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uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi ucxoeTis wignTsacavebSi

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uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi ucxoeTis wignTsacavebSi Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                      vaxtang imnaiSvili

                                                                                          ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis
                                                                                                         saxelmwifo universiteti


                                    uZvelesi qarTuli xelnawerebi ucxoeTis wignTsacavebSi

              qristianuli                         kulturis               istoriis       Sesaswavlad           didi    mniSvneloba      aqvs
aRmosavleTis qristiani xalxebis literaturul memkvidreobas. araerTi berZnuli
xelnaweri dakargulia da dRes isini xelmisawvdomia mxolod Targmanebis saxiT
aRmosavlur enaze. xSirad Zveli qristianuli literaturis ama Tu im werilobiTi
Zeglis uZvelesi da ukeTesi varianti SemorCenilia swored romelime aRmosavlur
enaze1,             Tundac                qarTulze                   (amis    erT     nimuSs     Cven     qvemoT     gavecnobiT).    aqedan
gamomdinare,                       samecniero                    wreebi       did     interess       iCenen     aRmosavleTis        xalxTa
xelnawerebis gamomzeurebis, Sekrebisa da Seswavlis saqmianobaSi. qarTveli xalxi
swored aRmosavleTis aseT uZveles xalxebs miekuTvneba. amitom misi mravalsauku-
novani literaturuli Zeglebi mkvlevarTa sagangebo yuradRebas ipyrobs. dRes minda
Tqveni yuradReba swored aseT siZveleebze, Zvel qarTul xelnawerebze, SevaCero,
romelTac                    sxvadasxva                   mizezis        gamo       kavkasionis    kalTebidan         ramdenime    aTaseuli
kilometris                      daSorebiT,                     evropis       sxvadasxva    qveynis      metad   Tu     naklebad     cnobil
muzeumTa Tu biblioTekaTa mtverdadebul Taroebze daudviaT myudro savane.

              erTi nawili Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebisa daculia avstriaSi _ venis na-
cionalur                    biblioTekasa                        da   gracis        universitetis        biblioTekis     xelnawerTa     gan-
yofilebaSi.                       ramdenime                    qarTuli        xelnaweri        Semounaxavs         britaneTis     muzeumis
Taroebsac.

                                                  gracis universitetis qarTuli xelnawerebi

              gracis qarTuli xelnawerebis Tavgadasavali hugo SuxarTis saxelTanaa mWi-
drod              dakavSirebuli.                               rom    ara     es    gamoCenili       swavluli,        gracis     400-wliani
universitetis biblioTekis Taroebze, eWvgareSea, ar iqneboda dawyobili biblioTekis
siamaye _ ZvelTaZveli qarTuli xelnawerebi, rac biblioTekas SuxarTis sikvdilis
Semdeg darCa anderZiT.



                                                            
1
    g.feraZe, qarTuli xelnawerebi britanul fondebSi, ciskari, #9, 1989, gv. 309.
      hugo SuxarTi iyo gamoCenili avstrieli enaTmecnieri, romanuli enebis cno-
bili specialisti, gracis universitetis profesori, venis mecnierebaTa akademiis
namdvili     wevri.   SuxarTis   mecnieruli    damsaxurebis    aRiarebaze    metyvelebs    misi
sapatio     titulebis    CamonaTvali:   boloniis,    budapeStis,     oslos    universitetebis
sapatio doqtori, budapeStis, berlinis, miunxenis, romis, amsterdamis, lisabonis,
kopenhagenis,     krakovis   mecnierebaTa   akademiebis   wevri,   sapatio   wevri   sxvadasxva
samecniero institutisa san-sebastianSi, moskovSi, peterburgsa da sxva qalaqebSi.
sxvaTa Soris, hugo SuxarTi qarTuli saenaTmecniero sazogadoebis wevric iyo.
STambeWdavia SuxarTis gamoqveynebul mecnierul naSromTa raodenoba: maTi ricxvi
770-mde aRwevs.

      hugo SuxarTi, Cans, XIX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi dainteresda qarTuliT, man
artur laistis meSveobiT saqmiani urTierToba daamyara qarTvel swavlulebTan,
sazogado moRvaweebTan da maTgan sistematurad Rebulobda qarTul samecniero Tu
sxva saxis literaturas. SuxarTis qarTvel nacnobTa Soris SeiZleba davasaxeloT
ilia WavWavaZe, aleqsandre cagareli, da sxvani. maT ara marto mimowera hqondaT
SuxarTTan, aramed zogierTi maTgani evropaSi yofnisas piradadac gaecno gamoCenil
mecniers.

      SuxarTs 2 aTeulamde gamokvleva aqvs dabeWdili qarTulis Sesaxeb. Tavis
erTerT ukanasknel werilSi is aRniSnavs, rom qarTuli misTvis simpaTiuri da
saintereso enaa. swored am didma simpaTiam da gamokveTilma mecnierulma interesma
qarTuli enisadmi ubiZga SuxarTs, rom qarTuli materialuri kulturis uberebeli
Zeglebi, romlebic viRac gadamyidvelebis xelSi moxvda da, vin icis, bedi ra gzas
gauyenebda am ydaSemoxeul da dafurclul mowmeebs Cveni saxelovani winaprebis Tav-
auRebeli saqmianobisas Soreul sinas mTaze Tu ierusalimSi, Semdgomi dazianebis an,
uares SemTxvevaSi, dakargvisagan exsna da Tavis saimedo xelebSi moeqcia.

      qarTuli xelnawerebis istoria mokled aseTia:

      1883 wels a.cagarelma imogzaura sinas mTaze da iqauri qarTuli xelnawerebi
aRwera. 19 wlis Semdeg, 1902 wels, n. marrsa da i.javaxiSvils zogierTi xelnaweri si-
naze, wm.ekaterines monasterSi, aRar daxvedriaT. 1927 wels qarTuli xelnawerebis
Sesaxeb SuxarTma a.SaniZes acnoba. 1927 wlamde gracis qarTuli xelnawerebis Taobaze
samecniero wreebSi araviTari informacia ar gamoqveynebula. mxolod amis Semdeg dai-
wyo CvenSic da ucxoeTSic am xelnawerebiT daintereseba. aqamde miCneuli iyo, rom
gracSi daculi xelnawerebi XIX saukunis miwuruls, daaxloebiT 1895 wels, gaiyida
venaSi.

