CLEAN TECHNOLOGY

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					 SUMMER INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT


                            ON


                 CLEAN TECHNOLOGY




Industry Guide                          Faculty Guide

Mr. M.S. UMA MAHESVARAM                 Mrs. MANU KALIA
DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER                  Amity School of Business
BENNETT, COLEMAN & CO. LTD
TIMES HOUSE – PRIVATE TREATIES




                            By:-

                     Pushpender Singh
                      A0106406 A-38

             Amity School of Business, Noida

                  TABLE OF CONTENTS



                                 1
Sl.No.    PARTICULARS             PAGE No.


 1.      ACKNOWLEDGEMENT              4


 2.      CERTIFICATE                  5


 3.      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY            6


 4.      COMPANY PROFILE              8


 5.      INTRODUCTION                10


 6.      ENERGY SCENARIO             11


 7.      INDIAN ENERGY SCENARIO      13


 7.1     NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES       16
         Thermal Energy              17
         Nuclear energy              19


 7.2     OIL                         20


 7.3     NATURAL GAS                 21


 7.4     RENEWABLE SOURCES           22
         Hydro Energy                23
         Wind Energy                 25
         Bio-Energy                  27
         Solar Energy                29


 8.      INNOVATIVE RENEWABLES       31



                             2
9.    CONCLUSION                  34


10.   REFERANCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY   35


11.   ANNEXURES                   36




                        3
                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



The making of any report calls for contribution and cooperation from many others
besides the individual alone. It is the result of meticulous effort put in by many minds
that contribute to the final report submission and this work too is not an exception.


Thus, one of the best parts of writing this report is the opportunity to thank those who
have contributed towards it.


First and foremost, I would like to take the opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to
my Industry Guide Mr. M.S. Uma Mahesvaram (Deputy General Manager, Times
Private Treaties) & my Faculty Guide Mrs. Manu Kalia for their valued insights,
suggestions and continuous support, without which this project would not have reached
successful completion.


This project has given me vast knowledge of clean technology.




Pushpender Singh
A0106406 A-38
Amity School of Business




                                             4
                       To Whom It May Concern


This is to certify that Mr. Pushpender Singh, Student of Amity Business School, Noida
has successfully completed his summer training project on the topic




                              “Clean Technology”


The training took place in Delhi. Duration of Training was from May 15 to July 11, 2008.




During the duration of training with us, we found him sincere, dynamic and committed to
job assigned to him.




Yours Sincerely,
For Times of India – Private Treaties




Mr. M.S. Uma Mahesvaram
Deputy General Manager
New Delhi




                                           5
                          EXECUTIVE SUMMARY




                                Purposes of the report


The purpose of this report is to define the universe of clean technology companies for
generating various options for times-private treaties.


                                  Scope of the report


The scope of the report are (a) to attempt defining the size of the clean energy market in
India, (b) what are the various fields of clean energy technology (c) to know which
companies are dealing in clean technology, foreign as well as Indian companies but with
an emphasis on Indian scenario that will serve potential opportunities for times Private
Treaties.

Availability of, and access to, electricity is a crucial element of modern economies and it
helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the power sector has been
given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on
enhancing this sector has resulted in significant gains in generation and availability of
electricity.

Clean energy includes natural energetic processes that can be harnessed with little
pollution such as anaerobic digestion, geothermal power, wind power, small-scale
hydropower, solar power, biomass power, tidal power and wave power fall under such a
category. They also include power derived from the incineration of waste.

The study begins by discussing the global energy scenario. The second chapter describes
in detail the global energy scenario in which there are details of global installed capacity
(continent-wise). The third chapter describes in detail about the Indian energy scenario in
which it is shown that Coal-based power has driven much of the growth in India’s power


                                             6
sector over the past three decades. Currently, the power sector consumes about 80% of
the coal produced in the country. As the demand for electricity is expect to rise
dramatically over the next decade, coal will continue to be the dominant energy source.
The fourth chapter discusses in brief about the various other aspects of Clean Technology
such as Mechanical efficiency, various new energy efficiency trends in different sectors
and about the Future Fuels and needless to say that these are Clean.


