Personality by pengxuebo


Who                                  Who
 are                                 am
you ?                                 I?

                      Who are we ?
See Ch. 11 in Text
   An individual's unique pattern of thoughts,
    feelings, and behaviors that persists over time
    and across situations
   Two key components
     1.   Personality refers to unique
     2.   Personality is presumed to be stable &
                Psychodynamic Theories
   Psychodynamic theories see behavior as a product of
    psychological forced within the individual, often outside
    conscious awareness
   Five propositions common to all psychodynamic theories
     Much of mental life is unconscious
     Mental processes such as emotions, motivations
      & thought may conflict with one another
     Early childhood experiences strongly affect
      personality development
     Our mental representation of ourselves and
      others guides our interactions with others
     Development of personality involves learning to
      regulate sexual and aggressive urges
         Sigmund Freud
   Best known of
    psychodynamic theorists
   Freud was first to stress the
       The unconscious is all the
        ideas, thoughts, and
        feelings of which we are
        normally not aware

Freud’s    ideas form the basis for psychoanalysis
      Psychoanalytic Approach

 Developed   by Sigmund Freud
 Psychoanalysis is both an approach
  to therapy and a theory of
 Emphasizes unconscious motivation
    - the main causes of behavior lie
    buried in the unconscious mind
Structure of Personality
                 Psychoanalytic Approach
  Rational,                                                 Information
  planning,                                                    in your
 mediating                               Conscious
                   Ego                                       immediate
 dimension                                                   awareness
of personality
                              Superego   Preconscious
                                                             which can
                                                              easily be
  Moralistic,                                                  made
judgmental,                              Unconscious         conscious
dimension of
 personality                                                Thoughts,
                                                        urges and other
   illogical,                                            that is difficult
  impulsive                                                to bring to
dimension of                                                conscious
 personality                                               awareness
    - all things we are aware of at any given moment


                       Superego              Preconscious


- everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness


                             Superego                 Preconscious


- inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives


                          Superego               Preconscious


                 Divisions of the Mind
   Id - instinctual drives present at birth
       does not distinguish between reality and fantasy
       operates according to the pleasure principle
   Ego - develops out of the id in infancy
       understands reality and logic
       mediator between id and superego
   Superego - develops over time
       internalization of society’s moral standards
       responsible for guilt

 Collection of unconscious urges and
  desired that continually seek expression
 Operates according to the
       Pleasure Principle
    i.e. seeks immediate pleasure and to avoid pain
   Operates entirely in the unconscious mind

 Mediates between reality, conscience
  (superego), and instinctual needs (id)
 Operates according to the
           Reality Principle
   Operates at the conscious, preconscious,
    and unconscious levels
   The social and parental standards that have
    been internalized
   Conscience
       Our sense of morality
 Ego      Ideal
     The standard of what one would like to be
   We are not born with the superego, but it
    develops over time
   Operates at the conscious, preconscious &
    unconscious levels
       Freud’s Development of Personality
   Freud believed that personality development is
    the result of various ways in which the sexual
    instinct (also called the libido) is satisfied during
    the course of life
   There are several stages, each focusing on
    different bodily areas
   These stages are called the psychosexual stages
          Defense Mechanisms

   Anxiety is produced when the ego
  cannot satisfy the demands of the id in a
  way acceptable to the superego
 This anxiety causes feelings of uneasiness
  and worry
 Ego may employ any of a number of
  defense mechanisms to protect the
  conscious mind from this anxiety
                 Defense Mechanisms
   Denial
       Refusal to acknowledge a painful reality
   Repression
       Unpleasant thoughts are excluded from consciousness
   Projection
       Attributing one’s feelings, motives, wishes on/to others
   Identification
       Taking on traits of others to avoid feeling incompetent
   Regression
       Reverting to childlike behavior
               Defense Mechanisms
   Intellectualization
       Thinking about stressful problems in an
        abstract way to detach oneself from them
   Reaction Formation
       Expression of exaggerated ideas and
        emotions that are opposite of true feelings
   Displacement
       Shift repressed motives from an original
        object to a substitute object
   Sublimation
       Redirecting repressed motives and feelings
        into socially acceptable activities
        Defense Mechanisms--Activity
   Choose Five (5) of the mechanisms and prepare brief
    scenarios representing each.
   Depth 2-3 sentences…just be sure to fully explain the
    response/reaction to clearly connect w/mechanism.
         Denial

         Repression

         Projection

         Identification

         Regression

         Intellectualization
         Reaction Formation
         Displacement
         Sublimation
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective

Were Freud’s theories             Current research
the “best of his time”              contradicts
 or were they simply              many of Freud’s
      incorrect?                   specific ideas

