
Crony Capitalism                         Dedovshchina
    Stefan Hedlund                           Jonathan Weiler


xxii                                     E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                        L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Defectors, Soviet Era                                           Dmitry Alexandrovich
    Amy Knight                                                     Martin Dimnik
Democratic Party                                                Dmitry, False
   Nikolai Petrov                                                  Chester Dunning
Democratic Russia                                               Dmitry Mikhailovich
   Nikolai Petrov                                                  Martin Dimnik
Democratic Union                                                Dmitry of Uglich
   Nikolai Petrov                                                  Brian Boeck
Democratization                                                 Doctors’ Plot
   Dmitri Glinski                                                   David Brandenberger
Demography                                                      Dolgans
   Cynthia J. Buckley                                               Johanna Granville
Denga                                                           Domostroi
   Roman K. Kovalev                                                Carolyn Johnston Pouncy
Denikin, Anton Ivanovich                                        Donation Books
    Anatol Shmelev                                                 Ludwig Steindorff
Denmark, Relations with                                         Donskoy, Dmitry Ivanovich
   Jarmo T. Kotilaine                                              Gail Lenhoff
Deportations                                                    Dostoyevsky, Fyodor Mikhailovich
    Eric Lohr                                                       Peter Rollberg
Derzhavin, Gavryl Romanovich                                    Dudayev, Dzhokhar
    Johanna Granville                                              Dmitri Glinski
De-Stalinization                                                Dugin, Alexander Gelevich
    Graeme Gill                                                    Jacob W. Kipp
Détente                                                         Duma
    Marie-Pierre Rey                                               John M. Thompson
Developed Socialism                                             Dunayevsky, Isaak Osipovich
    Vladimir E. Shlapentokh                                        Richard Stites
Dezhnev, Semen Ivanovich                                        Dungan
   John McCannon                                                   Johanna Granville
Diagilev, Sergei Pavlovich                                      Durova, Nadezhda Andreyevna
    Tim Scholl                                                     Mary Zirin
Dialectical Materialism                                         Dvoeverie
    Alfred B. Evans Jr.                                             Stella Rock
Dictatorship of the Proletariat                                 Dvorianstvo
    Ray Taras                                                      Richard Hellie
Diocese                                                         Dyachenko, Tatiana Borisovna
    Cathy J. Potter                                                Peter Reddaway
Dionisy                                                         Dyak
    A. Dean McKenzie                                               Peter B. Brown
Disenfranchized Persons                                         Dzerzhinsky, Felix Edmundovich
    Golfo Alexopoulos                                               Robert E. Blobaum
Dissident Movement                                              Economic Growth, Extensive
    Yaroslav Bilinsky                                               Martin C. Spechler


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                     xxiii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Economic Growth, Imperial         Estonia and Estonians
    Paul R. Gregory                   Art Leete
Economic Growth, Intensive        Ethiopian Civil War
    Steven Rosefielde                 Johanna Granville
Economic Growth, Soviet           Ethnography, Russian and Soviet
    Gur Ofer                          Nathaniel Knight
Economic Reform Commission        Evenki
    Michael Ellman                    Gail A. Fondahl
Economism                         Fabergé, Peter Carl
    Martin C. Spechler                Louise McReynolds
Economy, Post-Soviet              Family Code of 1926
    Paul R. Gregory                  Wendy Goldman
Economy, Tsarist                  Family Code on Marriage, the Family, and
    Carol Gayle                   Guardianship
    William Moskoff                  Wendy Goldman
Edinonachalie                     Family Edict of 1944
    Susan J. Linz                    Rebecca Balmas Neary
Education                         Family Laws of 1936
   Brian Kassof                      Wendy Goldman
Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigorovich       Famine of 1891–1892
    John Patrick Farrell             Richard G. Robbins Jr.
Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhailovich   Famine of 1921–1922
    Joan Neuberger                   Mark B. Tauger
Electoral Commission              Famine of 1932–1933
     Nikolai Petrov                  Mark B. Tauger
Electricity Grid                  Famine of 1946
     Peter Rutland                   Nicholas Ganson
Elizabeth                         Far Eastern Region
    John T. Alexander                 Gilbert Rozman
Emancipation Act                  Fatherland-All Russia
   Julia Ulyannikova                  Nikolai Petrov
Empire, USSR as                   Feast Books
   Zhand P. Shakibi                   Ludwig Steindorff
Engels, Friedrich                 February Revolution
    Alfred B. Evans Jr.               Rex A. Wade
Enlightenment, Impact of          Federal Assembly
    Olga Tsapina                      Thomas F. Remington
Enserfment                        Federalism
    Richard Hellie                    Roger Kangas
Enterprise, Soviet                Federal Property Fund
    Susan J. Linz                     James R. Millar
Environmentalism                  Federation Treaties
    Rachel May                        Edward W. Walker
Episcopate                        Feldman, Grigory Alexandrovich
    Zoe Knox                          Martin C. Spechler


xxiv                              E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                          L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Feldsher                                                        Freemasonry
    Samuel C. Ramer                                                 Olga Tsapina
Fellow Travelers                                                French Influence in Russia
     Karl E. Loewenstein                                            Martine Mespoulet
Feminism                                                        French War of 1812
   Linda Edmondson                                                  Frederick W. Kagan
Ferghana Valley                                                 Frontier Fortifications
    Michael Rouland                                                 Brian Davies
Feudalism                                                       Frunze, Mikhail Vasilievich
    Richard Hellie                                                  Michael Parrish
Filaret Drozdov, Metropolitan                                   Full Economic Accounting
    Robert Nichols                                                  Susan J. Linz
Filaret Romanov, Patriarch                                      Fundamental Laws of 1906
    Russell E. Martin                                              Oleg Budnitskii
Finland                                                         Funded Commodities
    Paul J. Kubicek                                                James R. Millar
Finns and Karelians                                             Futurism
    Rein Taagepera                                                  Hugh D. Hudson Jr.
Firebird                                                        Fyodor Alexeyevich
    Norman W. Ingham                                                Lindsey Hughes
Five-Hundred-Day Plan                                           Fyodor II
    Robert W. Campbell                                              Chester Dunning
Five-Year Plans                                                 Fyodor Ivanovich
    Holland Hunter                                                  Johanna Granville
Florence, Council of                                            Fyodorov, Boris Grigorievich
    George P. Majeska                                               Peter Rutland
Folklore                                                        Fyodorov, Ivan
    Patricia Arant                                                  Hugh M. Olmsted
Folk Music
                                                                Gagarin, Yuri Alexeyevich
    Susannah Lockwood Smith
                                                                   Phyllis Conn
Fondoderzhateli
                                                                Gagauz
    Paul R. Gregory
                                                                   Mikhail Guboglo
Fonvizin, Denis Ivanovich
    Johanna Granville                                           Gaidar, Yegor Timurovich
                                                                    Peter Rutland
Food
    Darra Goldstein                                             Gamsakhurdia, Zviad
                                                                   Stephen Jones
Foreign Debt
    Stefan Hedlund                                              Gapon, Georgy Apollonovich
                                                                   Walter Sablinsky
Foreign Trade
    Martin C. Spechler                                          Gaspirali, Ismail Bey
                                                                   Edward J. Lazzerini
France, Relations with
    Marie-Pierre Rey                                            Gatchina
                                                                    William Craft Brumfield
Free Economic Society
     Carol Gayle                                                General Secretary
     William Moskoff                                                Norma C. Noonan


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                        xxv
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Geneticists                        Golden Horde
    James R. Millar                    Donald Ostrowski
Geneva Summit of 1985              Gold Standard
    Raymond L. Garthoff                Juliet Johnson
Genoa Conference                   Golitsyn, Vasily Vasilievich
    Teddy J. Uldricks                  Lindsey Hughes
Genocide                           Goncharova, Natalia Sergeyevna
    Gerard J. Libaridian              Jane A. Sharp
Geography                          Goncharov, Ivan Alexandrovich
    Victor L. Mote                    Catherine O’Neil
Georgia and Georgians              Goods Famine
    Paul Crego                        Robert C. Stuart
Georgian Orthodox Church           Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich
    Paul Crego                         Archie Brown
German Democratic Republic         Gorbachev, Raisa Maximovna
   Melissa R. Jordine                  Archie Brown
German Settlers                    Gorchakov, Alexander Mikhailovich
   Kevin Alan Brook                    Norman E. Saul
Germany, Relations with            Gordon, Patrick Leopold
   Melissa R. Jordine                  Jarmo T. Kotilaine
Gigantomania                       Goremykin, Ivan Longinovich
    Victoria Khiterer                  John M. Thompson
Ginzburg, Evgenia Semenovna        Gorky, Maxim
    Alison Rowley                      Tovah Yedlin