The key challenges facing India’s power sector include: an urgent need to increase
energy and electricity availability for human and infrastructure development; increasing
energy security; local environment protection and pollution control; and control of
greenhouse gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide). The task of meeting these broad
challenges is further complicated by several constraints: availability and quality of
domestic coal; limited financial resources; inadequate technical capacity for R&D,
manufacturing, and O&M; and the institutional characteristics of the Indian power sector.


For each of these sectors companies both international and Indian are identified with
details of their business activity and location for possible Private Treaties purposes.




                                              7
                              Company Profile

Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. is the largest media group in India, owned by the Jain
family. It is best known as the publisher of English daily The Times of India. This
company, along with its other group companies, are more popularly known as The Times
Group. The Times Group also publishes The Economic Times (a leading financial
broadsheet), Mumbai Mirror, Bangalore Mirror, the Navbharat Times (a Hindi daily
broadsheet), Sandhya Times, and the Maharashtra Times (a Marathi daily broadsheet).

It publishes general interest magazines like Femina and Filmfare, in a JV with BBC
magazines and the venture is called Worldwide Media.

The Times Group has very recently added TIMES NOW a 24-hour English news channel
to its chain of news organizations. TIMES NOW earlier was a Joint Venture between
Times Group and Reuters.

It owns Radio Mirchi, a popular FM Radio brand in India with a presence in 32 cities
around the country and Indiatimes.com, a popular Indian portal. Times Business
Solutions Pvt., Ltd (one of the group companies) has launched a real-estate specialty
portal MagicBricks.com that brings property buyers and sellers (for both land & various
types of constructions) onto a platform. It also has a job portal called "Timesjobs.com"
and a matrimonial portal called "Simplymarry.com".


Times Private Treaties

Private Treaties is an innovative venture from the Times of India group, India's largest
and most successful media conglomerate. It leverages the long experience and wide reach
of The Times Group to create value for its Private Treaties clients through strategic


                                           8
partnerships. It’s the new age marketing tool to bring the future forward, accelerating
brand building, increasing consumer connect and build enterprise wealth in a fast manner.

PT reinforces the wisdom that the success of any enterprise will depend on its ability to
use its intangible assets, not its ability to amass and control physical ones. The Times
Group is eminently placed to help its partners make this leap into the future. They
achieve this by:

   (a) Risk sharing: catalyzing the shift from fungible product to resonating brands by
       providing long term advertising funds.
   (b) Innovating: Involved depth thinking and ideation to create cutting edge
       communication solutions that deliver stated marketing objectives.
   (c) Value Enhancing: Enabling clients to expand faster and more profitably with our
       support and guidance.




                                           9
                              Clean Technology

Chapter 1: Introduction


Objective:


       1. To define the universe of clean technology companies.
       2. To generate options for Times – Private Treaties.


Research Methodology


      Mostly information collection oriented through secondary and tertiary means.


Scope of the Study:


      To define the size of the clean energy market in India
      Understand what are the various fields of clean energy technology
      The companies that are dealing in clean technology foreign as well as Indian
       companies but more emphasis on Indian Companies and
      To spot opportunities for times Private Treaties.


Data Collection:


      Data was collected through internet, magazines, newspapers, prospectus, GOI
       publications, encyclopedias.




                                            10
Chapter 2: Energy Scenario
The Global installed capacity of Power is around 37,63,200 MW approx. The global
energy installed-capacity increase is at the rate of about 2% per annum. The per capita
consumption of electricity is around 3,058 kWh / year. The cumulative shortfall of
electricity is around 1,07,250 MW approx.
The global scenario of installed capacities of Thermal Power is 23,89,200 MW, Wind
Power is 1,00,000 MW, Solar Power is 1,54,000 MW, Bio-Energy is 35,000 MW, Hydro
Energy is 7,15,000 MW and Nuclear Energy is 3,70,000 MW.
North America rank first by worldwide comparison with an installed capacity of
11,29,000 MW, Asia and Oceania rank second with an installed capacity of 10,40,000
MW, Europe rank third with an installed capacity of 8,03,000 MW, Eurasia rank fourth
with an installed capacity of 3,45,000 MW, Central and South America rank fifth with an
installed capacity of 2,14,000 MW, Middle East rank sixth with an installed capacity of
1,23,000 MW and Africa rank seventh with an installed capacity of 1,06,000 MW.


