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ENGINE_MANAGEMENT_SYSTEM_FOR_THE_FORMULA_SAE_ENGINE

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ENGINE_MANAGEMENT_SYSTEM_FOR_THE_FORMULA_SAE_ENGINE Powered By Docstoc
					         Development of an Engine Management
         System For the Formula SAE Engine

                         ME 480

                     Tiffany Dickinson
                       Lucio Gorena
                        Derek Harris
                       April 15, 2002




Received by:…………………………………………………………...Dr. Hamelink, PE
Prepared by:……………………………………………………………Tiffany Dickinson
                                     Lucio Gorena
                                     Derek Harris
Disclaimer

This project report was written by students at Western Michigan University to fulfill an

engineering curriculum requirement. Western Michigan University makes no

representation that the material contained in this report is error free or complete in all

respects. Persons or organizations that choose to use this material do so at their own risk.




                                                                                             ii
MENTORS

Dr. Richard Hathaway __________________________________ Date: _____________




                                                                         iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We would like to dedicate this page to thank the following people:

Our faculty advisor and industrial mentor Dr. Richard Hathaway for his guidance
throughout this project. Dr. Hathaway put more time and effort than was required and
demonstrated interest in our educational advancement through this project. We also
appreciate his enthusiasm and willingness to discuss any aspect of the project.

Professor James VanDePolder for his expertise and time investment in helping us with
troubleshooting our engine control system, design considerations and for the use of
automotive diagnostic equipment.

Mr. Glenn Hall for his help with manufacturing and fabrication aspects that were
necessary to complete this project.

Mr. Abraham Poot for his help with diagnosing electrical problems that occurred during
component testing.

Dr. James McCarthy for his advice and support with the engine requirements and setup.

We would also like to thank the help received from students Paul Cochran and Andrew
O’Neill.

Without the help of these people this project would not had been as successful and
educational.




                                                                                        iv
Abstract

A 4 cylinder, 600 cc motorcycle engine was optimized for use in the Formula SAE

(Society of Automotive Engineering) racecar at Western Michigan University. The

engine selected was the Suzuki GSX-R 600. The Electromotive Tec3 programmable

engine management system was chosen to control the ignition and fuel injection systems.

The engine was optimized on a dynamometer and data acquisition software was

programmed to facilitate the testing. Gasoline was chosen as the fuel to run the engine.

The induction system was designed and optimized for the required 20 mm intake

restrictor and fuel injector placement.




                                                                                           v
Table of Contents

DISCLAIMER.................................................................................................................. II
MENTORS ...................................................................................................................... III
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................................................................. IV
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... V
TABLE OF FIGURES ................................................................................................. VIII
1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................... 9
   1.1 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................ 9
   1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ............................................................................................... 9
   1.3 ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................ 10
   1.4 BENCHMARKING ...................................................................................................... 11
2 ENGINE ........................................................................................................................ 12
   2.1 SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSIDERED ENGINES ............................................................ 12
   2.3 ENGINE PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS FOR THE SUZUKI GSX-R .............................. 17
   2.4 ENGINE PREPARATION ............................................................................................. 17
   2.5 ALTERNATIVE CHOICE: ONE CYLINDER 520 CC ENGINE .......................................... 18
   2.6 INTAKE AND FUEL SYSTEM INTEGRATION................................................................ 18
3 TEST SETUP ............................................................................................................... 20
   3.1 DYNAMOMETER ....................................................................................................... 20
   3.2 DYNAMOMETER MOUNTING .................................................................................... 22
   3.3 FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM ......................................................................................... 33
   3.4 INSTRUMENTATION .................................................................................................. 34
   3.5 TEST SCHEDULE ....................................................................................................... 37
   3.6 INJECTOR CHARACTERISTICS TESTING ..................................................................... 37
   3.7 INTAKE AND EXHAUST TEST SETUP SYSTEMS .......................................................... 41
4 ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ....................................................................... 43
   4.1 SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSIDERED ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ...................... 43
   4.2 FINAL ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CHOICE....................................................... 43
   4.3 SETUP OF ELECTOMOTIVE SYSTEM.......................................................................... 46
5 TESTING PROCEDURES AND RESULTS ............................................................ 48
   5.1 FUEL SYSTEM TESTING PROCEDURES ...................................................................... 48
   5.2 RESULTS .................................................................................................................. 50
   5.3 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................... 52
6 COST ANALYSIS ....................................................................................................... 53
APPENDIX A .................................................................................................................. 56
   CAMSHAFT SPECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................... 56
APPENDIX B .................................................................................................................. 60


                                                                                                                                 vi
   CMM DATA................................................................................................................... 60
APPENDIX C .................................................................................................................. 62
   ENGINEERING DRAWINGS .............................................................................................. 62
APPENDIX D .................................................................................................................. 84
   CALCULATION SHEETS................................................................................................... 84
APPENDIX E .................................................................................................................. 90
   LABVIEW PROGRAM ...................................................................................................... 90
APPENDIX F .................................................................................................................. 93
   CO PERCENTAGES AND CORRESPONDING A/F RATIOS .................................................. 93
APPENDIX G .................................................................................................................. 95
   RESTRICTOR DATA ........................................................................................................ 95
APPENDIX H ................................................................................................................ 123
   FORMULA SAE RULES 2002 (ENGINE SECTION) ...................................................... 123
APPENDIX I ................................................................................................................. 130
   COUPLER SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................... 130
APPENDIX J ................................................................................................................. 132
   ELECTROMOTIVE TEC III SPECIFICATIONS AND WIRING DIAGRAMS........................... 132
BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................... 136




                                                                                                                             vii
Table of Figures

TABLE 2.1-1: ENGINE PARAMETER MATRIX2.2 FINAL ENGINE CHOICE ............................ 13
2.2 FINAL ENGINE CHOICE ................................................................................................. 14
FIGURE 2.2-1: MACH NUMBER AND RPM EQUATIONS ...................................................... 14
FIGURE 2.2-2: INDICATED EFFICIENCY EQUATION ............................................................. 15
TABLE 2.2-1: ENGINE DECISION MATRIX .......................................................................... 16
TABLE 2.3-1: PRELIMINARY POWER PREDICTIONS FOR THE SUZUKI GSX-R ..................... 17
TABLE 2.5-1: PRELIMINARY POWER PREDICTIONS FOR THE KTM 502 CC ENGINE ............ 18
FIGURE 2.6-1: INJECTOR BOSSES AND TEST INTAKE SIDE VIEW ........................................ 20
FIGURE 2.6-2: INJECTOR BOSSES FRONT VIEW .................................................................. 20
TABLE 3.1-1: DYNAMOMETER SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................. 21
FIGURE 3.1-1: GO-POWER DYNAMOMETER ....................................................................... 22
FIGURE 3.2-1: COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE AT WMU .......................................... 23
FIGURE 3.2-2: CRADLE USED FOR MOUNTING ENGINE AND DYNAMOMETER ...................... 24
FIGURE 3.2-3: MODEL OF ENGINE MOUNTING TABS ........................................................... 25
FIGURE 3.2-4: DYNAMOMETER LOCATING RING ................................................................ 26
FIGURE 3.2-5: ENGINE MOUNTED TO PLATE ....................................................................... 28
FIGURE 3.2-6: FINAL ASSEMBLY........................................................................................ 29
FIGURE 3.2-7: ENGINE MOUNTED TO PLATE (OPPOSITE SIDE) ............................................. 29
FIGURE 3.2-8: FINAL ASSEMBLY (OPPOSITE VIEW) ............................................................. 30
FIGURE 3.2-9: DYNAMOMETER AND LOAD CELL ............................................................... 31
FIGURE 3.2-10: LOVEJOY S-FLEX 6H COUPLER ................................................................. 33
FIGURE 3.4-1: ENGINE DYNAMOMETER CONSOLE ............................................................ 34
FIGURE 3.4-2: BEAR PACE 100 DIAGNOSTIC BENCH.......................................................... 36
FIGURE 3.5-1: TESTING SCHEDULE .................................................................................... 37
FIGURE 3.6-1: FUEL INJECTOR TEST APPARATUS .............................................................. 38
FIGURE 3.6-2: FUEL INJECTOR ........................................................................................... 39
FIGURE 3.6-3: FUEL INJECTOR SPRAY PATTERN ................................................................ 40
FIGURE 3.6-4: FUEL INJECTOR DROPLET SIZE.................................................................... 41
FIGURE 4.1-1: SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSIDERED ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ......... 43
TABLE 4.2-1: ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DECISION MATRIX .................................... 45
FIGURE 4.2-1: ELECTROMOTIVE SYSTEM ........................................................................... 45
FIGURE 4.3-1: DISTRIBUTOR TESTER ................................................................................. 46
FIGURE 4.3-1: MAGNETIC CRANK SENSOR ASSEMBLY ...................................................... 47
FIGURE 5.2-1 DYNAMOMETER DATA ................................................................................. 52
TABLE 6-1: ITEMIZED COSTS ............................................................................................. 55




                                                                                                                       viii
1 Introduction

1.1 Background

       The purpose of this design team was to choose an engine and develop, test, and

optimize the engine management systems for Western Michigan University’s Formula

SAE racecar. This included optimizing the flow of the restricted induction system,

choosing the fuel to be used, and programming the fuel management system. The system

was optimized for both performance and fuel economy. Formula SAE is a collegiate

competition that allows the students to apply their design skills to create a car that is both

as powerful as possible but also able to compete in an endurance capacity. The full event

consists of many events, including: a design critique, a time trial style race, and an

endurance race.

