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									                                          Strategies, Marketing and Social Research

                                  Head Office: 259 Glen Osmond Rd, Frewville SA 5063
                                                 Tel: 08 8433 0200 Fax: 08 8338 2360
                                  research@mcgregor.com.au www.mcgregor.com.au




                                         ANNUAL REPORT
                                              2009/ 2010
Funders: Governments of NSW, VIC, QLD, WA, SA, TAS, ACT, NT
   & National Packaging Covenant Industry Association (NPCIA)




                      Prepared for: Keep Australia Beautiful National Association
                                             GPO Box 193, Canberra ACT 2601
                                           M: 00419 016 401, scottl@kab.org.au
                                               P: 02 9698 8773, www.kab.org.au
 Based on field surveys conducted in Nov. 2005, May 2006, Nov. 2006, May 2007,
            Nov. 2007, May 2008, Nov 2008, May 2009, Nov 2009 and May 2010.
                                                                Project No: 8837
                                                                 Date: July 2010
                                                                      CONTENTS
Section 1                        Overview ................................................................................................ 1
                                     Executive Summary ............................................................................................ 1
                                     Suggested User Guide ....................................................................................... 3


Section 2                        Background and Content .................................................................... 4
                                     Keep Australia Beautiful and the National Litter Index ........................................ 5
                                     Purpose .............................................................................................................. 6
                                     Limitations .......................................................................................................... 6


Section 3                        National Litter Index Methodology ..................................................... 7
                   3.1         Scope ........................................................................................................... 8

                   3.2         Material Categorisation ................................................................................ 8
                   3.3         Sites ............................................................................................................. 9
                                     Residential .......................................................................................................... 9
                                     Beach ................................................................................................................. 9
                                     Industrial ............................................................................................................. 9
                                     Car Park ............................................................................................................. 9
                                     Shopping Centre ............................................................................................... 10
                                     Retail Strip/ Shops - Street Precinct ................................................................. 10
                                     Recreational Park ............................................................................................. 10
                                     Highway ............................................................................................................ 10
                                     Site Type Representation ................................................................................. 10

                   3.4         Volumes ..................................................................................................... 11

                   3.5         Timing ........................................................................................................ 12
                   3.6         Litter Counter Training ............................................................................... 13

                   3.7         Auditing ...................................................................................................... 13

                   3.8         Reporting .................................................................................................... 14
                                     Annual Results.................................................................................................. 14
                                                                  2
                                     Litter per 1,000 m ............................................................................................ 14
                                     Illegal Dumping and Miscellaneous Litter ......................................................... 14


Section 4                        Results ................................................................................................. 16
                   4.1         National ...................................................................................................... 17
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 17
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 17
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types ................................................................ 22
                                     The Dirty Dozen ................................................................................................ 26

                   4.2         Australian Capital Territory ........................................................................ 29
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 29
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 29

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                                     Comparison by Main Material Types ................................................................ 34
                                     The Dirty Dozen ................................................................................................ 39

                   4.3         New South Wales....................................................................................... 42
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 42
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 43
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types ................................................................ 47
                                     The Dirty Dozen ................................................................................................ 52

                   4.4         Northern Territory ....................................................................................... 56
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 56
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 57
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types ................................................................ 61
                                     The Dirty Dozen ................................................................................................ 66

                   4.5         Queensland ................................................................................................ 70
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 70
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 71
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types ................................................................ 75
                                     The Dirty Dozen ................................................................................................ 80

                   4.6         South Australia ........................................................................................... 83
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 83
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 83
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types ................................................................ 88
                                     The Dirty Dozen ................................................................................................ 93

                   4.7         Tasmania ................................................................................................... 96
                                     At a Glance ....................................................................................................... 96
                                     Comparisons by Site Types .............................................................................. 97
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types .............................................................. 101
                                     The Dirty Dozen .............................................................................................. 106

                   4.8         Victoria ..................................................................................................... 109
                                     At a Glance ..................................................................................................... 109
                                     Comparisons by Site Types ............................................................................ 110
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types .............................................................. 114
                                     The Dirty Dozen .............................................................................................. 119

                   4.9         Western Australia ..................................................................................... 122
                                     At a Glance ..................................................................................................... 122
                                     Comparisons by Site Types ............................................................................ 123
                                     Comparison by Main Material Types .............................................................. 127
                                     The Dirty Dozen .............................................................................................. 132
Appendix 1:                    Supplementary Information ...................................................................... 135
                                     2005/ 2006 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres .............................................. 136
                                     2006/ 2007 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres .............................................. 137
                                     2007/ 2008 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres .............................................. 138
                                     2008/ 2009 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres .............................................. 139
                                     2009/ 2010 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres .............................................. 140