Break-up of global installed capacity
Exhibit-1

                                                                  North America

                                                                  Asia and Oceania
             5.7%      3.3%     2.8%
                                                                  Europe
            9.2%                                 30%

               21.3%                                              Eurasia
                                  27.7%
                                                                  Central and South
                                                                  America
                                                                  Middle East

                                                                  Africa




Source: International Energy Outlook


                                            11
Detailed Break-up of Global Installed Capacity
Exhibit-2
  Sl.No.                       Country                       Installed Capacity in MW
     1                       North America                            11,29,000
     2                     Asia and Oceania                           10,40,000
     3                          Europe                                 8,03,000
     4                          Eurasia                                3,45,000
     5                Central and South America                        2,14,000
     6                        Middle East                              1,23,000
     7                           Africa                                1,06,000
Source: International Energy Outlook


Oil accounts for 36% of the global energy needs, where the production of oil is around 83
million bbl/day. Consumption of oil is around 82.59 million bbl/day, whereas natural gas
accounts for 24% of the global energy needs, where the production of natural gas is
around 2.822 trillion cu M. Consumption of natural gas is around 2.819 trillion cu M.


Global Energy Requirements met through Oil, Natural gas and
Electricity
Exhibit-3




                  40 %                      36 %
                                                                          Oil
                                                                          Natural Gas
                                 24 %                                     Electricity




Source: www.worldenergy.org



                                            12
Chapter 3: Indian Energy Scenario
In India, oil accounts for 36% of the Indian energy needs, whereas natural gas accounts
for 9% of Indian energy needs
Consumption of energy needs in India are as follows
Exhibit-4
 Sl. No.                     Pariculars                           Consumption
    1                        Electricity                       387.90 Billion KWH
    2                        Natural Gas                        30.83 billion cu M
    3                            Oil                              2.45 million bbl/day
Source : www.cea.gov


The total installed capacity of Electric energy, in India is around 1,38,710 MW. India’s
rank 6th in the world in terms of energy demands. India accounts for 3.5% of the world
commercial energy demands. Expected power demand is around 6,00,000 MW by year-
2030 with a 8 % cumulative growth.
India’s energy consumption has been increasing at one of the fastest rates in the world
due to population growth and economic development. The cumulative demand is around
1,56,710 MW(approx). Present per capita consumption of electricity – 660 kWh / year.
Currently in India, renewable energy produces around 10,985 MW approx. Currently the
shortfall in India is around 15,000-20,000 MW.




                                           13
Detailed break-up of energy power produced in India
Exhibit-5
  Sl.No.                 Energy            Production (Installed Capacity in
                                                        MW)
              Non-Renewable Sources:
     1                THERMAL                             88,215

     2                NUCLEAR                              4,120

     3                   HYDRO                            35,390

                 Renewable Sources:
     4                    BIO                             1,307

     5                   WIND                             7,660

     6              SMALL HYDRO                           2,015

     7                   SOLAR                                3

                         TOTAL                          1,38,710

Source : Ministry of Renewable and Non-Renewable energy



In India, Thermal Power accounts for 64%, hydro power accounts for 25 %, Nuclear
Power accounts for 3% and Renewable sources accounts for 8% of the total electricity.


Production distribution of various types of Electric-energy in India

Exhibit-6

                                                                                 Thermal

                    3%       8%
                                                                                 Hydro
              25%
                                        64%                                      Nuclear


                                                                                 Renewable
                                                                                 Sources


Source : www.reeep.org


                                          14
In India, wind power accounts for 70 %, small hydro accounts for 18%, biomass power
accounts for 5.1%, Bagasse-cogeneration accounts for 6.3%, waste to energy accounts for
0.5%, and solar power accounts for 0.1% of the total renewable energy.


