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					Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

      Health Stats This graph shows how the percentage of 10th
      graders and 12th graders who smoke has changed.

               What does this graph reveal about the popularity
     of smoking among high school students?

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Why Teens Use Tobacco
     • Few users can pinpoint the exact reason they started
       smoking or using smokeless tobacco.
     • Friends, family, and the media greatly influence
       whether someone starts to use tobacco.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Influence of Friends
     • Most people who become addicted to tobacco start
       using it during their teens.

     • Teens with friends who use tobacco are more likely
       to also use tobacco.

     • If a teen’s friends do not use tobacco, it is less likely
       that he or she will make the decision to use it.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Influence of Family
     • Your parents may have first made you aware of
       tobacco’s negative health effects.

     • Other family members may be positive role models
       for you.

     • Studies show that children of smokers are much
       more likely to smoke, even if their parents try to
       discourage them.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Influence of Media
     • You probably have read or heard much about the
       dangers of tobacco through the media.

     • Anti-tobacco programs try to compete with the
       appealing ads created by tobacco companies.

     • Tobacco companies spend over $15 billion a year
       for advertising.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Tobacco Products
     • Tobacco products are made from the dried,
       processed leaves of tobacco plants.
     • Nicotine is a very addictive chemical in
       tobacco products.
     • Tobacco users are not immediately poisoned by
       nicotine because only a small amount enters the
       body at a time.
     • Tobacco users take in nicotine whenever they use
       cigarettes, cigars, pipes, or smokeless tobacco

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Products That Are Smoked
     • Cigarettes consist of cured and shredded tobacco
       leaves rolled in paper.
     • Bidis are cigarette-like products that consist of
       tobacco wrapped in a leaf and tied with string.
     • Kreteks contain ground clove. The clove alters the
       cigarette’s flavor and numbs the lungs.
     • Cigar and pipe tobacco is less processed than
       cigarette tobacco.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Smokeless Tobacco
     • Tobacco that is chewed, placed between the lower lip
       and teeth, or sniffed through the nose is known as
       smokeless tobacco.
     • Chewing tobacco, also known
       as “dip” or “chew,” consists
       of poor-quality, ground
       tobacco leaves mixed with
       flavorings, preservatives,
       and other chemicals.
     • Snuff is finely ground,
       powdered tobacco.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Examining Advertising Tactics

     •Use the following
     guidelines to help
     you identify and
     resist the techniques
     that advertisers use
     to influence you.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Examining Advertising Tactics

           •Identify the tactics being used to sell the product.
          • Humor
          • Slogans and Jingles
          • Testimonials
          • Attractive Models
          • Positive Images
          • Bandwagon Approach
          • Appeal to the Senses
          • Price Appeal
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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Examining Advertising Tactics

           •Identify the ad’s target audience.
          • In what setting does the ad take place?
          • What are the characters in the ad doing?
          • Where does the ad appear?

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Examining Advertising Tactics

           •Identify the ad’s message.
          • Write a one-sentence statement that describes
            what the ad wants you to believe about the
          • Reread the statement you wrote. Do you think it
            could be true? Why or why not?

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

    Myth Low-tar and low-nicotine cigarettes are safer than
    regular cigarettes.
    Fact Although the amount of tar and nicotine in these
    cigarettes may be reduced, carbon monoxide levels are not.
    Also, smokers tend to smoke more of these cigarettes and
    inhale more deeply in order to feel the same effects as they
    felt from regular cigarettes.
                Where do you think that most teens get their
    information about tobacco products? How factual do you
    think this information is?

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Nicotine and the Body
     • Stimulants are drugs that increase the activity of the
       nervous system.
     • Once in the blood, nicotine reaches the brain
       within seconds.
     • By mimicking neurotransmitters, nicotine affects
       breathing, movement, learning, memory, mood,
       and appetite.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Nicotine’s Short-Term Effects
     • The major short-term effects of nicotine use are
       increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and
       changes in the brain that may lead to addiction.
     • First-time tobacco users may experience mild signs
       of nicotine poisoning, which include rapid pulse,
       clammy skin, nausea, and dizziness.
     • In frequent users, nicotine stimulates the area of the
       brain that produces feelings of reward and pleasure.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco
                                 Nervous System
   Effects of Nicotine           • Increases activity level
                                 • Mimics neurotransmitters
                                 • Decreases some reflex actions
                                 • Activates the brain’s
                                   “reward pathway”
                                 Cardiovascular System
                                 • Increases heart rate and the
                                   force of contractions
                                 • Increases blood pressure
Respiratory System               • Reduces blood flow to skin
• Increases mucus                • Increases risk of
   production                      blood clotting
• Decreases muscle action        Digestive System
   in the lungs’ airways         • Increases saliva
• Causes breathing to              production
   become more shallow           • Decreases the amount of
                                   insulin released from the
                                 • Increases bowel activity