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                                     Litter Sub-Categories ...................................................................................... 141
Appendix 2:                    Data Collection Form ................................................................................ 144
Appendix 3:                    McGregor Tan Research Profile ............................................................... 148
                                     Quality Management and Privacy Policy ........................................................ 151
                                     Quality Control ................................................................................................ 151
                                     Sampling Procedures ..................................................................................... 152
                                     Privacy Policy ................................................................................................. 152
                                     Data Analysis .................................................................................................. 153
                                     Some of our Clients ........................................................................................ 154




For enquiries on this report please contact:
                 - David O‟Dea or Zing Hai Tan at McGregor Tan Research on 08 8433 0200.
                 Or
                 - Scott Lyall on 0419 016 401 at Keep Australia Beautiful National
                 Association or your local Keep Australia Beautiful office.




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Section 1
Overview
Executive Summary

                    The Keep Australia Beautiful Network (KAB), consisting of independent
                    State and Territory offices coordinated by a national secretariat, is a national
                    organisation that seeks to lead, challenge and inspire all Australians to
                    strive for a sustainable and litter free environment.


                    In 2005/2006, KAB, through the support of the Australian Government
                    recommenced its bi-annual litter count and the annual National Litter Index
                    (NLI) report. The report builds on research that has taken place in SA for
                    many years. In 2005/2006 the Tasmanian count was supported by Cadbury
                    Schweppes. In 2006/2007 a majority of States and Territories joined the
                    Australian Government as financial supporters of the research: NSW, NT,
                    QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA, and in 2006/2007 NT and ACT were included in
                    the fieldwork for the first time. In 2008/09 the National Packaging Covenant
                    Industry Association (NPCIA) came on board as a financial supporter of the
                    NLI.


                    In its current reporting format, which commenced in 2005/06, it is expected
                    that the NLI will, by providing reliable base line data on litter across
                    Australia, assist governments, businesses and community organisations in
                    the development of policies and programs that will reduce litter and provide
                    increased pride in communities across Australia.


                    NLI counts are conducted in November and May each year, and following
                    expansion to the ACT and Northern Territory now cover 983 sites. These
                    sites are divided into eight site types:


                            Beaches

                            Car Parks

                            Highways

                            Industrial

                            Recreational Parks

                            Residential

                            Retail

                            Shopping Centres


KAB 2009/10 NLI - Overview                        -1-
                    Each count records all items of litter present. From the number of items
                    volumes of litter are estimated using well established conversion factors.


                    This base data is then collated to provide trend comparisons between items
                    and volumes within material types and across the various site types.


                    Currently all NLI sites are in urban and near-urban areas. All sites have
                    been selected to be „typical‟ for that site category, and are not varied from
                    count to count. Each site has been measured to determine its area.


                    The 2009/10 National Litter Index has upheld key changes in the report
                    which were initiated in previous years. These include:


                            All results are quoted against a 1,000 square metre site area

                            Illegal dumping has been split out of „miscellaneous‟ litter and quoted
                             separately

                            Gutters have been included in all sites

                    As a result of these changes, benchmarking between individual states and
                    the national data is more reliable.


                    Littering trends showed an overall decrease when collated across Australia,
                    in comparison to figures from 2009/10, 2008/09, 2007/08, 2006/07 and
                    2005/06:



                                           Items per 1,000m2                     Volume (litres) per 1,000m2

               05/ 06    06/07     07/08      08/09     09/10    05/06   06/07      07/08    08/09    09/10
NATIONAL           70         74      68         63         66    8.86    9.68       8.59     7.73     7.55
ACT                  -        68      56         56         51       -    7.04       6.06     4.77     3.31
NSW                80         71      77         65         75   14.95   14.69      11.90    12.13    13.43
NT                   -        64      60         84         70       -    5.32       7.24     6.00     5.09
QLD                89         86      76         59         76    7.66    7.59       7.44     5.60     5.65
SA                 60         61      68         57         54    7.23   11.08       9.55     8.02     7.13
TAS                59         70      61         64         86    5.15    6.68       5.90     9.20     9.04
VIC                71         80      48         43         50    7.87    7.74       4.19     2.87     4.91
WA                 60         83      85         87         71    8.57   12.19      13.06    11.93     9.44




KAB 2009/10 NLI - Overview                            -2-
Suggested User Guide

                    To obtain the best results from your review of this new National Litter Index
                    reporting format it is suggested that the reader use the following five steps:


                    Step 1: Methodology - Review the new reporting methodology noting that
                    the count results are all quoted against a base area of 1,000 square metres.