Break-up of renewable energy in India:
Exhibit-7

                                                                            Wind Power

                                    0.1%
                         6.3%
              5.1%                                                          Small Hydro
                                      0.5%
       18%
                                                                            Biomass Power
                                                  70 %


                                                                            Bagasse
                                                                            Cogeneration

                                                                            Waste to Energy


                                                                            Solar Power




   Source : Ministry of Renewable and Non-Renewable energy



Detailed break-up of renewable sources in India
Exhibit-8
 Sl. No.                Renewable Sources                   Installed Capacity (in mw)
    1                      Wind Power                                  7,660
    2                   Small Hydro Power                              2,015
    3                      Solar Power                                     3
    4                     Biomass Power                                 560
    5                  Bagasse Cogeneration                             692
    6                    Waste to Energy                                  55
Source : Ministry of Renewable and Non-Renewable energy




                                             15
3.1 Sources of Energy


3.1.1 Non-Renewable Sources
A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be re-made, re-grown or
regenerated on a scale comparative to its consumption. The constituents of non-
renewable energy are :
(a) Thermal Energy
(b) Nuclear Energy
Currently, the global production of non-renewable energy is 27,59,200 MW approx,
which is 30 times more as compared to India which is 92,335 MW approx.




                                        16
3.1.1.1 Thermal Energy
Thermal energy can only be defined as any spontaneous flow of energy (energy in transit)
from one object to another, caused by a difference in temperature between two objects;
thus, an object cannot possess heat.
Globally, thermal energy currently supplies around 23,89,200 MW approx. or 63.5 % of
the world’s electricity. Thermal energy continues to increase at a growth rate 3.4% per
annum.
Some major global players in thermal energy sector are as follows:
(a) China Coal Energy Company Limited, Beijing, China.
(b) Beard Co., Oklahoma City, USA.
(c) Cascade Energy Inc, Portland, USA.
(d) Coal Corp. Mining Inc, Toronto, Canada.


In India, currently the production of thermal power is around 88,215 MW approx or 64%
of total energy. Thermal energy continues to increase at a growth rate of 4.2 % per
annum.
Some major Indian players in the sector of thermal power are as follows :
Government owned companies
(a) Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, Karnataka.
(b) Gujarat Government Company, Gujarat.
(c) Damodar Valley Corporation, Kolkata.
(d) North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited, Meghalaya.
(e) Gujarat State Electricity Corporation Limited, Gujarat.
(f) Indraprastha Power Generation Co. Ltd, New Delhi.
(g) Maharashtra State Power Generation Co Ltd, Maharashtra.
(h) UP Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd, Uttar Pradesh .




                                            17
Public/Private Companies
(a) Reliance Power Limited, Mumbai.
(b) KSK Energy Ventures Limited, Hyderabad.
(c) Energy Infratech Pvt. Limited, New Delhi.
(d) NTPC, New Delhi.
(e) LANCO Infratech Ltd, Hyderabad.
(f) Essar Power Limited, Mumbai.
Details regarding Indian thermal energy companies are given as reference in Annexures
i.e. Table B.1.




                                          18
3.1.1.2 Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy is energy due to the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the
nuclei of atoms. Nuclear energy is released by three exoenergetic (or exothermic)
processes as (i) Radioactive decay : In this, a neutron or proton in the radioactive nucleus
decays spontaneously by emitting either particles, electromagnetic radiation (gamma
rays), neutrinos (or all of them), (ii) Fusion: In this, two atomic nuclei fuse together to
form a heavier nucleus and (iii) Fission: means the breaking of a heavy nucleus into two
(or more rarely three) lighter nuclei.

Globally, Nuclear energy currently supplies 3,70,000 MW or 9.8% of the world’s
electricity. Nuclear energy continues to increase at a growth rate 4% per annum.

Some major global players in the sector of nuclear power are as follows:

(a) Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Japan.
(b) Union Electric Company, Vancouver, USA.
(c) Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Canada.
(d) Federation of Electric Power Companies, Washington, USA.


In India, currently the production of nuclear power is around 4,120 MW approx or 3% of
total energy. Nuclear energy continues to increase at a growth rate of 2.5 % per annum.


Some major Indian players in the sector of nuclear power are as follows :
(a) Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai.
(b) Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad.
(c) Bhartiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited, Tami Nadu.
(d) Uranium Corporation of India Limited, Jharkhand.
(e) Reliance Energy Limited, Mumbai.
Details regarding Indian nuclear energy companies are given as reference in Annexures
i.e. Table B.8.




                                            19
3.1.2 Oil
An oil is a substance that is in a viscous liquid state ("oily") at ambient temperatures or
slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic, (immiscible with water, literally "water
fearing") and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally "fat loving").


Globally, the production of oil is around 83 million bbl/day. Consumption of oil is around
82.59 million bbl/day.