      SuxarTis arqivSi daculi masalebis safuZvelze gamoirkva Semdegi:

      1883 wels jer kidev sinas mTaze daculi qarTuli xelnawerebi 1894-1895 wlebis
mijnaze   avstrieli      mxatvris,       alfons       milixis,     TvalTaxedvis   areSi    moxvda,
safiqrebelia, egvipteSi. aRniSnuli xelnawerebis yidvis msurvelTa Soris Turme
namdvili brZola gaCaRebula. bolos isini xelSi Cauvarda milixs, romelmac maTi
namdvili Rirebuleba arc ki icoda. milixma daaxloebiT or weliwads moicada da
1896 wlis oqtomberSi 4 xelnaweri Sesasyidad venis sasaxlis biblioTekas SesTavaza.
biblioTekis direqtorma, caisbergma, xelnawerebis SeZenaze uari Tqva maTi saeWvo
warmomavlobis    gamo    _    mas   acnobes,    rom     sasaxlis    biblioTekisTvis     Sesasyidad
SeTavazebuli     xelnawerebi        oficialurad         sinas    mTis   wm.ekaterines   monastris
kuTvnileba iyo (cagarlis aRwerilobis mixedviT) da, albaT, monastris kedlebidan
malulad iyo gamotanili. `moparul xelnawerebs Cemi biblioTekis Taroebze ver
davawyobo~ _ ase imarTla Tavi biblioTekis frTxilma direqtorma. caisbergis uari
rom Seityo, v.iagiCma, venis universitetis profesorma, dauwuna mas amgvari Sansis
xelidan gaSveba da dasZina: `ase rom moqceuliyvnen, evropis did biblioTekebs
Zvirfasi ganZi, ZvelTaZveli xelnawerebis did nawili, dRes Taroebze ar eqneboda
dawyobilio~. mokled rom vTqvaT, milixma moparuli xelnawerebi iyida da maTs ufro
Zvirad gayidvas apirebda, magram moulodnelad maTi gasaReba gauWirda, radgan am
ambis gaxmaurebisa SeeSinda da frTxilad iqceoda, Tanamzraxvelebis meSveobiT eZe-
bda qarTuli xelnawerebis potenciur myidvelebs. aseTebi ki maSin avstriaSi TiTebze
CamosaTvleladac ki ar Canda _ mxolod f.miuleri da h.SuxarTi flobdenen, ase Tu
ise, qarTuls. sxvaTa Soris mas daemuqrnen, rom am saqmeSi Carevdnen avstriis ko-
nsuls kairoSi, romelic daadgenda, milixi kanonieri mflobeli iyo sinuri xe-
lnawerebisa Tu ara. milixma ar isurva konsulis Careva am winaswar wagebul saqmeSi
da sxva gza gamonaxa _ xelnawerebis swrafad gasasaReblad qarTuli xelnawerebiT
dainteresebuli    piri       gamoZebna   _     gracis    universitetis    profesori     h.SuxarTi.
orTviani gacxovelebuli vaWrobis Semdeg, 1897 wlis 12 ianvars, xelnawerebi (amJamad
gracis universitetis biblioTekis qarTul xelnawerTa koleqciis /#2058/ ##1-2-3-4
xelnawerebi) SuxarTma SeiZina 420 guldenad. male (21.I.1897) milixma SuxarTs kidev
erTi xelnaweri, "cota xnis win miRebuli pergamentis gragnili" SesTavaza sayidlad
da oTxi Tvis Semdeg (28.5.1897) isic mihyida gracel profesors 25 guldenad (amJamad
imave koleqciis #5 xelnaweri). sanam gragnils SeiZenda, SuxarTi intensiurad mu-
Saobda qarTul xelnawerebze da 1897 wlis martis bolosTvis misi kuTvnili 4
qarTuli xelnaweris TaviseburebaTa Sesaxeb vrceli gamokvleva dawera, romelic ar
gamouqveynebia. am naSromis originali dRes TbilisSi inaxeba, centralur arqivSi. mas
SuxarTis xeliT sagangebo minaweri aqvs _ gamokvleva dausrulebeliao. albaT, ami-
tom ar dabeWda avtorma es naSromi maSin, verc mere moicala, radgan uamrav saqmes
iyo SeWidebuli da, Cans, gadaaviwyda kidec. mxolod 30 wlis Semdeg, 1927 wels,
waawyda mas SemTxveviT: sikvdilis moaxloeba rom igrZno, Tavisi nawerebi gadaCxrika
akankalebuli xeliT da xsenebuli gamokvleva moxvda xelT. ar daaxana, maSinve
a.SaniZes dazRveuli banderoliT gaugzavna TbilisSi, viTarca, misi sityvebi rom
gavimeoro, `mowme misi interesisa misTvis iseTi simpaTiuri da saintereso enisadmi,
rogoric         qarTulia".   sanam    qarTuli   xelnawerebis    Sesaxeb     gamoTqmuli    metad
sayuradRebo SeniSvnebi saqarTveloSi CamoaRwevda, misi avtori cocxlebSi ukve aRar
eria. unda aRiniSnos, rom milixma sasaxlis biblioTekas Sesasyidad qarTulTan
erTad slavuri xelnawerebic SesTavaza. maT male gamouCnda muStari: venis univer-
sitetis profesori vatroslav iagiCi. igi profesiiT slavisti iyo da, rogorc ki
gasinja xelnawerebi, didxans ar ufiqria, maSinve SeiZina 5 xelnaweri. erTerTma _
dobromiris OoTxTavma _ Zalian daainteresa, romelic, marTalia, nakluli iyo,
magram mainc miipyro misi yuradReba. iagiCma dobromiris oTxTavis Sesaxeb venis
mecnierebaTa akademiis sxdomaze sagangebod aRniSna: "cota xnis win xelSi Camivarda
pergamentis xelnaweri, romelmac didi gza gamoiara aRmosavleTidan venamde da ufro
Sors, dasavleTisken, apirebda Tavisi mogzaurobis gagrZelebas, aq rom ar Segve-
Cerebina...~.    raki   qarTuli      xelnawerebic   imave   gadamyidvelis    kuTvnileba    iyo,
bunebrivia vifiqroT, rom Cvenma xelnawerebmac igive gza gamoiares.

       sxvaTa Soris, milixma arc ki icoda mis xelT arsebuli qarTuli xelnawerebis
namdvili Rirebuleba, man mxolod intuiciiT igrZno, rom maTi Sesyidva kairoeli
gadamyidvelebisagan, diaxac, Rirda, raki garegnulad siZvelis mimzidveli elferi
dahkravda (am saqmeSi mas gamocdileba ar aklda!). aki ganucxada kidec SuxarTs gul-
axdilad: `Tqven mier SeZenili xelnawerebis gamo ori wlis win namdvili omi gaCaRda
_ aman gamoiwvia xelnawerebis Sesyidva maTi namdvili (anu Sefaruli) Rirebulebis
ucodinrad~.

