Renal physiology

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Renal physiology Powered By Docstoc
					                                         Accelerated Spring Review KEY

Circulatory system:

1. Blood pressure, force of blood on the walls of the blood vessels; ventricles contract— systolic; ventricles
relax—diastolic; ―lub-dub‖

2. Universal donor? O     Universal receiver? AB

3. Where is oxygen and wastes exchanged within the circulatory system? Capillaries

4. What color is your blood? Red. It is not green or blue.

5. Capillaries, connects arteries and veins, one cell thick, this is where oxygen and
       wastes are exchanged

6. Pulmonary veins, only veins that carry oxygen-rich blood; moves blood from
       lungs back to heart

7. Arteries, blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

8. Veins, carry blood back to the heart, have one-way valves that keep blood moving TOWARD the heart

9. Pulmonary arteries, the only arteries that carry oxygen-poor blood; moves blood to the lungs

10. Septum, A wall of muscle within the heart; keeps oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood from mixing

11. Hemoglobin, a molecule within red blood cells, which allows O2 and CO2 to be carried

12. Parts of blood:
   A. Red blood cells, contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the body cells and CO2
       back to your lungs

   B. Platelets, help clot blood, releases fibrin ―Spiderman‖

   C. White blood cells, fight bacteria, viruses and other ―invaders‖

   D. Plasma, straw-colored liquid part of blood

13. Which part of the heart is the upper chamber? atrium The lower chamber? ventricle

14. Which chamber receives the blood? atrium

15. Which chamber pumps the blood? ventricle

16. Why do we have valves in the veins? To keep blood moving toward the heart; to prevent
   blood from moving back toward the feet.

17. Where are red blood cells produced? Bone marrow          White blood cells? Lymphocytes are made in the
18. What happens to the oxygen level in the blood as it passes through the capillaries?
    The oxygen level decreases as oxygen is dropped off and carbon dioxide and other wastes are picked up.

19. Diseases:
       A. Atherosclerosis, fatty deposits build up on arterial walls; can cause a heart attack

       B. Hypertension, high blood pressure; causes the heart to work harder, which puts strain on the heart

Respiratory System:

1. Alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs that take oxygen from the air and puts it into the blood

2. Cellular Respiration, the way our bodies get energy; oxygen and glucose are converted to energy

3. Breathing – the act of moving air into and out of the lungs

4. Formula for cell respiration: O2 + Glucose = H2O + CO2 + Energy

5. Where does the exchange of carbon dioxide in the blood for oxygen in the air take place? Between the
      capillaries and the alveoli
6. What happens to the amount of oxygen in the blood as it passes through body cells? The amount of oxygen
   decreases in the blood as the oxygen is sent to the cells.

7. Pathway air takes as it enters the body:

   Diaphragm moves drawing air into: Nose/Mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi (left and right),
bronchiole tubes, alveoli

8.     Trachea, air passage that leads from the pharynx to the lungs

9. What does the epiglottis do? Flap of tissue found in pharynx that closes to prevent food from
  going down airway

10. Diaphragm muscle beneath the lungs that contracts and relaxes; moves air into and out of lungs

11.     Know about the following
       a. lung cancer – Abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells.
        Frequently linked to smoking.
       b. emphysema – Alveoli in lungs enlarge, become swollen, enzyme begins to break down the alveoli.
           Less oxygen moves into the bloodstream.
       c. asthma – bronchial tubes contract quickly; can be an allergic reaction; shortness of breath, wheezing
           can occur

12. What happens when you exhale?
     Diaphragm relaxes (bows slightly upward)
     Air pressure increases, forcing air out. (Air moves from high pressure to low pressure).
     Chest cavity volume is decreased causing more pressure.
What happens when you inhale?
   Diaphragm contracts (pulls downward)
   Chest cavity volume is increased, causing less pressure.
   Air pressure decreases, causing air to travel into the lungs. (Air moves from high pressure to low

Excretory System:
1. What do the kidneys do? removes waste from the blood, acts as a filter

2. Bladder, elastic, muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body.

3. Nephron, tiny filtering unit inside the kidney; separates the waste from the blood

4. Ureters, tubes from the kidney to the bladder

5. Urethra, tube from the bladder to outside the body

6. Urine, liquid waste

7. What is dialysis? The use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood.
      Used when someone’s kidneys fail.