1.2 Problem Statement

       At the start of this project, an engine was selected that met the rules and

regulations set forth by SAE. There were 6 engines being researched for possible use, all

less than 610 cc and with either 4 cylinders or 1 cylinder. SAE places certain restrictions

on any stock engine that is used for a Formula SAE vehicle. The main restriction is an

air restrictor on the intake. The size of this restrictor was dependant on the choice of fuel,

with a diameter of 20 mm required for gasoline-powered engines and 19 mm required for

those engines running on ethanol. This restrictor prevents the engine from running under

full throttle conditions. This made it necessary to develop a fuel management system that

could maximize performance under the given restrictions.




                                                                                             9
        The second step in the project was to choose the fuel that was to be run. The SAE

rules limit the choices to 94 and 100 Octane gasolines and E85 ethanol. Calculations

were done for all fuels to determine which provided the best power with it’s given air

restrictions.

        Several fuel management systems were analyzed and a selection was made. The

complete system was then coupled to a dynamometer with a data acquisition system,

which allowed for system monitoring and optimization. Two system setups were

specified; one to obtain maximum performance, and another to obtain maximum fuel

economy.

        The final requirement was that an induction system be developed and

manufactured. This included an intake manifold, which was tuned to enhance volumetric

efficiency using Helmholtz tuning parameters. This extended the torque curve of the

engine past its original drop off point. The manifold included the required restrictor

depending on the chosen fuel.

1.3 Engineering Specifications

       Engine

        The engine was required to be 4 stroke and limited to 610 cc in total volume. The

        restrictor must come immediately after the throttle body.

       Testing Apparatus

        The dynamometer used was a water-brake dynamometer. LabView 6i was the

        software used to power the data acquisition system. A load cell was used to

        measure the torque output of the engine.

       Possible fuels




                                                                                         10
       Gasoline (C7H17)

                     Research octane ratings of 94 or 100

                     Latent heat of vaporization – 310 kJ//kg

                     Stoichiometric A/F ratio – 14.8:1

       E85 ethanol (85% C2H5OH + 15% C8H16 + MTBE)

                     Research octane rating of 111

                     Latent heat of vaporization – 920 kJ/kg

                     Stoichiometric A/F ratio – 8.96:1

      Induction system

       Runner length and diameter of the intake system were calculated to optimize the

       engine for torque output. The restrictor was required to be 20 mm in diameter if

       gasoline was used and 19 mm if ethanol was used. Three materials that could be

       used in the manufacturing of the induction were plastic, aluminum, or carbon

       fiber. These materials are all used commonly in race vehicle applications.

      Fuel management system

       The fuel management system was required to be capable of reading and adjusting

       the air/fuel ratio of the engine. This was accomplished by the system reading

       RPM, manifold air pressure, and various other engine parameters. From this, the

       best air/fuel ratio and ignition timing could be determined within the

       programming of the system.

1.4 Benchmarking

       The benchmarking process for this project consisted of researching what other

universities have selected for their Formula SAE engine management systems and




                                                                                       11
optimization. The majority of the schools used MoTec, Haltech or Electromotive fuel

management systems. For testing purposes, most of the teams utilized an engine

dynamometer. The coupling methods most often used drive the dynamometer included

using a driveshaft with universal joints or chain drive. The chain drive method was found

to be unreliable due to engine shifting and destroying the chains. The driveshaft method

required a heavy table to absorb the engine and dynamometer torque. This would prevent

the engine from being easily transported, which was a requirement for this project.

         The Formula SAE has not been undertaken for a significant period of time at

this university. Coupling this with not having any information from the previous years

efforts makes it difficult to benchmark other WMU Formula SAE cars. Further

benchmarking could be undertaken researching the best engines produced by other

universities, however the secrecy involved in this project makes obtaining that

information extremely difficult. For these reasons, no further benchmarking was done for

this project.



2 Engine

2.1 Specifications for Considered Engines

         The rules stated that any four stroke engine under 610 cc was acceptable, which

meant that teams could build their own. This was decided to be unfeasible due to time

constraints. The remaining option was to choose from the 600 cc motorcycle engines

available on the market and one 600 cc motorcycle engine that the university had in

house.




                                                                                           12
        Table 2.1-1 below shows some basic specifications for the four cylinder engines

that were considered.

                   Honda F1           Honda         Kawasaki           Suzuki         Yamaha
                    (1988)             F4i            ZX6              GSX-R            R6
Weight (lbs)      450,160 (bike,      370,130        377 (bike)     359,140 (bike,    359 (bike)
                     engine)       (bike, engine)                      engine)
HP@RPM             85@11000         96.1@12500      96.2@12300       103@13100       97.3@12500
Torque (ft/lb)      Unknown         42.8@10200      44.3@10300       46.5@10500      42.4@10800
Max rpm               12000            14200           14000            14500           15500
Fuel system        Carburetor      Fuel Injection    Carburetor     Fuel Injection    Carburetor
Comp. Ratio            10:1             12:1           12.8:1           12.2:1          12.4:1
Cooling             Unknown         Water-Water      Unknown         Water-Water      Unknown
                                     Oil Cooler                       Oil Cooler
Reliability          Average           Good           Average           Good               Good
Valves/cylinder         4                 4             4                  4                5
Cost                  $1500            $2200          $2000            $1800             $2000
Parts                 Good             Good           Average         Excellent           Average
Availability
Ignition           None/mech.           DIS          Transistor          DIS          Electronic

Other               In House       FI, Supply                       + Gearbox, FI     Lower CG
Table 2.1-1: Engine Parameter Matrix




                                                                                      13
2.2 Final Engine Choice

        The final weighting of the specifications was based on the following parameters:

       Weight was decided to be important because in low powered vehicles such as is

        being designed it is important to minimize weight as much as possible in every

        aspect of the vehicle.

       Stock horsepower and torque were judged to be of average importance due to the

        fact that during competition the engine would not be running under stock

        conditions, however some aspects of the engines that produced higher power

        could help to maximize the reconfigured engine.

       Maximum stock RPM was set as non-important in the decision making process

        due to the fact that under restriction the engine would start to dramatically lose

        volumetric efficiency at a much lower RPM and would effectively be limited at

        that engine speed. The equations used for these calculations can be seen below.

        Z  Mach _ Index.
                                     2 *  stroke                                  
                                                                        * Sin2 *  
                                                                 Stroke
                 * dia.bore 2 * RPM *       *         *  Sin 
        Z
             4                         60        2               4* L               
                                                     lift 
                         * n * dia.valve2 * 1.45              * k * R *T
                       4                          dia.valve
       Choke RPM = RPM @ Z=1
                                                     lift 
                          * n * dia.valve2 * 1.45             * k * R *T
        RPM 
                       4                          dia.valve
                                 2 *  stroke                                  
                                                                    * Sin2 *  
                                                             Stroke
                   * dia.bore 2 *       *        *  Sin 
                 4                  60       2                4* L              
       n = Number of inlet valves
        =  @ Max. Piston Speed
        = tan-1(2*Conn. Rod Length/Stroke)
Figure 2.2-1: Mach Number and RPM Equations




                                                                                             14
      The fuel system was very important in deciding on an engine based on the

       decision to incorporate an aftermarket programmable engine management system.

       It was determined that an engine that was equipped with a stock fuel injection

       system would allow for easier installation of the aftermarket system. This was

       based on the fact that the stock injectors, fuel rail, fuel pump system, and engine

       sensors could be used with the aftermarket system. This reduced the cost and

       fabrication time.

      Compression ratio is important because of its correlation to power. Raising the

       compression ratio raises both BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and the

       thermal efficiency of the engine. The equation can be seen below in Fig 2.2-2.

         Indicated _ Efficiency
        k  Specific_ Ratio
                  1
         1
                CR k 1
Figure 2.2-2: Indicated Efficiency Equation


      The stock cooling systems were decided to be of low importance because new

       cooling systems were to be designed for the engine.

      Reliability was decided to be of average importance. It was only necessary to

       ensure that the engine was not prone to short-term failure. The scores for

       reliability were assigned on the advise of people familiar with running these

       engines in racing situations.

      The number of valves per cylinder was judged as being unimportant because the

       restriction of the intake system does not allow the intake to take advantage of the

       extra valves.