       modi, vnaxoT, ra xelnawerebma gamoiares dabrkolebebiT savse gza, sanam sinas
mTidan gracamde moaRwevdnen.
           gracis universitetis h.SuxarTiseuli qarTuli koleqcia samecniero wreebs
pirvelad a.SaniZem              gaacno2.

           ra xelnawerebi SeiZina hugo SuxarTma mxatvar a.milixisgan 1897 wels? xuTi
xelnaweridan yvelaze Zvirfasi, cxadia, #1, e.w. xanmeti leqcionaria. igi VII saukuniT
aris daTariRebuli da miiCneven, rom V saukunis dednidan momdinareobs.DdRes xanmeti
leqcionari gracSi im saxiT aRaraa SemorCenili, rogorc igi a.cagarelma aRwera:
odesRac ufro tanmsxvil xelnawers, romelic gracSi isedac sakmaod SeTxelebuli
saxiT        moxvda,      amJamad       aklia      pirveli        da     ukanaskneli          furclebi.          am   furclebs
TiTqosda miakvlies. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mis pirvel furcels parizis nacionalur
biblioTekaSi             miagno       frangma        mkvlevarma         b.utiem.      xelnaweridan            movardneli       es
furceli biblioTekis qarTul xelnawerTa koleqcias Seemata 1933 wlis Semdeg,
magram konkretulad rodis an saidan, amis Sesaxeb dResdReobiT araferia cnobili3,
rac Seexeba cagarlis mier aRweril bolo furcels, igi belgielma qarTvelologma
J.garitma ipova birmingemSi4, Tumca me vfiqrob, rom es furceli, romelzec X
saukunis cnobili moRvawis, iovane-zosimes, mier Sesrulebuli anderZia moTavsebuli,
araa xanmeti leqcionaris organuli nawili. SesaZlebelia, igi morigi akinZvisas
Caakeres, CaurTes xelnawers boloSi, anda, ufro sarwmuno mgonia, rom igi Sem-
TxveviT, dasanani daudevrobis gamo moxvda xelnawerSi sinaze a.cagarlis muSaobis
dros wm. ekaterines monasterSi, radgan Tavisi zomebiT sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba
ZiriTadi nawilisagan.

           amJamad xelnaweri 27 furcels Seicavs, Tumca aSkaraa, rom igi Tavis droze
SedarebiT didtaniani unda yofiliyo. naweri asomTavrulia. xanmeti leqcionari
SinaarsiT warmoadgens aRdgomis sakiTxavebs. sakiTxavebi martooden axali aRTqmis
wignebidanaa. a.SaniZis azriT, leqcionari VII saukuneSi unda iyos gadawerili, igi
sinaze atanili unda iyos palestinidan, albaT, ierusalimidan, rogorc bevri sxva
xelnaweri. xanmeti leqcionari dawvrilebiT gamoikvlia a.SaniZem5. igi Seiswavla
m.TarxniSvilmac6.

           gracis universitetis biblioTekaSi dacul daaxloebiT 4 milion erTeuls
Soris 10%, anu 400000, xelnaweria, maT Soris ki qarTuli xanmeti leqcionari yvelaze
                                                            
2
    a.SaniZe, qarTuli xelnawerebi gracSi: tum, IX, 1929.
3
    Bernard Outtier, Un feuillet du Lectionaire géorgien hanmeti à Paris: Le Muséon, LXXXV, 3-4, Louvain, 1972.
4
    Jerar gariti, minganas koleqciis qarTuli furclebi Selly Oak-Si (birmingemi): macne, #3, 1973.
5
    a.SaniZe, xanmeti leqcionari, 1944.
6
    M.Tarchnišvili, Zwei georgische Lectionarfragmente aus dem 5. und 8. Jahrhundert: Kyrios, 6, Königsberg/Berlin, 1942-43.
Zveli egzemplaria. Cveni qarTuli leqcionaris garda biblioTekas ara aqvs araTu
VII, aramed arc VIII saukunis xelnaweri. xnovanebiT meore mxolod IX saukuniT
TariRdeba.                    rodesac                  gaiges,      rom   VII    saukunis   qarTuli     xelnaweri      gamoitanes
sacavidan                   da         masze              me     vmuSaobdi,     am    unikaluri     Zeglis   sanaxavad    gracis
universitetis                           xelnawerTa                 ganyofilebaSi         sagangebod    modiodnen       siZveleTa
moyvarulebi. bevrs uTxovia CemTvis: Tu SeiZleba xeliT Sevexebio.

              #2 xelnaweri warmoadgens fsalmuns. xelnaweri imiTaa sayuradRebo, rom igi
somxur-qarTuli palimfsestia (gvian Camatebuli pirveli oTxi furclis garda).
mkvlevrebi mas X saukunis pirveli naxevriT aTariReben. xelnaweri amJamad 283
furcels Seicavs, Tumca a.cagarels misi aRweris dros 302 furceli dauTvlia,
xolo mz.ASaniZes _ 275. vfiqrob, a.cagarels mZime samuSao pirobebis Sedegad aeria
saTvalavi, gausaZlis siciveSi muSaobisas siCqareSi SemTxveviT waumata 20 furceli.
SemorCenili teqstis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, xelnawers arc unda hqonda zedmeti 20
furceli, radgan saamiso araferi aklia, sakmaod sruli teqstia. naweri asomTav-
rulia (pirveli oTxi furclis garda, romlebic nusxuriTaa dawerili). gadamweria
monazoni                 serapioni.                  es        Zegli   qarTuli       fsalmunis    Semcveli   erTerTi     uZvelesi
xelnaweria.

              gracis #2 xelnaweri sagangebod aravis Seuswavlia. prof. mz. SaniZem misi
monacemebi gamoiyena qarTuli fsalmunis uZvelesi redaqciebis Seswavlisas7.

              #3 xelnaweri Seicavs `svimeon salosos cxovrebas~. misi avtoria VII saukunis
moRvawe, kviprosis qalaq neapolisis episkoposi l.neapoleli, romelic qarTul
wyaroebSi xSirad l.nikopolelis saxeliTaa cnobili, yovel SemTxvevaSi, `simeon
salosos cxovrebis~ dRemde moRweul sxva xelnawerebSi. Zegli X saukunisaa, naweria
nusxuriT. xelnaweri 163 furcels Seicavs, mas mosdevs 164-e furclis nafleTebi,
romelzec, faqtobrivad, mxolod 7 asos amokiTxva xerxdeba. gadamweria Teodore
wyudeleli. teqsti 163-e furcelze mTavrdeba, misi didi nawili minawerebs uWiravs.
wignis amkinZvelia iovane-zosime.

              raki es Zegli naklebadaa Seswavlili, mas ufro dawvrilebiT Sevexebi.