                    Step 2: National Baseline - Review the national year-to-year results from
                    the 983 sites across Australia and note the changes across the site
                    categories, e.g. (Column chart - page 18) the number of items increased at
                    many locations except for car park, highway and industrial sites, leading to
                    an overall increase from 63 to 66 items per 1,000m2 while (Column chart -
                    page 20) litter volume decreased at all locations other than beach, car park,
                    recreational park and shopping centre sites, leading to an overall decrease
                    of 0.18 litres per 1,000m2.


                    Step 3: Benchmarking - Compare your state‟s results with the national
                    baseline to determine where improvement can be made.


                    Step 4: Trend Analysis - Review your state‟s year-to-year results and
                    compare category variances to the national trend across the four counts
                    recorded in the report. Highlight negative trends and use the accompanying
                    tabulations to determine which items are increasing.


                    Step 5: Setting Priorities - Review your state‟s year-to-year composition
                    charts to highlight changes in litter behaviour.


                    Step 6: The Dirty Dozen - Check your state‟s „Dirty Dozen‟ to ensure that
                    you are targeting the main litterers.


                                                                                     David O’Dea
                                                                              NLI Project Manager
                                                                                     09/ 10 Report




KAB 2009/10 NLI - Overview                        -3-
                     Section 2
               Background and Content




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Background and Content   -4-
Keep Australia Beautiful and the National Litter Index

                    Keep Australia Beautiful (KAB) National Association was formed in 1971 as
                    a federation of the autonomous state KAB Councils which have been in
                    existence since 1966 and continue their work today. A major focus of Keep
                    Australia Beautiful‟s work is the reduction of litter and pollution. KAB
                    encourages people all around Australia to care for their local environment
                    through its awards programs such as the Australian Tidy Towns
                    “Sustainable Communities”, Sustainable Cities and the Clean Beaches
                    target litter, recycling, packaging waste and graffiti.


                    A bi-annual National Litter Index was reinstated in 2005 with funding
                    provided by the Commonwealth and several state governments. This
                    support for a national litter count was prompted by the ratification of a
                    second five-year term for the National Packaging Covenant. Covenant #2
                    has focused on improving the recovery of packaging products consumed
                    away from home. A number of litter reduction projects have also been
                    funded by the Covenant targeting roadside litter (Victoria) and car park litter
                    (South Australia).


                    The revised Covenant is expected to be more results-driven than the first
                    version and has a particular focus on improving the recovery of packaging
                    on products consumed away from home.


                    The National Litter Index was initially developed by KESAB, the KAB
                    Network member in South Australia. The methodology has been refined
                    over many years of continuous surveying in South Australia and more
                    recently from the Australian wide surveys undertaken for the National Litter
                    Index.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Background and Content         -5-
Purpose

                    The purpose of the National Litter Index is to provide insight regarding:


                           The presence of litter items at sites within broadly comparable
                            regions.

                           Estimated volumes of litter objects within the litter stream, based upon
                            a volume-per-item model.

                           The contribution of objects recognized within established main
                            material types to the overall litter stream.

                           The most significant contributors to the litter stream - the „Dirty
                            Dozen‟.

                    It is expected that the information derived from this research will be used by
                    governments and community organisations to develop policies/ programs
                    that will reduce litter and create increased pride in communities across
                    Australia.



Limitations

                    The National Litter Index is not a study of littering behaviour. It is exclusively
                    intended as an assessment of the presence of litter objects within surveyed
                    regions. As such, no corrections for population densities are carried out.
                    The information derived from the Index provides no indication of whether
                    residents of a particular region litter more or less frequently than those in a
                    different region. It does, however, provide insight regarding (a) the relative
                    presence or absence of litter objects and particular material types within the
                    regions surveyed, and (b) result trends over time. As, such findings are
                    considered to be broadly but tentatively standardised to regions of a similar
                    type.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Background and Content           -6-
                         Section 3
                    National Litter Index
                        Methodology




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology   -7-
3.1                 Scope

                    Sites surveyed within the research program were sampled primarily from
                    urban and near-urban areas (i.e. generally within 50km of the urban areas
                    surrounding each state capital). Generalisation of findings to regional
                    locations must therefore be made with caution.