                                                                                         15
       Cost was decided to be extremely important due to budget constraints.

       Parts availability was given a high weight because of the need for aftermarket

        parts in order to optimize the engine. This will pertain not only to this project, but

        also for the successive season when redesign is necessary.

       Ignition system was judged to be unimportant because one would be provided

        with the programmable engine management system.

    Based on the above criteria a decision matrix, shown in Table 2.2-1, was created and

    analyzed. From the results it was decided to purchase the Suzuki GSX-R.



                     Weight    Honda Honda Kawasaki Suzuki Yamaha
                                 F1   F4i    ZX6    GSX-R    R6
                               (1988)
                              Score




                                              Score




                                                              Score




                                                                                        Score




                                                                                                                  Score
                                      Total




                                                      Total




                                                                          Total




                                                                                                    Total




                                                                                                                              Total
Weight (lbs)            8         3    24        6     48             6       48                9      72                 9     72
HP@RPM                  5         3    15        6     30             6       30                9      45                 6     30
Torque (ft/lb)          5         3    15        3     15             3       15                3      15                 3     15
Max rpm                 0         3     0        6      0             6        0                6       0                 9      0
Fuel system            10         3    30        9     90             3       30                9      90                 3     30
Comp. Ratio             8         6    48        9     72             9       72                9      72                 9     72
Cooling                 0         0     0        3      0             0        0                3       0                 0      0
Reliability             6         3    18        6     36             3       18                6      36                 6     36
Valves/cylinder         0         3     0        3      0             3        0                3       0                 6      0
Cost                   10         6    60        3     30             3       30                3      30                 3     30
Parts Availability      9         6    54        6     54             3       27                9      81                 3     27
Ignition                0         0     0        9      0             6        0                9       0                 6      0
Total                            264                   375                        270                       441                 312
Table 2.2-1: Engine Decision Matrix




                                                                                                                                      16
2.3 Engine Performance Predictions for the Suzuki GSX-R

       Table 2.3-1 shows some preliminary performance predictions. Assumptions are

shown and all data highlighted in green is the input data while all non-highlighted data is

a result of calculations. The equations used can be found above in Figure 2.2-1.


                           Suzuki GSX-R 600 cc

Bore                    0.067m         Diameter valve                    0.02m
Stroke                0.0425m          Intake temperature                 300K
C.R. length          0.06375m          Max. Mach Index           1.007022657
Vcc              1.36218E-05m^3
RPM                    11200           Assumptions
Density of air             1.2kg/m^3   L/r ratio of 3
LHV fuel                    44MJ/kg    BMEP of 10 atm
A/F ratio                14.8          Discharge coefficient of 0.80
CR                          11:1


Max power           55940.30W
                       75.02Hp
Table 2.3-1: Preliminary Power Predictions for the Suzuki GSX-R

2.4 Engine Preparation

       The engine was located by M&M Motor Mall motorcycle sales. It was part of a

motorcycle that had been totaled due to suspension damage and needed to be removed

from the frame. The complete motorcycle was taken to Western Michigan University’s

vehicle design center and the engine and corresponding components were removed. The

remaining motorcycle pieces were then returned to the owner. The cam profile of the

engine was measured using a dial indicator and an angle wheel for use in future

calculations. The camshaft specifications are as follows,

Intake
117.5 ATDC centerline
200 Deg. Duration
0.335” Max. Lift



                                                                                         17
Exhaust
125 BTDC centerline
170 Deg. Duration
0.282” Max Lift

 For further information on the cam specifications refer to Appendix A.



2.5 Alternative Choice: One Cylinder 520 cc Engine

       Another possible engine choice that was discussed was a one cylinder 520 cc

engine. The main advantage of this engine was reduced weight over a four cylinder

engine. However, it was found that the restricted flow of the intake system severely

restricted the RPM of this engine and subsequently held horsepower to roughly 18.25 Hp.

Table 2.5-1 shows the power predictions, and all calculations are the same as were used

for the Suzuki GSX-R analysis.

                                KTM 520 cc

Bore                   0.095m         Diameter valve                   0.02m
Stroke                 0.072m         Intake temperature                300K
C.R. length            0.108m         Max. Mach Index          0.979969071
Vcc              4.63956E-05m^3
RPM                     3200          Assumptions
Density of air            1.2kg/m^3   L/r ratio of 3
LHV fuel                   44MJ/kg    BMEP of 10 atm
A/F ratio                14.8         Discharge coefficient of 0.64
CR                         11:1


Max power           13609.37W
                       18.25Hp
Table 2.5-1: Preliminary Power Predictions for the KTM 502 cc Engine

2.6 Intake and Fuel System Integration

       In order to produce maximum horsepower and efficiency, the fuel should be in a

vaporized state when it is in the combustion chamber. This promotes a faster combustion

and a faster burn rate of the intake charge, reducing inefficiencies at higher engine


                                                                                        18
speeds. When the fuel is vaporized, it also decreases the intake charge temperature. This

in turn increases the intake charge density allowing more fuel and air to flow into the

combustion chamber, producing a net increase in horsepower. Therefore, fuel

vaporization is a very important factor in engine design.

       One factor in achieving ideal fuel vaporization is through the placement of the

fuel injectors. The conclusion of research into injector placement was that the fuel cone

should not wet down the walls of the intake runners and that the centerline of the cone

should contact the intake valve. The injectors were oriented such that they spray towards

the intake valves and into the combustion chamber. This was accomplished by using

curved tubing for the intake runners, and placing the injector bosses into the radius and

facing the cylinder head. Mandrel bent tubing was used because it has a smooth inside

surface and would promote better airflow through boundary layer control. The injector

bosses and intake system can be seen in figures 2.6-1 and 2.6-2.




                                                                                            19
Figure 2.6-1: Injector Bosses and Test Intake Side View




Figure 2.6-2: Injector Bosses Front View

       All of the allowable fuels were reviewed and an analysis was run on Engine

Analyzer Pro. The results demonstrated small gains using Ethanol. Due to time

constraints and the expense of parts required to run ethanol, gasoline was selected as the

fuel of choice.

3 Test Setup

3.1 Dynamometer

       In order to accurately optimize the engine, it was necessary to test the engine

under load. This was best accomplished with the use of a dynamometer, which

controlled both engine load and speed. The water brake dynamometer provided by the

university was a Go-Power D-557 automotive heavy-duty dynamometer. In order for the




                                                                                         20
dynamometer to operate, water and oil needed to be supplied. Water was added to the

dynamometer at the inlet to provide resistance to the engine rotation. This resistance,

which was the load the engine experiences, was transmitted to the case of the

dynamometer and measured by the load cell. Water was also needed to cool the

dynamometer bearings. All of the water was supplied through a 5/8 in. hose and

controlled with globe valves. This water then exited the dynamometer and was dumped

through two exhaust hoses. Oil was needed to lubricate the dynamometer bearings and

was supplied under pressure and circulated by a pump. The specifications for the

dynamometer are taken from Go-Power’s website and are as shown in Table 3.1-1 below.

The actual dynamometer used is pictured in Figure 3.1-1.




         Torque                               750 lb-ft

         Power                                1000 HP

                                             10000 Peak
          RPM
                                             7500 Cont.

        Rotation                             CW, CCW

     Alloy Material                      Aluminum/Bronze

                                           ¾” – 1 in. line
  Water Requirements
                                          35 GPM@35 PSI

         Weight                              100-250 lb

   Torque Transducer            Hydraulic or Electric (Strain Gauge)

Table 3.1-1: Dynamometer Specifications



                                                                                          21
Figure 3.1-1: Go-Power Dynamometer



3.2 Dynamometer Mounting

       To reduce the forces and reactions created by the engine, it was determined the

best way to couple the engine to the dynamometer was through a torque plate. All of the

torque from the engine was therefore transmitted to the dynamometer through the torque

plate. This prevented any extra forces or reactions from being transmitted to the engine

cradle. The most critical aspect of mounting the engine to the dynamometer was making

sure the driveshaft that couples the dynamometer to the engine had less than .005 inches

of runout. Therefore, an accurate method of measuring, aligning, and machining was

needed.

       It was determined that using the university’s coordinate measuring machine,

shown in Figure 3.2-1, would produce the most accurate measurements of the engine.



                                                                                         22
The data obtained from the CMM can be found in Appendix B. First, the mounting point

planes were found. Then, the diameters of the mounting holes were located and projected

onto the planes. This positively located the mounting points in all three dimensions.

Since the driveshaft is the most critically located part, all the mounting points were

located relative to the driveshaft to minimize tolerance stackup error.




Figure 3.2-1: Coordinate Measuring Machine at WMU

       Preliminary designs for the mounting brackets were done using cardboard and

foam to estimate the shapes needed to properly mount the dynamometer. Consideration

was given to forces that would be exerted on the brackets. These forces include torque,

static weight, and vibrations. The most important of these forces was the vibrations,

since they are undampened and could easily misalign the driveshaft. Also, a shielding


                                                                                          23
device was constructed from heavy walled tubing to prevent any pieces from escaping

should catastrophic failure of the driveshaft occur. Dr. Hathaway was then consulted to

determine if the dynamometer mount design was acceptable.

