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					       Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation




Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation
          Technology Album




      DHAKA AHSANIA MISSION
Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology Album               1/ 51




                             DISASTER FRIENDLY WATER AND SANITATION




                                    Disaster Friendly
 Water and Sanitation Technology Album




                                                     April 2009




                                  Dhaka Ahsania Mission

                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology Album            2/ 51




         Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology Album


         Advisor

         Mr. Stephane Boundelle
         Country Director, Concern Universal - Bangladesh

         Published by

         Dhaka Ahsania Mission

         Cooperation & Supported by

         Concern Universal Bangladesh

         Month of Publication

         April 2009

         Core Implementing Team

         Abdul Jalil, Field Facilitator
         Aslamuddin, Field Facilitator
         Abu Hasnat, Field Facilitator
         Sabina Yesmin Lina, Field Facilitator
         Abdus Salam, Upazilla Coordinator
         Razu Ahmed, Upazilla Coordinator


         Technological Design by

         Mohammad Ali, Project Engineer, DAM

         Drawing by

         M. A. Mannan

         Technical Team

         Shafiqul Islam, Director (Programs), DAM
         Zahidul Islam Mamun, Head – Health Unit, CUB
         A.K.M. Waliul Islam, Assistant Director, DAM
         Umme Farwa Daisy, Program Manager, DAM

         Edited by

         Ashish Barua, Coordinator – Implementation, DAM

         Design & Computer Graphics

         …………………………………………………………

         Printed by

         ……………………………………………………………


                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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Preface
Bangladesh, due to its geographic location and climatic condition, is one of the highest
disaster prone countries in the world. Each year it experiences frequent natural disasters
causing huge loss of lives and properties. The existing social, economic and environmental
problems are exacerbated by the horrible disasters such as flood, cyclone, tidal surge, river
erosion, drought, hill slide and earthquake etc. Disaster directly affects the water and
sanitation situation and as a result the WatSan infrastructures like Tubewell and Latrine are
mostly damaged. Thus, every year, millions of people especially poor and vulnerable people
are exposed to high risk of health hazards, wasting their efforts and repeated investments
and slowing down the development of our country.

Experiences show that number of people badly in need of water and sanitation services
following disaster, are much higher than the number of people killed, injured and displaced
by disaster. During emergency, functional mechanism of safe water and sanitation services
are extremely important for the activities such as drinking, washing and personal as well as
family hygiene. In addition, these are crying needs for the people in shelter, medical service
for the victims, cleaning, search and rescue activities etc. For protecting the health of the
people, particularly during disasters when people are displaced and vulnerable, ensuring
availability of safe water and basic sanitation is crucial.

In this regard, the projects Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) WatSan and Vulnerability
Mapping and WatSan Component (VMWC) introduce disaster friendly water and sanitation
technology as household, community, institution and public place based facilities that can be
resilient to natural disasters allowing the people to have continuous access to the WatSan
facilities during and after disaster. Through successful implementation of the disaster
friendly technologies, the project is now limiting the spread of diseases due to contaminated
water and lack of sanitation facilities all the year round as well as during and after disaster.
The success encourages us for its countrywide dissemination and replication to reduce the
disaster risk towards safe water and sanitation. This publication „Disaster Friendly Water and
Sanitation Album‟ is an initiative which is anticipated to have a positive impact in sharing the
technology and approaches.

The album will help in developing a common understanding about Disaster Friendly Water
and Sanitation (DFWS) technology especially to address the disasters like flood, high tide
and cyclone. Nevertheless, this will encourage the development organizations working with
the same goal of disaster risk reduction to adopt disaster friendly technology in WatSan
intervention.

We would like to thank Concern Universal Bangladesh (CUB) and other project partners and
associates for their valuable contribution in this significant publication. We look forward to
undertaking more innovative approaches towards addressing the disaster with the
technological support provided by the album.


Shafiqul Islam
Director (Program)
Dhaka Ahsania Mission



                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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Message



Dear Readers,

During implementation of the DIPECHO-III project in Bangladesh, it has been identified as
significant lessons learned that communities are very much lacking access to Water &
Sanitation after the frequent natural disasters and consequently victimized regularly. Plenty
of Wat-San facilities are damaged every year during disaster and population suffer from
unsafe drinking water and water borne diseases, which causes great tolls throughout the
country. Accordingly, Concern Universal in partnership with Dhaka Ahsania Mission started
implementation of „Disaster Friendly WatSan‟ projects supported by ECHO, Cordaid and
Irishaid, including a major advocacy component. Consideration of natural disasters is also a
priority issue in the legislation of the Government of Bangladesh, but is not respected fully
by the majority of the WatSan implementers. In these circumstances, it is very urgent to
develop and implement exclusive „Disaster Friendly WatSan‟ projects. For ensuring wider
dissemination of the concept as well as to be accepted and adopted by all WatSan
implementers, CU and DAM took initiative to develop a platform where all WatSan
implementers represented their positive opinions. We received support/commitment for this
initiative from many organizations operating in Bangladesh.

CU and DAM realized that Policy Makers, Donors and WatSan implementers, in order to
implement exclusively “Disaster Friendly Wat-San facilities” needed background information
regarding Bangladesh National Context, the impact from natural disasters on Wat-San
facilities. Theses points has been studied and the results are available on a report named
“Community Perspectives on Water and Sanitation towards Disaster Risk Reduction”. As well
CU and DAM wanted to make available to all interested actors the Disaster Friendly Water
and Sanitation Technologies developed. These technologies are available in the present
document.

It is to be underlined that Disaster Friendly Wat-San Technologies are simple and represent
a small added implementation cost for public facilities or a simple additional work with no
cost at household level. Here again, as Disaster Risk Reduction initiative, this initial additional
cost or additional effort are very much effective, saving much more costly material and life
losses due to natural disasters. Therefore, purely logically no more non-disaster-friendly
Wat-San facilities should be implemented in disaster prone areas.



Thanks for your attention and commitment to this goal.