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Nicotine Addiction
     • Ongoing use of nicotine causes the body to develop
       a tolerance to nicotine.
     • As tolerance increases, nicotine addiction develops.
     • The time it takes to become addicted depends on
       several factors including genetics, frequency of use,
       and age.
     • Studies show that teens become addicted faster and
       more intensely than adults.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Psychological Dependence
     • Tobacco use may become a habit used to cope with
       stressful situations.
     • It may become associated with social situations.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Nicotine Withdrawal
     • Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal include
        • headaches
        • irritability
        • difficulty sleeping
        • inability to concentrate
        • intense nicotine cravings
     • Withdrawal effects may begin as soon as 30 minutes
       after the last dose of nicotine.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Other Dangerous Chemicals
     • Tobacco smoke contains more than
       4,000 chemicals.
     • In addition to nicotine, two of the most harmful
       substances in tobacco smoke are tar and carbon

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

     • The dark, sticky substance that forms when tobacco
       burns is known as tar.
     • Short-term effects of tar
         • brown stains on fingers and teeth
         • smelly hair and clothes
         • bad breath
         • paralysis of cilia lining the airways
         • increased number of respiratory infections
         • impaired lung function
     • Tar contains many chemicals that are known
       carcinogens, or cancer-causing agents.
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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Carbon Monoxide
     • When substances—including tobacco—are burned,
       an odorless, poisonous gas called carbon
       monoxide is produced.
     • Once inhaled and absorbed into the blood, carbon
       monoxide binds to the hemoglobin molecules in red
       blood cells in place of oxygen.
     • Red blood cells cannot transport as much oxygen as
       the body cells need.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Chemicals in Smokeless Tobacco
     • Smokeless tobacco contains many of the same
       dangerous chemicals that are in tobacco smoke.
     • Smokeless tobacco is at least as addictive
       as cigarettes.
     • Smokeless tobacco also has a number of
       short-term effects
        • stained teeth
        • bad breath and drooling
        • receding gums and tooth decay

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

     Quick Quiz All of the following statements are true except for
     one. Which statement do you think is false?
             In the United States, over 400,000 people die from smoking
             each year.
             Children of people who smoke have a greater risk of
             developing asthma.
             Scientists have developed cures for chronic bronchitis and
             Smokers die about 13 years earlier than nonsmokers.

             Smokeless tobacco increases one’s risk of cardiovascular

              Explain why you gave the answer that you did.
                                   Switch to QuickTake version of the quiz.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Long-Term Risks
     • With every dose of tobacco, users increase their risk
       of developing respiratory diseases, cardiovascular
       disease, and several different forms of cancer.
     • Cigarette smoking alone is directly responsible for
       the deaths of over 400,000 Americans each year.
     • More than 6 million children living today may die
       early because of a decision they will make during
       their teen years—the decision to use tobacco.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Respiratory Diseases
     • Cells that line the respiratory tract have hairlike
       extensions called cilia.
     • Tar sticks to the cilia, prevents them from moving,
       and damages them over time.
     • Tobacco smoke and other accumulating toxins
       irritate the lining of the bronchi.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
     • If a person continues to smoke over a long period of
       time, the damage that occurs to the respiratory
       system becomes permanent.
     • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
       is a disease that results in a gradual loss of
       lung function.
     • In people with chronic bronchitis, the airways are
       constantly inflamed.
     • Tobacco smoke damages alveoli tissue. The damage
       can lead to emphysema, a disorder in which alveoli
       in the lungs can no longer
       function properly.
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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   COPD Treatments
     • Cigarette smoking is responsible for about 90
       percent of all COPD deaths.
     • Treatments focus on relieving symptoms and slowing
       the progress of the disease.
     • Possible treatments include
        • medications that open airways
        • breathing exercises
        • oxygen treatments
        • lung transplants

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Cardiovascular Disease
     • The combined effects of nicotine, tar, and carbon
       monoxide force the cardiovascular system to work
       harder to deliver oxygen throughout the body.
     • Tobacco use raises blood pressure.
     • Studies show that the chemicals in tobacco smoke
       increase blood cholesterol levels and
       promote atherosclerosis.
     • Nicotine increases the blood’s tendency to clot.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

     • Tobacco use is a major factor in the development of
       lung cancer, oral cancers, and several other cancers.
     • Many factors influence a tobacco user’s risk of
       developing cancer.
        • when the person started using tobacco
        • how much tobacco the person has used
        • how often the person is exposed to other
          people’s smoke

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Lung Cancer
     • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for
       both women and men.
     • Scientists estimate that more than 85 percent of all
       deaths caused by lung cancer are related to
     • By the time most lung cancers are diagnosed
       successful treatment is unlikely.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Oral Cancer
     • Smoking and smokeless tobacco are also associated
       with oral cancers—cancers of the mouth, tongue,
       and throat.
     • About 90 percent of oral cancers occur in people
       who use tobacco.
     • Tobacco users may develop white patches on their
       tongues or the lining of their mouths called
       leukoplakia (loo koh PLAY kee uh).