              svimeon salosi (522-590) VI saukunis cnobili moRvawea. mas erqva `salosi~, anu
suleli, ufro sworad, `RmrTisaTvis suleli~. am periodSi siriel asketTa Soris

                                                            
7
    fsalmunis Zveli qarTuli redaqciebi X-XIII saukuneTa xelnawerebis mixedviT, gamosca mz.SaniZem, 1960.
moRvaweobis axalma saxeobam iCina Tavi. isini uwindeburad ganmartoebiT ki ar
cxovrobdnen, aramed xalxSi gaerivnen, didi qalaqebis xmaurian quCebsa da moednebze
gamoCndnen, duqnebisa da sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris sxvadasxvanairi adgilebis xSiri
stumrebi gaxdnen. im saqmisaTvis, romelsac Tavi Seswires, maT, cxadia, ar uRalatiaT,
magram TavianT miznebs sxva xerxiTa da meTodiT, SefarviT axorcielebdnen _ suleli
kacis samosSi gaxveulebi. maT TiTqosda ori cxovreba hqondaT: garegani da Sinagani.
sxvebis dasanaxad erTni iyvnen, RmrTisa da sakuTari Tavis mimarT ki _ meoreni.
swored aseT moRvaweTa ricxvs miekuTvneboda svimeoni, romelmac `salosoba~ 582
wlidan daiwyo.

              #4 xelnaweri Sedgeba ori nawilisgan: 1) iakob mociqulis Jamiswirva (1-95 f.); 2)
wesi ganaxlebisa (96-110 f.). xelnaweri gadawerilia sinas mTaze iovane-zosimes mier
985 wels.

              1940 wels grigol feraZem #4 xelnaweri iakobis liturgiis uZveles redaqciad
miiCnia               da          miuTiTa,                     rom    igi    aRniSnuli    Zeglis   restavraciisTvis           Zalze
mniSvnelovania. 1948 wels m.TarxniSvilma am Zegls gamokvleva miuZRvna, xolo 2 wlis
Semdeg teqstic gamosca8.

              xelnaweri asomTavruliTaa naweri. mas yda ara aqvs da amJamad 110 furcels
Seicavs. xelnaweri naklulia, pirvel furcels naweris Tavze aweria b, e.i. esaa meore
rveulis dasawyisi furceli. maSasadame, xelnawers pirveli rveuli aklia. mas 1959
wels praRaSi miakvlia mweralma a beliaSvilma, xolo cnobilma Cexma mkvlevarma
i.iedliCkam 1961 wels gamoaqveyna teqstica da mcire gamokvlevac jer germanul,
xolo Semdeg _ qarTul enazec9. i.iedliCka igonebs: `1959 wlis Semodgomaze cnobili
mwerali                  a.beliaSvili                          prahaSi      imyofeboda   rogorc    turisti    da      telefoniT
melaparaka.                      man           macnoba:              erovnuli     mwerlobis    ZeglTa    mudmivi         gamofenis
daTvalierebis dros vitrinaSi vnaxe xelnaweri, romelic iq SecdomiT aRniSnulia
rogorc somxuri mwerlobis Zeglio. maSinve erTad wavediT yofil prahis monasterSi
strahovze, erovnuli mwerlobis ZeglTa gamofenaze. xelnaweris danaxvisTanave cxadi
gaxda, rom xelnaweri somxuri ki ar iyo, aramed qarTuli. samwuxarod, vitrina



                                                            
8
  M.Tarchnishvili, Eine neue georgische Jakobusliturgie: Ephemerides Liturgicae, 62, 1948, gv. 49-82; Liturgiae Ibericae Antiquiores,
Edited M.Tarchnišvili: Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, Vol. 122 (Scriptores Iberici, I/I), Lovanii, 1950.
9
  J.Jedlička, Das grazer Fragment der altgeorgischen Jakobusliturgie: Archiv Orientalny, #29, 1961. i.iedliCka, iakobis
Jamiswirvis xelnaweri prahaSi: mnaTobi, #6, 1961;
daketili aRmoCnda da xelnaweris gacnobis saSualeba mxolod maSin momeca, roca
a.beliaSvili praRidan gaemgzavra~10.

              pirveli rveulis rva furclidan praRaSi mxolod 6 aris SemorCenili. aklia
pirveli da merve furclebi. pirvelze ra ewera, axla Zneli saTqmelia, radgan teqsti
meore             furclidan                       iwyeba       da   aq   mas   araferi   aklia,   xolo   merve   furcelze
moTavsebuli teqstis aRdgena xerxdeba sxva gamocemebis mixedviT.

              Zegli imiTacaa saintereso, rom 96-e furcelze sayuradRebo minawers Seicavs:
`am Jamiswirvis dedans mravali locva da sityvebi aklda dasawyisidan dasasrulamde,
vidre me vicodi Cemi maswavleblebisagan da Cems JamiswirvebSi ewera. bevri ram ar
momwonda, magram vinc mawerinebda, mevedreboda _ rac mand weria, mxolod is gadawere
ucvlelado. mec misi neba Sevasrule Cemi survilis winaaRmdeg da, RvTis gulisTvis,
SemindeT Cemi amgvari qcevao~.

              qebas imsaxurebs gadaweris damkveTis pozicia. igi moiTxovs, avaldebulebs ga-
damwers: rogorc dedanSi weria, ise gadawere teqsti, araferi Secvaloo (miuxedavad
imisa, rom, etyoba, iovane-zosimesTvis dednis ena moZvelebuli, xolo zogierTi sxva
sakiTxic miuRebeli yofila). aqedan isic Cans, rom, etyoba, gadamwerebs TavianTi
SexedulebiT SeeZloT, gadawerisas TviTneburad SeecvalaT teqsti _ winaaRmdeg Sem-
TxvevaSi aseTi sagangebo gafrTxileba maSin saWiro aRar iqneboda.

              am 4 xelnaweris SeZenidan 10 dRis Semdeg SuxarTma gadamyidvelisgan axali
saintereso SeTavazeba miiRo. milixi werda: `ramdenime dRis win kairodan cnoba
miviRe, romelSic, sxvaTa Soris, aRniSnulia, rom amgvari furclebi iq kidev aris...
amJamad ki me maqvs cota xnis win SeZenili pergamentis gragnili, romelic, rogorc
vvaraudob, somxuria an iberiuli~. Semowmebisas gragnili iberiuli gmodga. maisSi es
xelnaweric SuxarTis kuTvnileba gaxda. esaa amJamindeli #5 xelnaweri, romelic,
sxvebisgan gansxvavebiT, gragnilia da 4 gadabmuli naWrisgan Sedgeba. gragnilis
sigane miaxloebiT 10 sm-ia, xolo naWrebis sigrZea 10+64+58+62 sm. teqsti meore
naWridan iwyeba, pirvelze mxolod ornamentia (CuqurTma), romelic araa srulad