Some major global players in the sector of oil are as follows:
(a) Admiral Bay Resources Inc, Toronto, Canada.
(b) Allenergy, Inc, Coffeyville, USA.
(c) Antrim Energy Inc, Calgary, Canada.
(d) Arena Resources, Inc, Tulsa, USA.
Details regarding (global) oil companies are given as reference in Annexures i.e. Table
A.19.


In India, currently the production of oil is around 7,85,000 million bbl/day. Consumption
of oil is around 2.45 million bbl/day.


Some major Indian players in the sector of oil are as follows :
Government owned companies
Gujarat State Energy Generation Co Ltd, Gujarat.
Public/Private Companies
(a) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd, Dehradun.
(b) Oil India Limited, Noida.
(c) GAIL (India) Limited, Chandigarh.
(d) Indian Oil Corporation, New Delhi.


Details regarding Indian oil companies are given as reference in Annexures i.e. Table
B.6.




                                              20
3.1.3 Natural Gas
Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to
other energy sources such as electricity.


Globally, the production of natural gas is around 2.822 trillion cu M. Consumption of
natural gas is around 2.819 trillion cu M.
Some major global players in the sector of natural gas are as follows:
(a) American Oil & Gas Inc, Oklahoma, USA.
(b) ATP Oil & Gas Corporation, Houston USA.
(c) Aspen Exploration Corporation, Bakersfield, USA.
(d) Bontan Corporation Inc., Toronto, Canada.
More details regarding (global) natural gas companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table A.11.


In India, currently the production of natural gas is around 28.2 billion cu M.
Consumption of natural gas is around 30.83 billion cu M.
Some major Indian players in the sector of natural gas are as follows :
Government owned companies
(a) Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd, Gujarat.
(b) Gujarat State Energy Generation Co Ltd, Gujarat.
(c) North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited, Meghalaya.
(d) Andhra Pradesh Gas Power Corporation Ltd, Andhra Pradesh.
Public/Private Companies
(a) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd, Dehradun.
(b) GMR Group, Bangalore.
(c) KSK Energy Ventures Limited, Hyderabad.
(d) GAIL (India) Limited, Chandigarh.
(e) BOC India Limited, Kolkata.
(f) LANCO Infratech Ltd, Hyderabad.
More details regarding Indian natural gas companies are given as reference in Annexures
i.e. Table B.7.



                                             21
3.1.4 Renewable Sources

Renewable energy is a source of energy that can never be exhausted. We can obtain
renewable energy from the sun (solar energy), from the water (hydropower), from the
wind (windmills), and waste (biomass). Renewable energy is also called “clean energy”
or “green power” because it doesn’t pollute the air or the water. The term Clean energy is
used to describe sources of energy which are considered environmentally friendly and
non-polluting. Consumers, businesses, and organizations may specifically purchase clean
energy in order to support further development, help reduce the environmental impacts
associated with conventional electricity generation, and increase their nation’s energy
independence. The constituents of renewable energy are:

(a) Hydro Energy
(b) Wind Energy
(c) Bio-Energy
(d) Solar Energy

Currently, the global production of renewable energy is 10,04,000 MW approx, which is
21 times more as compared to India which is 46,375 MW approx.




                                           22
3.1.4.1 Hydro Power
Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. Hydropower was
used for irrigation, and operation of various machines, such as :
(i) Watermills
(ii) Textile machines
(iii) Sawmills
Hydroelectricity currently supplies about 7,15,000 MW or 19% of the world’s electricity,
accounting for 63% of the total electricity from the renewable energy sector. Hydro
energy continues to increase at a growth rate 10% per annum.
Some major global players in hydro energy sector are as follows:
(a) Constellation Energy, Baltimore, USA.
(b) Scottish and Southern Energy, London, England.
(c) Evergreen Energy Inc, Denver, USA.
(d) Northwestern Corporation, Sioux Falls, USA.
More details regarding (global) hydro power companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table A.7.


In India, currently the production of hydro power is around 35,390 MW approx or 25%
of total energy. Hydro energy continues to increase at a growth rate of 6 % per annum.
Some major Indian players in the hydro energy sector are as follows :
Government owned companies:
(a) Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Limited, Uttar Pradesh.
(b) North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited, Meghalaya.
(c) Uttaranchal Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited, Uttranchal.
(d) Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, Karnataka.
(e) Orissa Hydro Power Corporation Ltd, Orrisa.
(f) Uttar Pradesh jal vidyut nigam, limited.
(g) Gujarat State Electricity Corporation Limited, Gujarat.
(h) Damodar Valley Corporation, Kolkata.
(i) Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam, Rajasthan.
(j) NHPC Limited, Haryana.