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Other Cancers
     • Tobacco carcinogens affect many organs in the body.

     • Tobacco users also have an increased risk of
       cancers of the
         • esophagus
         • larynx
         • stomach
         • pancreas
         • kidney
         • bladder
         • blood
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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Secondhand Smoke
     • Mainstream smoke is exhaled from a
       smoker’s lungs.
     • Sidestream smoke is smoke that goes into the air
       directly from the cigarette.
     • The combination of mainstream and sidestream
       smoke is called secondhand smoke, or
       environmental tobacco smoke.
     • Secondhand smoke is inhaled by everyone near
       the smoker.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Dangers of Secondhand Smoke
     • Long-term exposure to secondhand smoke can
       cause cardiovascular disease, many respiratory
       problems, and cancer.
     • Each year, secondhand smoke causes close to
       40,000 deaths from heart attacks and lung cancer.
     • Each year, secondhand smoke contributes to about
       300,000 respiratory infections in children younger
       than eighteen months.
     • Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are
       more likely to develop allergies and asthma.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Avoiding Secondhand Smoke
     • Federal, state, and local laws now prohibit or restrict
       smoking in many public places and workplaces.
        • Ask smokers not to smoke around you.
        • Be firm when informing guests that they cannot
          smoke in your home or car.
        • In restaurants, always sit in no-smoking areas.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Tobacco Use and Pregnancy
     • Pregnant women who smoke put their babies at risk
       for many health problems.
         • cerebral palsy
         • sight impairment
         • hearing problems
         • learning difficulties
     • Pregnant women who smoke also have higher rates
       of miscarriages, premature births, and stillbirths.
     • Babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy
       are also at much higher risk for sudden infant death
       syndrome (SIDS).

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Avoiding Tobacco Use
     • Your decision not to use tobacco will help you stay
       healthy now and reduce your risk of developing life-
       threatening diseases.
     • Sticking to your decision not to use tobacco involves
       being able to say no clearly and with confidence.
     • Have a response prepared in advance so that you
       are not caught off guard.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Benefits of Quitting
     • Quitting tobacco use is not easy because it involves
       breaking an addiction.
     • The health benefits of quitting tobacco use begin
       immediately and continue throughout life.
     • Society also benefits every time a tobacco
       user quits.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Cardiovascular Benefits
     • Blood pressure lowers.
     • Heart rate returns to normal.
     • Circulation improves.
     • The risk of heart disease and stroke becomes similar
       to that of nonsmokers.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Respiratory Benefits
     • The cilia lining the air passages regain
       normal function.
     • Breathing becomes easier as the lungs become free
       of tar, excess mucus, and other debris.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Psychological Benefits
     • People who quit tobacco use usually feel
       increased confidence.
     • They feel that they have regained control over their
       lives rather than allowing the tobacco to
       control them.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Benefits to Society
     • Tobacco use costs society about $100 billion
       per year.
     • These expenses pay for
        • healthcare for tobacco-related illnesses
        • damages and injuries from smoking-related fires
        • loss of earnings from disease and early death

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   Tips for Quitting
     • The most important factor in successfully quitting tobacco is a
       strong personal commitment.
     • There are many things you can do to help cope with withdrawal
         • Make a list of the reasons why you quit.
         • Throw away all tobacco products and anything that reminds
           you of tobacco use.
         • Do little things to change your daily routine.
         • Tell your family and friends that you have quit.
         • Avoid being around people who use tobacco.
         • Put aside the money you save.
         • Exercise or call a friend to take your mind off smoking.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Getting Help
     • Contact the American Lung Association or the
       American Cancer Society for more information and
       tips on quitting tobacco use.
     • Attend local workshops, classes, or support groups.
     • A healthcare professional can advise you about
       where to get help.

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Section 16.1 Teens and Tobacco

   Nicotine Substitutes
     • A nicotine substitute is a product that contains
       nicotine, but not the other harmful chemicals found
       in tobacco.
     • The two most common types of substitutes are
       nicotine gum and nicotine patches. Inhalers and
       nasal sprays are also available, but by prescription
     • People who use nicotine substitutes still expose their
       bodies to the negative effects of nicotine.

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