Stephane Bonduelle
Country Director Bangladesh
Concern-Universal




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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         Table of Contents


         List of Acronyms                                                                 07

         Introduction                                                                     08

         Objectives of the directory                                                      09



         Part – I            Introducing to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) WatSan and
                             Vulnerability Mapping and WatSan Component (VMWC) Project

         Program Objectives                                                               09

         Program Location                                                                 09

         Program Activities                                                               10

         Program Outputs                                                                  10

         Program Partners & Funding Agency                                                11



         Part – II           Introducing to Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology

         Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology                                              14



         Part – III          Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Album

         WatSan facilities at community level

         WatSan facilities at Institution                                                 26

         WatSan facilities at Public Place                                                36




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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         List of Acronyms


         BRAC                BRAC Bangladesh

         BUET                Bangladesh University of Engineers Technology

         CUB                 Concern Universal Bangladesh

         CWP                 Chulli Water Purifier

         DAM                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission

         DRR                 Disaster Risk Reduction

         DSP                 Deep Set Pump

         DTW                 Deep Tubewell

         DFWS                Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation

         DPHE                Department of Public Health Engineering

         LGI                 Local Government Institute

         O&M                 Operation and Maintenance

         PSF                 Pond Sand Filter

         RWHS                Rain Water Harvesting System

         SMC                 School Management Committee

         TW                  Tubewell

         Unicef              United Nations Children‟s Fund

         USTF                Union Sanitation Taskforce

         VERC                Village Education Resource Centre

         VMWC                Vulnerability Mapping and WatSan Component

         WatSan              Water and Sanitation

         WSTF                Ward Sanitation Taskforce




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Introduction

The availability of safe water and basic sanitation is fundamental to protect the health of the
population, particularly during and after natural disasters when people are displaced and
vulnerable. Number of people affected by water and excreta borne diseases like Diarrhea,
Cholera, Skin diseases etc. due to lack of safe water and sanitation services during and after
disaster, is much higher than the number of people killed, injured, displaced and needing
medical attention.
Usually, in our country, most of the people are found unaware of disaster preparedness.
Furthermore, they never care the safe water and
sanitation as a part of lifesaving preparedness.
Water and Sanitation infrastructures in general
are not constructed considering the effect of
disaster and thus it is either washed away or
completely damaged during flood or cyclone every
year. As a result, the affected people are
compelled to defecate in the open place further
spreading further water and excreta borne
diseases. To prevent this environmental pollution,
disaster friendly water and sanitation can be
regarded as a feasible option.
Besides, during disaster, the displaced people
usually take shelter at nearby institutions and
flood/ cyclone centre. But, it is a matter of great
regret that the functional WatSan facility is hardly found at institution and at flood/ cyclone
centre in our country. Again, where it is found in some cases, it is not disaster friendly. It
becomes unusable or non-functional in the same way as that of in the community.
„Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation (DFWS) facilities‟ can be defined as facilities those
are able to resist natural disasters. Often, existing facilities can be upgraded to be disaster
resistant and usually the upgradation is simple and relatively inexpensive which generally
consists a simple elevation of the platform, an easy system of hermetically sealing the tubes,
and site choice; which can be made also at household level. Therefore „Disaster Friendly
Water and Sanitation‟ concept and technologies allow the population to have continuous
access to the facilities during and after disasters. It also contributes, all the time and in times
of disasters and post-disasters, to limit the spread of diseases due to contaminated water
and lack of sanitation facilities.
Introducing disaster friendly water and sanitation at community and institution level can
contribute a lot to reduce suffering of the vulnerable people a lot. Considering the issue of
flood, high tide and cyclone, the project DRR (WatSan) and VMWC initiate the facilities at
household level, community level, institution and public place. The variation in hardware
design has been considered on case to case basis depending on existing infrastructural
condition of the targeted area. The Tubewell (TW) platform and latrine floor have been
raised markedly in motion of the flood level. Easy access of the female, child and elderly
person to theses disaster friendly WatSan facilities was also a concerned issue while
developing design and lay-out. The latrine and water facilities were ensured in each floor of
the shelter. In each case, the integration of safe water and sanitation has been made that
can reduce both the risk of water and excreta borne diseases.


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           Objective of Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology Album




                      The main objective of the Disaster Friendly WatSan album is
                        to provide an overview of the Disaster Friendly Water and
                       Sanitation Technologies adopted under the project Disaster
                      Risk Reduction (DRR) WatSan and Vulnerability Mapping and
                      WatSan Component (VMWC). The specific objectives are to:



                               Demonstrate the Disaster Friendly Water and
                                Sanitation Technologies appropriately adoptable
                                during Flood, High tide and Cyclone.

                               Project the scenario of the organizational activities on
                                disaster risk reduction in terms of installing water
                                and sanitation technologies now in operation.

                               Provide proper information on Disaster Friendly
                                Water and Sanitation Technologies to policy makers,
                                planners and program designers.

                               Help DRR implementing organizations better
                                implement Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation
                                Technology at household, community, institution and
                                public places.




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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                                                  Part – I


      Introducing to Disaster Risk Reduction
     (DRR) WatSan and Vulnerability Mapping
     and WatSan Component (VMWC) Project




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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Program Objective

The specific objectives of the projects are:

        Ensure that people living in flood-affected and cyclone prone communities have
         access to clean water and adequate sanitation facilities and that the facilities are able
         to withstand the impact of future natural disasters.
        Raise the disaster awareness and response capacity of local communities and
         organizations toward multiple natural hazards.
        Promote disaster friendly concept and technology at micro and macro level.
        Identify set-up and needs of the community through vulnerability mapping.
        Ensure availability of potable water to the targeted population through provision of
         water sources.
        Improve sanitation for the targeted population through provision of sanitation
         facilities.


Program Location
Flood is a common phenomenon in Bangladesh, as it is a land of river. But, frequent flood as
natural calamity causes havoc in our country each year. The water coming down from the
rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra cannot
escape when sea water level rises
                                                            Kurigram
during the monsoon. This contributes to
the severe flood and river erosion which
                                                                          Mymensigh
washes away most of the districts of our
country.

Alongside the risk of flood, Bangladesh
is a frequent receiver of cyclones. The
fierce winds create chaos in the water,
and often destroy embankments. Since
our country stands on the Bay of
Bengal,    cyclone    is   a   common
phenomenon.

Kurigram, Mymensingh, Bhola and
Patuakhali were selected as the districts
to initiate the projects Disaster Risk
Reduction      (DRR)     WatSan      and
Vulnerability Mapping and WatSan                                      Bhola
Component       (VMWC),     taking    the                Patuakhali
disasters flood, high tide, river erosion
and     cyclone    into    consideration.
Mymensingh Sadar and Phulpur in
Mymensingh district, Kolapara and Golachipa in Patuakhali, Chilmari in Kurigram and
Doulatkhan in Bhola were selected as working areas as the most vulnerable upazillas.