                  Development does not
                    stop in childhood

   Slips of the tongue are      Dreams may not be
       likely competing             unconscious
“nodes” in memory network        drives and wishes
    Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory
           Theories must explain observations
             and offer testable hypotheses

Few Objective Observations             Few Hypotheses

      Freud’s theories based on his recollections &
      interpretations of patients’ free associations,
              dreams & slips of the tongue

   Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits
   Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories

 Culture-bound   ideas
  Freud made no connection between
   women’s subordinate status in society
   and their sense of inferiority
 Psychodymanic  theories are largely
 untestable in any scientific way
Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories

 Carl Jung:           Collective Unconscious
 Alfred Adler:        Individual Psychology
 Karen Horney:        Focus on Security
 Erik Erikson:        Psychosocial Development


     Abraham     Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs
     Carl   Rogers: Person-Centered Perspective
     Carl Jung
   Shared Freud’s emphasis on
    unconscious processes
   Personal Unconscious
      That part of the unconscious
       mind containing an
       individuals thoughts and
   Collective Unconscious
      The part of the unconscious
       that is inherited and
       common to all members of
       a species
   Ideas/categories in the collective unconscious
   Examples of archetypes
      Persona

         Our public self

      Anima

         Female archetype as expressed in male
      Animus

         Male archetype as expressed in female
jung’s five (5) main archetypes:
The Self: the regulating center of the psyche and
facilitator of individuation
The Shadow: the opposite of the ego image, often
containing qualities that the ego does not identify with,
but possesses nonetheless
The Anima: the feminine image in a man's psyche
The Animus: the masculine image in a woman's psyche
The Persona: how we present to the world, usually
protects the Ego from negative images(acts like a mask)
Anima Projection:
The unindividuated man identifies with those
personal qualities that are symbolically
He develops these potentialities and to some
extent integrates their unconscious
influences into his conscious personality.
However, he does not recognize qualities that
are symbolically feminine as part of his own
personality but rather projects them onto
Anima Projection:
The unindividuated man identifies with those
personal qualities that are symbolically
He will project his anima—those particular
characteristics and potentialities that are
significant components of his personal
unconscious and therefore carry a special
emotional charge—onto a few women for whom
he will then feel a strong and compelling emotion
(usually positive but occasionally negative).
Infatuation (an instant, powerful attraction for a
woman about whom he knows little) is one of the
signs of anima projection, as is a compulsive
Animus Projection:
The unindividuated woman identifies with those
personal qualities that are symbolically feminine.

She develops these potentialities and to
some extent integrates their unconscious
influences into her conscious personality.
However, she does not recognize qualities
that are symbolically masculine as part of her
own personality but rather projects them
onto men.
Animus Projection:
The unindividuated woman identifies with those
personal qualities that are symbolically feminine.
She will project her animus—those particular
characteristics and potentialities that are
significant components of her personal
unconscious and therefore carry a special
emotional charge—onto a few men for whom she
will then feel a strong and compelling emotion
(usually positive but occasionally negative).
Infatuation (an instant, powerful attraction for a
man about whom she knows little) is one of the
signs of animus projection, as is a compulsive
Anima Possession:
Since the unindividuated man has not consciously developed
any of his symbolically feminine qualities (e.g. emotion,
need for relatedness), his personality is apt to be taken over
or "possessed" by these qualities at times, so that his
emotional behavior and relationships may be acted out in
childish and immature ways that are apparent to others but
not to him.
Animus Possession:
Since the unindividuated woman has not consciously developed
any of her symbolically masculine qualities (e.g. logic, leadership,
need for independence), her personality is apt to be taken over or
"possessed" by these qualities at times, so that she appears
opinionated, argumentative, or domineering to others, though she
will not think of herself that way.
 Anima/Animus Integration:
 We can avoid anima/animus possession and withdraw
 projections by integrating the contrasexual archetype into
 consciousness, realizing we are cutting off our human
 potential by recognizing and developing only those
 symbolic qualities that match the sex of our bodies.
                                            Androgyny is
                                            symbolized in
Integration of                              narratives
the                                         through
                                            achievement of a
                                            special bond
is often termed                             (frequently
Androgyny.                                  sexual
                                            between the ego-
                                            bearer and the
             Attitude Types
 Extraverts

   Focus   on external world & social life
 Introverts

   Focus  on internal thoughts & feelings
 Jung felt that everyone had both
  qualities, but one is usually dominant
         Personality Types
 Rational   individuals
    People who regulate their actions
     through thinking and feeling
 Irrational individuals

    People who base their actions on
     perceptions, either through their
     senses or intuition
           Personality Types