         Next, the engine mount cradle was obtained and measured to determine the

overall size of the engine mount. The cradle was used not only to support the engine and

dynamometer, but also allowed the whole assembly to be moved through a standard size

door. The engine could therefore be stored at another facility and moved into the

dynamometer cell when testing was being done. The cradle can be seen in Figure 3.2-2

below.




Figure 3.2-2: Cradle used for mounting engine and dynamometer




                                                                                      24
       Final drawings of the brackets were done in Solidworks before machining started.

All dimensioned drawings are contained in Appendix C. To ensure that the steel used was

strong enough withstand the stresses involved, 0.5 in. plate was used.

       The steel plate was bought and then cut to size with an automated cutting torch

table. The engine mounting tabs were then cut with a handheld gas-cutting torch. To

ensure a better fit, the engine mounts were smoothed out with a surface grinder. The

final design can be seen in Figure 3.2-3 below.




Figure 3.2-3: Model of engine mounting tabs

       Then the driveshaft hole was rough-cut with a gas torch. The mounting plate was

then secured to a milling machine, and the driveshaft hole was bored out to its final

dimension.

       Next, the dynamometer locating ring was fabricated. This locating ring was

inserted into the dynamometer and the mounting plate and assured that they were



                                                                                         25
concentric. This also allowed the dynamometer to be repeatedly detached and attached

while keeping the driveshaft properly aligned. The fabrication of the locating ring started

by rough cutting a circle on a band saw from a one inch thick block of 6061 T6

aluminum. This circle was then turned down to size on a lathe so that it would have a

slight interference fit in the mounting plate. The final design can be seen below in Figure

3.2-4.




Figure 3.2-4: Dynamometer locating ring

         Ideally, the mounting plate would have been mounted flush with the front engine

mount. This was not possible, however, because the engine alternator was in the way.

Therefore, a spacer was needed to provide the necessary clearance. This spacer was

fabricated form 3 inch square tubing with 0.25-inch thick wall. To insure that both sides

of tube were parallel, a grinding machine was used. Then, the engine locating holes were

drilled into the tube.



                                                                                        26
       After all the mounting plate parts were fabricated, the method of fastening them

together needed to be determined. Glenn Hall, WMU fabrication specialist, was

consulted and advised that the plates be welded together. Before this could take place,

though, all the parts need to be securely clamped down to a surface table. The engine oil

pan was removed and replaced with a steel plate. This assured a flat plate to clamp the

engine to the surface plate. Then, the head spacer, engine mounting tabs, and engine

mounting dowels were all assembled together and clamped down. All of the parts were

clamped on height adjustable bolts and angle plate so that they could be properly located.

A dial test indicator was affixed to the engine driveshaft, and the dynamometer mounting

plate hole was checked for concentricity and parallelism. Then the entire assembly was

tack welded together with a stick welder. All of the parts were then unclamped from the

surface plate and then a final weld was performed with a MIG welder. The final setup

can be seen in Figure 3.2-5 through Figure 3.2-8.




                                                                                          27
Figure 3.2-5: Engine mounted to plate




                                        28
Figure 3.2-6: Final Assembly




Figure 3.2-7: Engine mounted to plate (opposite side)



                                                        29
Figure 3.2-8: Final assembly (opposite view)

       To measure the output torque from the dynamometer a load cell had to be

acquired. After some calculations, the engine was estimated to output a maximum torque

close to 40 ft-lb. Due to a reduction between the engine crankshaft and the transmission

the maximum torque the engine would output in sixth gear would be 80 ft-lb. The

moment arm of the dynamometer was measured to be 10 inches. This provided a total

force at the load cell of 96 lbs. After talking to university faculty it was decided to

purchase a 500 lb load cell because it is less susceptible to breaking and also so that it

could be used in other projects. Load cells were researched and an Interface SM-500 was

acquired. The load cell can be seen below in Figure 3.2-9.




                                                                                             30
Figure 3.2-9: Dynamometer and Load Cell

       After the dynamometer mounting plate was finished, the engine was mounted to

the plate and runout was measured from the engine output shaft to the dynamometer

locating ring. These were concentric to within .005 in and parallel within .010 in. It was

determined that this was within specifications for using a straight, single piece driveshaft,

however the straight driveshaft would not be able to absorb torque pulses from the

engine. The solution to this was to select a flexible coupling method to transmit power

from the engine to the dynamometer. Various couplers were researched, including chain

type couplers, spline couplers, and elastomer jaw type couplers.

       When deciding which coupler to use, consideration of the mounting procedures of

the couplers was taken into account. Mounting the coupler to the engine shaft posed a



                                                                                          31
problem because the engine output shaft had a rare metric spline. It was decided that the

best option for dealing with this was to mount the coupler to the stock sprocket. The

stock sprocket, however, had an elastomer insert and the coupler could not be attached

properly. An aftermarket sprocket was purchased which was manufactured entirely of

steel. Also, the sprocket experiences high torque loads under operating conditions, and

therefore was manufactured of high strength steel making it difficult to machine. The

driveshaft attachment also had to be compatible with a nut that not only held the sprocket

in place, but also retained the output shaft to the transmission. The spacing between the

engine output shaft and the dynamometer input shaft, which was a linear distance of 3.75

in., also had to be taken into account. With these considerations in mind and reviewing

all options it was decided that the jaw type coupling would best suit the project.

       In order to determine the required coupling size the torque output had to be

calculated to a first approximation, which can be seen in Table 2.3-1. From these

calculations it was determined that the coupler that would best fit the requirements was

the Lovejoy model S-Flex 6H. The specifications for the S-Flex 6H can be found in

Table 3.2-1 and the coupler used can be seen in Figure 3.2-10. The S-Flex is an

elastomer-in-shear type coupling with a hytrel sleeve. This coupler utilizes keyed shafts

to transmit power. A spacer was fabricated and welded to the engine sprocket such that

the sprocket nut could still be attached. Then a stepped, keyed shaft was fabricated so

that it mated concentrically to the spacer, but could be unbolted for removal. The coupler

was mounted to the other end of this keyed shaft and held securely in place with a

setscrew. Another keyed shaft was fabricated to mount concentrically with the input

shaft of the dynamometer, and bolted to the free end of the coupler. The size of the keys




                                                                                           32
used was ¼ inch. This was the size of the key built into the Lovejoy coupler.

Calculations were done to determine if the size would be safe for the amount of torque

and the resulting factor of safety. The calculations can be seen in Appendix D. The

results were satisfactory and demonstrated a safety factor of 1.4.




Figure 3.2-10: Lovejoy S-Flex 6H Coupler


3.3 Fuel Delivery System

       The fuel delivery system was designed to hold a maximum of 2 gallons as per

SAE rules. Total volume includes any fuel in the fuel lines and fuel rail. The stock fuel



                                                                                         33
pump module was used. This included the fuel pump, fuel filters, regulator and pickups.

A calculation sheet for the fuel tank size can be found in Appendix D.


3.4 Instrumentation


       To gather data from the engine that wasn’t directly provided by the programmable

fuel management system, a LabView program was written. The user interface can be

seen in the figure below and the code can be seen in Appendix E.




Figure 3.4-1: Engine Dynamometer Console


       The LabView program allowed the user to monitor various parameters of the

engine at the same time. It contains a virtual tachometer to measure revolutions per

minute of the engine and prevent the user from spinning the engine too fast. The top


                                                                                       34
graph plots both torque and horsepower versus RPM. It also has the capability of plotting

a previously saved horsepower curve. This was done to allow the user to quickly

determine if any changes made to the engine improved the performance. On the right

side of the top plot are both instantaneous values for torque and horsepower as well as the

maximum torque and horsepower values with their corresponding RPM. The lower

graph plots EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature) and SFC (Specific Fuel Consumption – the

mass of fuel required to produce a unit of power) versus RPM. These were very helpful

because they help determine on what RPM range the power is dropping and how the

engine is running compared to stoichiometry. The left side contains inputs necessary to

do the calculations such as the channels being used by the data acquisition card and

number of teeth in the inductive pickup wheel. This also allows the program to be used

in different systems without having to change the code.

       During testing it was necessary to have a way to monitor the A/F ratio of the

engine to verify what the fuel management system was producing. Exhaust Gas

Temperature (EGT) sensors and a Bear Pace 100 computer equipped with an exhaust gas

analyzer were used for this purpose, as shown in Figure 3.4-2. The percentage of carbon

monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gas is directly proportional to the A/F ratio being

combusted in the engine. As the amount of fuel is increased, the amount of CO also

increases. By monitoring the percentage of CO in the exhaust it was possible to

determine the A/F ratio the engine is running. The values of A/F ratios that correspond to

different CO percentages can be seen in the table of Appendix F. Monitoring

hydrocarbons (HC) allows testers to determine if a cylinder is misfiring by comparing the

HC parts per million to the percentage CO. If HC is too high for the given A/F ratio, the




                                                                                        35
engine is not burning as much fuel as it should which may be caused by misfires.

