Matter and Qualitative Analysis – Unit I SCH4U1 Overall Expectations By the end of this course, students will: demonstrate an understanding of the basic principles of qualitative analysis and underlying theories; carry out qualitative analyses, using flow charts and appropriate laboratory equipment and instruments; describe the role and importance in society of some of the applications of qualitative analysis. Specific Expectations Understanding Basic Concepts By the end of this course, students will: explain the distinction between observation and inference; describe and explain basic processes and phenomena involved in qualitative analysis, including flame tests, precipitation reactions, and absorption spectra; relate observations from flame tests and absorption spectra to the concept of quanta of energy proposed by Bohr; explain covalent bonding in simple molecules using Lewis structures (e.g., H2, Cl2, O2, H2O, CH4); demonstrate an understanding of the formation of ionic bonds between metals and non-metals, and relate the charge on an ion to the number of electrons lost or gained. Developing Skills of Inquiry and Communication By the end of this course, students will: use appropriate scientific vocabulary to communicate ideas related to qualitative analysis (e.g., double displacement, precipitate, energy levels); conduct qualitative analyses using equipment and instruments such as the following: gas discharge tubes, high voltage electrical sources, spectroscope, centrifuge; predict the precipitate formed in a chemical reaction by writing double displacement and net ionic equations and using a table of solubility rules; use a flow chart and experimental procedures, including flame tests and precipitation reactions, to determine the presence of ions in an unknown sample (e.g., analyse a household or workplace chemical); identify an unknown gas sample (e.g., hydrogen, helium, neon) by comparing its observed absorption spectrum with those of known gases. Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment By the end of this course, students will: 1 describe some applications of spectroscopy (e.g., in astronomy to identify the composition of stars); 2 explain applications of qualitative analysis in various fields (e.g., discuss the use of qualitative analysis techniques in drug detection or in the identification of counterfeit money).
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