Personality Types       TYPE A: “The Leader”
Risk taker
Very independent, direct, to the point
Don‟t like routine
Highly independent
Business leaders
Blunt, competitive
No-nonsense -- like to get-to-the-point
Embrace change
Always look for practical solutions
Personality Types    TYPE B: “The Socializer”

Highly extroverted
Love the spotlight
Very entertaining
Possess strong charisma
Sales and marketing types
Creative & Imaginative
Personality Types TYPE C: “Details, details…”

Antithesis of Type "B“
e.g. accountants, programmers, and engineers
May have trouble communicating to other people
Talented crunching numbers or writing program
Tend to be very cautious and reserved
Will not venture into something until all facts ckd out
Personality Types TYPE D: “Always There
                                    When You Need Them”
People who resist any form of change
Prefer routine (e.g. such as in clerical assignments)
Not adventurous
Resist responsibility
Prefer to be told what to do
Social Inhibition
Tend to be Reticent
Lack of self assurance
May experience negative emotions like hostility, anxiety, anger,
depressed mood, tension, and a negative view of themselves.
                Personality Types
…but wait, there’s more…
•Not uncommon to find people with a blend of
personalities, particularly A-B and C-D.
•These basic personality types explain why some
people work well together and others do not.
•For example
     ~Type-A clashes with Type-D
       simply because one is more adventurous than the other,
     ~Type-B clashes with Type-C
       one exhibits extroverted personality-other introverted.
     ~Conversely, Type-A works well with Type-B
     ~And, Type-C works well with Type-D.
Alfred Adler 1870 –1937
 Compensation
   Our efforts to overcome
   real or perceived
 Inferiority   Complex
   Fixation on feelings of personal
   inferiority that can lead to emotional
   and social paralysis
Alfred Adler
Single "drive" or motivating force behind all
our behavior and experience.
Motivating force the striving for perfection.
    -the desire we all have to fulfill our
    potentials, to come closer to our ideal.
Basic motivation: compensation
     -striving to overcome.
Our personalities = the ways in which we do
-- or don't -- compensate or overcome those
Alfred Adler
Striving for superiority = Teleology.
Unlike Freud, Adler saw motivation as a
matter of moving towards the future, rather
than being driven, mechanistically, by the
So what makes so many of us self-
Adler says it's a matter of being
overwhelmed by our Inferiority
Alfred Adler
If overwhelmed by the forces of inferiority --
whether it is your body hurting, people around
you holding you in contempt, or just the general
difficulties of growing up -- you develop an
Inferiority Complex.
Inferiority complex is a neurosis, a life-size
     -One becomes shy & timid, insecure,
     indecisive, cowardly, submissive, compliant
Begin to rely on people to carry you along, even
manipulating them into supporting you
 Alfred Adler
You can also develop a Superiority Complex.
Superiority Complex involves covering up
inferiority by pretending to be superior.
Four psychological types
Ruling type. They are, from childhood on,
characterized by a tendency to be aggressive and
dominant over others.
Leaning type. They are sensitive people who have
developed a shell around themselves which
protects them, but they must rely on others to
carry them through life's difficulties.
Alfred Adler
Four psychological types cont.
Avoiding type.
    -The lowest levels of energy, only survive
    by avoiding life, especially other people.

    -When pushed to the limits, tend to
    become psychotic, retreating finally
    into their own personal worlds.
Socially Useful type.
    This is the healthy person, one who has
    both social interest and energy.
 Karen Horney (1885-1952)
 Viewed   anxiety as powerful
  motivating force
 Environmental and social factors
  seen as important
 Neurotic   trends
            strategies for
   Irrational
   coping w/ emotional
Family Dynamics
Karen had on-going conflicts with her strict
father (a Sea Captain).
Karen's mother was more flexible.
She married man that shared some of these same
authoritarian qualities.
Her older brother, Brendt, was the „favorite‟
Karen felt that she had been unwanted.
Karen was very attached to Brendt.
Karen Horney struggled w/ depression.

Her struggles/difficulties helped her
understand the dynamics of neurosis.

Her analysis of neurosis has been
recognized as very insightful, and her
theories are enjoying a renewal of
The Cause of Neurosis
Main source of neurosis:
>feelings of anxiety, obsessive thoughts and
a degree of social or interpersonal
*in the experience of betrayal
*in not being loved
*in being helpless to bring about that
Lack of genuine warmth/affection for the child.
Parent not necessarily abusive, but indifferent--
unaware of effects of her/his behavior on child.
Translates into behaviors like:
* Unjust reprimands
* Unfulfilled promises
* Unpredictable changes between scornful
rejection and overindulgence
* Ridiculing independent thinking
* Spoiling child's interest in her/his pursuits.
First reaction is hostility.