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Program Activities
Capacity Development
        Project sharing/ launching at upazilla
        Upazilla level planning workshop
        Project sharing/ Advocacy workshop with Union
         Parishad
        Reform of UZSTF, USTF and WSTF
        Orientation with UZSTF and USTF
        Stakeholders‟ workshop (GO-NGO, Teachers & Religious
         leader)
        Child and Adolescent Group training
        WSTF training (including Rural Sanitation Engineer)
        Teachers Training on school based activity
        Caretaker Training on O&M




Social Mobilization & Community Awareness
        Vulnerability Mapping
        Community Ignition (Situation analysis, Faeces
         Calculation, Disease Transmission Route, WatSan
         situation during and after disaster, Disaster
         Preparedness etc.
        Awareness raising campaign (Rally, Slogan,
         Household Visit)
        Cultural Program




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Provisioning Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation
        Latrine at institution
        Latrine at public place
        Eco-toilet at household level
        Tubewell at institution
        Tubewell at public place
        Tubewell installation at community level
        Tubewell renovation/ platform at community level
        Water Quality Test




Advocacy and Learning Dissemination
        National Conference on
        World Water Day observation
        National Sanitation Month observation
        Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology Album
        Vulnerability Mapping information through DAM
         website
        Audio-visual documentary on Disaster Friendly
         WatSan



Program Outputs

        Improved coordination and linkage mechanism among the institutions.
        Activated WatSan Taskforces at union and ward level.
        Disaster friendly WatSan concept adopted by the stakeholders.
        Improved access of the target beneficiaries to disaster resilient WatSan facilities.
        Improved sanitation and hygiene practices by the target people.
        Strengthened disaster preparedness capacity of the institutions and community
         people to sustain operation and maintenance of the WatSan facilities.




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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Program Partners & Funding Agencies




Dhaka Ahsania Mission (DAM)
Dhaka Ahsania Mission (DAM) is the implementing partner of the project. As implementing
organization of the project, DAM is responsible for facilitating overall implementation of all
the project activities. (www.ahsaniamission.org)




Concern Universal Bangladesh
Concern Universal Bangladesh (CUB) provides the necessary technical support for the project
implementation. As a program partner, Concern Universal Bangladesh provides technical
support to DAM through the Project Management Committee in overall project design and
implementation. (www.concern-universal.org)




IRISHAID
IrishAid is one of the funding agencies of the project. It provides necessary financial support
through CUB for implementing all types of activities for the project. (www.irishaid.gov.ie)




CODRAID
CoordAid is one of the funding agencies of the project. As funding partner, it takes the
responsibility to provide the necessary financial support for implementing the activities of the
project. (www.cordaid.nl)




EUROPEAN COMMISSION HUMANITARIAN AID
The advocacy campaign on Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation has been supervised and
facilitated under DIPECHO fourth action plan for South Asia.




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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                                                Part – II


      Introducing to Disaster Friendly WatSan
                    Technology




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             Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology

To save the huge number of vulnerable community from the death and diseases due to
disaster, implementation of disaster friendly water and sanitation technology is imperative.
As most of the people in our country are unaware of safe water and sanitation, they
unconsciously avoid these as a part of disaster preparedness. WatSan infrastructure is in no
way initiated taking sustainability into consideration. As a result, achievement in WatSan
sector falls each year during monsoon or disaster and, we cannot come out of the „Vicious
Cycle of achievement and fall‟ that contributes in declining the trend of our national
development.

Technically and financially, the only better and cost-effective way to improve access to safe
water and sanitation during disaster and normal period is to integrate the facilities with
existing infrastructure. As the school and cyclone shelter are used shelter center during and
after disaster, these are targeted as site for establishing facilities for use of school children
and community people.

At the very outset, a Workshop on Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technologies was
organized with the participation from the sector players such as BDPC, BRAC, BUET, Concern
Universal, Disaster Forum, DPHE, NGO Forum, Space, Unicef, VERC, WaterAid Bangladesh,
World Vision etc. for smooth initiation and effective implementation of the activities at field
level. The workshop was organized with a view to Share disaster friendly concept in Water
and Sanitation, share experiential learning about existing practice and technologies in flood
and cyclone affected areas and to identify disaster friendly technological options in water and
sanitation.

The participants suggested incorporating the following specific design features during
disaster situation.

       1)     In case of WatSan facility construction in school/ institution used as shelter, the
              maximum flood level should be considered as plinth level.
       2)     The latrine in each school should be double chambered (for both male and
              female) and latrine should be attached with the main building for making it
              convenient to use by old, disabled, children and women taking shelter in the
              school during disaster.
       3)     Frequency of disaster in a year and effects of climatic change should also be
              considered for reinforcing the construction.
       4)     The drinking water facilities should also be integrated with the latrine in schools
              for providing maximum benefit to the school children and as well to the
              community people taking shelter in the school.
       5)     There must have O&M mechanism in case of institution based WatSan facilities.
              SMC and Community should have equal responsibility in O&M and separate fund
              should be generated in school for O&M purposes.
       6)     In case of household based WatSan facilities, community latrine with raised
              platform should be considered.



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       7)  Based on soil condition, different lining materials should be used in household
           latrine, e.g. Concrete, Hollow B/W, Bamboo lining with cement coated gunny bag,
           Drum.
       8)  Raised platform should be considered for safe water option i.e. Tubewell, Pond
           Sand Filter (PSF) and rain Water harvesting System (RWHS) etc.
       9)  Extra pipe should be added between tubewell base and the hand pump.
       10) Piped water supply option should be adopted, if electricity is available. However,
           hand pump with water lifting device should appropriately be used for manually
           lifting water to the flood or cyclone shelter having no electricity supply facilities.
       11) 8 ply cloths can be used for filtering water during flood/ emergency situation.
       12) Halogen tablet, sodium hypo-chloride alum should be used for purifying polluted
           surface water during flood situation.

The design for the Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology was finalized
addressing above findings. The detail description of the technologies are given below.




Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology at Household level


Earth Stabilized Raised Pit Step Latrine

In rural areas in our contry, usually the latrine is installed in a low site, isolated from the
                                    household. Most of these sites are inundated during flood
                                    and thre latrines become inaccessible.

                                               In this case, if the latrine is constructed on a high land
                                               condsidering the flood level, it can be used during both
                                               normal and disaster period as disaster friendly options.