                                                            
10
     i.iedliCka, iakobis Jamiswirvis xelnaweri prahaSi, gv. 180.
Semonaxuli.          naweri       kuTxovani          nusxuriTaa,           teqsti       moicavs        iovane         oqropiris
Jamiswirvas da X-XI saukunisa unda iyos11.

       reqto gacilebiT kargad ikiTxeba, vidre verso. am ukanasknelis marjvena kide
imdenad gaWuWyianebulia, rom versos mTel sigrZeze striqonebis bolos ramdenime
asos amokiTxva metad Wirs. teqstis Taviseburebaa is, rom ue kompleqsi, sadac
qaragmis gareSea, yvelgan uÀ saxiT aris warmodgenili..

     im dReebSi milixi Zalian aqtiurobda: `amJamad ramdenime calkeuli furclis
garda aq, venaSi, araferi maqvs, magram vfiqrob, rom momavali Tvis ganmavlobaSi
kairodan CemTvis rame unda Camovides~.

         calkeuli furclebi. hugo SuxarTs 5 xelnaweris garda milixisgan sami cal-
keuli furcelic ergo. maT pirobiTad A, B da C literebiT aRniSnaven.

         A  furceli iovanes saxarebis me-15 Tavis merve-mecxramete muxlebs moicavs.
a.SaniZe      fiqrobs,        rom      igi     #13     sinuri        leqcionaridan             aris     amoxeuli.          naweri
mrglovaniTaa Sesrulebuli.

         rac Seexeba B  da  C furclebs, SuxarTis azriT, orive erTi xelnaweridan aris
amoxeuli da #80 sinuri xelnaweris kuTvnileba unda iyos. SuxarTi maT X-XI
saukuniT        aTariRebs,         a.SaniZis      SefasebiT         ki    maTi     gadaweris         drod       XII    saukunis
dasawyisi ufroa savaraudo. furceli Seicavs nawyvets wminda antonis epistoleda.n,
C furcelze ki kargad ikiTxeba ~Tqumuli wmidisa klemaqsisi. Tavi 31.~.

         vin icis, bedi ras umzadebs Zvirfas xelnawerebs. zogierTma maTganma medgrad
gauZlo        saukuneebis          qartexilebs,          magram       meTvalyureTa            wamierma        uyuradRebobam
zogierTis bedis borbali ukuRma daatriala, mflobelTa daudevrobisa Tu sxva
mizezTa gamo xelnawerTa erTi nawilis mikvleva dRes aRar xerxdeba, mTliani
wignebi        Tu      calkeuli            furclebi            samudamod           moswydnen          maTs       Tavdapirvel
adgilsamyofels da verc sxva savaneebSi poves myudro bina.

         amitom, winaswar rom davizRvioT Tavi yovelgvari SemTxveviTobisagan da mxed-
velobis aridan ar davkargoT mravalWirgamovlili mowmeebi Cveni sulieri saunjisa,
saWiroa droulad aRiweros TiToeuli maTgani, mieCinos maT saTanado adgili da
                                                            
11
   M. Tarchnišvili, Die georgische Übersetzung der Liturgie des hl. Joh. Chrysostomos nach einem Pergament‐Rotulus aus dem X‐XI Jh.: 
Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft, N14, Münster,1938;  Liturgiae  Ibericae Antiquiores, edited M. Tarchnišvili, gv. 64-83. 
gamomzeurdes.                        es        gansakuTrebiT           exeba   im   xelnawerebs,   romlebic     saqarTvelos
farglebs gareT aris daculi da romlebzedac SedarebiT Znelad migviwvdeba xeli.

              gracis               biblioTekis                 Zveli    qarTuli     xelnawerebi    met-naklebad    cnobilia
samecniero wreebisaTvis. maT araerTi naSromi mieZRvna. amjerad ki Tqvens yuradRebas
mivapyrob erT naklebad cnobil, SeiZleba iTqvas, TiTqmis ucnob furcels aseve
ucnobi xelnawerisas, romelic daaxloebiT erTi saukunis win avstriaSi inaxeboda
venis universitetis profesoris, f.miuleris, kerZo koleqciaSi. zedmetia imaze la-
paraki, rom calkeuli furceli Tu fragmenti xelnawerisa metad Zvirfasia da
zogjer iseTive didi Rirebulebisaa, rogorisac mravalfurcliani xelnaweri. f.miu-
leri erTerTi pirvelTagani iyo avstrielTagan, vinc qarTuliT dainteresda. igi
qarTul xelnawerebsac flobda12. aRniSnul xelnawerebze konkretulad cota ramis
Tqma SeiZleba: bevri ram, rac am sakiTxs exeba, erTob bundovania. xelnawerebis
arsebobis Sesaxeb Cven mxolod f.miuleris piradi werilebidan viciT, romlebic
SuxarTis pirad arqivSia daculi. rac Seexeba TviT xelnawerebs, isini arsad Cans,
radgan f.miuleris arqivi dResdReobiT dakargulad iTvleba. amJamad Cems xelTaa
mxolod f.miuleris kuTvnili xelnawerisa erTi fragmenti. hugo SuxarTis arqivSi
Semonaxulia muyaoze dakruli fotosuraTi nusxurad naweri fragmentisa (Znelia
Tqma, wignisa Tu gragnilisa), romelsac qvemoT SuxarTis xeliT germanulad aweria:
`fr.miuleris mier gamogzavnili xelnaweridan~. TviT xelnaweri amJamad arsad Cans.

              teqsti lamazad gamoyvanili nusxuri asoebiTaa naweri. furcels etyoba tran-
sparantis kvali _ rogorc Cans, daxazuli yofila.

              rodesac am furcels davxede, igi gracis #5 qarTuli xelnaweridan gadaRebul
aslad CavTvale (imdenad hgavs am ori xelnaweris xeli erTmaneTs), magram Semowmebam
cxadyo, rom zemomoyvanili fragmenti #5 gragnilidan araa aRebuli. aSkaraa, rom igi
sruliad sxva xelnaweridanaa. Semdgom specialurad Sevudare am xelnawerTa xelwera
erTmaneTs da aRmoCnda, rom Cvens fragmentze asoebi odnav marjvnivaa gadaxrili,
vidre es #5 gragnilSia. sxva mxriv ki, vimeoreb, maT Soris didi msgavsebaa. am
xelnawerTa                      msgavseba                 mxolod   kaligrafiiT        am   amoiwureba.   maTi   enac   waagavs
erTmaneTs, kerZod, orivesTvis damaxasiaTebelia uÀ jgufis xmareba. orive xelnawerSi
erTnairadaa daqaragmebuli zogierTi sityva da a.S.