But, as the child needs the parent,
and hostility threatens that bond,
hostility is repressed.

The repression of basic hostility
results in basic anxiety:
    feeling lonely and helpless in a
    hostile world.
“I Am not Worthy to Be Loved”

The "despised real self" says:

I am truly a disgraceful creature, a
bad person, someone that no one
can truly love…
But I Should…
The Ideal Self says:
“People would love me if I were kinder,
more athletic, more outgoing, more
unselfish, a better friend, parent, mate.”
They would love me if I were more
courageous, more disciplined, achieved
This is a Neurotic Solution to the
conflict --as no one can be such a person.
The Tyranny of the “Shoulds”
A person can be driven by these
demands of the ideal self.
These demands are impossible, the
attempts to satisfy the "shoulds" is
bound to fail.
Thus, self hate & feelings of false guilt
increase, as well as despair &
Alienation from the Self
When succumbing to the tyranny of
the "shoulds" individuals will:
 Hate  themselves, not want to really
 know themselves, want to run from
 Lose their own creativity as they strive
 to please
 Feel despair -- helpless in the face of
 their own behavior.
Horney's Concept of the Self
The Actual self: the person you actually are
--regardless of anyone's perceptions
The Real self: the core of your being, your
potential, need to be who you are truly
(the subjective view of the actual self).
The Despised Real self: negative view of
the self, based on the lack of love and
acceptance by others.
The Ideal self: the perfect self you think
you should be, so you can be loved.
How can I keep you from hurting me?
I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming, self-
effacing solution, moving toward people
I'll control things, manipulate, exploit,
attack if needed: the expansive solution of
moving against people
I'll grow my own protective shell, be
independent, rebellious, or not look at
painful things: the resignation solution:
moving away from people
If those Defensive Strategies Become a Lifestyle

Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT
personality with these traits:
   Need for affection and approval
   Need for a dominant partner
Moving against people leads to an AGGRESSIVE
personality with these traits:
   Need for power, exploitation, prestige, admiration
   Need for achievement
Moving away from people lead to a DETACHED
personality with these traits:
   Need for perfection
   Setting narrow limits to life
Some Auxiliary Defenses (1)
Other people become the center of the
neurotic's life. Result: feeling of inner
Creation of blind spots:
Inability to see how different one is
from one's ideal image
Between various areas of life
    e.g. business, family, church
Auxiliary Defenses (2)
Rationalization: e.g. I did this to make them
happy (no--to make them like you)
Excessive self-control: Don't want to be
caught in any emotion, vulnerability
Arbitrary rightness: Seemingly impulsive
decisions (to avoid the pain of real decision
making) that are then rationalized.
Elusiveness: Constant clouding of issues
Cynicism: Assuming that self-interest is the
only motivation in operation, and therefore
behaving that way oneself.
     Humanistic Personality Theories
 Humanistic view asserts the fundamental
  goodness of people and their constant
  striving toward higher levels of
 Does not dwell on past occurrences, but
  rather focuses on the present and future
Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation is when one is
motivated by external factors, as opposed
to the internal drivers of intrinsic
motivation. Extrinsic motivation drives one
to do things for tangible rewards or
pressures, rather than for the fun of it.
Supermarkets use loyalty cards and
discounts, airlines use air miles, companies
use bonuses and commissions. Extrinsic
motivation is everywhere.
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by
internal factors, as opposed to the external
drivers of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic
motivation drives one to do things just for the
fun of it, or because one believes it is a good or
right thing to do.
Most people's hobbies are intrinsically
motivated. Notice the passion with which
people collect items or build detailed models.
Few people carry that passion into their
Motivation Team Activity
1) Discuss activities, pursuits, etc. that you
would consider intrinsically motivating for you.
2) Discuss and respond to the statement below:
There is no such thing as intrinsic
motivation…we are always motivated by
some extrinsic reward in al that we do.
       The Humanistic Perspective

   Maslow’s                       Roger’s
Self-Actualizing             Person-Centered
     Person                     Perspective

        “Healthy” rather than “Sick”
Individual: greater than the sum of test scores
         Maslow & Self-Actualization
      the process of fufilling our potential