GKOs                               Gosbank
   Pekka Sutela                        Juliet Johnson

Glasnost                           Gosizdat
    Carl A. Linden                     Brian Kassof
                                   Goskomstat
Glavki
                                       Martine Mespoulet
    Martin C. Spechler
                                   Gosplan
Glavlit
                                       Paul R. Gregory
    Brian Kassof
                                   Gosti
Glinka, Mikhail Ivanovich              Samuel H. Baron
    Matthias Stadelmann
                                   Gostinaya Sotnya
Glinskaya, Yelena Vasilyevna           Jarmo T. Kotilaine
    Isolde Thyrêt
                                   Gosudaryev Dvor
Gnezdovo                               Sergei Bogatyrev
   Heidi M. Sherman
                                   Governing Senate
Godunov, Boris Fyodorovich             Zhand P. Shakibi
   Chester Dunning
                                   Grain Crisis of 1928
Gogol, Nikolai Vasilievich             Carol Gayle
   Diana Senechal                      William Moskoff
Golden Age of Russian Literature   Grain Trade
    Michael A. Denner                  Boris N. Mironov


xxvi                               E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                         L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Grand Alliance                                                  Gumilev, Nikolai Stepanovich
   David M. Glantz                                                 Brian Kassof
Grand Prince                                                    Gypsy
   Janet Martin                                                    Darrell Slider
Great Britain, Relations with                                   Gypsymania
    Johanna Granville                                              Richard Stites
Great Northern War                                              Hagiography
    Paul A. Bushkovitch                                            Gail Lenhoff
Great Reforms                                                   Hague Peace Conferences
    Daniel Field                                                   Walter C. Clemens Jr.
Greece, Relations with                                          Hanseatic League
    Johanna Granville                                              Lawrence N. Langer
Greeks                                                          Hard Budget Constraints
    Patricia Herlihy                                               Susan J. Linz
Green Movement                                                  Hayek, Friedrich
    A. Delano DuGarm                                               Richard E. Ericson
Griboedov, Alexander Sergeyevich                                Health Care Services, Imperial
    Johanna Granville                                               Samuel C. Ramer
Grigorenko, Peter Grigorievich                                  Health Care Services, Soviet
    Jonathan Weiler                                                 Mark G. Field
Grishin, Viktor Vasilievich                                     Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
    Terry D. Clark                                                  Albert L. Weeks
Grivna                                                          Helsinki Accords
    Roman K. Kovalev                                                Christopher J. Ward
Gromov, Boris Vsevolodovich                                     Herzen, Alexander Ivanovich
   Jacob W. Kipp                                                    Dmitri Glinski
Gromyko, Andrei Andreyevich                                     Higher Party School
   Graeme Gill                                                      Peter Rutland
Grossman, Vasily Semenovich                                     Hilarion, Metropolitan
    Karl E. Loewenstein                                             David K. Prestel
Guards, Regiments of                                            His Majesty’s Own Chancery
   Frederick W. Kagan                                               Zhand P. Shakibi
Guba Administrative System                                      Historical Songs
   Brian Davies                                                     Norman W. Ingham
Guberniya                                                       Historiography
   Nick Baron                                                       Oleg Budnitskii
Guilds                                                          Holy Alliance
    Thomas C. Owen                                                  David Wetzel
Gulag                                                           Holy Synod
    David J. Nordlander                                             Debra A. Coulter
GUM                                                             Homeless Children
   Julie Hessler                                                   Jacqueline M. Olich
Gumilev, Lev Nikolayevich                                       Hrushevsky, Mikhail Sergeyevich
   Jacob W. Kipp                                                   Serhy Yekelchyk


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                     xxvii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Human Rights                                          International Space Station
   Peter Juviler                                           John M. Logsdon
Hungarian Revolution                                  Inter-Regional Deputies’ Group
   Johanna Granville                                       Peter Reddaway
Hungary, Relations with                               Iran, Relations with
   Johanna Granville                                      Robert O. Freedman
Huns                                                  Iraq, Relations with
   Roman K. Kovalev                                       Robert O. Freedman
Icons                                                 Iron Curtain
    Gregory L. Freeze                                     Karl D. Qualls
Idealism                                              Islam
    Boris Gubman                                          Adeeb Khalid
Igor                                                  Israel, Relations with
       Martin Dimnik                                      Robert O. Freedman
Ilminsky, Nikolai Ivanovich                           Italy, Relations with
    Isabelle Kreindler                                     J. Calvitt Clarke III
Immigration and Emigration                            Ivan I
   Eric Lohr                                              Martin Dimnik
Imperial Russian Geographical Society                 Ivan II
   Victor L. Mote                                         Martin Dimnik
Imperial Russian Technological Society                Ivan III
   Martine Mespoulet                                      Mikhail M. Krom
Index Number Relativity                               Ivan IV
    Gur Ofer                                              Sergei Bogatyrev
Indicative Planning                                   Ivan V
    Martin C. Spechler                                    Paul A. Bushkovitch
Industrialization                                     Ivan VI
    Robert C. Stuart                                      Lindsey Hughes
Industrialization, Rapid                              Ivashko, Vladimir Antonovich
    Gur Ofer                                              David R. Marples
Industrialization, Soviet                             Izba
    Paul R. Gregory                                       Richard Hellie
Inorodtsy                                             Izvestiya
    John D. Klier                                         Matthew E. Lenoe
Input-Output Analysis                                 Izyaslav I
    Steven Rosefielde                                     Martin Dimnik
Institute of Red Professors                           Izyaslav Mstislavich
     David Brandenberger                                  Martin Dimnik
Instruction, Legislative Commission of Catherine II   Jackson-Vanik Agreement
    Michelle DenBeste                                     Robert O. Freedman
Intelligentsia                                        Jadidism
     Victoria Khiterer                                    Edward J. Lazzerini
Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty              Japan, Relations with
     Walter C. Clemens Jr.                                Charles E. Ziegler


xxviii                                                E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                         L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Jassy, Treaty of                                                Kasyanov, Mikhail Mikhailovich
    Bruce W. Menning                                               Peter Rutland
Jews                                                            Katkov, Mikhail Nikiforovich
    John D. Klier                                                   Victoria Khiterer
Joakim, Patriarch                                               Katyn Forest Massacre
    Cathy J. Potter                                                 Albert L. Weeks
Job, Patriarch                                                  Kaufman, Konstantin Petrovich
    Debra A. Coulter                                               Daniel Brower
Joseph of Volotsk, St.                                          Kazakhstan and Kazakhs
    David M. Goldfrank                                             David R. Jones
Journalism                                                      Kazan
    Charles A. Ruud                                                Donald Ostrowski
Judaizers                                                       Kellogg-Briand Pact
    David M. Goldfrank                                              Teddy J. Uldricks
July Days of 1917                                               Kerensky, Alexander Fyodorovich
    Michael C. Hickey                                               Rex A. Wade
Kabardians                                                      Khabarov, Yerofei Pavlovich
   Seteney Shami                                                   John McCannon
Kaganovich, Lazar Moyseyevich                                   Khakass
   Kate Transchel                                                  Johanna Granville
KAL 007                                                         Khalkin-Gol, Battle of
   Timothy Thomas                                                  Mary R. Habeck
Kaliningrad                                                     Khanty
    Richard J. Krickus                                             Art Leete

Kalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich                                      Khasbulatov, Ruslan Imranovich
    Kate Transchel                                                 Ann E. Robertson

Kalmyks                                                         Khazars
   Johanna Granville                                               Roman K. Kovalev
                                                                Khiva
Kamenev, Lev Borisovich
                                                                    Daniel Brower
   Michael C. Hickey
                                                                Khmelnitsky, Bohdan
Kandinsky, Vassily Vassilyvich
                                                                   Frank E. Sysyn
   Mark Konecny
                                                                Khomyakov, Alexei Stepanovich
Kantorovich, Leonid Vitaliyevich                                   Abbott Gleason
   Martin C. Spechler
                                                                Khovanshchina
Kaplan, Fanya                                                      Lindsey Hughes
   Sally A. Boniece
                                                                Khozraschet
Karachai                                                           Susan J. Linz
   Brian Boeck
                                                                Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich
Karakalpaks                                                        William Taubman
   Paul J. Kubicek
                                                                Khutor
Karakhan Declaration                                               William Moskoff
   Teddy J. Uldricks                                               Carol Gayle
Karamzin, Nikolai Mikhailovich                                  Kievan Caves Patericon
   Andreas Schönle                                                  David K. Prestel