                                                            
12
  v.imnaiSvili, vin yidda avstriaSi qarTul xelnawerebs: ciskari, #8, 1979, gv. 140-141; misive, uZvelesi
qarTuli xelnawerebi avstriaSi, 2004, gv. 323.
      kategoriuli daskvnebis gakeTeba Znelia, magram es msgavseba zogierTi sakiTxis
garkvevaSi mainc dagvexmareba. sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, am fragmentis warmomavlobas
SeiZleba, erTgvard, moefinos Suqi. raki #5 gragnili sinuri warmoSobisad aris
miCneuli, f.miuleriseuli xelnaweric, etyoba, sinadan momdinareobs.

      venaSi f.miuleris kuTvnil ucnob qarTul xelnawerebTan dakavSirebiT Sei-
Zleba oriode informaciis damateba: 1897 wlis 2 maiss SuxarTisadmi gagzavnil we-
rilSi fridrix miuleri werda: `qarTuli xelnaweri misma mflobelma maCuqa, roca
Seatyo,   rom   me   xelnawers   raRac   mniSvnelobas   vaniWeb.   ase   rom,   igi   axla   me
mekuTvniso~.

      imave wlis ivlisSi miulerma kvlav moixsenia qarTuli xelnawerebis patroni:
`xelnaweri mflobelma_ erTma somexma Tanamememulem _ maCuqa, radgan egona, rom misi
yidva msurda. ase rom, me moralurad valdebuli var, es xelnaweri Sevinaxo, magram
Tuki Tqven es xelnaweri gWirdebaT, SegiZliaT igi Cemgan waiRoT, roca gnebavT,
nebismieri droiT.~

      maSasadame, miulers, sul cota, erTi qarTuli xelnaweri mainc hqonda. vambob,
`sul cotao~, radgan venaSi SuxarTis arqivSi mivageni erT werils, romlis avtoria
mxiTaristebis kongregaciis wevri, doqtori iakob daSiani. 1897 wlis 8 Tebervals igi
swers SuxarTs: `is-is iyo Cemi pirveli werili gamogigzavneT, rom vinme miuleri
movida Cvens biblioTekarTan, doqtor kalemkianTan, raTa ori somxuri xelnaweri
mieyida, man gviTxra, rom ramdenime qarTuli xelnaweri SeiZina beiruTidan da rom man
isini, maT Soris erTi palimfsesti, sxva kacis SuamavlobiT baton profesors mihyida.
im ori xelnaweridan erTi marTlac somxuri iyo, meore ki, erTi grZeli gragnili,
qarTuli gamodga da igi didi SriftiT iyo dawerili. kiTxvaze, aCvena Tu ara man es
gragnili profesors, man ganacxada, rom es ar gaukeTebia, radgan egona, rom es
xelnaweri somxuri iyo. biblioTekarma gragnili ar iyida, im batons ki urCia, igi
batoni profesorisTvis eCvenebina. gragnili Zalian Zveli unda iyos~. profesori,
cxadia, f.miuleria, radgan venel profesorTa Soris mxolod is iyo qarTulisa da
somxuris mcodne. aqedan irkveva, rom miulerma beiruTSi gayiduli ramdenime qarTuli
xelnaweri SeiZina.

                 venis nacionaluri biblioTekis qarTuli xelnawerebi
       amJamad avstriis udides wignTsacavSi, venis nacionalur (yofil sasaxlis, anu
karis) biblioTekaSi, 5 qarTuli xelnaweri inaxeba, romlebic sxvadasxva dros aris
biblioTekis mesveurTa mier SeZenili. #1 xelnaweri 1873 wlis 8 maiss iyides 25
guldenad antikvar goldSmidtisgan, ## 2-3-4 xelnawerebi profesorma tiurkerma
SeiZina biblioTekisTvis ucnobi antikvarisagan 1931 wlis 3 ianvars aleqsandriaSi,
dabolos, 1938 wlis 15 ivliss biblioTekam venaSi n.kronegerisgan iyida #5 xelnaweri
_   saxareba.    Tu    biblioTekis          davTarSi        Caweril    cnobas   davujerebT,        `es     wigni
ekuTvnoda saqarTvelos ukanasknel mefes, princ bagration-muxranels (romelic 1921
wels daxvrites). misma meuRlem es saxareba TbilisSi gayida 1929 wels~. vfiqrob,
bagration-muxraneli xelnawerisTvis fasis asawevad aris mogonili. es xelnaweri
sxvaTagan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom vercxliT moWedil budeSia Casmuli.

       #1   xelnaweri       Seicavs         saxarebis   teqsts.       rogorc      1879   wlis   19       ianvars
biblioTekis direqciam SuxarTs oficialurad acnoba, imxanad biblioTekas Taroebze
mxolod es erTi qarTuli xelnaweri ido _ oTxTavi. rogorc 147-e furcelze
gakeTebuli minaweri gvauwyebs, Zeglis gadamweri da momkazmavia miqael paiWisZe.
xelnaweri       Seicavs    257    furcels.       teqsti      naweria    pergamentze      nusxuri     asoebiT.
abzacebi asomTavruliTaa Sesrulebuli. xelnawers TavSi aklia pirveli 4 rveuli,
anu 32 furceli,           da teqsti me-5 rveulidan iwyeba. xelnaweri daaxloebiT XII-XIII
saukunisa unda iyos.

       @#2 xelnaweri pergamentis 136 furcels Seicavs. igi moicavs maisis Tvis
sakiTxavebs. naweri nusxuri asoebiTaa.

       xelnaweri ydaSi 1931 wlis ivlisSi CausvamT nacionaluri biblioTekis mes-
veurebs. xelnaweri Sedgeba sxvadasxva formatis mqone xelnawerebidan amoRebuli
furclebis erT krebulad gaerTianebiT. g.feraZem masSi 8 sxvadasxva gadamweri
gamoyo, jon berdzolma ki _ 16. ukanaskneli xanis gamokvlevebiT, es xelnaweri 13
sxvadasxva xelnaweridan amoRebuli furclebisgan aris Sekowiwebuli. igi imiTaa
saintereso, rom warmoadgens qarTul-qarTul palimfsests. xelnaweris furclebze
aRmoCnda qarTuli enisa da mwerlobisTvis umniSvnelovanesi xanmeti teqstebi. es
xelnaweri Tavis droze jvaris monasterSi inaxeboda. birmingemSi mas intensiurad
ikvlevda    ingliseli            mecnieri     jon    berdzoli.         mis   mier    gamocemuli      iakobis
protoevangele VII saukuniT aris daTariRebuli, xolo oTxTavis xanmeti fragmentebi
savaraudod       VII   saukunis      bolos      an   VIII    saukunis    pirvel     naxevarSi   unda       iyos
dawerili. amave xelnawerSi xanmeti fragmentebi ezras wignidan agreTve VII saukunis
qarTuliTaa dawerili. aqvea `qristinas wamebis~ xanmeti teqstic. Tu ra mniSvneloba
eniWeba qarTuli damwerlobis istoriisTvis xanmet Zeglebs, amaze saubari zedmetad
mimaCnia. esaa xelnaweris siZvelis damadasturebeli iseTi ucilobeli argumenti,
romelSic veravinNSeitans eWvs. sul axali monacemebiT, xelnaweris uZvelesi teq-
stebi V saukuniT SeiZleba daTariRdes.