• Studied healthy, creative people
• Eleanor Roosevelt, Abe Lincoln, Esteem
      Tom Jefferson                Love Needs
• Self-Aware & Self-Accepting
• Open & Spontaneous
• Loving & Caring
• Problem-Centered not Self-Centered
Abraham Maslow is a Humanistic
•Humanists do not believe that human
beings are pushed and pulled by
mechanical forces, either of stimuli and
reinforcements (behaviorism) or of
unconscious instinctual impulses
•Humanists focus upon potentials.
•They believe that humans strive for an
upper level of capabilities.
•Abraham Maslow developed a Theory
of Motivation and Personality that has
influenced a number of different fields,
including education.
•This wide influence is due in part to
the high level of practicality of
Maslow's theory.
•This theory accurately describes many
realities of personal experiences.
             Hierarchy Of Needs
Physiological Needs
Biological needs:                   oxygen,
  food, water, and a relatively constant
  body temperature, etc.
The strongest needs because if a person
  were deprived of all needs, the
  physiological ones would come first in
  the person's search for satisfaction.
(2) Safety
Adults have little awareness of their security
needs except in times of
     ~emergency or
     ~periods of disorganization in the social
      structure (such as widespread rioting).
Children often display the signs of insecurity
and the need to be safe.
(3) Love, Affection and Belongingness

When needs for safety and physiological well-
being are satisfied, the next class of needs for
love, affection and belongingness can emerge.
People seek to overcome feelings of loneliness
and alienation.
Involves both giving and receiving love,
affection & sense of belonging.
(4) Esteem
These involve needs for both self-esteem and
for the esteem a person gets from others.
Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based,
high level of self-respect and respect from
When these needs are satisfied, the person feels
self-confident and valuable as a person in the
When these needs are frustrated, the person
feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.
(5) Self-Actualization
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then
and only then are the needs for self-actualization
activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as:
 a person's need to be and do that which the person
was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an
artist must paint, and a poet must write."
These needs make themselves felt in signs of
restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking
something, in short, restless.
If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted,
or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what
the person is restless about. It is not always clear
what a person wants when there is a need for self-
(6) Peak Experiences
Peak experiences are sudden feelings of intense
happiness and well-being, and possibly the
awareness of "ultimate truth" and the unity of all
•Accompanying these experiences is a heightened
sense of control over the body and emotions, and a
wider sense of awareness, as though one were
standing upon a mountaintop.
•The experience fills individual w/ wonder & awe.
•She/he feels at one with the world and is pleased
with it; she or he has seen the ultimate truth or the
essence of all things.
Maslow states that parents, mentors, teachers, etc. should
respond to the potential an individual has for growing into a
self-actualizing person of his/her own kind. Ten points that
should be addressed are listed:
1. We should teach people to be authentic, to be
   aware of their inner selves and to hear their
   inner-feeling voices.
2. We should teach people to transcend their
   cultural conditioning and become world
3. We should help people discover their
   vocation in life, their calling, fate or destiny.
   This is especially focused on finding the right
   career and the right mate.
4. We should teach people that life is precious,
   that there is joy to be experienced in life, and
   if people are open to seeing the good and
   joyous in all kinds of situations, it makes life
   worth living.
5. We must accept the person as he or she is
   and help the person learn their inner nature.
   From real knowledge of aptitudes and
   limitations we can know what to build upon,
   what potentials are really there.
6. We must see that the person's basic needs are
   satisfied. This includes safety, belongingness,
   and esteem needs.
7. We should refresh consciousness, teaching the
   person to appreciate beauty and the other good
   things in nature and in living.
8. We should teach people that controls are good,
   and complete abandon is bad. It takes control to
   improve the quality of life in all areas.
9. We should teach people to transcend the trifling
   problems and grapple with the serious problems
   in life. These include the problems of injustice, of
   pain, suffering, and death.
10. We must teach people to be good choosers. They
  must be given practice in making good choices.
Maslow Team Activity
1)Discuss where you are on the ‘pyramid’ –
  and share with your team.
2) Discuss and respond to the statement below:
  One must have a depth and breadth of
  life experience(s) in order to truly
  achieve self-actualization and/or peak
               Erik Erikson
   Eight stages of development
     Trust vs. Mistrust

     Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt    1902 –1994

     Initiative vs. Guilt

     Industry vs. Inferiority

     Identity vs. Role Confusion

     Intimacy vs. Isolation

     Generativity vs. Stagnation

     Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Lawrence Kohlberg’s         1927 - 1987

Stages of Moral Development
   Preconventional (preadolescence)
     “Good” behavior is mostly to avoid
      punishment or seek reward
   Conventional (adolescence)
     Behavior is about pleasing others and,
      in later adolescence, becoming a good
   Postconventional
     Emphasis is on abstract principles such
      as justice, equality, and liberty
   Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
 Research   shows that many people
  never progress past the conventional
 Theory does not take cultural
  differences into account
 Theory is considered by some to be
  sexist in that girls often scored lower
  on tests of morality

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