                                               23
Public/Private Companies
(a) Reliance Power Limited, Mumbai.
(b) Lanco Infratech Limited, Hyderabad.
(c) GMR Group, Bangalore.
(d) Jaiprakash Hydro-Power Limited, New Delhi.
(e) Tata Power, Mumbai.
(f) KSK Energy Ventures Limited, Hyderabad.
(g) Malana Power Company Ltd, Delhi.
(i) Energy Infratech Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
(j) Tata Power, Mumbai.
More details regarding Indian hydro power companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table B.2.




                                           24
3.1.4.2 Wind Energy
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity,
using wind turbines Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical
power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric
power to generate electricity.


Globally, wind energy currently supplies 1,00,000 MW or 2.6 % of the world’s
electricity. Wind energy continues to increase at a growth rate 20% per annum.


Some major global players in wind energy sector are as follows:
(a) Leader Resources Corporation, Ontario, Canada .
(b) General Electric, New York, USA.
(c) American Superconductor, Devens, USA.
(d) Shearwind Inc, Nova Scotia, Canada.
More details regarding (global) wind power companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table A.17.


Currently, India’s Rank fourth by worldwide comparison with an installed capacity of
7,660 MW. Wind energy contributes around 5.5 % of total energy. Wind energy
continues to increase at a growth rate around 27 % per annum.


Some major Indian players in the wind energy sector are as follows :


Government owned companies
Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, Karnataka.
Public/Private Companies
(a) Suzlon Energy Limited, Pune.
(b) BF Utilities Limited, Pune.
(c) Epic Energy Limited, Mumbai.
(d) Indowind Energy Limited, Chennai.
(e) Vestas RRB India Limited, New Delhi.



                                           25
(f) NEPC India Limited, Chennai.
(g) Entegra Infrastructures Limited, Mumbai.
(h) Regen Powertech Pvt Limited, Chennai.
(i) Reliance Energy Ltd, Noida.
(j) LANCO Infratech Ltd, Hyderabad.
(k) Tata Power, Mumbai.
More details regarding Indian wind power companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table B.3.




                                          26
3.1.4.3 Bio-Energy
Bioenergy is stored energy from the sun contained in materials such as plant matter and
animal waste, known as biomass. Biomass is considered renewable because it is
replenished more quickly when compared to the millions of years required to replenish
fossil fuels.
Globally, bio-energy currently supplies around 35,000 MW approx or 1 % of the world’s
electricity. Bio-energy continues to increase at a growth rate of more than 5% per annum.
Some major global players in bio-energy sector are as follows :
(a) Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation, California, USA.
(b) Green Energy Corporation, Norway.
(c) Methanex Corporation, Vancouver, Canada.
(d) Peat Resources Limited, Toronto, Canada.
More details regarding (global) bio-energy companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table A.6.


In India, currently the production of bio-energy is around 1,307 MW approx or 0.94% of
total energy. Bio-energy continues to increase at a growth rate of 2 % per annum.
Some major Indian players in the bio-energy sector are as follows :
(a) Zenith Energy Services Pvt. Limited, Hyderabad.
(b) Aum Consultancy Pvt. Limited, Chennai.
(c) Entegra Infrastructures Limited, Mumbai.
(d) Anama Energies Pvt. Limited, Pune.
(e) Balaji Composites Ltd, Pune.
(f) Biodiesel Technologies, Kolkata.
(g) Biogreen Energy Systems Pvt Ltd, Pune.
(h) Cethar Vessels Pvt Ltd, Mumbai.
(i) Combustion Technologies Pvt Ltd, Pune.
(j) Lars Enviro Pvt Ltd, Nagpur.
(k) Laxmi Organic Industries Ltd, Mumbai.
(l) Mitcon Consultancy Ltd, Pune.
(m) MM Enviro Projects Pvt Ltd, Nagpur.