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                      xxix
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Kievan Rus                         Kornilov Affair
    Janet Martin                       Rex A. Wade
Kireyevsky, Ivan Vasilievich       Korolenko, Vladimir Galaktionovich
    Abbott Gleason                     Johanna Granville
Kirill-Beloozero Monastery         Korsh Theater
     Robert Romanchuk                  Louise McReynolds
Kiriyenko, Sergei Vladilenovich    Koryaks
    Hugh Phillips                      Johanna Granville
Kirov, Sergei Mironovich           Korzhakov, Alexander Vasilievich
    Paul M. Hagenloh                   Peter Reddaway
Klyuchevsky, Vasily Osipovich      Kosmodemyanskaya, Zoya
    Boris N. Mironov                  Rosalinde Sartorti
Kokoshin, Andrei Afanasievich      Kosygin, Alexei Nikolayevich
   Jacob W. Kipp                       Graeme Gill
Kolchak, Alexander Vasilievich     Kosygin Reforms
    N. G. O. Pereira                   Martin C. Spechler
Kollontai, Alexandra Mikhailovna   Kotoshikhin, Grigory Karpovich
    Barbara Evans Clements             Benjamin Uroff
Komi                               Kovalev, Sergei Adamovich
   Rein Taagepera                     Peter Reddaway
Komuch                             Kovalevskaya, Sofia Vasilievna
   Victor M. Fic                      Mary Zirin
Kondratiev, Nikolai Dmitrievich    Kozlov, Frol Romanovich
   Vincent Barnett                     William Taubman
Konev, Ivan Stepanovich            Kozyrev, Andrei Vladimirovich
   Michael Parrish                    Paul J. Kubicek
Konstantin Nikolayevich            Krasnov, Pyotr Nikolayevich
   Larissa Zakharova                   Jonathan D. Smele
Kopeck                             Kravchuk, Leonid Makarovich
    Jarmo T. Kotilaine                Robert S. Kravchuk
Koreans                            Kremlin
    Andrei Lankov                      William Craft Brumfield
Korean War                         Kremlinology
    Kathryn Weathersby                 Anthony D’Agostino
Korea, Relations with              Kritzman, Lev Natanovich
    Andrei Lankov                      Nick Baron
Korenizatsya                       Kronstadt Uprising
    Robert Maier                       A. Delano DuGarm
Kormchaya Kniga                    Kropotkin, Pyotr Alexeyevich
   Martin Dimnik                       John Slatter
Kormlenie                          Krupskaya, Nadezhda Konstantinovna
   Stefan Hedlund                     Elizabeth A. Wood
Kornai, Janos                      Krylov, Ivan Andreyevich
    Martin C. Spechler                 Louise McReynolds


xxx                                E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                        L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Kryuchkov, Vladimir Alexandrovich                               Labor Theory of Value
    Amy Knight                                                      Alfred B. Evans Jr.
Kuchuk Kainarji, Treaty of                                      Lake Baikal
   Norman E. Saul                                                   Rachel May
Kulaks                                                          Land and Freedom Party
    Stephan Merl                                                   Christopher Williams
Kuleshov, Lev Vladimirovich                                     Land Captain
    Denise J. Youngblood                                           Oleg Budnitskii
Kulikovo Field, Battle of                                       Landsbergis, Vytautas
    Donald Ostrowski                                               Alfred Erich Senn
Kulturnost                                                      Land Tenure, Imperial Era
    Julia Obertreis                                                Michelle Lamarche Marrese
Kunayev, Dinmukhammed Akhmedovich                               Land Tenure, Soviet and Post-Soviet
   David R. Jones                                                  Stephen K. Wegren
Kurbsky, Andrei Mikhailovich                                    Language Laws
   Sergei Bogatyrev                                                Vladislava Reznik
Kurds                                                           Latvia and Latvians
   Johanna Granville                                                Andrejs Plakans
Kuril Islands                                                   Law Code of 1649
    Charles E. Ziegler                                             Richard Hellie
Kuritsyn, Fyodor Vasilevich                                     Lay of Igor’s Campaign
    David M. Goldfrank                                              Norman W. Ingham
Kuropatkin, Alexei Nikolayevich                                 Lazarev Institute
    David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye                             George A. Bournoutian
Kursk, Battle of                                                League of Armed Neutrality
    David M. Glantz                                                 Norman E. Saul
Kursk Submarine Disaster                                        League of Nations
    Jacob W. Kipp                                                   Teddy J. Uldricks
Kustar                                                          League of the Militant Godless
    E. Anthony Swift                                                Daniel Peris
Kutuzov, Mikhail Ilarionovich                                   Lebed, Alexander Ivanovich
   Frederick W. Kagan                                               Jacob W. Kipp
Kuybyshev, Valerian Vladimirovich                               Lefortovo
   Kate Transchel                                                   Georg Wurzer
Kuznetsov, Nikolai Gerasimovich                                 Left Opposition
   Michael Parrish                                                   Kate Transchel
Kyrgyzstan and Kyrgyz                                           Left Socialist Revolutionaries
    Roger Kangas                                                     Michael Melancon
Labor                                                           Legal Systems
    David Pretty                                                    Michael Newcity
Labor Books                                                     Legislative Commission of 1767–1768
    Robert C. Stuart                                                Janet Hartley
Labor Day                                                       Leichoudes, Ioannikios and Sophronios
    Robert C. Stuart                                                Nikolaos A. Chrissidis


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                     xxxi
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Leipzig, Battle of                  Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich
    Oleg Budnitskii                     Alexander Vucinich
Lena Goldfields Massacre            Local Government and Administration
    Michael Melancon                    Igor Yeykelis
Lend Lease                          Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasilievich
    Mikhail Suprun                     Alexander Vucinich
Leningrad Affair                    Loris-Melikov, Mikhail Tarielovich
    Richard Bidlack                     Oleg Budnitskii
Leningrad, Siege of                 Lotman, Yuri Mikhailovich
    Richard Bidlack                     Johanna Granville
Lenin’s Testament                   Lovers of Wisdom, The
    Christopher Williams                Victoria Frede
Lenin’s Tomb                        Lubok
    Karen Petrone                      Gary Thurston
Lenin, Vladimir Ilich               Lubyanka
    Christopher Read                   Georg Wurzer
Leontiev, Konstantin Nikolayevich   Lukashenko, Alexander Grigorievich
    Alfred B. Evans Jr.                David R. Marples

Lermontov, Mikhail Yurievich        Lukyanov, Anatoly Ivanovich
    Zhand P. Shakibi                   Ann E. Robertson

Leskov, Nikolai Semenovich          Lunacharsky, Anatoly Vasilievich
    Peter Rollberg                     Sheila Fitzpatrick

Lesnaya, Battle of                  Luzhkov, Yuri Mikhailovich
    Paul A. Bushkovitch                Terry D. Clark

Lezgins                             Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich
    Paul Crego                          Rósa Magnúsdóttir

Liberal Democratic Party            Machine Tractor Stations
    Nikolai Petrov                     Robert C. Stuart

Liberalism                          Mafia Capitalism
    Hugh Phillips                      Stefan Hedlund

Liberman, Yevsei Grigorevich        Main Political Directorate
    Robert W. Campbell                 Ann E. Robertson

Ligachev, Yegor Kuzmich             Makarov, Stepan Osipovich
    Jonathan Harris                    Jacob W. Kipp

Likhachev, Dmitry Sergeyevich       Makary, Metropolitan
    John Patrick Farrell               Donald Ostrowski
Lithuania and Lithuanians           Makhno, Nestor Ivanovich
    Alfred Erich Senn                  Jonathan D. Smele
Litvinov, Maxim Maximovich          Malenkov, Georgy Maximilyanovich
    Hugh Phillips                      David R. Marples
Living Church Movement              Malevich, Kazimir Severinovich
    Edward E. Roslof                   Hugh D. Hudson Jr.
Livonian War                        Malta Summit
    Mikhail M. Krom                    Raymond L. Garthoff


xxxii                               E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                       L I S T     O F   A R T I C L E S