         roca venis nacionaluri biblioTekis mesveurebs TavianTi biblioTekis Ta-
roebze Semowyobili xelnawerebis siZveliTa da maTi gansakuTrebuli RirsebiT Tavis
mowoneba     surT,   darbazSi    sxva   mniSvnelovan    xelnawerebTan     erTad   #2      qarTuli
palimfsestic gamoaqvT samzeoze. ase moxda, magaliTad, am ori wlis winac.: 2005 wlis
dekemberSi     venaSi    gaimarTa   didi   saerTaSoriso      simpoziumi,    romelic       mieZRvna
kavkasiuri anbanebis (qarTulis, somxurisa da albanuris) Seqmnis 1600 wlis Tavs.
simpoziumis monawileebsa da sxva mnaxvelebsac nacionaluri biblioTekis xelnawerTa
ganyofilebam dasaTvaliereblad SesTavaza am enebze naweri yvelaze mniSvnelovani
teqstebi.    erTma      #2   qarTulma      xelnawerma       Tavisi   siZveliTa       da   uaRresi
mniSvnelobiT daCrdila yvela, maT Soris yvela somxuri, romlebic ricxobrivad
bevrad aRemateboda qarTulebs. ufro adre, 1948 wels, nacionalurma bibilioTekam
moawyo biblioTekis mier ukanasknel 25 weliwadSi (1923_1948) SeZenil umniSvnelovanes
xelnawerTa saiubileo gamofena, #2 qarTuli xelnawers aqac TvalsaCino adgili
hqonda miCenili. me zemoT ukve vilaparake gracSi dacul xanmet leqcionarze. mis
sanaxavad sagangebod modiodnen siZveleTa moyvarulebi. unda giTxraT, iq ase Zveli
xelnawerebi Zalze iSviaTad gamoaqvT darbazSi, magram Tavis mowonebis survili,
adamianis es erTi sisusteTagani, xSirad sZlevs pragmatizms. maT xom TviTonac
eamayebaT, rom aseT Zvirfas saunjes floben. gracSi me bedma gamiRima da vnaxe erTi
germanuli xelnaweri, romelic weliwadSi mxolod erTxel gamoaqvT xolme darbazSi,
raTa Sig moTavsebul ferad naxats feri ar gadauvides da elvareba ar moakldes.

         #3 xelnaweri Seicavs ~Tebervlis TTuens~ da gadawerilia, rogorc ukanasknel
furcelze gakeTebuli minaweri gvamcnobs, ioane xaxulelis mier (safiqrebelia, X-XI
saukuneSi). pergamentis 258 furceli nusxuri asoebiTaa naweri.

         #4 xelnaweri mravalTavis msgavsi krebulia, igi gadawerilia 1160 wels ke-
dvaSi,    daviTgarejis       maxloblad,    nikolaoz     nikras   mier,   akinZulia     1570   wels
mTavarepiskopos vlasas mier. xelnaweri 300 furcels Seicavs, Tumca bolo gverds 306
aweria. naweria qaRaldze, asoebi nusxuria.

         berZnuli minaweri 303-e furcelze gvauwyebs, rom es xelnaweri ekuTvnoda
mTavardiakon kleopas, SemdgomSi nazareTis mTavarepiskoposis, pirad biblioTekas.
g.feraZis fiqriT, mTavarepiskoposis sikvdilis Semdeg romeliRac antikvars mihyides
aleqsandriaSi, sadac 1931 wels venis biblioTekisTvis SeZines.

         #5 xelnaweri, rogorc zemoT iTqva, aris saxareba. sawer masalad msxvili
qaRaldia      gamoyenebuli.           281-furcliani        wigni     Casmulia       Savi   lederinis      ydaSi,
romelsac zemodan dakruli aqvs Txeli fena Zveli ydisa, romelic moxatulia. Tavis
mxriv,     yda      Casmulia          vercxlis       CarCoSi,      romelic      sparsul         yaidaze     aris
moCuqurTmebuli. naweri nusxuradaa, abzacebi ki asomTavruliT iwyeba. xelnawers
marjvena zeda kuTxe momwvari aqvs. furclebs Setrusvis kvali etyoba, Cans, cecxli
hqonia     modebuli.        TviT      teqsti      dazianebuli      araa.    254-e    furcelze         saintereso
minaweria,        romlis       Tanaxmadac         saxareba      eyrdnoba      giorgi       mTawmidlis       mier
redaqtirebul variants da masSi `ara ars erTica asoi mrudi da nakluli da arca
meti~.

         venaSi     avstriis       nacionaluri         biblioTekis         garda,    qarTuli         xelnawerebi
mxiTaristebis kongregaciis biblioTekaSic inaxeba, magram aq daculi teqstebi zemoT
moxsenebulebsaviT             faseuli     araa,     radgan      SedarebiT      gviandelia       da     enobrivad
naklebad mniSvnelovani..