                                               Two types of raised pit latrine are suitable for using them
                                               during normal and disaster period. One is Direct earth
                                               stabilized raised pit step (Water Seal) latrine and another
                                               is Offset earth stabilized raised pit step latrine.

                                        Raised pit and stabilized earth around the pit above the
                                        ground level, well compacted and permeable soil above
the ground with a suitable sloping for easy access to the pit are imperative to make the
latrine disaster resilient. It is easily constructed by using ring, slab and pan with water seal
trap. The pit depth will depend on the water table. It is mandatory that squatting slab will be
placed at least 1 ft. above the highest flood level to avoid entrance of the flood water.




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                                     Direct Earth Stabilized Raised Pit latrine




          Bamboo Pilling pit liner           Cement Concert Coated Bamboo         RCC pit liner
                                                     Pilling pit liner



                                     Offset Earth Stabilized Raised Pit latrine




              Bamboo Pilling pit liner         Cement Concert Coated Bamboo        RCC pit liner
                                                       Pilling pit liner




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Attached Offset Latrine inside house

In flood prone area, usually the people try to develop the plinth level of household at a
                                               higher level considering the highest flood
                                               level. Additionally, in char livelihood project
                                               (CLP) and other disaster risk reduction
                                               program implemented at flood prone area
                                               much emphasis was given on developing the
                                               cluster (many households in a block) at a level
                                               higher than the highest flood level. In this
                                               case, attaching the latrine with the household
                                               makes the use of latrine disaster friendly.
Attached offset latrine inside household not only solves the problem during disaster but it
also ensures easy access of the child, female, aged person and the disables to the latrine all
the year round.

People can easily construct attached offset pit latrine inside the house. This type of latrine
doesn‟t require much space to construct and household member easily can use the latrine
during disaster. In addition to that, cleanliness and proper maintenance of the latrine is
ensured as it is attached with the household. This type of latrine is promoted in Chilmari,
Kurigram under the project Vulnerability Mapping and WatSan Component.


ECO Latrine

Disaster friendly Eco-latrine is another option suitable for using both at normal and disaster
period. The eco-latrine is normally constructed at a higher level due to its storage chamber.
In this case, considering the highest flood level is only required
to make it disaster friendly. Water sealed chamber for excreta
preservation with raised latrine considering average flood level
ensures preventing water pollution due to flood or storm water.

The squat hole also can be sealed if the flood/ storm water goes
above the considered platform level. By this way, the risk of
water pollution is easily blocked.

This type of latrine has been promoted in Chilmari, Kurigram and
Doulatkhan, Bhola under the project Vulnerability Mapping and
WatSan Component project.

Chulli Water Purifiers (CWP)

Chulli Water Purifier is a household technology that provides an abundance of safe drinking
water without using chemicals or additional energy.




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
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Chulli Water Purifier utilizes existing heat sources used by the household for cooking to
completely destroy all pathogens found in water. This allows the household to easily purify
available surface water for drinking. It incorporates a simple aluminum coil which is easily
built into the traditional mud cooking stove used throughout Asia and many other countries.
In Bangladesh, this cooking stove is called “Chulli”. While cooking, temperatures easily reach
over 300°C. A plastic bucket with 15 kg of normal sand is used to filter the input water
taking out algae and other turbidity causing matter. The water then simply flows through the
aluminum coil (4 coils) and is exposed to the heat of
the fire where it is vaporized in the coil and exits the
system through the output pipe and plastic faucet at
68 to 70°C. The system provides about 30 liters of
clean, safe water per hour for a household.

Chulli Water Purifier can also be used as a good
backup option for communities using Pond Sand
Filters, rainwater systems, etc, to insure purification of
the collected water. This is a low cost and potentially
high impact safe water technology created from locally available materials. The option is
demonstrated among the target communities and the community people are showing much
interest about the option.

Professor M. Fakhrul Islam, devised this Chulli Water Purifier Technology with support of
Wagtech Bangladesh and the option has been adopted in the project.


      Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology at Community level
Tubewell at the slope of River Embankment/ Raised land used as flood shelter
Tubewell installed in the slope of the river embankment or any high land temporarily used as
flood shelter, can be a suitable option for safe drinking water in both normal and emergency
disaster situation. The disaster affected people can conveniently use this source for collecting
safe water for drinking and cooking purposes as long as they take shelter on the
embankment. The community nearby the embankment can use this water point all the year
                                              round. This type of tubewell installation in the
                                              embankment is most effective in the river
                                              erosion area, where the people get immediate
                                              shelter on the embankment.

                                                          This type of tubewell has been installed in
                                                          Chilmari, Kurigram and Doulatkhan, Bhola under
                                                          Vulnerability Mapping and WatSan Component
                                                          Project.




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Tubewell with Raised Platform

Tubewell with raised platform is suitable for flood prone area as it can ensure the safe water
                                                 at normal period as well as during disaster. It
                                                 is installed in strategic location so that flood
                                                 distressed people can easily get water from
                                                 this source during flood. This disaster friendly
                                                 water option is designed considering flood
                                                 situation. The tubewell with raised platform is
                                                 designed above the highest flood level and
                                                 stair is provided for accessing the water point
                                                 by all in the community irrespective of men,
                                                 women and children. It is useful during both
                                                 normal and flood period.

This type of Tubewell with raised platform has been installed in the disaster vulnerable
community of Chilmari and Doulatkhan upazilla.

Tubewell with Raised & Normal Combined Platform

Tubewell with raised and normal combined platform is constructed in the flood prone area. It
is a combination of two platforms using the same well. It has a platform at ground level to
be used at normal period and another platform at higher level to be used during disaster.
During the normal situation, people can use the normal platform (for plain land). On the
other hand, during the disaster especially the flood and high tide, people easily can seal the
base of the tubewell at the ground level platform and can set the same hand pump on the
base plate on the raised platform. By this way, they can collect water even during the flood
situation when the platform at ground level goes under flood water.




     Raised and normal combined platform at normal period   Raised and normal combined platform during flood


This type of platform has been constructed in few places of Chilmari upazilla under
Vulnerability Mapping and WatSan Component project. The present DPHE practice of raising
tube well pump using GI nipple is also very cost effective and can be promoted easily among
the community.