Mandelshtam, Nadezhda Yakovlevna                                Mendeleyev, Dmitry Ivanovich
   Judith E. Kalb                                                  Alexander Vucinich
Mandelshtam, Osip Emilievich                                    Mensheviks
   Judith E. Kalb                                                  Alice K. Pate
Manifesto of 1763                                               Menshikov, Alexander Danilovich
   John T. Alexander                                               Lindsey Hughes
Mansi                                                           Mercantilism
   Rein Taagepera                                                  Martin C. Spechler
Mari El and the Mari                                            Merchants
   Seppo Lallukka                                                  Thomas C. Owen
Market Socialism                                                Meskhetian Turks
   Richard Ericson                                                 Justin Odum
Marriage and Family Life                                        Mestnichestvo
   William G. Wagner                                               Nancy Shields Kollmann
Martov, Yuli Osipovich                                          Metropolitan
   Nick Baron                                                      Donald Ostrowski
Marxism                                                         Meyerhold, Vsevolod Yemilievich
   Alfred B. Evans Jr.                                             Sharon Marie Carnicke
Maslenitsa                                                      Mighty Handful
   Roman K. Kovalev                                                Matthias Stadelmann
Material Balances                                               Migration
   Susan J. Linz                                                   Cynthia J. Buckley
Material Product System                                         Mikhailovsky, Nikolai Konstantinovich
   Misha V. Belkindas                                              Dmitri Glinski
Matryoshka Dolls                                                Mikhalkov, Nikita Sergeyevich
   Priscilla Roosevelt                                             Joan Neuberger
Matveyev, Artamon Sergeyevich                                   Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich
   Martha Luby Lahana                                              Roger D. Markwick
Maxim the Greek, St.                                            Military Art
   Hugh M. Olmsted                                                  Bruce W. Menning
Mayakovsky, Vladimir Vladimirovich                              Military Doctrine
   Mark Konecny                                                     Bruce W. Menning
Mazepa, Hetman Ivan Stepanovich                                 Military-Economic Planning
   Lindsey Hughes                                                   Mark Harrison
Medvedev, Roy Alexandrovich                                     Military, Imperial Era
   Roger D. Markwick                                                Bruce W. Menning
Medvedev, Sylvester Agafonikovich                               Military-Industrial Complex
   Nikolaos A. Chrissidis                                           Steven Rosefielde
Medvedev, Zhores Alexandrovich                                  Military Intelligence
   Rósa Magnúsdóttir                                                David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye
Melnikov, Konstantin Stepanovich                                Military Reforms
   Hugh D. Hudson Jr.                                               John W. Steinberg
Memorial                                                        Military, Soviet and Post-Soviet
   Peter Reddaway                                                   Roger R. Reese


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                    xxxiii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Milyukov, Paul Nikolayevich        Moscow
    Oleg Budnitskii                   Terry D. Clark
Milyutin, Dmitry Alexeyevich       Moscow Agricultural Society
    Larissa Zakharova                 Robert E. Johnson
Milyutin, Nikolai Alexeyevich      Moscow Art Theater
    Daniel Field                      Sharon Marie Carnicke
Mingrelians                        Moscow Baroque
   B. George Hewitt                   Lindsey Hughes
Minin, Kuzma                       Moscow, Battle of
   Maureen Perrie                     Anthony Young
Ministries, Economic               Moscow Olympics of 1980
   Paul R. Gregory                    Paul R. Josephson
Ministry of Foreign Trade          Moskvitin, Ivan Yurievich
   James R. Millar                    John McCannon
Ministry of Internal Affairs       Motion Pictures
   Mark Galeotti                      Denise J. Youngblood
Mir                                Movement for Democratic Reforms
      Stephan Merl                    Jonathan Harris
MIR Space Station                  Movement in Support of the Army
   John M. Logsdon                    Nikolai Petrov
Mniszech, Marina                   Mstislav
   Chester Dunning                    Martin Dimnik
Moiseyev, Mikhail Alexeyevich      Muraviev, Nikita
   Jacob W. Kipp                      Johanna Granville
Moldova and Moldovans              Musavat
   William Crowther                   Gregory Twyman
Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich   Muscovy
   Derek Watson                       David M. Goldfrank
Monasticism                        Museum, Hermitage
   Scott M. Kenworthy                 Ann E. Robertson
Monetary Overhang                  Music
   Pekka Sutela                       Matthias Stadelmann
Monetary System, Soviet            Myasoedov Affair
   Pekka Sutela                       Eric Lohr
Montenegro, Relations with         Nagorno-Karabakh
   John D. Treadway                   Gerard J. Libaridian
Mordvins                           Nagrodskaya, Evdokia Apollonovna
   Isabelle Kreindler                 Johanna Granville
Morozova, Feodosya Prokopevna      Nakhichevan
   Nada Boskovska                     Gregory Twyman
Morozov, Boris Ivanovich           Nakhimov, Pavel Stepanovich
   Richard Hellie                     John C. K. Daly
Morozov, Pavel Trofimovich         Napoleon I
   Catriona Kelly                     Marie-Pierre Rey


xxxiv                              E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                          L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Narimanov, Nariman                                               Nesselrode, Karl Robert
    Audrey Altstadt                                                  David M. Goldfrank
Narva, Battles of                                                Net Material Product
   Paul A. Bushkovitch                                               Misha V. Belkindas
Naryshkina, Natalia Kirillovna                                   New Economic Policy
   Lindsey Hughes                                                   Martin C. Spechler
National Library of Russia                                       New-Formation Regiments
    Janice T. Pilch                                                 W. M. Reger IV
Nationalism in the Arts                                          New Political Thinking
    Stephen M. Norris                                               Archie Brown
Nationalism in the Soviet Union                                  Newspapers
    Victoria Khiterer                                               Matthew E. Lenoe
Nationalism in Tsarist Empire                                    New Statute of Commerce
    Timothy Snyder                                                  Richard Hellie
Nationalities Policies, Soviet                                   Nicaragua, Relations with
    Jeremy Smith                                                     Cole Blasier
Nationalities Policies, Tsarist                                  Nicholas I
    Andreas Kappeler                                                 Stephen M. Norris
Nation and Nationality                                           Nicholas II
    Vera Tolz                                                        Peter Waldron
Navarino, Battle of                                              Nihilism and Nihilists
   John C. K. Daly                                                   Alfred B. Evans Jr.
Nazarbayev, Nursultan Abishevich                                 Nijinsky, Vaslav Fomichv
   David R. Jones                                                    Tim Scholl
Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939                                         Nikitin, Afanasy
   Derek Watson                                                      Gail Lenhoff
Near Abroad                                                      Nikon, Patriarch
   Christopher Williams                                              Cathy J. Potter
Nechayev, Sergei Geradievich                                     Nil Sorsky, St.
    Philip Pomper                                                    David M. Goldfrank
Nekrasov, Nikolai Alexeyevich                                    Nogai
    Johanna Granville                                               Roman K. Kovalev
Nemchinov, Vasily Sergeyevich                                    Nomenklatura
   Robert W. Campbell                                               Albert L. Weeks
Nemtsov, Boris Ivanovich                                         Normanist Controversy
   Hugh Phillips                                                    Heidi M. Sherman
Nenets                                                           North Atlantic Treaty Organization
   Gail A. Fondahl                                                   Andrew A. Michta
Neoclassicism                                                    Northern Convoys
    Rosalind P. Gray                                                 Mikhail Suprun
Nerchinsk, Treaty of                                             Northern Fleet
    Jarmo T. Kotilaine                                               Johanna Granville
Neronov, Ivan                                                    Northern Peoples
    Cathy J. Potter                                                  Gail A. Fondahl