                    The total area surveyed across all sites nationally was 1,499,791m2. This
                    area spanned a total of 983 sites, and the average site size was 1,526m2. A
                    complete table of site area information is provided in the Appendices.




3.2                 Material Categorisation

                    All litter items counted were incorporated within 7 main material type
                    categories. These main material types were further broken down into object
                    sub-categories, as follows:


               MAIN MATERIAL
                    TYPE                                  Object Sub-Category
                   CIGARETTE BUTTS        Total
                                          Alcoholic beverage container
                                          Non-alcoholic beverage container
                                 GLASS
                                          Plain water container
                                          Other
                   ILLEGAL DUMPING        Total
                                          Alcoholic beverage container
                                          Food container or utensil
                                 METAL    Non-alcoholic beverage container
                                          Plain water container
                                          Other
                     MISCELLANEOUS        Total
                                          Cigarette packets
                                          Food container or utensil
               PAPER/ PAPERBOARD          Non-alcoholic beverage container
                                          Publication
                                          Other
                                          Alcoholic beverage container
                                          Food container or utensil
                                          Non-alcoholic beverage container
                                PLASTIC
                                          Plain water container
                                          Shopping bag
                                          Other




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                     -8-
                    These object sub-categories were further broken down into a total of 84
                    separate item-type distinctions (a full list of these is available in the
                    Appendices). Litter counters were required to record the numbers of items
                    within each of these item types that were present at any given site
                    surveyed.




3.3                 Sites

                    All sites incorporated within the survey were categorised according to 8
                    different site types. Uniform guidelines were conformed to during site
                    selection. Site specifications vary from 500 square metres (beaches) to
                    3,000 square metres (highways).



Residential

                    A street area approximately 150 metres in length, along both sides of the
                    road from the front of the properties on each side of that road extending to
                    the gutter including litter in the gutter.



Beach

                    An area of approximately 50 metres long and 10 metres wide, positioned on
                    one or across both sides of a jetty, boat ramp or main entry access point to
                    beach.



Industrial

                    A street area approximately 150 metres long within an industrial area, the
                    count area to be from the fence line or immediate front of the properties to
                    the gutter including litter in the gutter



Car Park

                    An area of approximately 30 by 50 metres in an open space public car park
                    at a point distant from the entrance to the car park.



KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                     -9-
Shopping Centre

                    An area approximately 50 metres long and 25 metres wide, directly outside
                    of the main shopping centre building and including one or across both sides
                    of a major entrance.



Retail Strip/ Shops - Street Precinct

                    An area approximately 150 metres long in front of a strip of shops,
                    extending from the front of the shops to the street gutter and including litter
                    in the gutter.



Recreational Park

                    An area of approximately 40 by 50 metres in a park area which includes a
                    playground but which is not in the immediate vicinity of a shop or kiosk. The
                    areas should be within a frequently used park.



Highway

                    Highways include open major roadways bounded by a vegetated area that
                    may include an open drain.


                    The count area commences from the area beginning at the edge of the
                    road, and extending out from the road to the nearest fence/ boundary or up
                    to a distance of 10 meters out from the road side if no such fence/ boundary
                    exists. Two such areas should be collected from, one on each side of the
                    road. Each region should extend for a length of approximately 200 meters
                    along the road.



Site Type Representation

                    The following table outlines the number of sites within each of the 8 distinct
                    site types that were sampled within each of the states participating in the
                    Index.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                  - 10 -
                    Please note that the numbers of sites sampled from ACT/ NT/ TAS were all
                    designated to represent half the numbers of sites sampled from all other
                    states.


                                                                                  Total Sites
                                 ACT/ NT/ TAS            All Other States
                                                                            Surveyed Nationally
   Beach                               8                        16                   104
   Car Park                            11                       23                   148
   Highway                             13                       27                   174
   Industrial                          9                        17                   112
   Recreational Park                   7                        13                    86
   Residential                         13                       26                   169
   Retail                              8                        15                    99
   Shopping Centre                     7                        14                    91
   Total                               76                      151                   983


                           Proportion of Total Sites by Site Type

                                     Shopping
                                      Centre                 Beach
                              Retail   9%                     11%
                              10%                                      Car Park
                                                                         15%


                 Residential
                   17%                                                Highway
                        Recreational            Industrial              18%
                             Park                 11%
                             9%




3.4                 Volumes

                    Litter volumes were estimated from extensive historical litter data recorded
                    within South Australia.