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Disaster Friendly WatSan Technology at Institution level
Shelter Based Integrated Water & Sanitation Facilities

                                                    In our country, in most cases, new and old
                                                    constructed cyclone shelters have latrine, located
                                                    outside the shelter at ground level. In some cases,
                                                    though there are latrines on the first floor but there
                                                    is no facility of water supply. As a result, the latrine
                                                    becomes non-functional within a short period after
                                                    construction. If anyone is found functional, it is quite
                                                    difficult to keep them neat and clean. Further, during
                                                    disaster period, when the people get shelter here,
                                                    they can no way use it due to lack of adequate water
                                                    for its cleanliness.

                                                    Shelter based integrated water and sanitation facility
                                                    emphasizes on making the latrines available at all
                                                    floors of the shelter with adequate water supply
                                                    facility. To ensure the water supply at all floor, water
                                                    from the ground level is lifted to the water tank
                                                    situated on top of the roof with a special hand pump.
                                                    Then the water from top level can smoothly flow
                                                    through pipeline in latrines located at any floor of the
                                                    cyclone centre. Water is easily lifted at a higher level
                                                    using either Semi - Rotary hand pump or Piston
                                                    Pump.

                                                    This Semi-Rotary hand pump works as substitute of
                                                    Jet pumps where no electricity is required to lift
                                                    water to the overhead tank to be used for sanitation
                                                    and drinking purposes. This pump can be used
                                                    mainly in shelter for water lifting purpose.

                                                    Tube well uses additional valve at discharge-end to
                                                    create an option to lift the water at an upper water
                                                    tank (usually 20-30 feet above the surface).

                                       A 1” Pipe is fixed at the reserve tank end of
                                       discharge area and close the valve so that when we
stroke the Tube well handle; it can lift the water to an overhead tank through this pipe.
Otherwise, we can remove the pipe, open the valve and collect the water through downward
delivery opening.

The Piston Pump also can be used as normal hand tubewell and without electricity. Using
this pump, water can easily be lifted to the overhead tanks for use and drinking purposes. A




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piston reciprocates up and down or back and forth to displace water in a cylinder. Flow of
water into and out of the chamber is controlled by valves.

                                                           Valve    Reserve Tank




            Semi-Rotary Hand Pump                                    Piston Pump


      Feedback Received on Disaster Friendly WatSan Technologies
The publication of Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology Album is a good
initiative of Dhaka Ahasania Mission and Concern Universal Bangladesh. The name “disaster
friendly” may be confusing to many persons and should appropriately be renamed as
„disaster resilient‟ technologies. However, the infrastructures already built and shown in the
album appear to be useful during disaster and in that consideration these may be disaster
friendly as well.

The national policy for safe water supply and sanitation 1998 adopts strategy favouring
promotion of various technology options that will, I believe, act as precursor to technological
inventions best suited for different hydro-geological conditions keeping in conformity with
the affordability dynamics of our people. The policy also suggests taking necessary measures
by all concerned, government and non-government agencies, for immediate response before
and after disaster. The disaster friendly WatSan technology is needed for an effective
emergency response and is focused on WatSan infrastructure and emergency needs of the
disaster-victims. It seems to be consistent with our national policy. However, it requires
continuous monitoring jointly by DPHE, concerned research organizations, NGOs and local
government institutions on the effectiveness of theses technological options.

I very much appreciate the efforts made by Dhaka Ahsania Mission and Concern Universal
towards implementation of Disaster Friendly WatSan interventions.

                                                                                Shariful Alam
                 Project Director, Policy Support Unit, GoB-Danida Water and Sanitation Program

The album has been quickly reviewed. Many of the technologies are being constructed by
DPHE such as, raised platform tubewell; raised platform latrine, temporary latrine in order to
provide WatSan facilities during disaster situation. However, the following comments are
given on the technological options presented in the Album:



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    1. Household treatment using water purification tablet, PUR is not mentioned here. This
       technology is being used by DPHE and NGOs.
    2. Raising of tubewell pump using GI nipple (GI short piece) is very effective technology
       during flood which is not found in album.
    3. Disinfection of water points (contaminated during disaster) is an important aspect to
       provide safe water during and post disaster situation. Pond cleaning was found very
       effective during cyclone 2007.
    4. In the cyclone affected areas where ponds are contaminated with the tidal bores.
       DPHE has plan to construct raised embankment around the ponds to protect pond
       from being contaminated.
    5. Tubewell with combination of raised and normal platform is a good idea. The people
       can use normal platform during non-flood time and use raised platform during flood.
       But the community must be aware that at the starting of monsoon the pump head
       should be shifted in the raised platform and the nipple for the normal platform should
       be covered with a cap carefully.
    6. The field level evaluation of the technologies will help for future development of
       these technologies.
                                                                                Md. Ibrahim
     DPD, GoB-Unicef Water Supply and Sanitation Project; and, Executive Engineer, National
                                                                 Sanitation Secretariat, DPHE

Initiative of DAM and CUB is very encouraging. All technologies indicate innovative, need-
based and competent to disasters. Some more options may be added like Rainwater Tanks
at households, public places, institutions and shelter levels. Low-cost small options like
bucket, containers, polyethylene bags etc can also be thought for collecting and reserving
rainwater.

Caretaking should be strengthened during non-disaster time; Menstrual Hygiene for the
women should be considered with due importance; It would be much more appropriate if the
album is named as „Disaster competent or Resilient or adaptive water and sanitation
technologies‟ instead of Disaster Friendly‟; Draught should also be considered as the part of
disaster and idea of water Lifting Pump is very good.
                                                                             Md. Azahar Ali
                                                                   Executive Director, SPACE

No doubt these options would be very useful for the disaster victims, though all the time this
issue is not addressed or get due attention during disaster response. We are participating in
all the response activities of natural disasters since 1973 in the country. But the technological
options presented in the Album should be replicated elsewhere. We are also interested to
exchange ideas with technological inputs with you, which would encourage us to incorporate
these ideas in our disaster risk reduction activities. So, sufferings of disaster affected people
in relation to WatSan would be reduced.
                                                                             Kazi N. M. N. Azam
                  Coordinator, Disaster Management Program, Gono Unnayan Prochesta (GUP)
First of all, I want to express my thanks to Concern Universal-Bangladesh and Dhaka Ahsania
Mission for inviting me to the “National Conference on Disaster Friendly Water and
Sanitation”. As we know, the people don‟t want to leave their house during disaster (flood,
cyclone etc.); the people of disaster prone area should be motivated to construct their
sanitation technologies attached with their household and install their water technology