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F    R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                     xxxv
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Norway, Relations with              Ogarkov, Nikolai Vasilevich
   Jarmo T. Kotilaine                  Jacob W. Kipp
Novgorod, Archbishop of             Okolnichy
   Lawrence N. Langer                   Sergei Bogatyrev
Novgorod Judicial Charter           Okudzhava, Bulat Shalovich
   Lawrence N. Langer                  Gerald Smith
Novgorod the Great                  Old Believer Committee
   Janet Martin                         Roy R. Robson
Novikov, Nikolai Ivanovich          Old Believers
   Johanna Granville                    Roy R. Robson
Novocherkassk Uprising              Old Style
   Samuel H. Baron                      Ann E. Robertson
Novosibirsk Report                  Oleg
   Alfred B. Evans Jr.                  Martin Dimnik
Novosiltsev, Nikolai Nikolayevich   Olga
   Hugh Phillips                        David K. Prestel
Novozhilov, Viktor Valentinovich    Opera
   Robert W. Campbell                   Albrecht Gaub
Novy Mir                            Operation Barbarossa
   Catharine Nepomnyashchy              A. Delano DuGarm
Nystadt, Treaty of                  Oprichnina
   Lindsey Hughes                       Sergei Bogatyrev
Obrok                               Ordin-Nashchokin, Afanasy Lavrentievich
    Elvira M. Wilbur                    Martha Luby Lahana
Obruchev, Nikolai Nikolayevich      Ordzhonikidze, Grigory Konstantinovich
   Oleg R. Airapetov                   Nick Baron
Obshchina                           Organized Crime
   Steven A. Grant                     Louise Shelley
Occultism                           Orgburo
    Maria Carlson                       Christopher Williams
October 1993 Events                 Orlova, Lyubov Petrovna
    Peter Reddaway                      Denise J. Youngblood
October General Strike of 1905      Orlov, Grigory Grigorievich
    Gerald D. Surh                      John T. Alexander
October Manifesto                   Orthodoxy
    Oleg Budnitskii                     Edward E. Roslof
October Revolution                  Osetins
    Alexander Rabinowitch               Brian Boeck
Octobrist Party                     Osorina, Yulianya Ustinovna
    Zhand P. Shakibi                    Nada Boskovska
Odoyevsky, Vladimir Fyodorovich     Ostromir Gospel
   Johanna Granville                    David K. Prestel
Official Nationality                Ostrovsky, Alexander Nikolayevich
     Cynthia Hyla Whittaker             Gary Thurston


xxxvi                               E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                          L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Otrepev, Grigory                                                Pavlov, Valentin Sergeyevich
    Chester Dunning                                                 Johanna Granville
Our Home Is Russia Party                                        Peasant Economy
    Nikolai Petrov                                                  Stephen K. Wegren
Pacific Fleet                                                   Peasantry
    Johanna Granville                                               Robert E. Johnson
Paganism                                                        Peasant Uprisings
   David K. Prestel                                                 Dmitri Glinski
Pakistan, Relations with                                        Pechenegs
    Johanna Granville                                               Roman K. Kovalev
Palekh Painting                                                 Peking, Treaty of
    K. Andrea Rusnock                                               Steven I. Levine
Pale of Settlement                                              Pelevin, Viktor Olegovich
    Diana Fisher                                                    Eliot Borenstein
Paleologue, Sophia                                              People’s Commissariat of Nationalities
    Isolde Thyrêt                                                   Ronald Grigor Suny
Pallas, Peter-Simon                                             People’s Control Committee
    Alexander Vucinich                                              Ann E. Robertson
Pamyat                                                          People’s Houses
   Zoe Knox                                                         E. Anthony Swift
Panslavism                                                      People’s Party of Free Russia
   Abbott Gleason                                                   Nikolai Petrov
Paris, Congress and Treaty of 1856                              People’s Will, The
    David M. Goldfrank                                              Deborah Pearl
Paris, First and Second Treaties of                             Perestroika
    Marie-Pierre Rey                                                Archie Brown
Party Congresses and Conferences                                Permanent Revolution
    Robert V. Daniels                                               Carl A. Linden
Party of Russian Unity and Accord                               Perovskaya, Sofia Lvovna
    Nikolai Petrov                                                  Oleg Budnitskii
Passport System                                                 Persian Gulf War
    Golfo Alexopoulos                                               Robert O. Freedman
Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich                                    Pestel, Pavel Ivanovich
    Larissa Rudova                                                  Paul Crego
Patriarchate                                                    Peter I
    Paul A. Bushkovitch                                             Lindsey Hughes
Paul I                                                          Peter II
    Marie-Pierre Rey                                                Lindsey Hughes
Pavliuchenko, Lyudmila Mikhailovna                              Peter III
    Kazimiera J. Cottam                                             Lindsey Hughes
Pavlova, Anna Matveyevna                                        Peter and Paul Fortress
    Tim Scholl                                                      William Craft Brumfield
Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich                                          Petrashevtsy
    Sharon A. Kowalsky                                              Kathryn Weathersby


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                     xxxvii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Petrov, Grigory Spiridonovich        Poles
    Jennifer Hedda                       Johanna Granville
Petrushka                            Polish Rebellion of 1863
    Patricia Arant                        Brian Porter
Petty Tutelage                       Politburo
    Susan J. Linz                         Graeme Gill
Photography                          Political Party System
    Erika Wolf                            Thomas F. Remington
Pimen, Patriarch                     Polotsky, Simeon
   Nathaniel Davis                       Paul A. Bushkovitch
Pirogov, Nikolai Ivanovich           Polovtsy
    Alexander Vucinich                   Roman K. Kovalev
Pisarev, Dmitry Ivanovich            Poltava, Battle of
    Johanna Granville                    Jarmo T. Kotilaine
Planners’ Preferences                Polyane
    Richard Ericson                      Roman K. Kovalev
Platon (Levshin)                     Pomestie
    J. Eugene Clay                      Richard Hellie
Platonov, Sergei Fyodorovich         Ponomarev, Boris Kharitonovich
    Oleg Budnitskii                      Roger D. Markwick
Plehve, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich   Popov, Alexander Stepanovich
    Edward H. Judge                      Johanna Granville
Plekhanov, Georgy Valentinovich      Popov, Gavriil Kharitonovich
    Samuel H. Baron                      Erik S. Herron
Plenum                               Popov, Pavel Ilich
    Julie deGraffenried                  Robert W. Campbell
Pobedonostsev, Konstantin            Popular Front Policy
    Michelle DenBeste                    Harold J. Goldberg
Podgorny, Nikolai Viktorovich        Populism
    Roger D. Markwick                    Christopher Williams
Podyachy                             Port Arthur, Siege of
    Peter B. Brown                       Bruce W. Menning
Podzol                               Portsmouth, Treaty of
    Victor L. Mote                       Nikolas Gvosdev
Pogodin, Mikhail Petrovich           Posadnik
    Johanna Granville                    Lawrence N. Langer
Pogroms                              Possessors and Non-Possessors
    David Pretty                         David M. Goldfrank
Pokrovsky, Mikhail Nikolayevich      Postal System
    George Enteen                        Alison Rowley
Poland                               Potemkin, Grigory Alexandrovich
    Theodore R. Weeks                    John T. Alexander
Polar Explorers                      Potemkin Mutiny
    John McCannon                        Igor Yeykelis


xxxviii                              E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                          L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Potsdam Conference                                              Proletkult
    Joseph L. Nogee                                                 Lynn Mally
Pozharsky, Dmitry Mikhailovich                                  Propp, Vladimir Iakovlevich
    Maureen Perrie                                                  Natalie O. Kononenko
Pravda                                                          Prostitution
    Matthew E. Lenoe                                                Laurie Bernstein
Preobrazhensky Guards                                           Protazanov, Yakov Alexandrovic
    Bruce W. Menning                                                Denise J. Youngblood
Preobrazhensky, Yevgeny Alexeyevich                             Protestantism
    Don Filtzer                                                     Paul D. Steeves
Presidency                                                      Protopopov, Alexander Dmitrievich
    Erik S. Herron                                                  Nicholas V. Riasanovsky
Presidential Council                                            Provisional Government
    Christopher Williams                                            Daniel Orlovsky
Presidium of Supreme Soviet                                     Prussia, Relations with
    Richard Hellie                                                  Hugh Phillips
Primakov, Yevgeny Maximovich                                    Pruth River, Campaign and Treaty of
    Robert V. Daniels                                               Jean K. Berger
Primary Chronicle                                               Pskov Judicial Charter
    Donald Ostrowski                                                Lawrence N. Langer
Primary Party Organization                                      Public Opinion Studies
    Christopher Williams                                            Steven A. Grant
Prime Minister                                                  Pugachev, Emelian Ivanovich
    Gerald M. Easter                                               John T. Alexander
Primitive Socialist Accumulation                                Pugo, Boris Karlovich
    James R. Millar                                                 Jacob W. Kipp
Prisons                                                         Purges, The Great
    Georg Wurzer                                                    Gabor T. Rittersporn
Prison Songs                                                    Pushkin, Alexander Sergeyevich
    Julia Ulyannikova                                               Diana Senechal
Privatization                                                   Pushkin House
    Marie Lavigne                                                   Vanessa Bittner
Procuracy                                                       Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
    Gordon B. Smith                                                 Dale Herspring
Prodnalog                                                       Pytatakov, Georgy Leonidovich
    Stephen K. Wegren                                               Kate Transchel
Prodrazverstka                                                  Quadruple Alliance and Quintuple Alliance
    Stephen K. Wegren                                              Hugh Phillips
Production Sharing Agreement                                    Rabbinical Commission
    James R. Millar                                                ChaeRan Y. Freeze
Prokofiev, Sergei Sergeyevich                                   Rabkrin
    Matthias Stadelmann                                            Nick Baron
Prokopovich, Feofan                                             Rachmaninov, Sergei Vasilievich
    Gregory L. Freeze                                               Albert L. Weeks