Thermocouples were used to monitor the EGT of each cylinder. Elevated EGT readings

generally indicate that a cylinder is firing too lean, and can identify variations between

the A/F ratios of each individual cylinder.




Figure 3.4-2: Bear Pace 100 Diagnostic Bench




                                                                                             36
3.5 Test Schedule

        Following in Figure 3.5-1 is the test schedule that was followed to allow for more

testing time to be used for those engine characteristics deemed most important.

Performance was considered most important due to the fact that more competition points

are assigned to the performance test than to the endurance portion of the event.



                       April                             April-May
Date                           7-13      14-20     21-27       28-4       5-10
Tune Idle
Characteristics
Tune Fuel
Characteristics
Tune Ignition Timing
Additional Testing
Figure 3.5-1: Testing Schedule

3.6 Injector Characteristics Testing

        In order to fully optimize the intake system design, the fuel injectors were bench

tested to determine their spray pattern characteristics and the flow rate of the injectors.

The spray pattern characteristics determine the proper mounting of the injectors to the

intake system, and the volumetric flow rate determines the pulsewidth necessary to

achieve the desired A/F ratio of the engine.

        The test setup consisted of a pressure cylinder partially filled with gasoline. An

air compressor pressurized the tank and a regulator kept the fuel system under the same

pressure conditions it would see in normal operation (this setup is called the

Barometrically Offset Metered Bench test). The injectors were clamped into the fuel rail

to ensure that they would not dislodge under pressurized conditions and then the entire

assembly was suspended over a catch basin for cone shape tests or a graduated cylinder

for flow rate tests. The fuel pressure was then regulated to 43 psi. A switched 12-volt


                                                                                              37
power source was connected to the injectors so that they could be cycled on and off. Two

scales were placed near the injectors so that the fuel spray pattern could be measured.

The test procedure consisted of switching the injectors on, observing the fuel spray

pattern, measuring the dimensions of the spray, and then measuring the volume of fuel

per unit time.

       The test apparatus can be seen below in Figures 3.6-1 and 3.6-2.




Figure 3.6-1: Fuel Injector Test Apparatus




                                                                                          38
Figure 3.6-2: Fuel Injector

          Images taken of the spray pattern of the fuel injectors revealed a dual spray

pattern, which is very beneficial to the project, as this allowed an individual spray cone to

be aimed on each intake valve. For the overall spray pattern, at a vertical length of 3¼ in.

the width of the spray pattern was found to be ¾ in. Using these dimensions the overall

spray angle was found to be roughly 13.16, with each sub-cone having an angle of

roughly 6.58. Figure 5.1-1 shows the pattern produced by the spray.




                                                                                          39
Figure 3.6-3: Fuel Injector Spray Pattern

       A strobe light was used to illuminate a momentary frame of the fuel spray so that

it could be more easily visualized. It was shown that the fuel flow had a high number of

large droplets of fuel in the spray pattern. These droplets reflected more of the light than

the fuel mist did, and can be seen in Figure 5.1-2. Gasoline burns better when in vapor

phase, so these droplets can compromise the burn quality when the engine is running. It

should be noted, however, that in the actual application the flow of air through the intake

system might serve to reduce the size or even eliminate these droplets.




                                                                                          40
Figure 3.6-4: Fuel Injector Droplet Size

       When one injector was allowed to flow for one minute, it was found that it moved

233 ml of gasoline. Depending on the density of gasoline used (6 lb/gal – 6.5 lb/gal) it

was found that the flow rate of the injectors was between 22.14 lb/hr and 23.99 lb/hr,

which was taken in later calculations to be 23 lb/hr.

3.7 Intake and Exhaust Test Setup Systems

       The test intake system was manufactured from steel and made to have adjustable

intake runners to allow for intake tuning. This was accomplished by making the intake

runners removable using rubber hoses, allowing for different lengths of runners to be

installed. The intake system was manufactured to be 1.2 L, or twice the engine air

displacement. This volume included the plenum and the three intake runners not in use



                                                                                           41
on one intake pulse. The intake air temperature (IAT) sensor and manifold air pressure

(MAP) sensor pickup were built into the intake system and wired to the Tec3 system.

These two sensors in addition to the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) allow the Tec3

system to monitor the airflow of the engine in order to properly control the fuel flow for

the desired Air/Fuel ratio. The intake and exhaust systems were designed and tested in

conjunction with university laboratory groups. Plenum size calculations can be found in

Appendix D. Members of the intake system design group are Chris Brockman, Dan

Butts, Tiffany Dickinson, and Derek Harris. The engine intake restrictor design was

deemed of essential importance since it has such a large effect on engine performance.

Analysis was performed on FLUENT computational fluid dynamic software. The goal of

this analysis was to minimize the pressure drop across the restrictor. With this

information the intake system was manufactured.

       The test exhaust system was a high performance system for the Suzuki GSX-R

outfitted with a carbon fiber muffler. M&M Motorsports donated the system. The

system was outfitted with thermocouples to monitor exhaust gas temperature. The

temperature of exhaust gasses for each cylinder allow for the monitoring of A/F overall

and for the possibility of A/F mixture fluctuations within individual cylinders. The

exhaust system was designed and manufactured by the exhaust system design group

consisting of Visnu Sookai, Trent Wendell, Matt Fox, and Jason Walters.




                                                                                          42
4 Engine Management System

4.1 Specifications for Considered Engine Management Systems

        The basic criteria for an engine management systems considered were the ability

to control the parameters of the engine including proper fuel flow and accurate ignition

timing while also serving as a data acquisition system. Following in Figure 4.1-1 are the

specifications of each brand of engine management system investigated.



                       MoTec                  Haltech            ElectroMotive
Model                  M4 Pro                 E6K                TEC-III
Price                  $3400 complete         ~$2-2500?          ~$1500 complete
Sensors                Flexible               Unknown            GM
Data Acquisition       Yes                    Yes                Adjustable Sample
                                                                 Rates, 25
                                                                 configurable inputs
Feedback               Wide range Lambda O2                      O2 or open loop
Ignition               Stock/ MoTec          Unknown             Crank triggered,
                       Controlled                                Direct fire, multi-
                                                                 coil
Rev Limit              Unknown               Unknown             15,000
Injectors              Stock                 Unknown             Stock
Engine Config.         4 cyl. or rotary      Unknown             1,2,3,4,6,8, Rotary
Ease of Use            Difficult             Unknown             Easy
Free Tech Support      Phone                 Unknown             Phone, trackside
Figure 4.1-1: Specifications for Considered Engine Management Systems

4.2 Final Engine Management System Choice

The final weighting of the specifications was based on the following parameters:

      Price was considered a very important parameter due to budget constraints.

      Sensors were judged to be important because of the ease of obtaining the proper

       sensors, the price of the sensors needed, and if possibly the stock sensors could be

       used.




                                                                                           43
   Data acquisition was set as moderately important due to the fact that if some parts

    were lacking, the LabView program could be used to fill in the needed data. The

    main benefit of the data acquisition was the ability to store relevant engine data

    while testing the engine in the vehicle.

   Feedback was given an average importance because it is helpful to keep the

    engine running at stoichiometry while not under full throttle conditions. However

    at full throttle the system will go open loop, allowing the engine to run rich.

    Under racing conditions, the system will spend the majority of time in wide open

    throttle, open loop conditions.

   The quality of the coils used in the ignition of the engine management systems

    was considered to be an important factor in the decision making process. This is

    because the higher the quality coils are able to produce a longer spark, resulting in

    better combustion characteristics and more power.

   Limits on RPM were not deemed important due to the fact that the engine would

    not be running at maximum RPM due to restricting.

   The injectors used by the systems were deemed unimportant because all the

    systems are capable of utilizing a wide variety of fuel injectors.

   Engine configuration was not considered because all three systems would easily

    handle the four-cylinder engine used, so it would not be a weighing factor in the

    decision.

   Ease of use was deemed important because of the possibility of improperly using

    difficult systems, there by hindering performance or causing engine failure.




                                                                                         44
       Free tech support was deemed moderately important in the case that trouble arose

        while trying to program the system or at the competition.

Based on the above criteria a decision matrix, shown in Table 4.2-1, was created and

analyzed. From the results it was decided to purchase the Electromotive TEC-III.

