Sara Safety Analysis Risk Assessment Form - PDF

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					   Threat Assessment in the OPP
         D/Sgt. Debra Heaton
        Threat Assessment Unit
Behavioural Sciences & Analysis Services
     Threat Assessment
The process of threat assessment involves
the evaluation of observable personal and
situational indicators on either a risk
enhancing or risk reducing basis to determine
an individual’s potential for violence.
Basically - What risk does an individual pose
to a target and how do we reduce /manage
that risk.
 OPP Threat Assessment
  Understudy Program
12-18 month Program
Ensures minimum standard of competency
prior to offering their services to criminal
justice agencies including police and the
Ensure candidates meet and maintain a
minimum standard of knowledge through
identified readings, education and training.
Instruction by authors of risk assessment
tools and theories
Mental Health training – Personality
Disorders, Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Fetal
Alcohol Syndrome, Autism Spectrum
Disorders, Attention Deficit, Sexual Deviance
Completion of minimum of 45 cases with
Test case and board
   Services Provided by TAU
Threat assessments
Case management suggestions/investigative
Victim Safety plans
Court Testimony-Bail/Sentencing (Expert)
Threat Assessment Conference
      Assessments Used By
Front line police officers
Criminal Investigation Bureau
Professional Standards
Crown Attorneys
Correctional Services ( Probation, Parole)
Policy Makers – school administrators
  Risk Assessment Tools
Violent risk assessment tools have been
developed by psychologists and other
professionals who have identified
factors that have been shown by
scientific and empirical studies as being
statistically significant in assessing
violence risk and are used to articulate
opinions in an organized and unbiased
Risk Assessment Tools
   HCR 20 (general violence/mental illness)
   VRAG    (general violence)
   SARA    (domestic violence)
   RSVP    (sexual offenders)
   SORAG (sexual offenders)
   EARL20B(violence -boys under12years)
   DIETZ 10 (political figures)
      Types of Assessments
ACTUARIAL Risk Assessment
 long term risk
weight to scores - percentile ranking.
Static factors – things that will not change
Unable to case manage effectively to reduce
 Structured Professional
Risk assessments conducted according
to explicit guidelines that are grounded
in the scientific literature
More systematic
Assists in planning and delivery of
interventions (treatment and
                 P. Randall Kropp, Ph.D.
                 Stephen D. Hart, Ph.D.
    Christopher D. Webster, Ph.D. & Derek Eaves, M.B.
SARA (Spousal Assault Risk Assessment
Guide) helps criminal justice professionals
predict the likelihood of domestic violence.
The Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA)
is a 20-item risk assessment tool for the
assessment of future intimate partner
In order to use the tool it is advised that
users have expertise in individual assessment
and a thorough knowledge of the domestic
violence and risk literatures.
Spousal Assault Risk Assessment
  Past Assault Family             Past Physical Assault
  Past Assault Acquaintance       Past Sexual Assault/Sexual
  Past Violation Release          Jealousy
  Conditions                      Past Use Weapons/Credible
  Recent Relationship Problems    Threat Death
  Recent Employment Problems      Recent Escalation
  Recent Psychotic/Manic          Frequency/Severity
  Symptoms                        Past Violation “No Contact”
  Victim/Witness Abuse as Child   Minimization/Denial of Assaults
  Recent Substance Abuse          Attitudes that Support
  Recent Suicidal/Homicidal       Severe/Sexual Assault ((Index)
  Ideation                        Weapons/Threat of Death
  Personality Disorder            (Index)
                                  Violation “No Contact” (Index)
Information Compiled by OIC
   Your police service    Family history
   incident reports       Relationship history
   Other police service   Employment history
   incident reports       Education history
   CPIC printout          Substance abuse
   Pre-sentence reports   Weapon
   Psychiatric records    possession/access
   Medical                Positive support
   records/history        mechanisms
Challenges to Assessing Risk
 Cannot provide services to all agencies.
 Requests must come through police to
 allow for case management.
 Agencies must commit to resources
 (financial and people) to conduct risk
 assessment and management.
 Will save lives and resources in the
Two levels of Risk Assessment?
  Initial Assessment – ODARA, B-SAFER
  Determine subjects who require a more
  thorough assessment – SARA
  Allows for some form of assessment of
  all, while focusing on those identified as
  higher risk in order to case manage the
  identified risk
      Rice, M.E., Harris, G.T., & Hilton, N.Z.
The Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment
(ODARA) was the result of collaborative efforts
between the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) and the
Mental Health Centre (MHC) based in
Penetanguishene, Ontario.
This empirically based, actuarial risk assessment tool
was developed in response to both the May-Iles and
Hadley Inquest recommendations and
recommendations made by The Joint Committee on
Domestic Violence to the Attorney General of Ontario
in 1999.
Consists of 13 items
The ODARA was originally developed for front-line
police officers but is available for use by victim
services, health care workers, probation and
correctional services personnel in addition to
domestic violence caseworkers in some provinces.
This tool assesses risk of future wife assault in
addition to the frequency and severity of these
Found a correlation between higher ODARA scores
and more severe assaults in the future.
         ODARA Usage
The ODARA is currently being utilized in Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario and
New Zealand.
A number of agencies use the ODARA including the
RCMP, municipal police departments, military police
and Correctional Services.
Probation Services in New Brunswick uses this tool.
In Saskatchewan, provincial correctional centres,
Probation Services and domestic violence
caseworkers associated with domestic violence courts
and police-based victim services programs use the
Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment
           Items (ODARA)
   Previous Domestic Incident
   Previous Non domestic Incident
   Prior Correctional Sentence of at least 30 days
   Failure on Previous Conditional Release
   Threat to Harm or Kill Anyone at the Index Assault
   Confinement of the Partner During/at the Index Assault
   Victim Concerned/Fearful of Future Assaults
   Two or More Children
   Victim has a Biological Child from a Previous Partner
   Perpetrator’s Violence Against Others
   Perpetrator’s Substance Abuse
   Assault on Victim when Pregnant
   Any Barrier to Victim Support
  Revised Ontario DVSR
Domestic Violence Supplementary Report
Mandatory for all police services in Ontario
Being revised in Ontario with input of OPP
TAU to reflect SARA and ODARA factors
Will allow for identification of concerning
cases early, while gathering information for a
more in depth assessment by trained
assessors if required
R. vs. Mohan – Supreme Court of
   Canada – Expert Evidence
 Must be relevant, necessary to assist
 the trier of fact, should not trigger any
 exclusionary rules, and must be given
 by a properly qualified expert.
 Essentially, judges must determine if
 they need to hear from an expert if
 they have the information to determine
 risk themselves.
   Workplace Violence
Bill 168 – amended the Occupational
Health & Safety Act in Ontario
Employers are responsible to protect
employees from violence, including
domestic violence
Requires implementation of policies,
programs, assessment of risks
No direction on how to assess risk
        Future Challenges

Consistent threat assessment practices
throughout the Canada
Acceptance in Courts
Accessibility of information from other
   Detective Sergeant
      Debra Heaton
 Ontario Provincial Police
 Threat Assessment Unit
Behavioural Sciences and
     Analysis Services

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