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                      xxxix
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Radek, Karl Bernardovich             Religion
   William J. Chase                      Gregory L. Freeze
Radishchev, Alexander Nikolayevich   Repin, Ilya Yefimovich
   W. Gareth Jones                       Louise McReynolds
Radzinsky, Edvard Stanislavich       Repressed Inflation
   Jacob W. Kipp                         Steven Rosefielde
Raikin, Arkady Isaakovich            Revolution of 1905
    Robert Weinberg                      Abraham Ascher
Railways                             Reykjavik Summit
    Victor L. Mote                       Raymond L. Garthoff
Raionirovanie                        Right Opposition
    James Heinzen                        Kate Transchel
Rapallo, Treaty of                   Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai Andreyevich
   Harold J. Goldberg                   Matthias Stadelmann
Rasputin, Grigory Yefimovich         Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich
    Joseph T. Fuhrmann                  John M. Thompson
Rastrelli, Bartolomeo                Roerich, Nicholas Konstantinovich
    William Craft Brumfield              John McCannon
Ratchet Effect                       Romania, Relations with
    Susan J. Linz                       Radu R. Florescu
Razin Rebellion                      Romanova, Anastasia
    James G. Hart                       Isolde Thyrêt
Raznochintsy                         Romanova, Anastasia Nikolayevna
   Victoria Khiterer                    Ann E. Robertson
Redemption Payments                  Romanov Dynasty
    A. Delano DuGarm                    Russell E. Martin
Red Guards                           Romanov, Grigory Vasilievich
    Rex A. Wade                         Ann E. Robertson
Red Square                           Romanov, Mikhail Fyodorovich
    William Craft Brumfield             Russell E. Martin
Red Terror                           Romanticism
    Vladimir Brovkin                    Yuri Tulupenko
Referendum of April 1993             Rostislav
    Nikolai Petrov                       Martin Dimnik
Referendum of December 1993          Rostovtsev, Mikhail Ivanovich
    Gordon B. Smith                      A. Delano DuGarm
Referendum of March 1991             Rota System
    Edward W. Walker                     Janet Martin
Refuseniks                           Route to Greeks
    Jonathan D. Wallace                  Roman K. Kovalev
Regionalism                          Ruble
    Susan Smith-Peter                   Jarmo T. Kotilaine
Reitern, Mikhail Khristoforovich     Ruble Control
    Jacob W. Kipp                       Pekka Sutela


xl                                   E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                          L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Rublev, Andrei                                                  Rutskoi, Alexander Vladimirovich
   A. Dean McKenzie                                                 Jacob W. Kipp
Ruble Zone                                                      Rybkin, Ivan Petrovich
   Juliet Johnson                                                  Nikolai Petrov
Rumyantsev, Peter Alexandrovich                                 Rykov, Alexei Ivanovich
   Lindsey Hughes                                                  Derek Watson
Rurik                                                           Ryleyev, Kondraty Fyodorovich
    Martin Dimnik                                                   Johanna Granville
Rurikid Dynasty                                                 Ryutin, Martemyan
    Janet Martin                                                   James White
Russia-Belarus Union                                            Ryzhkov, Nikolai Ivanovich
    Omer Fisher                                                    Ann E. Robertson
Russia Company                                                  Saints
    Maria Salomon Arel                                              Gregory L. Freeze
Russian Association of Proletarian Writers                      Sakha and Yakuts
    Brian Kassof                                                    Erin K. Crouch
Russian Federal Securities Commission                           Sakharov, Andrei Dmitrievich
    James R. Millar                                                 Lisa A. Kirschenbaum
Russian Federation                                              Saltykov-Shchedrin, Mikhail Yevgrafovich
    Johanna Granville                                               Emil Draitser
Russian Geographical Society                                    Sami
    Victor L. Mote                                                 Rein Taagepera
Russian Justice                                                 Samizdat
    Daniel H. Kaiser                                               Nickolas Lupinin
Russian National Unity Party                                    Samoilova, Kondordiya Nikolayevna
    William D. Jackson                                             Barbara Evans Clements
Russian Orthodox Church                                         Samoupravlenie
    Gregory L. Freeze                                              Susan J. Linz
Russians                                                        San Stefano, Treaty of
    Nancy Ries                                                      Oleg R. Airapetov
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic                     Sarmatians
    Johanna Granville                                              Brian Porter
Russian State Library                                           Sarts
    Janice T. Pilch                                                 Michael Rouland
Russia’s Democratic Choice                                      Sberbank
    Nikolai Petrov                                                  Juliet Johnson
Russification                                                   Science and Technology Policy
    Theodore R. Weeks                                                Paul R. Josephson
Russo-Japanese War                                              Science Fiction
    John W. Steinberg                                                Yvonne Helen Howell
Russo-Persian Wars                                              Scientific Socialism
    Robert F. Baumann                                                Michael Ellman
Russo-Turkish Wars                                              Scissors Crisis
    Bruce W. Menning                                                 Robert C. Stuart


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                         xli
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Scythians                          Shcharansky, Anatoly Nikolayevich
    Roman K. Kovalev                   Johanna Granville
Second Economy                     Shchepkin, Mikhail Semeonovich
    Michael Alexeev                    Louise McReynolds
Second Secretary                   Shcherbatov, Mikhail Mikhailovich
    Albert L. Weeks                    Johanna Granville
Secretariat                        Shevardnadze, Eduard Amvrosievich
    Norma C. Noonan                    Melvin Goodman
Sectarianism                       Shevchenko, Taras Gregorevich
    J. Eugene Clay                     Serhy Yekelchyk
Security Council                   Shlyapnikov, Alexander Gavrilovich
    Peter Rutland                      Barbara Allen
Serapion Brothers                  Shock Therapy
    Elizabeth Jones Hemenway           Stefan Hedlund
Serbia, Relations with             Shockworkers
    Richard Frucht                     Lewis H. Siegelbaum
Serednyaki                         Sholokhov, Mikhail Alexandrovich
    Martin C. Spechler                 Karl E. Loewenstein
Serfdom                            Short Course
    Richard Hellie                     David Brandenberger
Sergei, Patriarch                  Shostakovich, Dmitri Dmitrievich
    Edward E. Roslof                   Matthias Stadelmann
Sergius, St.                       Show Trials
    David B. Miller                   Paul M. Hagenloh
Service State                      Shuisky, Vasily Ivanovich
    Richard Hellie                     Chester S. L. Dunning
Sevastopol                         Shumeiko, Vladimir Filippovich
    Jacob W. Kipp                     Ann E. Robertson
Seven-Year Plan                    Siberia
    Martin C. Spechler                 Victor L. Mote
Seven Years’ War                   Sikorsky, Igor Ivanovich
    Stephen M. Norris                  Johanna Granville
Shahumian, Stepan Georgievich      Silver Age
   Ronald Grigor Suny                   John E. Bowlt
Shakhrai, Sergei Mikhailovich      Simeon
   Ann E. Robertson                    Martin Dimnik
Shakhty Trial                      Simonov, Konstantin Mikhailovich
   Peter H. Solomon Jr.               Karl E. Loewenstein
Shamil                             Simonov Monastery
   Michael Rouland                    Nickolas Lupinin
Shaposhnikov, Boris Mikhailovich   Sinodik
   Bruce W. Menning                    Ludwig Steindorff
Shatalin, Stanislav Sergeyevich    Sinope, Battle of
    Dmitri Glinski                     John C. K. Daly


xlii                               E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                         L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Sinyavsky-Daniel Trial                                          Solovki Monastery
    Jonathan D. Wallace                                             Jennifer B. Spock
Skaz                                                            Solzhenitsyn, Alexander Isayevich
    Elizabeth Jones Hemenway                                        Brian Kassof
Skobelev, Mikhail Dmitriyevich                                  Sophia
    Daniel Brower                                                   Lindsey Hughes
Skrypnyk, Mykola Oleksyovych                                    Sorge, Richard
    Serhy Yekelchyk                                                 Michael Parrish
Slavery                                                         Sorokoust
    Richard Hellie                                                  Ludwig Steindorff
Slavo-Greco-Latin Academy                                       Soskovets, Oleg Nikolayevich
    Nikolaos A. Chrissidis                                          Peter Reddaway
Slavophiles                                                     Soslovie
    Christopher Williams                                            Gregory L. Freeze
Slutsky, Boris Abromovich                                       Soul Tax
    Gerald Smith                                                    Martin C. Spechler
Slutsky, Yevgeny Yevgenievich                                   Soviet
    Vincent Barnett                                                 David Pretty
Smolensk Archive                                                Soviet-Finnish War
   Christopher Williams                                             Richard H. Bidlack
Smolensk War                                                    Soviet-German Trade Agreement of 1939
   Brian Davies                                                     Edward E. Ericson III
Smolny Institute                                                Soviet Man
   Anna Kuxhausen                                                   Alfred B. Evans Jr.
Smychka                                                         Soviet-Polish War
   Carol Gayle                                                      Timothy Snyder
   William Moskoff
                                                                Sovkhoz
Sobchak, Anatoly Alexandrovich
                                                                    Robert C. Stuart
    Peter Rutland
                                                                Sovnarkhozy
Social Democratic Workers Party
                                                                    Derek Watson
    Robert C. Williams
Socialism                                                       Sovnarkom
    Abraham Ascher                                                  Derek Watson