                     Weight              MoTec                    Haltech ElectroMotive
                                         M4 Pro                    E6K       TEC-III




                                                  Total




                                                                            Total




                                                                                                      Total
                                      Score




                                                                Score




                                                                                          Score
Price                            10           3            30           6            60           9            90
Sensors                           8           9            72           3            24           9            72
Data Acquisition                  6           6            36           6            36           9            54
Feedback                          5           9            45           6            30           6            30
Ignition                          7           9            63           3            21           6            42
Rev Limit                         0           0             0           0             0           0             0
Injectors                         0           0             0           0             0           0             0
Engine Config                     0           0             0           0             0           0             0
Ease of Use                       8           3            24           3            24           9            72
Free Tech Support                 7           6            42           3            21           9            63
Total                                                     312                       216                       423
Table 4.2-1: Engine Management System Decision Matrix

        The major elements of the system can be seen below in Figure 4.2-1.




Figure 4.2-1: Electromotive System




                                                                                                                    45
4.3 Setup of ElectoMotive System

       The Suzuki wiring harness was cut from the components that were to be used in

the test setup and all wires were labeled by number and cataloged for future reference.

All sensors and their corresponding wires on the Tec3 were labeled. The wiring

schematics for both the stock wiring harness and the Electromotive wiring harness can be

found in Appendix J. The direct firing units from the stock system were replaced with

the firing coils of the Tec3 system, creating a need to fit the engine with spark plug wires.

A custom wiring kit was purchased and adapted to the engine. Before being wired to the

engine, the system was tested for spark using a distributor tester as seen in Figure 4.3-1.




Figure 4.3-1: Distributor Tester

       Two problems arose with the installation of sensors with the Tec3 system. The

first problem to arise was that the stock manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor was

producing smaller voltages than the ones expected by the electromotive system and thus

produced lower readings. There was a one bar MAP sensor available for use from the

university, which was substituted in for the stock sensor. The second sensor problem was

that the magnetic crankshaft position sensor was receiving interference from the starter



                                                                                           46
motors, preventing the Tec3 system from producing spark when start up was initiated.

The problem was corrected by moving the position from the top right of the trigger wheel

(when looking from the side of the engine) to the bottom of the wheel. Another bracket

was also manufactured to hold the sensor more securely to prevent the sensor from

vibrating and therefore affecting the crank position readings. The bracket can be seen

below in Figure 4.3-1. All other stock sensors performed well with the Tec3 system.




Figure 4.3-1: Magnetic Crank Sensor Assembly

       Once the problems with sensors were all corrected, the initial ignition timing and

startup fuel enrichment was tuned until the engine would fire. The conditions calculated




                                                                                         47
by the Tec3 system for idle resulted in a rough idle at about 4000 RPM. The idle

conditions were stabilized at about 2000 RPM before testing was started.



5 Testing Procedures and Results

5.1 Fuel System Testing Procedures

   Formula SAE provides specifications for the course properties that a car will

encounter during the endurance competition. Calculations were made to determine which

gears would best suit each corner and what RPM the engine would be running on each

type of corner. The calculation sheet can be seen in Appendix D.

   It was necessary to test fuel mixture first due to the fact that it was decided not to run

an exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. It was imperative to properly adjust the fuel

injection properties during testing to ensure that the engine is getting the proper Air/Fuel

mixture. If the engine was running too lean it would sacrifice power and cause the

engine temperature to rise. If the engine was run too lean for a long period of time it

could also have caused damage due to excessive temperatures inside the combustion

chamber.

       The Tec3 system has two ways to adjust the amount of fuel that is introduced into

the engine. The primary method is to edit a matrix that dictates to the ECU the desired

Air/Fuel ratio. This method requires an EGO sensor and thus could not be used for this

optimization. The secondary method is to adjust a matrix that dictates the volumetric

efficiency (VE) at given load/speed points. The volumetric efficiency is the percent of

air the engine is taking in compared to the theoretical amount of air it can take in at a

given speed-load condition. The unit will use the inputted VE to calculate a new injector



                                                                                            48
pulsewidth. This was the method used to alter the Air/Fuel ratio of the engine to

optimize performance.

       To optimize the engine it was brought to several speed-load conditions, which the

Tec3 highlights on the VE table, and then the VE value was lowered or raised so that the

system would shorten or lengthen the injector pulsewidth time, respectively. The VE

values were raised until power began to decrease or exhaust gas analysis showed the

Air/Fuel mixture was too rich. This was performed at several desired speed-load points

under full throttle conditions.

       Once the fuel ratios were set properly the ignition timing of the engine was

optimized. The timing of the engine’s spark determines at what crank angle the

maximum pressure will occur, which in turn determines the torque characteristics of the

engine. In order to produce better performance characteristics it was desired that the

pressure of combustion would begin to rise as the pressure of compression peaks and then

begin to drop so that the pressure peak climbed steadily to it’s peak value instead of

experiencing a decrease prior to combustion.

       The Tec3 system allows for the programming of different spark advances at

different speed-load points through a Manifold Air Pressure vs. RPM matrix. Due to the

fact that at low RPM points the flame will have more time to propagate, less advance is

required at lower speeds. At higher speeds more advance is needed in order to give the

fuel enough time to burn. Since the Formula SAE car will be spending the majority of

its time under wide-open throttle conditions, the greater part of optimization testing was

performed under these conditions. Optimizations for high load points at partial throttle

were performed in any remaining testing time available in order to improve drivability.




                                                                                           49
       Timing advance was started at 10 and was advanced in 5 increments until either

power began to drop or detonation began. In order to prevent engine damage from

detonation, the ignition advance did not exceed 36. The advance angle was backed off

to the last point where power was rising without detonation and fine-tuning was

performed to find the optimum advance angle. This process was repeated for all desired

tuning points.

5.2 Results

       For the initial testing the Bear Pace 100 analyzer was used to measure the gas

percentage leaving the exhaust. Also, the EGTs were constantly measured to avoid too

high temperatures, which could cause engine damage.

       After the Electromotive TEC-III system was wired up and was tested, the engine

starter was cranked to get the engine running. The engine started, however it was

running extremely rough and would not sustain itself for an extended period of time.

After some investigation, the problem was traced back to one of the ignition coils.

Electromotive was contacted about the problem and they responded with the solution.

The wiring harness that Electromotive supplied was bundled incorrectly with two ignition

wires crossed. The wires were traced back to the ECU and the correct ignition wire was

connected to the coil.

       The engine was finally started. However, the idle was rough and the idle speed

was too high at 4500 RPM. The problem was traced back to the plenum. Small pinholes

on the brazing were letting air inside the intake runners, making some cylinders run

leaner than the others. The plenum was cleaned up and brazed. To prevent any leaks, the

brazing was also covered with Scotch-Weld  DB-420 epoxy. After these changes the



                                                                                        50
engine ran smoother and was capable of sustaining itself. The idle speed of the engine

was dropped to approximately 2500 RPM. After some tuning with the Air/Fuel ratio and

the timing the idle speed was further dropped to 1500 RPM. The tuning required to

achieve this idle speed was to set the ignition timing to 20 BTDC and to lean out the

Air/Fuel mixture.

       The engine was tuned in the range from 1000 to 3000 RPM to get the idle to run

correctly. The engine had trouble starting after it had been run for approximately two

hours. The problem was traced back to the spark plugs, which had carbon fouling. The

reason for this problem was that the mixture was too rich and was leaving carbon

deposits on the spark plugs. New spark plugs were procured and installed. The engine

immediately started and idled smoothly.

       After all the problems had been solved and the engine was idling correctly, initial

testing began. For the first tests it was decided to run the engine under light loads. The

reason to use light loads was to make sure that the engine and all subsystems were

functioning correctly, such as not overheating, detonating, etc. Using this process the

initial optimization began at around 50-60 kPa, roughly, half throttle. The first set of data

can be seen below in Figure 5.2-1.




                                                                                          51
                                               Torque/Horsepower

                               16
                               14
           Torque/Horsepower
                               12
                               10
                                                                            Torque
                               8
                                                                            Horsepower
                               6
                               4
                               2
                               0
                                    0   2000   4000   6000   8000   10000
                                                  RPM



Figure 5.2-1 Dynamometer Data


5.3 Conclusions

It was determined that this project was successful in starting the engine optimization

program for the Formula SAE team at Western Michigan University. All components

manufactured for this project worked as designed. The intake air system allows for

adjustment of intake runner length and helped with the final design of the intake system

that will be installed on the racecar. The fuel management system had some initial bugs,

but these were quickly found and solved. One downfall of the system is the inability of

the onboard data acquisition to work above 7000 RPM. This was explained until after the

unit was received, but hopefully the software will be updated in the future and the on

board data acquisition can be used.

Tuning and optimizing of the engine will continue until the start of the Formula SAE

race. The goal of further optimization is to maximize engine horsepower and torque.

Further testing will utilize the new intake and exhaust systems designed with data from



                                                                                          52
the dynamometer runs. The process for maximizing engine power will follow the

procedures previously explained in this report.




6 Cost Analysis

        Table 6-1 is an itemized list of all goods purchased in the completion of this
project.