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comparatively at high place. So, they will have easy access to the technology during
emergency period. A few number of elevated water technologies can be
installed/constructed in the community after appraisal in the community. Safe water facilities
must be available in flood or cyclone shelter. Separate sanitation facilities must be available
in shelter centre for women and it should be disabled, pregnant women and child friendly.
                                                          Engr. Muhammad Mamtaz Uddin
                Technical Field Supervisor, NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation

Urine diversion composting toilets are a preferred option for disaster management and the
environment, being more securely built and less prone to flooding than pit latrines. Since
they separate the waste streams, they reduce the risk of disease from feocal contamination,
and should be widely promoted throughout Bangladesh. Other eco-sanitation options for
waste management should also be investigated to reduce wastage of water, diarrheal
disease, nighttime attacks on women without toilet facilities and increase of people‟s access
to safe and affordable long-term sanitation solutions.
                                                          Ziaur Rahman Litu, Project Officer, WBB Trust

Torndo and Drought can be added as natural disaster having implication with WatSan
technologies. Individual HH based raised latrine may not be feasible if total HH premises not
raised.
Bamboo pilling pit may not be feasible for flood prone areas because seepage from excreta
may contaminate the water body, if not maintained safe distance from water body. Safe
distance from water body to well should be considered. Latrine should not be constructed
below shelter plinth level. Considering sustainability issue plastic tank should be avoided and
instead brick/RCC tank can be provided. A guard wall/ privacy wall can be provided in front
of Urinal. Reservoir tank bottom level should be maintained at a certain height that can
supply adequate water to chamber.
                  Kazi Rashed Hyder, Programme Officer - Technical, WaterAid Bangladesh

The Presentation material presented was very thorough and comprehensive. The application
of colour throughout the presentations was particularly helpful, making the technologies
presented, understandable and useful. The explanations of the technologies were clear and
concise and the implementation and the accomplishments so far made by Dhaka
Ahsania Mission and Concern Universial Bangladesh are impressive. Thank you.
                                 David B. Nunley, Asian Representative, Wagtech International Ltd

It is possible to use floating toilet in flood prone areas. This can be achieved by using a
urine-diversion toilet inside a tank that floats.
Lien Aid in Cambodia has already started building such toilets in Tongle Sap Lake District. If
you'd like I can send you pictures in March when they complete it.
                                                            Jack Sim, Founder, World Toilet Organization




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                                               Part – III

        Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation
                        Album




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                   WatSan Facilities at institution




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                               Mahmudpur Reg. Primary School




       Ward No        : 02                                   No. of students :   298
       Union          : Payari                                       Girls   :   165
       Upazilla       : Fulpur                                       Boys    :   133
       District       : Mymenshingh                          No. of Teachers :   04
       Established at : 1982                                         Female :    02
       No. of members in SMC: 11                                     Male    :   02




Installation
   No. of latrine chamber            : 02
   No. of urinal chamber             : 02                  Date of completion             : September 17, 2008
   No. of water option               : 01                  Name of Caretakers             : Md. Abdul Mannan,
                                                                                            Md. Abul Hasem
Renovation                                                 User all year round            : 320
   No. of latrine chamber            : 02                  User during disaster           : 3,000
                                                           Teachers trained on school based activities:
Total Expenditure                    : TK. 1,10,800
                                                                            Md. Abul Hasem, Md. Abdul Mannan
Project Contribution                 : TK. 1,08,800
School Contribution                  : TK. 2,000




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                                        Poraputia High School




                Ward No: 02, Union: Shingeshwar, Upazilla: Fulpur, District: Mymenshingh
                              No. of students : 430 (Girls: 230, Boys: 200)
                                      No. of Teachers : 11, Male: 11
                                       No. of members in SMC : 10
                                           Established at: 2000




Installation
    No. of latrine chamber            : 02                Date of completion      : September 03, 2008
    No. of urinal chamber             : 02                Name of Caretakers      : Kitab Ali
    No. of water option               : 01                                          Faruque Ahmed
                                                          User all year round     : 450
Total Expenditure                     : TK. 1,05,745      User during disaster    : 8000
Project Contribution                  : TK. 1,03,745      Teachers trained on school based activities:
School Contribution                   : TK. 2,000                          Md. Faruk Ahmed, Kitab Ali.




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                              Goa Danga Reg. Primary School




                        Ward No: 03
           Union: Rambhadrapur
                  Upazilla : Fulpur
           District: Mymenshingh
             Established at: 1978
            No. of students : 212
                         Girls: 112
                        Boys: 100
             No. of Teachers : 04
                      Female : 00
                          Male: 04
      No. of members in SMC: 05




Installation                                              User all year round    : 250
                                                          User during disaster   : 1,500
   No. of latrine chamber             : 02
   No. of urinal chamber              : 02                Date of completion     : September 12, 2008
   No. of water option                : 01                Name of Caretakers     : Jamaluddin
                                                                                   Md. Abdus Salam
Total Expenditure                     : TK. 1,07,000                               Md. Abdus Samad
Project Contribution                  : TK. 1,05,000      Teachers trained on school based activities:
School Contribution                   : TK. 2,000                Md. Jamal Uddin, Md. Addus Samad.




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                            Chor Kalibari Govt. Primary School




       Ward No: 06, Union: Char Ishwardia, Upazilla: Mymenshingh Sadar, District: Mymenshingh
                             No. of students: 365 (Girls: 165, Boys: 200)
                             No. of Teachers: 03 (Female: 02, Male: 01)
                                     No. of members in SMC : 11
                                         Established at: 1973




Installation
    No. of latrine chamber            : 02                Date of completion      : October 25, 2008
    No. of urinal chamber             : 02                Name of Caretakers      : Md. Ratan Meah,
    No. of water option               : 01                                                  Josimuddin.
                                                          User all year round     : 400
Renovation                                                User during disaster    : 3000
   No. of latrine chamber             :   02              Teachers trained on school based activities:
Total Expenditure                     :   TK. 74,981                       Ratna Bonik, Narayon Chandra
Project Contribution                  :   TK. 71,981
School Contribution                   :   TK. 3,000




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                                Char Baliyatoli Reg. Primary School


                                      Ward No: 07
                           Union: 4 no. Mithagonj
                                Upazilla: Kolapara
                               District: Patuakhali
                             Established at: 1985
               Students: 130 (Girls: 80, Boys: 50)
              Teachers: 03 (Female: 03, Male: 00)
                      No. of members in SMC: 09