                    Each litter type incorporated within the study was associated with an
                    individual figure which represented an average volume for each litter item of
                    that type.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                   - 11 -
                      In order to reflect a more realistic scenario the final volumes for each litter
                      category item take into account that a certain proportion of all items found
                      would be crushed and weathered.


                      These volumetric profiles were then extrapolated to calculate estimated
                      volumes of the national data based on the numbers of litter items recorded
                      per category. It should be noted that these volumes represent estimates
                      only, and as such they should be interpreted with caution.


                      For example, the volume estimates based upon the numbers of items found
                      in the following categories were calculated as follows:


                                                             Estimated volume       Number of items      Estimated
                       Item Type                             of one item of this   recorded nationally   volume in
                                                                type in litres           06/ 07            litres


GLASS - Plain water (carbonated or non-carb.), 1 litre+          1.05925                  33              34.96

METAL - Aerosols - pressure packs                                0.68424                  57              39.00

PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Cigarette packets                            0.21787                 3,121           679.97

PLASTIC - Flav. milk, <1 litre                                    0.5327                  544            289.79



3.5                   Timing

                      The National Litter count was initiated in NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC & WA
                      during November 2005, with a second count conducted in May 2006. These
                      counts were conducted at 76 sites within TAS and across 151 sites within
                      each of the other states. Analysis of the ACT and NT was initiated in
                      November 2006. These counts were commenced at 76 sites within each of
                      these territories.


                      Calculations of average litter figures within areas have taken into account
                      the reduced overall areas corresponding to the litter counts for these
                      regions. The 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 National litter counts
                      were conducted during November 2006/07/08/09 and May 2007/08/09/10
                      respectively.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                       - 12 -
3.6                 Litter Counter Training

                    The litter categorisations and assumptions used during the counts of
                    designated sites were broadly as follows:


                          A standard data collection form, was used when conducting the litter
                           counts. A copy of this form is provided in the Appendices.

                          Counters were trained to carefully analyse the litter to ensure that it
                           was properly identified before recording it on the survey form. For
                           example, to determine whether an item is glass and not clear plastic,
                           or to differentiate between fruit juice and fruit drink as these are
                           recorded on different sections of the form.

                          Broken bottles were counted as one bottle, a bag of dumped garbage
                           was considered to be one item of “illegal dumping”, and scattered
                           newspaper pages were counted as one newspaper.

                          While individual cigarette butts are counted, where there are large
                           volumes of cigarette butts an estimated count is acceptable.

                          For the purpose of the Litter Count, all waste located within any count
                           site is litter apart from that properly disposed of in a waste receptacle.

                          Organic matter (including food, chewing gum, and dog faeces) was
                           not recorded during the count.




3.7                 Auditing

                    An audit of site counts and recorded counts that have been data entered is
                    planned and conducted and based on the findings an audit report is
                    prepared and provided separately to the KAB Board. The audit is carried out
                    to provide assurance that the reported results are free from material
                    misstatement.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                    - 13 -
3.8                 Reporting


Annual Results

                    Litter counts have been conducted bi-annually in November and May across
                    the years of 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 respectively.
                    Unless stated otherwise, results are thus reported on an annual basis
                    incorporating average figures corresponding to the combined November
                    and May counts across these years.



Litter per 1,000 m2

                    Numbers of litter items and volumes are quoted against an average 1,000
                    square metre area, in order to allow for the detailed analysis of data within
                    an established comparative framework.


                    This analysis has been applied to all data collected since November 2005,
                    and consequently results are now tracked across 2005/06, 2006/07,
                    2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/2010 using a reliable benchmark comparison.


                    The current litter per area measurement methodology enables meaningful
                    and valid comparisons of the amounts of litter in the litter stream nationally,
                    regionally, and across material types.



Illegal Dumping and Miscellaneous Litter

                    Previous to 2006/07, illegally dumped items were incorporated within the
                    miscellaneous material category. However, the large volumes of these items
                    necessitate the separation of such items into a specific material category.


                    Furthermore, comparisons between main material types do not incorporate
                    illegal dumping or miscellaneous litter on the basis that the material type of
                    such litter items is not identified.


                    For the National Litter Index illegal dumping is defined as the unlawful
                    deposit onto land of waste larger than litter, or in other words, waste
                    materials dumped, tipped or otherwise deposited onto private or public land



KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                     - 14 -
                    where no license or approval exists to accept such waste. Illegal dumping
                    varies from small bags of rubbish in an urban environment to larger scale
                    dumping of materials in isolated areas, such as bushland.