8. What happens when urinary organs don’t work? Dialysis must take place to clean the blood.

9. Where do the red blood cells and other blood components go as blood is filtered through the kidneys?
      ―cleaned‖ blood goes back to circulatory system;

10. Where does the waste go as the blood is filtered through the kidneys?
      urine goes to the ureters and then to the bladder.


1. List the four types of organic nutrients: Carbs, protein, fat, vitamin

2. List the two types of inorganic nutrients: minerals, water

3.What is the difference between an inorganic nutrient and an organic nutrient?
      Organic – has carbon inorganic- has no carbon

4. Where are starches found? Potatoes, pasta

5. The amount of energy available in foods is measured in calories

6. What type of nutrient helps store some vitamins? Fats

7. Where can saturated fats be found? Meats, butter

8. Give examples of trace minerals: copper and iodine (required in small amounts)

9. chemical digestion – chemical reaction breaks down food molecules
10. mechanical digestion – food is chewed, mixed, churned

11. peristalsis – waves of muscle contractions that help move food through digestive tract

12. chyme – a thin, watery liquid that moves from the stomach to the small intestine

13. What is the job of the villi? – finger-like projections that increase surface area and allows nutrients to be
absorbed into the bloodstream

14. small intestine - food is absorbed into the bloodstream by the villi, chemical digestion (enzymes from liver
and pancreas sent here), mechanical digestion (peristalsis)

15. pancreas – sends enzymes, such as insulin to the small intestine, helps digest carbs, proteins, fats

16. liver – a digestive organ; bile from liver breaks up fat

17. gall bladder – attached to the liver; stores and secretes bile

18. large intestine – water is absorbed here; mechanical digestion (peristalsis) only

19. Where are the majority of nutrients absorbed? Small intestine (duodenum)

20. List ―accessory‖ digestive organs: salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

21. Why are they called the accessory organs? Food does not pass through them, but they are responsible for
assisting in chemical digestion

Bones/Muscles, Skin. Ch. 17

1. What are the main functions of the skeletal system?
      a. shape and support

       b. protection

       c. muscles attach to bone and helps bone move.

       d. blood cells formed in the center (the marrow) of bones

       e. Calcium and phosphorous stored to make bones hard.

2. Bone structure:
      a. Periosteum, tough, tight-fitting membrane on the outside of the bone

       b. Compact Bone, hard, strong layer

       c. Spongy Bone, has open spaces that makes bones lightweight, has marrow which
       makes red blood cells

       d. Cartilage, a thick layer of tissue at the ends of bones; flexible; prevents bones from rubbing together

3. What is a joint? Two or more places where bones come together
4. What are the four types of movable joints, and where do you find them?
      a. ball-and-socket; hip or shoulder

       b. hinge; elbow or knee

       c. pivot, one bone rotates in a ring of another bone; neck

       d. gliding, one bone slides over another; spinal column

5. What is a ligament? Thick connective tissue; connects bones together

6. Where do you find involuntary muscles? Heart, stomach, intestine

7. Where do you find voluntary muscles? Anything you can move, such as arms, legs, etc.

8. Explain the three types of muscle tissue
      a. Skeletal, moves bones; striated; tires easily

       b. Cardiac, heart muscle; striated; does not tire easily

       c. Smooth, found in internal organs; non-striated that slowly contract and relax

9. Name and describe the three layers of skin
      A. epidermis, outermost layer; dead skin cells; waterproof

       B. dermis, contains blood vessels, nerves, muscles, oil and sweat glands

       C. fatty layer, insulates the body

10. What is melanin? A pigment that gives our skin color and protects the skin from UV sun rays.

11. What does skin do?

       Sensory response
       Vitamin D
       Regulates body temperature
       Rids the body of waste

Nervous System, Ch. 18:

1. Central nervous system, brain and spinal cord

2. Peripheral Nervous System, all nerves outside of the CNS

3. Neurons
      Dendrite – receives messages from other neurons
      Axon – carry messages away from the cell

4. Draw a neuron. Label the parts.
5. What is a synapse? The space between an axon and a dendrite. A chemical is released that flows from the
axon to the dendrite. This is how the cells communicate.

6. Brain
       A. Cerebrum, largest part of the brain; responsible for interpreting senses, memory, and controlling

       B. Cerebellum, Coordinates voluntary muscle movements, maintain muscle tone, and help with balance

       C. Brain Stem, base of the brain; controls involuntary actions like heartbeat, breathing, and blood

       D. Spinal Cord, an extension of the brain stem; helps carry impulses back and forth from the brain to
          the body.

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