Socialism in One Country                                        Soyuz Faction
    Derek Watson                                                    Peter Rutland

Socialist Realism                                               Space Program
    Cynthia A. Ruder                                                John M. Logsdon
Socialist Revolutionaries                                       Spanish Civil War
    Michael Melancon                                               Mary R. Habeck
Sokolovsky, Vasily Danilovich                                   Special Purpose Forces
    Michael Parrish                                                 Mark Galeotti
Solidarity Movement                                             Speransky, Mikhail Mikhailovich
    Elizabeth Teague                                                Albert L. Weeks
Soloviev, Vladimir Sergeyevich                                  Spiridonova, Maria Alexandrovna
    Greg Gaut                                                       Sally A. Boniece


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                      xliii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Spiritual Elders                       Stenka Razin
    Robert L. Nichols                      Elena Pavlova
Sports Policy                          Stepashin, Sergei Vadimovich
    Victor Rosenberg                       Jacob W. Kipp
Sputnik                                Steppe
    Paul R. Josephson                      Victor L. Mote
Stakhanovite Movement                  Stiliagi
    Lewis H. Siegelbaum                     Larissa Rudova
Stalingrad, Battle of                  Stock Exchanges
    David M. Glantz                        James R. Millar
Stalin, Josef Vissarionovich           Stolbovo, Treaty of
    Graeme Gill                            Nikolas Gvosdev
Stanislavsky, Konstantin Sergeyevich   Stolnik
    Sharon Marie Carnicke                  David M. Goldfrank
Starovoitova, Galina Vasilievna        Stolypin, Peter Arkadievich
    Paul J. Kubicek                        Francis W. Wcislo
Stasova, Yelena Dmitrievna             St. Petersburg
    Barbara Evans Clements                  Ann E. Robertson
                                            Blair A. Ruble
Stasov, Vladimir Vasilievich
    Elizabeth K. Valkenier             Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties
                                           Matthew O’Gara
State Capitalism
    Steven Rosefielde                  Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
                                           Matthew O’Gara
State Committees
    Derek Watson                       Strategic Defense Initiative
                                           Johanna Granville
State Council
    Zhand P. Shakibi                   Stravinsky, Igor Fyodorovich
                                           Tim Scholl
State Defense Committee
    Roger R. Reese                     Streltsy
                                            W. M. Reger IV
State Enterprise, Law of the
                                       Stroibank
    Martin C. Spechler
                                           Juliet Johnson
State Orders
                                       Strumilin, Stanislav Gustavovich
    Paul R. Gregory
                                           Julia Obertreis
State Principle                        Struve, Peter Bernardovich
    Mikhail M. Krom                        Carl A. Linden
State Security, Organs of              Stukach
    Stuart Finkel                          Albert L. Weeks
Statute of Grand Prince Vladimir       Stürmer, Boris Vladimirovich
    Daniel H. Kaiser                       Samuel A. Oppenheim
Statute of Grand Prince Yaroslav       Subbotnik
    Daniel H. Kaiser                       Steven Rosefielde
Stavka                                 Subway Systems
    Bruce W. Menning                      Andrew Jenks
Stefan Yavorsky, Metropolitan          Succession, Law on
    J. Eugene Clay                         Lindsey Hughes


xliv                                   E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                        L I S T    O F   A R T I C L E S




Succession of Leadership, Soviet                                Tajikistan and Tajiks
    Norma C. Noonan                                                 Roger Kangas
Sudebnik of 1497                                                Tale of Avraamy Palitsyn
    George G. Weickhardt                                            Brian Boeck
Sudebnik of 1550                                                Tannenberg, Battle of
    George G. Weickhardt                                           Dennis Showalter
Sudebnik of 1589                                                Tarkovsky, Andrei Arsenievich
    Richard Hellie                                                  Nick Baron
Sukonnaya Sotnya                                                Tashkent
    Jarmo T. Kotilaine                                              Roger Kangas
Sultan-Galiev, Mirza Khaidargalievich                           TASS
    Daniel E. Schafer                                              Matthew E. Lenoe
Sumarokov, Alexander Petrovich                                  Tatarstan and Tatars
   Marcus C. Levitt                                                 Daniel E. Schafer
Supreme Soviet                                                  Taxes
    Albert L. Weeks                                                 Martin C. Spechler
Suslov, Mikhail Andreyevich                                     Tax, Turnover
    Elaine MacKinnon                                                Martin C. Spechler
Suvorin, Alexei Sergeyevich                                     Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyich
    Charles A. Ruud                                                 Tim Scholl
Suvorov, Alexander Vasilievich                                  Techpromfinplan
    Bruce W. Menning                                                Susan J. Linz
Svans                                                           Teheran Conference
    B. George Hewitt                                                Joseph L. Nogee
Svechin, Alexander Andreyevich                                  Teleological Planning
    James J. Schneider                                              Robert C. Stuart
Svyatopolk I                                                    Television and Radio
    Martin Dimnik                                                   Lucie Hribal
Svyatopolk II                                                   Temporary Regulations
    Martin Dimnik                                                  Abraham Ascher
Svyatoslav I                                                    Terem
    Martin Dimnik                                                   Lindsey Hughes
Svyatoslav II                                                   Ter-Petrossian, Levon
    Martin Dimnik                                                   Gerard J. Libaridian
Sweden, Relations with                                          Territorial-Administrative Units
   Jarmo T. Kotilaine                                               Edward W. Walker
Syn Boyarsky                                                    Terrorism
    Brian Davies                                                    Anna Geifman
Sytin, Ivan Dmitrievich                                         Thaw, The
    Charles A. Ruud                                                Susan Costanzo
Table of Ranks                                                  Theater
    Lindsey Hughes                                                  Susan Costanzo
Taganka                                                         Theophanes the Greek
   Maia Kipp                                                        A. Dean McKenzie


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                       xlv
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Thick Journals                    Trade Unions
    Peter Rollberg                    Carol Clark
Thin Journals                     Transcaucasian Federations
    Louise McReynolds                 Stephen Jones
Third Rome                        Trans-Dniester Republic
    David M. Goldfrank                John Gledhill
Thirteen Years’ War               Transition Economies
    W. M. Reger IV                    Marie Lavigne
Three Emperors’ League            Trans-Siberian Railway
    Jean K. Berger                    Victor L. Mote
Three-Field System                Triandafillov, Viktor Kiriakovich
    Daniel Field                      James J. Schneider
Tiflis
                                  Trinity St. Sergius Monastery
     Ronald Grigor Suny
                                      David B. Miller
Tikhon, Patriarch
                                  Trotsky, Leon Davidovich
    Edward E. Roslof
                                      Robert V. Daniels
Tilsit, Treaty of
     David Wetzel                 Trusts, Soviet
                                      James R. Millar
Time of Troubles
   Chester Dunning                Tsarskoye Selo
                                      Anna Petrova
Tithe Church, Kiev                    Ilya Vinkovetsky
    William Craft Brumfield
                                  Tsar, Tsarina
Tkachev, Petr Nikitich                Ann E. Robertson
    Albert L. Weeks
                                  Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Eduardovich
Togan, Ahmed Zeki Validov             Albert L. Weeks
    Daniel E. Schafer
                                  Tsushima, Battle of
Tolstaya, Tatiana Nikitichna
                                      Norman E. Saul
    Harold D. Baker
                                  Tsvetaeva, Marina Ivanovna
Tolstoy, Alexei Konstantinovich
                                      Diana Senechal
    Elizabeth Jones Hemenway
Tolstoy, Leo Nikolayevich         Tugan-Baranovsky, Mikhail Ivanovich
    Michael A. Denner                Vincent Barnett