                    In the context of the National Litter Index illegal dumping is any litter that
                    does not fit into the other material categories. See results tables for detailed
                    descriptions of other categories including miscellaneous litter.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Methodology                   - 15 -
Section 4
 Results




    - 16 -
4.1                National


At a Glance

                   The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all 983 sites
                   surveyed in the 2009/10 National Litter Index was 66, while the overall
                   average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 7.55 litres. These figures
                   represent a marginal increase to the number of items per 1,000m2 (63 items
                   per 1,000m2) and a marginal decrease to the volume of litter per 1,000m2
                   (7.73 litres per 1,000m2) in comparison to the findings for the year 2008/09.
                   The results are also lower than all other previous litter monitors in years
                   2007/08 (68 items and 8.59 litres per 1,000m2), 2006/07 (74 items and 9.68
                   litres per 1,000m2) and also 2005/06 (70 items and 8.86 litres per 1,000m2).


                   The most littered sites were retail sites which contributed large numbers of
                   litter items per 1,000m2, but they were associated with only small volumes
                   of litter per 1,000m2. Industrial locations were generally associated with both
                   large numbers of items and litter volume per 1,000m2. While highway sites
                   had a relatively low number of litter items per 1,000m2, they contributed a
                   significant proportion of the overall volume total.


                   Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item, and 32 such objects
                   (up from 30 butts in 2008/09, the same as 2007/08 and down from 35 butts
                   in 2006/07 and 34 butts in 2005/06) per 1,000m2 were recorded in annual
                   figures for 2009/10. Only a very small proportion of the overall litter volume
                   (0.004 litres per 1,000m2) however was associated with cigarette butts.


                   Plastic litter objects contributed the largest amount of volume to the litter
                   stream, and such objects were associated with 2.16 litres (down from 2.39
                   litres in 2008/09, 2.79 litres in 2007/08, 2.99 litres in 2006/07 and 3.22 litres
                   in 2005/06) of volume per 1,000m2 across all sites nationally.



Comparisons by Site Types

                   The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 were located within retail sites
                   (170 items per 1,000m2), industrial sites (104 items per 1,000m2) and
                   shopping centres (88 items per 1,000m2).



KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                     - 17 -
                                     The estimated volumes per 1,000m2 of the litter objects at industrial sites
                                     (15.81 litres per 1,000m2) and highway sites (10.00 litres per 1,000m2) were
                                     higher than within any other site types.

                                       Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NATIONAL - 2009/ 2010




                      180                                                                                  170                             18
                                                                  15.81
                      160                                                                                                                  16
                      140                                                                                                                  14
                                                                   104
                      120                                                                                                                  12
                                                      10.00
                                                                                                                               7.55
              Items




                                                                                                                                                Litres
                      100                                                                                            88                    10
                                76          73                                                                                   66
                       80                                                                     5.62                                         8
                                            5.87                                                           5.78
                       60      4.93                     51                                     43                                          6
                                                                                 36                                 3.39
                       40                                                                                                                  4
                                                                                2.28
                       20                                                                                                                  2
                        0                                                                                                                  0
                               BEACH      CAR PARK    HIGHWAY   INDUSTRIAL   RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL   RETAIL   SHOPPING    OVERALL
                                                                                 PARK                               CENTRE




                                           Average Items per 1000 Sq Metres     Average Vol per 1000 Sq Metres



                                     Tracked results demonstrate some seasonal fluctuations in the numbers of
                                     items per 1,000m2 within most site results. The seasonal trends are for a
                                     peak in the May litter counts and a trough in November litter counts and not
                                     surprisingly, the converse generally appears among beach sites where the
                                     trend is for higher counts in November and lower counts in May.

                                     Nationally, since the litter monitor commenced, there has been an overall
                                     decline in the number of items in the litter stream. The major contributors of
                                     litter items however, were retail sites, followed by industrial and shopping
                                     centres sites.