                                                                                         53
                                                                                                                               Cost Trip Total
Date of Purchase            Vendor                              Item                   Quantity Cost Each (Before Tax) (After Tax/Shipping/Discounts)
      N/A                   Lovejoy                      S-Flex 6H Coupler               1                                         $63.00
      N/A                Private Owner                Suzuki GSXR 600 Engine              1            $1,800.00                  $1,800.00
      N/A                                       Steel Plate for Dynamometer Mounting     N/A            $36.00
                                                                                         N/A            $24.00                     $60.00
    1/23/02           Sprocket Specialists                17 525 Sprocket                 1             $12.99                     $28.24
    2/20/02            Electromotive, Inc.       Tec 3 Programable Control System         1            $2302.92                   $1,496.90
    3/20/02            Electromotive, Inc.        Magnetic Crank Trigger Sensor           1             $53.00                     $42.45
    3/20/02            Lane Automotive                   U-Bend for Intake                2             $6.99                      $14.82
    3/23/02            M&M Motorsports                Replacement Gasket Set              1             $59.66
                                                   Quart Motorcycle Oil - 10-W40          4              $3.29                     $77.19
    3/23/02                Edward's                     Fuel Pump O-Ring                  1              $1.00                     $1.06
    3/25/02                Pep Boys                    Molded Radiator Hose               1             $18.99
                                                           Water Wetter                   1             $5.98                      $26.47
    3/27/02            Auto Parts Center                  Ignition Wiring Kit             1             $35.43                     $37.57
    3/29/02                Pep Boys                      Radiator Flex Hose               1             $8.99
                                                         Radiator Flex Hose               1             $12.99
                                                         Chrome Oil PSI Kit               1             $10.99
                                                       3/4'' Black Heater Hose            1              $3.99                     $39.18
    3/29/02               Radioshack                       8 Terminal Strip               1              $2.39
                                                        8 Position Bus Strip              1              $1.99                      $4.64
     4/3/02        Gale's True Value Hardware           9/16 X 1-1/16 Clamp               2              $0.99
                                                        7/16 X 25/32 Clamp                6              $0.99
                                                      2/8MIP X 1/2 Insert Barb            1              $0.89
                                                       1/2 X 1/2 Hose Mender              1              $0.89
                                                               Bushing                    1              $2.39
                                                                Hose                      4              $0.69                     $15.74
     4/4/02        Gale's True Value Hardware                  O-Ring                     4              $0.79                     $3.35
     4/6/02             Ridge & Kramer                       Tubing Tee                   1              $0.96
                                                             5/16 Hose                    1              $5.34                      $6.68




                                                                                                                                                    54
     4/6/02          Ridge & Kramer                   Coolant Hose               1               $30.92             $32.78
     4/6/02     Gale's True Value Hardware          1/2 MIP Adapter              2                $0.49
                                               3/4NH X 1/2NPT Connecter          1                $4.79
                                                   1/4 X 1/8 Barb Insert         1                $0.89
                                                  7/32 X 5/8 Mini Clamp          2                $0.89
                                                     Misc Hardware               5                $0.22
                                                     Misc Hardware               5                $0.69
                                                     Misc Hardware               2                $0.99
                                                   7/16 X 25/32 Clamp            2                $0.99             $17.02
     4/7/02     Gale's True Value Hardware             #136 U-Bolt               2                $3.19
                                                         Elbow                   1                $2.99             $9.93
     4/7/02     Gale's True Value Hardware           Misc Hardware               1                $2.00
                                                     Misc Hardware               1                $1.60             $3.82
     4/8/02         M&M Motorsports             Replacement Spark Plug           6                $5.60
                                              Quart Motorcycle Oil - 10-W40      2                $3.29             $42.59
     4/8/02     Gale's True Value Hardware    FGT 5/8 X 50 GRN Vinyl Hose        1                $9.99
                                                1/2 MPT Insert Adapter           2                $1.69
                                                         Elbow                   2                $2.29
                                               11/16 X 1- 1/4 Hose Clamp         2                $0.69
                                             3/4NH X 3/4NH Swivel Connecter      1                $3.99             $24.72
     4/8/02             Pep Boys                         Funnel                  1                $1.49
                                                   Metric Adaptor Kit            1               $5.99
                                                   Chrome Oil PSI Kit            1               $10.99             $19.58
     4/8/02              Sunoco                    93 Octane Gasoline         4.493 Gal           $1.67             $7.50
                                                                                          Total Project Expenses   $3,804.73
Table 6-1: Itemized Costs




                                                                                                                               55
APPENDIX A

Camshaft Specifications




                          56
Cam Specs for Suzuki GSX-R 600

0-TDC for Piston 1

Crank Angle Intake (Measured) Intake (Real) Exhaust (Measured) Exhaust (Real)
          0             0.274         0.013              0.068          0.013
         10             0.282         0.021              0.066          0.011
         20             0.294         0.033              0.064          0.009
         30               0.31        0.049              0.061          0.006
         40             0.333         0.072              0.059          0.004
         50               0.36        0.099              0.056          0.001
         60               0.39        0.129              0.055              0
         70             0.434         0.173              0.055              0
         80             0.483         0.222              0.055              0
         90             0.529         0.268              0.055              0
        100             0.563         0.302              0.055              0
        110             0.586         0.325              0.055              0
        120             0.596         0.335              0.055              0
        130             0.596         0.335              0.055              0
        140             0.583         0.322              0.055              0
        150               0.56        0.299              0.055              0
        160             0.528         0.267              0.055              0
        170             0.486         0.225              0.055              0
        180             0.445         0.184              0.055              0
        190             0.408         0.147              0.055              0
        200             0.375         0.114              0.055              0
        210             0.348         0.087              0.055              0
        220             0.325         0.064              0.055              0
        230             0.306         0.045              0.055              0
        240             0.293         0.032              0.055              0
        250             0.283         0.022              0.055              0
        260             0.276         0.015              0.055              0
        270             0.272         0.011              0.055              0
        280               0.27        0.009              0.055              0
        290             0.268         0.007              0.055              0
        300             0.265         0.004              0.055              0
        310             0.263         0.002              0.055              0
        320             0.261             0              0.055              0
        330             0.261             0              0.055              0
        340             0.261             0              0.055              0
        350             0.261             0              0.055              0
        360             0.261             0              0.055              0
        370             0.261             0              0.055              0
        380             0.261             0              0.055              0
        390             0.261             0              0.055              0
        400             0.261             0              0.055              0



                                                                                57
410   0.261       0   0.055        0
420   0.261       0   0.055        0
430   0.261       0   0.056    0.001
440   0.261       0   0.059    0.004
450   0.261       0   0.062    0.007
460   0.261       0   0.065     0.01
470   0.261       0   0.067    0.012
480   0.261       0   0.072    0.017
490   0.261       0    0.08    0.025
500   0.261       0   0.092    0.037
510   0.261       0   0.108    0.053
520   0.261       0   0.128    0.073
530   0.261       0   0.154    0.099
540   0.261       0    0.19    0.135
550   0.261       0   0.225     0.17
560   0.261       0   0.268    0.213
570   0.261       0   0.301    0.246
580   0.261       0   0.324    0.269
590   0.261       0   0.337    0.282
600   0.261       0   0.337    0.282
610   0.261       0   0.325     0.27
620   0.261       0      0.3   0.245
630   0.261       0   0.263    0.208
640   0.261       0   0.223    0.168
650   0.261       0   0.185     0.13
660   0.261       0   0.152    0.097
670   0.261       0   0.126    0.071
680   0.261       0   0.107    0.052
690   0.263   0.002   0.091    0.036
700   0.265   0.004   0.081    0.026
710   0.268   0.007   0.073    0.018
720    0.27   0.009   0.068    0.013




                                       58
  0.4



0.35



  0.3



0.25



  0.2
                                                            Int ake
                                                            Exhaust
 0.15



  0.1



0.05



   0
        0   100   200   300   400   500   600   700   800


-0.05




                                                                      59
APPENDIX B

CMM Data




             60
Measurements gathered from CMM

Depth (Reference Sprocket)
Left Head Bolt                     3.072 in
Right Head Bolt                   11.883 in
Rear Top Right                     7.154 in
Rear Top Left                      1.521 in
Rear Bottom Right                  6.477 in
Rear Bottom Left                   0.846 in

Height (Reference Sprocket)
Left Head Bolt                      6.054 in
Right Head Bolt                     5.584 in
Rear Top Right                      3.611 in
Rear Top Left                       3.611 in
Rear Bottom Right                  -5.616 in
Rear Bottom Left                   -5.616 in

Length (Reference Sprocket)
Left Head Bolt                    -13.152 in
Right Head Bolt                    -8.135 in
Rear Top Right                      1.042 in
Rear Top Left                       1.042 in
Rear Bottom Right                   1.716 in
Rear Bottom Left                    1.716 in