 Installation
                                                          Name of Caretakers       : Mrs. Laizu Akhter
    No. of urinal chamber               :   02
                                                          User all year round      : 150
    No. of water option                 :   01
                                                          User during disaster     : 3,000
 Date of completion                     :   15.10.08
                                                          Teachers trained on school based activities:
 Total Expenditure                      :   72,500/-
                                                                   Mrs. Fatema Rahman
 Project Contribution                   :   72,500/-
                                                                           Mrs. Laizu Akhter




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                                   Itbariya Govt. Primary School




                 Ward No: 07, Union: 03 No. Laluya, Upazilla: Kolapara, District: Patuakhali
                                No. of students: 130 (Girls: 75, Boys: 55)
                               No. of Teachers: 04 (Female: 02, Male: 02)
                                       No. of members in SMC : 09
                                           Established at: 1997




Installation
                                                          Date of completion      : 10.10.2008
No. of latrine chamber : 02                               Name of Caretakers      : Ms. Rokyea
   No. of urinal chamber              : 02                User all year round     : 150
   No. of water option                : 02                User during disaster    : 1,500
                                                          Teachers trained on school based activities:
Total Expenditure                     : 1,40,950/-                 Ms. Rokyea, Md. Shahjahan
Project Contribution                  : 1,40,950/-




                           Kalaraja Hat Hossain Senior Madrasha


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                 Ward No: 09, Union: Chiknikandi, Upazilla: Golachipa, District: Patuakhali
                              No. of students: 350 (Girls: 136, Boys: 214)
                               No. of Teachers: 18 (Female: 00, Male: 18)
                                       No. of members in SMC: 11
                                          Established at: 1961




Installation
   No. of latrine chamber             : 01                Date of completion     : 20.11.2008
   No. of urinal chamber              : 01                User all year round    : 500
   No. of water option                : 01                User during disaster   : 2,500
                                                          Name of Caretakers     : Abdul Mannan
Renovation
                                                                                   Maulana Solaiman
   No. of latrine chamber             : 02                Teachers trained on school based activities            : Maulana
Total Expenditure                     : 1,70,000/-                                 Abul Kalam Azad
Project Contribution                  : 1,68,000/-
School Contribution                   :    2,000/-




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                            Ichadi Nechariya Dakhil Madrasha




                   Ward No: 07, Union: Gozaliya, Upazilla: Golachipa, District: Patuakhali
                                No. of students: 269 (Girls: 29, Boys: 240)
                                     No. of Teachers : 13 (Male: 13)
                                        No. of members in SMC: 11
                                           Established at: 1944




 Installation
                                                          Date of completion            :  30.09.2008
    No. of latrine chamber              :   01            No. of user all year round    :  300
    No. of urinal chamber               :   01            No. of user during disaster   :  1,500
    No. of water option                 :   01            Name of Caretakers            :  Md. Nurul Haque
 Total Expenditure                      :   94,490/-                                       Md. Samsul Haque
 Project Contribution                   :   92,490/-      Teachers trained on school based activities
 School Contribution                    :    2,000/-                                     : Md. Sultan
                                                                                           Md. Mazedul Islam




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                                  Vatpara Reg. Primary School




                   Ward No: 7, Union: Ostomir Char, Upazilla: Chilmari, District: Kurigram
                                No. of students: 169 (Girls: 80, Boys: 79)
                                       No. of members in SMC: 11
                                       No. of Teachers: 04 (Male)
                                           Established at: 1989




   Installation
       No. of latrine chamber             : 02
       No. of urinal chamber              : 02             Date of completion      : October 25, 2008
       No. of water option                : 01             Name of Caretakers      : Md. Rofiqul Islam.
                                                           User all year round     : 3000
   Total Expenditure                      : TK. 130867.3   User during disaster    : 3000
   Project Contribution                   : TK. 123367.3   Caretakers trained on Maintenance activities:
   School Contribution                    : TK. 7500.00             Md. Rahmotulla. Md. Sohraf Hossan.




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          WatSan Facilities at Community level




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                         TW Platform at Satbaria Mosque Para




                     Ward No: 03, Union: Meduya, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                     No. of user HHs : 13 (Hardcore Poor: 4, Poor: 7, Middle Class: 2)
                                  No. of User: 53, (Female: 26, Male: 27)




 Tubewell Renovation

 ID No: CUB/DAM/VMWC/PL-03                                Date of completion     : 14.01.09
                                                          Name of Caretakers     : Rokeya Bagum,
 Total Expenditure                      : TK. 5650/=                                Md. Kamal
 Project Contribution                   : TK. 5000/=      User all year round    : 53
 Community contribution                 : TK. 650/=       User during disaster   : 400




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                                 TW Platform at Modhyo Para




                    Ward No: 04, Union: Meduya, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                No. of user HHs : 20 (Hardcore Poor: 4, Poor: 12, Middle Class: 2, Rich: 2)
                                  No. of User: 75 (Female: 35, Male: 40)




 Tubewell Renovation

 ID No: CUB/DAM/VMWC/PL-04                                Date of completion     : 29.01.09
                                                          Name of Caretakers     : Salem Dewan, Hasina
 Total Expenditure                      : TK. 5650/=                                Banu.
 Project Contribution                   : TK. 5000/=      User all year round    : 75
 Community contribution                 : TK. 650/=       User during disaster   : 500




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                                    TW Platform at Uttar Para




                     Ward No: 07, Union: Meduya, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                     No. of user HHs : 29 (Hardcore Poor: 1, Poor: 27, Middle Class: 1)
                                  No. of User: 123 (Female: 66, Male: 57)




 Tubewell Renovation

 ID No: CUB/DAM/VMWC/PL-07                                Date of completion     :   17.01.09
                                                          Name of Caretakers     :   Kala Sarder, Ayesha
 Total Expenditure                      : TK. 5650/=      User all year round    :   123
 Project Contribution                   : TK. 5000/=      User during disaster   :   700
 Community contribution                 : TK. 650/=




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                                 TW Platform at Modhyo Para




                     Ward No: 08, Union: Meduya, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                           No. of User/ beneficiary: 100 (Female: 57, Male: 43)
                                  No. of user HHs : 20 (Poor: 19, Rich: 1)