                                             Items per 1000 Sq Metres by Site Type - NATIONAL




               180                                                                                                                 RETAIL


               160

               140

               120                                                                                                                    INDUSTRIAL

               100
      Items




                                                                                                                                      SHOPPING CENTRE
                  80                                                                                                                  CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                      BEACH
                                                                                                                                      OVERALL
                  60
                                                                                                                                      HIGHWAY
                  40                                                                                                               RESIDENTIAL

                                                                                                                                 RECREATIONAL PARK
                  20

                       0
                      NOV.05    MAY.06 NOV.06          MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08                        MAY.09 NOV.09       MAY.10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                                    - 18 -
                                  The annual average of items per 1,000m2 for the year of 2009/10 (66 items
                                  per 1,000m2) were marginally higher than the figures recorded in 2008/09
                                  (63 items per 1,000m2) but lower than the figures recorded for all other
                                  previous litter monitors in 2007/08 (68 items per 1,000m2), 2006/07 (74
                                  items per 1,000m2) and 2005/06 (70 items per 1,000m2).


                                  The increase was most evident among retail sites (170 items per 1,000m2,
                                  up from 134 items in 2008/09, 131 items in 2007/08 and 154 items in
                                  2006/07). There were also small increases at shopping centres (88 items
                                  per 1,000m2, up from 81 items in 2008/09, 83 items in 2007/08 but down
                                  from 101 items in 2006/07), residential sites (43 items per 1,000m2, up from
                                  38 items in 2008/09 but down from 47 items in 2007/08 and 46 items in
                                  2006/07), recreational parks (36 items per 1,000m2, up from 32 items in
                                  2008/09, 35 items in 2007/08 but down from 46 items in 2006/07) and
                                  beaches (76 items per 1,000m2, up from 73 items in 2008/09, 72 items in
                                  2007/08 and the same as the 2006/07).


                                  Decreases in the litter count were recorded at car park sites ( 73 items per
                                  1,000m2, down from 79 items in 2008/09, up from 71 items in 2007/08 and
                                  down from 88 items in 2006/07), industrial sites ( 104 items per 1,000m2,
                                  down from 109 items in 2008/09 and 122 items in both 2007/08 and
                                  2006/07) and highway sites (51 items per 1,000m2, down from 52 items in
                                  2008/09, 60 items in 2007/08 and 62 items in 2006/07).


                                           Items per 1000 Sq Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - NATIONAL


               180                                                                                                                                      170
               160                                                                                                                         154

                                                                                  131                                                             134
                                                                                                                                                131
               140
                                                                                      122
                                                                                    122                                                  121
               120                                                                      109
                                                                                          104                                                                   101
                                                                                                                                                              91
       Items




               100                      88 88
                     87
                                                     79                                                                                                            83 81 88
                          76 72 73 76
               80                               71        73                                                                                                                  70 74 68
                                                                                                                                                                                         63 66
                                                               57 62 60
               60                                                         52 51                                             47
                                                                                                 45 46              41 46
                                                                                                         35 32 36                38 43
               40
               20
                0
                          BEACH          CAR PARK                HIGHWAY          INDUSTRIAL     RECREATIONAL RESIDENTIAL                      RETAIL          SHOPPING         OVERALL
                                                                                                    PARK                                                        CENTRE




                                                                  YEAR 05/06        YEAR 06/07    YEAR 07/08        YEAR 08/09           YEAR 09/10




                                  The overall trend in the estimated volumes per 1,000m2 of litter items at all
                                  national sites was the gradual reduction in the volume in the litter stream,




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                                                 - 19 -
                          most evident in the findings for industrial sites, highway sites, beaches and
                          car parks.


                          There were also seasonal trends observed in the results where beach site
                          results demonstrated a peak in the November litter counts and a trough in
                          May litter counts and conversely, there were higher litter counts among
                          residential sites in May compared to lower litter counts in November.



                                Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NATIONAL



              25




              20

                                                                                                   INDUSTRIAL

              15
     Litres




              10
                                                                                                  HIGHWAY
                                                                                                  OVERALL
                                                                                                  RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                  RETAIL
              5                                                                                   CAR PARK
                                                                                                  BEACH
                                                                                                  SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                  RECREATIONAL PARK

               0
              NOV.05   MAY.06   NOV.06   MAY.07   NOV.07   MAY.08   NOV.08   MAY.09   NOV.09   MAY.10




                          The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                          national sites for the year 2009/2010 was 7.55 litres per 1,000m2, marginally
                          lower than the estimated litter volume recorded in 2008/09 (7.73 litres per
                          1,000m2) and lower than the volume estimates recorded for all other
                          previous litter monitors in 2007/08 (8.59 litres per 1,000m2), 2006/07 (9.68
                          litres per 1,000m2) and 2005/06 (8.86 litres per 1,000m2).