* Front View is facing sprocket




                                               61
APPENDIX C

Engineering Drawings




                       62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
APPENDIX D

Calculation Sheets




                     84
Fuel Tank Size
                                                 Maximum
Fuel Line ID                         0.25 in     Volume                    555 in^3 (2 gal.)
Fuel Line Length                      180 in     Area Fuel Line      0.049063 in^2
Any Additional Fuel Storage             0 in^3   Fuel Rail Area          0.785 in^2
                                                 Volume Fuel
Length of Top                           4 in     Lines                8.83125 in^3
Length of Bottom                      5.5 in     Fuel Rail Volume       8.635 in^3
Height                                  5 in     Volume Tank         549.5338 in^4
Volume Displaced By Fuel Pump          12 in^3   Area Tank              23.75 in^2
Fuel Rail ID                          0.5 in
Fuel Rail Length                       11 in


                                                 Length Tank         23.13826 in




Plenum
Size
                                  Total Volume of
Tuning RPM             9000       Plenum + Runners              73.2 in^3   =      1200 cc
Length of Runners         10 in   Area of Runners           1.76625 in^2
ID of Runners            1.5 in   Volume of Runners         17.6625 in^3
Length of Plenum        12.5 in   Volume of Plenum          55.5375 in^3
                                  Area of Plenum              4.443 in^2
                                  ID of Plenum            2.379049 in




                                                                                             85
                                           Speed Calculations for Specified Track Conditions
Gear Ratios                               Tire                                         Assume
                                          Radius     10.000 in                         Max. lat. acc.     1.6 g's
           1st              5.364                     0.833 ft                                          51.52 ft/s^2
           2nd              3.852
           3rd              3.082         Circum.     5.233 ft                         Max. Power       9000 RPM
           4th              2.625
           5th              2.327
           6th              2.092

Hair Pin Turn                                               Constant turns

Radius OD                   29.500 ft                       R min                 75 ft                       R max             148 ft
OD - (1/2) vehicle width    26.920 ft

Velocity                    37.241 ft/s                     Velocity          62.161 ft/s                     Velocity        87.321 ft/s
                            25.392 m/hr                                       42.383 m/hr                                     59.537 m/hr

Tire RPM                   426.971                          Tire RPM         712.675                          Tire RPM      1001.133

1st gear                                                    2nd Gear                                          2nd Gear
Engine RPM                                Rear End          Engine RPM                 Rear end               Engine RPM               Rear End
                   2000 RPM                  0.873                   2000                      0.729                 2000                 0.519
                   3000                      1.310                   3000                      1.093                 3000                 0.778
                   4000                      1.747                   4000                      1.457                 4000                 1.037
                   5000                      2.183                   5000                      1.821                 5000                 1.297
                   6000                      2.620                   6000                      2.186                 6000                 1.556
                   7000                      3.056                   7000                      2.550                 7000                 1.815
                   8000                      3.493                   8000                      2.914                 8000                 2.074
                   9000                      3.930                   9000                      3.278                 9000                 2.334




                                                                                                                                                  86
2nd Gear                      3rd Gear                  3rd Gear

           2000 RPM   1.216              2000   0.911          2000   0.648
           3000       1.824              3000   1.366          3000   0.972
           4000       2.432              4000   1.821          4000   1.297
           5000       3.040              5000   2.277          5000   1.621
           6000       3.648              6000   2.732          6000   1.945
           7000       4.256              7000   3.187          7000   2.269
           8000       4.864              8000   3.643          8000   2.593
           9000       5.472              9000   4.098          9000   2.917

                                                        4th Gear
3rd Gear
                                                               2000   0.761
           2000 RPM   1.520                                    3000   1.142
           3000       2.280                                    4000   1.522
           4000       3.040                                    5000   1.903
           5000       3.800                                    6000   2.283
           6000       4.560                                    7000   2.664
           7000       5.320                                    8000   3.044
           8000       6.080                                    9000   3.425
           9000       6.840




                                                                              87
       Intake Runner Length and Plenum Size Calculations*
                            Plenum Diameter                                        Plenum Length
Runner    Tuning             10 in   11 in       12 in   Runner Tuning   1.5 in            2.5 in
Length     Peak    9 in long long     long       long    Length  Peak     Dia     2 in Dia  Dia   3 in Dia
   2       8834      2.977   2.824   2.692       2.578      2    8834    35.44     19.93   12.76    8.86
   3       7901      2.848   2.702   2.576       2.466      3    7901    32.44     18.25   11.68    8.11
   4       7213      2.713   2.574   2.454       2.349      4    7213    29.44     16.56   10.60    7.36
   5       6678      2.571   2.439   2.325       2.226      5    6678    26.44     14.87    9.52    6.61
   6       6246      2.421   2.296   2.190       2.096      6    6246    23.44     13.18    8.44
   7       5889      2.260   2.144   2.055       1.958      7    5889    20.44     11.50    7.36
   8       5587      2.088   1.981   1.889       1.808      8    5587    17.44      9.81    6.28
   9       5327      1.900   1.802   1.719       1.645      9    5327    14.44      8.12
  10       5100      1.691   1.604   1.530       1.465     10    5100    11.44      6.43
  11       4900      1.452   1.378   1.314       1.258     11    4900     8.44
  12       4722      1.166   1.106   1.055       1.011     12    4722     5.44
  13       4562      0.781   0.741   0.706       0.676     13    4562     2.44




       Using Visard's Equation for Runner Length                 RPM     LENGTH (in)
1. Starting point of 7 inches for 10,000 RPM                     4000       17.2
2. Add length of 1.7 inches for each 1000 RPM less               5000       15.5
                                                                 6000       13.8



                                                                                        88
                                                                  7000          12.1
                                                                  8000          10.4
                                                                  9000           8.7
                                                                  10000          7.0

   Using Visard's Equation for Runner Diameter                                VE=80%            VE=100%

                  Disp(liter s)  Volumetric Efficiency  RPM     RPM      DIAMETER (in)    DIAMETER (in)
Dia(inches )                                                     4000         0.76             0.85
                                      3330
                                                                  5000         0.85             0.95
                                                                  6000         0.93             1.04
                                                                  7000         1.00             1.12
                                                                  8000         1.07             1.20
                                                                  9000         1.14             1.27
                                                                  10000        1.20             1.34




    *Calculations for intake runner length and plenum size were carried out by Chris
    Brockman



    Key Calculations for Driveshaft Coupler
    Key Specifications

    Width: 0.25”
    Height: 0.25”
    Length: 0.5”

    Torque required: 100 ft-lb = 1200 in-lb
    Shaft Dia. = 1 in.

                 0.58 * S y * L * d 2
     Torque 
                      8
              0.58 * 46ksi * 0.5in * 1in 2
     Torque 
                          8
     Torque  1668in  lb
              1668in  lb
     S .F . 
              1200in  lb
     S .F .  1.39




                                                                                           89
APPENDIX E

Labview Program




                  90
91
92
APPENDIX F

CO Percentages and Corresponding A/F Ratios




                                              93
Hathaway, Richard. Lecture Notes for TRAN 223: Fuel Metering, Winter 1993.




                                                                             94
APPENDIX G

Restrictor Data




                  95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
APPENDIX H

Formula SAE Rules 2002 (Engine Section)




                                           123
124
125
126
127
128
129
APPENDIX I

Coupler Specifications




                         130
131
APPENDIX J

Electromotive TEC III Specifications and Wiring Diagrams




                                                           132
133
134
135
Bibliography

      2001 Honda CBR600F4i. Retrieved October 29, 2001 from the World Wide
Web: http://www.motorsports-network.com/honda/2001MC/f4i.htm

        2001 Kawasaki ZX-6R. Retrieved October 29, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.motorcycle.com/mo/mccompare/01600/6r.html

        2001 Suzuki GSX-R600. Retrieved October 29, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.motorcycle.com/mo/mcsuz/01GSX-R600tech.html

        2001 Yamaha YZF-R6. Retrieved October 29, 2001 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.motorcycle.com/mo/mccompare/01600/r6.html

      2002 Formula SAE Rules and Regulations. Retrieved October 29, 2001 from
the World Wide Web: http://www.sae.org/students/formula.htm

      Go-Power Dynamometers. Retrieved February 20, 2002 from the World Wide
Web: http://www.stonebennett.com/Dynamometers.html#D-357

       Haltech E6K Fuel Injection and Ignition Computer. Retrieved November 23,
2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.haltech.com/Products/ECUs/E6K/e6k.html

       Hathaway, Richard. Lecture Notes for TRAN 223: Fuel Metering, Winter 1993.

       Lovejoy Power Transmission Products Catalog. 1999.

      Motec M4 Pro Technical Sheet. Retrieved November 23, 2001 from the World
Wide Web: http://www.motec.com/m41.htm

      Stone, Richard (1999). Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines.
Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.

      TEC-II…Integrated Performance! Retrieved October 29 2001 from the World
Wide Web: http://www.electromotive-inc.com/tec2.htm




                                                                                136

				
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