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Self Help in Hard Time

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					Self Help in Hard Time
         Chapter 15
      Sarah Hawatmeh
         CHS 245 OL
              The IWW Strike
• In Seattle, Washington, the IWW’s idea of a strike
  came to life when 100,000 workers walked out
  because they wanted an increase in their wages
  and brought the city to a halt.
• 35,000 shipyard workers started the strike when
  they wanted a pay raise.
• 60,000 union members were out, and 40,000
  other workers joined in sympathy.
• They wanted support from the Seattle Central
  Labor Council which recommended a city-wide
  strike.
• In two weeks 110 locals voted to indeed have
  a strike. During the strike, crime decreased in
  the city (378).
• The general strike ended after just five days,
  because of pressure from international
  officers of various unions and difficulties of
  living in a un-moving city (379).
s
         How to get Rid of IWW
• IWW had been organizing lumber workers in
  Centralia, Washington but lumber interests made
  plans to get rid of the IWW.
• On Armistice Day November 11, 1919 the Legion
  paraded through town and the IWW prepared for
  attack, as the Legion passed the IWW hall shots were
  fired and they stormed the hall and three Legion
  men were killed
• An IWW member Frank Everett emptied a riffle
  into the crowd and proceeded to flee to the
  woods, as he started to cross the river the current
  was too strong and he turned to shoot the leading
  man and fought with his fists.
• They dragged him back to town and proceeded to
  be tortured then hanged and shot at. No one was
  ever arrested for his murder but 11 Wobblies were
  put on trial and 6 were sentenced to 15 years in
  prison. (379)
           Stike’s continued
   In September of 1919, their were now
  250,000 people participating in the strike.

The Department of Justice moved in, carrying
out raids on workers who were aliens, holding
            them for deportation.

    Many immigrants were hired by steel
     corporations to break the strike.
                   • In the twenties Congress passed
Congress puts an     laws to put an end to the
end to Immigration   dangerous turbulent flood of
                     immigrants.
                   • They did this by setting
                     immigration quotas. The quotas
                     favored Anglo-Saxons and kept
                     out Blacks and Asians and
                     limited the coming of Latins,
                     Slavs, and Jews.
                   • Only 100 people could be sent
                     from African countries, China,
                     Bulgaria, and Palestine, and 124
                     from Lithuania.
          Before the Crash
• The Jazz Age was in the 1920’s, it seemed like
  everything was much better, and people were
  able to have fun and their was much
  prosperity. People had better wages, and the
  unemployment rate dropped from over
  around 4,000,000 to about 2,000,000.
       Than came the Crash!!!
 Also known as The Great Depression
 *which is also one of the most important
           parts in our history*

• In 1929 the Stock Market Crashed. This was due to
  horrible banking structures, and
• The economy became completely unstable according
  to some critics and capitalism was the culprit.
• Over five thousand banks were shutdown. Many
  businesses shutdown due to not making any
  money. Millions were laid off due to finding no work.
• By 1933, over 15 million, one third of the workforce,
  was out of work completely, unable to provide for their
  families. No one knew why the economy had crashed.
• People who had their money in a bank lost
  everything.
• Hoover addressed the audience of America saying that
  there is still work for people who want to
  work. However, a few weeks later he laid off 75,000
  more workers. This is very ironic and shows that
  Hoover didn’t know what he was talking about and was
  in no condition to be saying such things that weren’t
                  The Crash….
•  By 1933, over 15 million, one third of the workforce,
  was out of work completely, unable to provide for their
  families. No one knew why the economy had crashed.
• People who had their money in a bank lost
  everything.
• Hoover addressed the audience of America saying that
  there is still work for people who want to
  work. However, a few weeks later he laid off 75,000
  more workers. This is very ironic and shows that
  Hoover didn’t know what he was talking about and was
  in no condition to be saying such things that weren’t
  true (p.381-382)
           The Great Depression…
• Zinn tells us, there were millions of tons of food around, but it
  was not profitable to transport it, to sell it.
• Warehouses were full of clothing, but people could not afford
  it.
• There were lots of houses, but they stayed empty because
  people couldn't pay the rent, had been evicted, and now lived
  in shacks in quickly formed "Hoovervilles" built on garbage
  dumps.
Fixing and Stabilizing the Economy
• The first goal of President Roosevelt was to stabilize
  the system in which he set up the NRA (National
  Recovery Act).
• This act was primarily created to control the economy
  by using several codes. The NRA fixed prices/wages
  and limited competition but they also solely favored
  big business’.
• Roosevelt also created the AAA (Agricultural
  Adjustment Administration) so they could organize the
  agriculture although they only favored larger farms.
• He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority as a
  tactic to form government into business. The TVA
  helped to temporarily stabilize the economy by
  creating jobs.
           Sit Down Strikes Began
• In the 1930’s, Sit-down strikes were a new kind of strike
  that had begun among rubber workers in Akron, Ohio.
• The workers would stay in the plant instead of walking
  out, giving them more advantages, like not having to walk
  outside in the rain and cold, by sitting down indoors they
  directly blocked the use of strikebreakers and remain in
  shelter; and they weren’t isolated, like in the picket line.
• They were thousands of workers under one roof forming
  a community of struggle.
• In 1936 workers at the Firestone rubber plant in Akron started
  to sit down on the job after several union men were fired and
  their already low wages were cut even more.
• With in two days Plant #1 and #2 were sitting down and
  management gave in to the demands. Within a year the sit-
  down strikes had spread to other factories like Goodyear,
  Fisher body, and General Motors. In December Fisher Body
  had the longest sit-down strike, started in December 1936 and
  ended in February 1937
              Positive Outcome
             It actually worked!
• Every sit down strike that occurred had a positive
  outcome, whether it was what the strikers
  wanted or something they settled for.
• The sit-down strikes were very successful and
  non violent which threatened the government
  because they were so successful.
• It stopped the production of the company’s so
  they had to settle and compromise for something
  no matter what.
• It became such a problem the government
  started to get involved and banned them illegal.
                      References
• "History Now." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American
  History . Home. Web. 28 Apr. 2011.
  <http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/03_2009/index.p
  hp>.

• "Sit-down Strikes - Ohio History Central - A Product of the
  Ohio Historical Society." Ohio History Central - An Online
  Encyclopedia of Ohio History - Ohio Historical Society. Web. 28
  Apr. 2011.
  <http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1529>.

• Zinn, Howard. “Self-Help in Hard Times.” A Peoples History of
  The United States: 1492- Present. New York: Harper Collins,

				
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