 Tubewell Renovation

 ID No: CUB/DAM/VMWC/PL-9                                 Date of completion      : 11.01.09
                                                          Name of Caretakers      : Hatem Ali,
 Total Expenditure                      : TK. 5650/=                                Rokhsana.
 Project Contribution                   : TK. 5000/=      User all year round     : 100
 Community contribution                 : TK. 650/=       User during disaster    : 600




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                                 TW Platform at Modhyo Para




                     Ward No: 09, Union: Meduya, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                           No. of User/ beneficiary: 63 (Female: 31, Male: 32)
                             No. of user HHs: 18 (Poor: 17, Middle Class: 1)




 Tubewell Renovation

 ID No: CUB/DAM/VMWC/PL-10                                Date of completion     :   04.01.09
                                                          Name of Caretakers     :   Kobir, Fatema
 Total Expenditure                      : TK. 12550/=     User all year round    :   63
 Project Contribution                   : TK. 11550/=     User during disaster   :   600
 Community contribution                 : TK. 1000/=




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                                       Tubewell at Purbo Para




                     Ward No: 04, Union: Meduya, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                         No. of user HHs: 20 (Poor: 18, Middle Class: 1, Rich: 1)
                           No. of User/ beneficiary: 100 (Female: 43, Male: 57)




 Tubewell Renovation

 ID No :CUB/DAM/VMVC/TW-39                                Date of completion     :   21/01/09
 Total Expenditure        : TK.74367/-                    Name of Caretakers     :   Kamal, Sufia.
 Project Contribution     : TK.68867/-                    User all year round    :   100
 Community contribution   : TK.5500/-                     User during disaster   :   550




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                                      Tubewell at Nayeb Para




                 Ward No: 04, Union: North Joynagar, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                    No. of user HHs: 31 (Hardcore Poor: 1, Poor: 28, Middle Class: 1)
                           No. of User/ beneficiary: 119 (Female: 60, Male: 59)




 Tubewell Renovation
                                                           Date of completion      :   04-03-09
 ID No                  :       CUB/DAM/VMWC/TW-15
                                                           Name of Caretakers      :   Nirob, Retu
 Total Expenditure      :       TK.60500/=
                                                           User all year round     :   119
 Project Contribution   :       TK.55000/=
                                                           User during disaster    :   600
 Community contribution :       TK.5500/=




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                                    Tubewell at Moddha Gram




                    Ward No: 07, Union: Sayedpur, Upazilla: Doulatkhan, District: Bhola
                     No. of user HHs: 25 (Hardcore Poor: 8, Poor: 11, Middle Class: 6)
                            No. of User/ beneficiary: 110 (Female: 51, Male: 59)




 Tubewell Renovation
                                                             Date of completion      :    24-03-09
 ID No                  :       CUB/DAM/VMWC/TW-53           Name of Caretakers      :    Najir, Farida.
 Total Expenditure      :       TK.60500/=                   User all year round     :    110
 Project Contribution   :       TK.55000/=                   User during disaster    :    650
 Community contribution :       TK.5500/=




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                 WatSan Facilities at Public Place




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                                             Ramna Shaloghat




                      Ward No: 1, Union: Ramna, Upazilla: Chilmari, District: Kurigram
                              No. of shopkeeper and salesman: 200 (Male)
                                No. of members in Bazaar Committee: 11




Installation
   No. of latrine chamber             : 02                Date of completion     : 25 February 2009
   No. of urinal chamber              : 02                Name of Caretakers     : Abdul Aziz
   No. of water option                : 01                User all year round    : 1000 (per day)
                                                          User during disaster   : 4000
Total Expenditure                     : TK. 121447.3      Caretakers trained on Maintenance activities:
Project Contribution                  : TK. 13947.3                        Mohammad Ali, Rejaul Karim
Committee Contribution                : TK. 7500.00




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                                             Thanahat Bazaar




                     Ward No: 8, Union: Thanahat, Upazilla: Chilmari, District: Kurigram
                              No. of shopkeeper and salesman: 1200 (Male)
                                 No. of members in Bazaar Committee: 21
                                           Established at: 1972




Installation
   No. of latrine chamber             : 02                Date of completion     : 27 February 2009
   No. of urinal chamber              : 02                Name of Caretakers     : Sayed Hosain,
   No. of water option                : 01                                            Akkas ali
                                                          User all year round    : 3000
Total Expenditure             : TK. 121447.3
                                                          User during disaster   : 70000
Project Contribution          : TK. 113947.3
Bazaar Committee contribution : TK. 7500.00




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                                             Ranigonj Bazaar




                     Ward No: 4, Union: Ranigonj, Upazilla: Chilmari, District: Kurigram
                               No. of shopkeeper and salesman: 70 (Male)
                                 No. of members in Bazaar Committee: 21




Installation
   No. of latrine chamber             : 02
   No. of urinal chamber              : 02                Date of completion     : 27 February 2009
   No. of water option                : 01                Name of Caretakers     : Shree Kanchon,
                                                                                 Shree bishonath
Total Expenditure              : TK. 121447.3             User all year round    : 2000
Project Contribution           : TK. 116497.3             User during disaster   : 4000
Contribution of Bazaar Committee: TK. 4950.00




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                                          Balabari-hat Bazaar




                     Ward No: 2, Union: Thanahat, Upazilla: Chilmari, District: Kurigram
                               No. of shopkeeper and salesman: 350 (Male)
                                 No. of members in Bazaar Committee: 21




Installation
   No. of latrine chamber             : 02
   No. of urinal chamber              : 02                Date of completion    : 28 February 2009
   No. of water option                : 01                Name of Caretakers    : Shree Manik ,
                                                                          Shreemoti Kushum bala
Construction
   No. of latrine chamber      : 02                       User all year round    : 1500
Total Expenditure              : TK. 121447.3             User during disaster   : 4000
Project Contribution           : TK. 114947.3
Contribution of Bazaar Committee: TK. 6500.00



                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission
Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology Album                   50/ 51




      Disaster Friendly Water and Sanitation Technology Album




                              DHAKA AHSANIA MISSION

        House # 19, Road # 12, Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka – 1209, Bangladesh.
    Phone: 8119521-22, 9123402, 9123420, Fax: (880-2)8113010, (880-2)8118522
      E-mail: dambgd@ahsaniamission.org, URL: http://www.ahsaniamission.org




                                 Dhaka Ahsania Mission

				
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posted:8/9/2011
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Description: Sanitation Technology document sample