                                           27
(n) Nandan Biomatrix Ltd, Hyderabad.
(o) Phytotron Agro Products (India) Pvt Ltd, Bangalore.
(p) Purab Infrastructure Projects Ltd, Amritsar.
(q) Selco International Ltd, Hyderabad.
(r) Thermotech Systems Ltd, Ahmedabad.
(s) UBE Industries Ltd, Hyderabad.
(t) Wärtsilä India Ltd, Chennai.
(u) Wealth Solutions Pvt Ltd, Bangalore.
(v) LANCO Infratech Ltd, Hyderabad.
(w) Reliance Energy Ltd, Mumbai.
More details regarding Indian bio-energy companies are given as reference in Annexures
i.e. Table B.5.




                                            28
3.1.4.4 Solar Energy
Solar energy is the heat and light radiated from the Sun that drives Earth's climate and
supports life. Solar power is a synonym of solar energy or refers specifically to the
conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar thermal
devices or various experimental technologies.
Globally, solar energy currently supplies around 1,54,000 MW approx or 4.1 % of the
world’s electricity. At present, market for solar Photovotaics (PV) technologies are
growing at a rate of more than 35 % per annum.
Some major global players in solar energy sector are as follows :
(a) Renewable Energy, Norway.
(b) Abengoa , Seville, Spain.
(c) Day4energy Inc., Burnaby, Canada.
(d) E-TON solar Tech, Tainan, Taiwan.
More details regarding (global) solar energy companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table A.12.


In India, currently the production of solar energy is around 3 MW approx or 0.002% of
total energy. Solar energy continues to increase at a growth rate of more than 40 % per
annum. Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) contribute 2.5% of power generation from renewable
energy.
Some major Indian players in the solar energy sector are as follows :
(a) Tata BP Solar India Limited, Bangalore.
(b) ATR Solar (India), Madurai.
(c) Moser Baer Photovoltaic Limited, New Delhi.
(d) Phocos India Solar Pvt. Limited, Chennai.
(e) Bhambri Enterprises, New Delhi.
(f) Khandelwal Solar Power Limited, Madhya Pradesh.
(g) Lifeway Solar Pvt Limited, Kerala.
(h) Nuetech Solar Systems Pvt Limited, Bangalore.
(i) Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Limited, Rajasthan.
(j) Savemax Solar Systems (P) Ltd, Pune.


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(k) Selco Solar Light (P) Limited, Bangalore.
(l) Tathastu Corporation, Rajkot.
More details regarding Indian solar energy companies are given as reference in
Annexures i.e. Table B.4.




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Chapter- 4 Innovative Renewables


4.1 Mechanical Efficiency
Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used. It may be
achieved through efficient energy use, in which case energy use is decreased while
achieving a similar outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy services. Energy
conservation may result in increase of financial capital, environmental value, national
security, personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are
direct consumers of energy may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy costs
and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users may want to increase
efficiency and thus maximize profit.
Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable resources with
renewable energy. Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy
shortages, and is a more environmentally benign alternative to increased energy
production.


Energy Efficiency Trends


1. Transportation: The transportation includes all vehicles used for personal or freight
transportation. Of the energy used in this sector, approximately 65% is consumed by
gasoline-powered vehicles, primarily personally owned. Diesel-powered transport (trains,
merchant ships, heavy trucks, etc.) consumes about 20%, and air traffic consumes most
of the remaining 15%.


2. Industrial Sector: The industrial sector represents all production and processing of
goods, including manufacturing, construction, farming, water management and mining.
Increasing costs have forced energy-intensive industries to make substantial efficiency
improvements in the past 30 years. For example, the energy used to produce steel and
paper products has been cut 40% in that time frame, while petroleum/aluminum refining
and cement production have reduced their usage by about 25%.




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3. Residential Sector: The residential sector refers to all private residences, including
single-family homes, apartments, manufactured homes and dormitories. Energy use in
this sector varies significantly across the country, due to regional climate differences and
different regulation. Standby power used by consumer electronics and appliances while
they are turned off accounts for an estimated 5 to 10% of household electricity
consumption. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump systems are the more energy
efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available
(Environmental Protection Agency), and can achieve reductions in energy consumptions
of up to 69%.