Tomsky, Mikhail Pavlovich         Tukhachevsky, Mikhail Nikolayevich
   Alison Rowley                     Sally W. Stoecker

Torky                             Tupolev, Andrei Nikolayevich
    Roman K. Kovalev                 Sally W. Stoecker

Totalitarianism                   Turgenev, Ivan Sergeyevich
    Abbott Gleason                    Michael A. Denner
Tourism                           Turkestan
    Shawn Solomon                     Seymour Becker
Trade Routes                      Turkey, Relations with
    Victor L. Mote                    Robert O. Freedman
Trade Statutes of 1653 and 1667   Turkmenistan and Turkmen
    Jarmo T. Kotilaine                Roger Kangas


xlvi                              E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                        L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Tur, Yevgenia                                                   Unkiar Skelessi, Treaty of
    Jehanne M. Gheith                                              Nikolas Gvosdev
Tuva and Tuvinians                                              Ushakov, Simon Fyodorovich
   Johanna Granville                                               A. Dean McKenzie
Twenty-Five Thousanders                                         Ustinov, Dmitry Fedorovich
   Kate Transchel                                                   Jacob W. Kipp
Tyutchev, Fyodor Ivanovich                                      Uvarov, Sergei Semenovich
    Nicholas V. Riasanovsky                                        Cynthia Hyla Whittaker
U-2 Spy Plane Incident                                          Uzbekistan and Uzbeks
   William Taubman                                                 Roger Kangas
Udmurts                                                         Value Subtraction
   Rein Taagepera                                                   Susan J. Linz
Uezd                                                            Varennikov, Valentin Ivanovich
   Nick Baron                                                       Jacob W. Kipp
Ugra River, Battle of                                           Varga, Eugene Samuilovich
   Mikhail M. Krom                                                  Robert W. Campbell
Ukaz                                                            Vasilevsky, Alexander Mikhailovich
   Lindsey Hughes                                                   Johanna Granville
Ukraine and Ukrainians                                          Vavilov, Nikolai Ivanovich
   Serhy Yekelchyk                                                  Yvonne Howell
Uniate Church                                                   Veche
    Serhy Yekelchyk                                                 Michael C. Paul
Union of Right Forces                                           Vekhi
    Nikolai Petrov                                                  Gary Thurston
Union of Sovereign States                                       Verbitskaya, Anastasia Alexeyevna
    Ann E. Robertson                                                Charlotte Rosenthal
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics                             Vienna, Congress of
    Archie Brown                                                    David M. Goldfrank
Union of Soviet Writers                                         Vietnam, Relations with
    Brian Kassof                                                    Stephen J. Morris
Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of Labor                 Vikings
    Reginald E. Zelnik                                              Heidi M. Sherman
Union Treaty                                                    Vilnius
    Roman Solchanyk                                                 Alfred Erich Senn
United Nations                                                  Virgin Lands Program
    Harold J. Goldberg                                              D. Gale Johnson
United Opposition                                               Virtual Economy
    Kate Transchel                                                  Susan J. Linz
United States, Relations with                                   Vladimir Monomakh
    Norman E. Saul                                                  Martin Dimnik
Unity (Medved) Party                                            Vladimir, St.
    Peter Rutland                                                   Francis Butler
Universities                                                    Vlasov Movement
    Alexander Vucinich                                              Catherine Andreyev


E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y                                                     xlvii
L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Vodka                                   White Army
   Kate Transchel                          Mary R. Habeck
Volkogonov, Dmitry Antonovich           White Sea Canal
    Bruce W. Menning                       Cynthia A. Ruder
Volsky, Arkady Ivanovich                Winius, Andries Dionyszoon
    Eric Lohr                              Jarmo T. Kotilaine
Vorontsov, Mikhail Semenovich           Winter Palace
    Anthony Rhinelander                    William Craft Brumfield
Vorontsov-Dashkov, Illarion Ivanovich   Witchcraft
    Ronald Grigor Suny                     Roman K. Kovalev
Voroshilov, Kliment Efremovich          Witte, Sergei Yulievich
    Bruce W. Menning                       Boris N. Mironov
Votchina                                Women of Russia Bloc
    Mikhail M. Krom                       Nikolai Petrov
Voyevoda                                Workers
    Brian Davies                           Reginald E. Zelnik
Voznesensky, Nikolai Alexeyevich        Workers’ Control
   Mark Harrison                           John M. Thompson
Vsevolod I                              Workers’ Opposition
    Martin Dimnik                          Barbara Allen
Vsevolod III                            World Revolution
    Martin Dimnik                          William J. Chase
Vyborg Manifesto                        World War I
   Oleg Budnitskii                         David R. Jones
Vyshinsky, Andrei Yanuarievich          World War II
   Peter H. Solomon Jr.                    Mark Harrison
Vyshnegradsky, Ivan Alexeyevich         Wrangel, Peter Nikolayevich
   Boris N. Mironov                        Jonathan D. Smele
Vysotsky, Vladimir Semyonovich          Yabloko
    Gerald Smith                            Peter Rutland
Wages, Soviet                           Yagoda, Genrikh Grigorevich
   Lewis H. Siegelbaum                      Michael Parrish
War Communism                           Yakovlev, Alexander Nikolayevich
   Mark Harrison                           Jonathan Harris
War Economy                             Yalta Conference
   Mark Harrison                            Joseph L. Nogee
War of the Third Coalition              Yanayev, Gennady Ivanovich
   Norman E. Saul                          Ann E. Robertson
Warsaw Treaty Organization              Yarlyk
   Andrew A. Michta                         Donald Ostrowski
Westernizers                            Yaropolk I
   Boris N. Mironov                         Martin Dimnik
What Is to Be Done?                     Yaroslav Vladimirovich
   David K. McQuilkin                       Martin Dimnik


xlviii                                  E N C Y C L O P E D I A   O F   R U S S I A N   H I S T O R Y
                                                                                        L I S T   O F   A R T I C L E S




Yaroslav Vsevolodovich                                          Zasulich, Vera Ivanovna
    Martin Dimnik                                                   Michael Ellman
Yaroslav Yaroslavich                                            Zealots of Piety
    Martin Dimnik                                                   Cathy J. Potter
Yavlinsky, Grigory Alexeyevich                                  Zemstvo
    Peter Rutland                                                  Oleg Budnitskii
Yazov, Dmitry Timofeyevich
                                                                Zero-Option
   Jacob W. Kipp
                                                                    Matthew O’Gara
Yeltsin, Boris Nikolayevich
    Ann E. Robertson                                            Zhdanov, Andrei Alexandrovich
                                                                   Werner G. Hahn
Yermak Timofeyevich
    Maureen Perrie                                              Zhelyabov, Andrei Ivanovich
                                                                    Oleg Budnitskii
Yesenin, Sergei Alexandrovich
    Brian Kassof                                                Zhenotdel
Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Alexandrovich                                  Elizabeth A. Wood
    Gerald Smith                                                Zhensovety
Yezhov, Nikolai Ivanovich                                           Mary Buckley
    Marc Jansen                                                 Zhirinovsky, Vladimir Volfovich
Yudenich, Nikolai Nikolayevich                                      Jacob W. Kipp
   Jonathan D. Smele
                                                                Zhordania, Noe Nikolayevich
Yugoslavia, Relations with                                          Ronald Grigor Suny
   Richard Frucht
                                                                Zhukov, Georgy Konstantinovich
Yuri Danilovich                                                    David Glantz
    Martin Dimnik
                                                                Zhukovsky, Nikolai Yegorovich
Yuri Vladimirovich
                                                                   Albert L. Weeks
    Martin Dimnik
                                                                Zinoviev, Grigory Yevseyevich
Yuri Vsevolodovich
                                                                    Nick Baron
    Martin Dimnik
Zadonshchina                                                    Zinoviev Letter
   Norman W. Ingham                                                 Nick Baron

Zagotovka                                                       Zubatov, Sergei Vasilievich
   Robert C. Stuart                                                Jonathan W. Daly
Zaslavskaya, Tatiana Ivanovna                                   Zyuganov, Gennady Andreyevich
    Christopher Williams                                           Luke March




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