                           britaneTis muzeumis #11281 qarTuli xelnaweri

         saWrod vTvli, kidev erTi mniSvnelovani qarTuli xelnaweris Sesaxeb mo-
gaxsenoT. londonSi, britaneTis muzeumSi, daculia XI saukunis Sua wlebSi ga-
dawerili pateriki, saeklesio mamaTa cxovrebani, romelmac araerTi mkvlevris yu-
radReba miiqcia. es xelnaweri 1837 wlis 11 noembers britaneTis muzeumisTvis miuyidia
somex     mRvdels,         vinme      kazanjis,     aleqsandriis        mkvidrs.      masSi     14    Txzulebaa
moTavsebuli, romlebic III_VIII saukuneebis gamoCenil saeklesio moRvaweTa cxo-
vrebasa da saqmianobas warmogvidgens. aq moTavsebulia iseTi saqveynod cnobili
avtorebis         nawerebi,    rogorebic          iyvnen   aTanasi      aleqsandreli       da    kirile    skvi-
Topoleli. me ar vapireb aq vrclad ganvixilo krebulSi warmodgenil moRvaweTa
saqmianoba,       magram      minda    erTi    ki    aRvniSno.     am    krebulSi      SemorCenilma       erTma
Txzulebam     msoflio     masStabiT       miiqcia    mecnierTa        yuradReba.    es   Txzuleba    _
`stefanesa da nikonis cxovreba~, marTalia, araa vrceli da sxvebs sagrZnoblad
CamorCeba    moculobiT,       magram     sayuradReboa       imiT,     rom   misi    avtoria     aTanasi
aleqsandreli,      gamoCenili       pirovneba   _   aleqsandriis       patriarqi,    romelic      5-jer
gaaZeves Tavisi samwysodan, magram yoveli aseTi gandevnis Semdeg mainc ukan ab-
runebdnen.   mas   eZaxdnen     `marTlmadideblobis          mamas~,    iovane   damaskelma     `RmrTis
eklesiis qvakuTxedi~ uwoda, xolo grigol naZianZelma _ `samyaros Tvali~. misi
Txzulebebi sruladaa aRwerili da gamoqveynebuli. aRmoCnda, rom Cvens ZeglSi
daculi zemoT moxseniebuli Txzuleba, romlis bolos sagangebodaa miTiTebuli,
rom misi avtori patriarqi aTanasi aleqsandrelia, saerTod ucnobi iyo ucxoeTis
mecnieruli samyarosTvis. britanuli xelnaweri me 1975 wels gamovaqveyne TbilisSi _
teqstebi, romelTac gamokvleva da leqsikoni davurTe _ da imave wels, roca
avstriaSi    xangrZlivi   samecniero        mivlinebiT      gavemgzavre,      britanul      xelnawerSi
moTavsebul      ZeglTa    Sesaxeb        avstriel      bizantinologebs          vesaubre.      avstriis
mecnierebaTa akademiis imdroindeli prezidenti h.hungeri, romelic amavdroulad
bizantinologTa msoflio sazogadoebis prezidentic iyo, dainteresda `stefanesa da
nikonis cxovrebiT~ da mTxova, igi gadameTargmna da TandarTuli gamokvleviTurT
germanul enaze gamomeqveynebina avstriel bizantinologTa yovelwliur JurnalSi.
roca es teqsti daibeWda da igi specialistebma gaicnes, maSinve sagangebo yuradRebis
centrSi moeqca da araerTi gamoxmaurebac mohyva. amas imitom mogaxsenebT, rom, roca
originali dakargulia, aRar arsebobs, maSin mis rols asrulebs misi sxva enebze
Semonaxuli Targmani. Cvens SemTxvevaSi es sxva ena erTaderTia da esaa qarTuli.
amitom am xelnaweris Cvenebas metad didi mniSvneloba aqvs, rakiRa mxolod am
britanul     xelnawersa       da,   rogorc      mogvianebiT      gamoirkva,     kidev    erT   qarTul
xelnawers (#  A_249) Semounaxavs qristianuli samyaros udidesi saeklesio moRvawis
aTanasi aleqsandrelis es mniSvnelovani Txzuleba.

       es 369-furcliani xelnaweri, rogorc fiqroben, daaxloebiT 1034_1042 wlebSia
ierusalimis axlos jvaris monasterSi gadawerili.

       mxolod zemoT dasaxelebul xelnawerebTan dakavSirebuli masalebis gacnobac
kmara, rom erTgvari warmodgena Segveqmnas im wreze, sadac yvelaze ufro iTbobden
xels   Zvirfasi    xelnawerebis        gayidviT.    kairo   da      aleqsandria     amgvari    nivTebiT
vaWrobis sayovelTaod cnobili centrebi iyo. aleqsandriaSia gayiduli venis ## 2, 3
da 4 xelnawerebi, agreTve britaneTis muzeumis qarTuli pateriki, kairoSi SeiZina
milixma an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, iqidan gamougzavnes mas amJamad gracSi daculi
xelnawerebi.     kairodan    hpirdebodnen      milixs      calkeuli    furclebis       gamogzavnas
gracSi, f.miuleris kuTvnili qarTuli xelnawerebi TiTqos beiruTSi unda iyos
gayiduli, Tu erTerT werilSi gaJRerebul cnobas davujerebT. ise, SesaZloa es
qalaqi kvalis asarevadac iyos dasaxelebuli.
      axla SevxedoT am sakiTxis meore mxares: vin arian am xelnawerebiT movaWreebi?
vin yidda qarTul siZveleebs avstriisa Tu britaneTis miwaze? gracis xelnawerebi
veneli      moxetiale   mxatvris,    a.milixis,    xelSi    moxvda.   f.miulerisaTvis        naCuqar
xelnawerebs venaSi myofi somxebi hyavdaT patronad, aleqsandrielma somexma kazanjim,
mRvdelma, mihyida britaneTis muzeums qarTuli pateriki. TvalSisacemia qarTuli
xelnawerebiT movaWreTa Soris amdeni somexi gadamyidvelis arseboba. vfiqrob, amis
mizezi is unda iyos, rom Zveli qarTuli da somxuri asoebis moxazuloba erTmaneTs
waagavs da, Tu am sakiTxSi kaci kargad garkveuli ar aris, mas SeiZleba SeeSalos da
qarTuli       naweri    somxurad     aRiqvas     (rogorc     es   moxda   praRaSi).    xsenebulma
gadamyidvelebma es xelnawerebi somxurad miiCnies, sadRac anYTviTon moipares, an
sxva maTnairi qurdbacacebisgan SeiZines, rom merme ufro sarfianad gaeyidaT da,
erTgvarad,     kovzi    nacarSi     CauvardaT,     raki,   gasagebi   mizezebis   gamo,      qarTul
xelnawerebs naklebi muStari hyavda, vidre somxurs, da, amdenad, maTi gasaReba
gauWirdaT (me imas vgulisxmob, rom somxuri diaspora, albaT, msoflios nebismier
qveyanaSi     yovelTvis     ufro    mravalricxovani        iyo,   vidre   qarTuli      da,    aqedan
gamomdinare, somxuris mimarT interesi, bunebrivia, ufro cxoveli iqneboda). zemoT
dasaxelebul        zogierT     xelnawers,         romelTa     adgilsamyofeli          dResdReobiT
dauzustebelia, kardakar daatarebda vinme miuleri (Tu es gvari kvalis asarevad ar
aris mogonili), romelic imdenad iyo gaTamamebuli, rom, etyoba, arafris SiSi ara
hqonda da venel mxiTaristebs mSvidad da daufaravad sTavazobda Sav bazarze nayid
Tu moparul saunjes, ZvelisZvel qarTul xelnawerebs, romelTa savanedac maTs
Semqmnelebs, saqarTveloSi mcxovreb Tu ucxoeTSi moRvawe qarTvel berebs, sul sxva
adgili hqondaT gaTvaliswinebuli.

 

				
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