4. Commercial Sector: The commercial sector consists of retail stores, offices (business
and government), restaurants, schools and other workplaces. Fluorescent lighting (about
four times as efficient as incandescent) is the standard for most commercial space,
although it may produce certain adverse health effects. Recent advances include use of
occupancy sensors to turn off lights when spaces are unoccupied, and photosensors to
dim or turn off electric lighting when natural light is available. Natural gas heating
efficiencies have improved through use of condensing furnaces and boilers, in which the
water vapor in the flue gas is cooled to liquid form before it is discharged, allowing the
heat of condensation to be used.


Details regarding efficiency companies are given as reference in Annexures i.e. Table
A.8, B.9 and C.


4.2 Future fuels
Fuel efficiency means the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy
contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. Non-transportation applications,
such as industry, benefit from increased fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power
plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the
Haber process. Biodiesel is one of world's most promising alternative fuel sources. And
by developing biodiesel, the world will be less dependent on sources of oil. There is a
need for a comprehensive energy strategy, which includes pursuing policies to make



                                            32
prices reasonable at the pump. Today's gasoline prices and diesel prices are making it
harder for families worldwide to meet their budgets. These prices are making it more
expensive for farmers to produce their crop, more difficult for businesses to create jobs.
Another policy in reducing transportation costs is to better conserve. Inaddition,
strategies must be sought to reduce the future damand by countries like India and China
for crude oil. This would include develop new fuels like biodiesel and ethanol as
alternatives to diesel and gasoline.


Details regarding fuel efficiency companies are given as reference in Annexures i.e.
Table D.




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                                      Conclusion
India is a rapidly developing economy with an insatiable demand for power. It’s
government is committed to the exploitation of it’s renewable energy resources,
particularly wind, and has set ambitious targets for capacity installation. Despite rapid
exploitation of this resource the proportion of India’s technical potential not yet exploited
remains huge.


Further, since manufactured fuels lack many of the impurities of crude-oil-derived fuels,
they will be more acceptable from the standpoint of emissions.


The result of the study showed that availability of highly qualified cheap manpower
along with fast growing industrialization and significantly higher economic growth
potential has undoubtedly transformed India into one of the largest potential markets in
the world.




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                    References & Bibliography


 1. Prospectus of KSK Energy Venture Limited.


 2. Prospectus of Reliance Power Limited.


 3. Economic Times.




 Websites


 1. www.investorideas.com


 2. www.google.com


 3. www.wikipedia.com


 4. www.indiaenergyportal.org


 5. www.reeeg.org


 6. www.mnes.nic.in


 7. www.globalenergy.org


 8. www.eco-web.com


 9. www.peswiki.com


10. www.business-standard.com



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                                      ANNEXURES


Table A – Global Renewable Energy Company List.
Table A.1 - Flywheel Stocks.
Table A.2 - Fuel cell and Hydrogen Companies.
Table A.3 - Geothermal Companies.
Table A.4 - Batteries/Energy Storage Backup Companies.
Table A.5 - Biofuel and Ethanol Companies.
Table A.6 - Biomass.
Table A.7 - Clean Power Plants & Utilities.
Table A.8 - Energy Efficiency Companies.
Table A.9 - Green Certificates/Carbon Companies.
Table A.10 - Micro Turbines Companies.
Table A.11 - Natural Gas Companies.
Table A.12 - Photovotaic & Solar Companies.
Table A.13 - Recycling & Recycling Technology Companies.
Table A.14 - Renewable Energy Investment - General Companies.
Table A.15 - Sustainable & Electric Transportation, Green Automotive Companies.
Table A.16 - Wave & Tidal Power Companies.
Table A.17 - Wind Power & Wind Energy Companies.
Table A.18 - Alternative Energy Funds/Indices.
Table A.19 - Oil Companies.


Table B – Indian Energy Company List
Table B.1 - Thermal Power Companies.
Table B.2 - Hydro Power Companies.
Table B.3 - Wind Power Companies.
Table B.4 - Solar Energy Companies.
Table B.5 - Bio Energy Companies.
Table B.6 - Oil Companies.
Table B.7 - Natural Gas Companies.


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Table B.8 - Nuclear Energy Companies.
Table B.9 - Energy Efficiency Companies.
Table B.10 - Recycling & Recycling Technology Companies.


Table C - Mechanical Efficiency Companies.
Table D – Fuel Efficiency Companies.




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