                          The increases in the volume of litter which were most evident at recreational
                          parks (2.28 litres per 1,000m2, up from 1.07 litres in 2008/09, 1.87 litres in
                          2007/08 but down from 2.76 litres in 2006/07) and shopping centres (3.39
                          litres per 1,000m2, up from 2.65 litres in 2008/09 but down from 4.01 litres in
                          2007/08 and 3.52 litres in 2006/07). There were also small increases
                          apparent in the volumes of litter at beaches (4.93 litres per 1,000m2, up from
                          4.57 litres in 2008/09 but down from 5.17 litres in 2007/08 and 6.74 litres in
                          2006/07), car parks (5.87 litres per 1,000m2, up from 5.56 litres in 2008/09



KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                 - 20 -
                                     but down from 6.52 litres in 2007/08 and 7.46 litres in 2006/07) and retail
                                     sites (5.78 litres per 1,000m2, up from 5.68 litres in 2008/09, 3.63 litres in
                                     2007/08 and 4.79 litres in 2006/07).


                                     Conversely, there were decreases in the litter volume at industrial sites
                                     (15.81 litres per 1,000m2, down from 16.96 litres in 2008/09, up from 15.36
                                     litres in 2007/08 and down from 19.29 litres in 2006/07), highways (10.00
                                     litres per 1,000m2, down from 10.83 litres in 2008/09, 12.48 litres in 2007/08
                                     and 13.81 litres in 2006/07) and residential sites (5.62 litres per 1,000m2,
                                     down from 5.81 litres in 2008/09, 6.86 litres in 2007/08 and 6.62 litres in
                                     2006/07).


                                                Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - NATIONAL




                 25                                                                22.46

                                                                                        19.29
                 20                                                                           16.96
                                                                                           15.36 15.81

                 15                                                 13.81
                                                                         12.48
        Litres




                                                               11.16       10.83
                                                                               10.00                                                                                                           9.68
                                              8.17                                                                                                                                      8.86      8.59
                 10   7.97                       7.46                                                                                                                                                7.737.55
                             6.74                                                                                                 6.86
                                                    6.52                                                                   6.62
                                5.17                   5.56 5.87                                                                      5.81
                                                                                                                                          5.62              5.68 5.78
                                   4.574.93                                                                             4.79                          4.79            4.67    4.01
                 5                                                                                      2.76                                     4.06    3.63              3.52 2.65 3.39
                                                                                                     2.68 1.87 2.28
                                                                                                             1.07

                 0
                             BEACH              CAR PARK            HIGHWAY            INDUSTRIAL        RECREATIONAL     RESIDENTIAL                 RETAIL            SHOPPING               OVERALL
                                                                                                            PARK                                                         CENTRE




                                                                    YEAR 05/06          YEAR 06/07          YEAR 07/08        YEAR 08/09                YEAR 09/10




                                     Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 nationally identify differential
                                     patterns across site types. Site characteristics which are evident are as
                                     follows:

                                                   Industrial sites are associated with moderate to large numbers of litter
                                                    items as well as large litter volume

                                                   Highway sites are associated with both moderate numbers of litter
                                                    items and moderate litter volume

                                                   Retail sites are associated with large numbers of items but only a
                                                    small litter volume

                                                   Car parks, beaches and shopping centres are associated with
                                                    moderate numbers of items but only a small litter volume

                                                   Recreational Parks and residential sites contribute both small
                                                    numbers of items and a low volume to the overall litter stream



KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                                                      - 21 -
                               Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                              NATIONAL - 2009/ 2010



                               20

                                                                                   INDUSTRIAL
             Volume - Litres

                               15

                               10                       HIGHWAY
                                                   RESIDENTIALCAR PARK
                                5                              BEACH                               RETAIL
                                                    RECREATIONAL SHOPPING
                                                        PARK       CENTRE
                                0
                                    0                 50                    100             150           200
                                                                           Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                    Cigarette butts remain the most pervasive litter item nationally, and an
                                    average of 32 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all national
                                    sites during the year of 2009/10 (up from 30 cigarette butts in 2008/09).
                                    However, these items only contributed 0.004 litres per 1,000m2 in volume to
                                    the national litter stream.


                                    Plastic materials and paper/ paperboard objects also contributed strongly to
                                    the litter stream with both categories adding 12 items per 1,000m2 during
                                    the 2009/10 year (unchanged from 2008/09). Plastic items contributed an
                                    overall national average of 2.16 litres of litter volume per 1,000m2 during
                                    2009/10 (down from 2.39 litres in 2008/09) and paper/ paperboard objects
                                    were associated with an average of 1.89 litres of litter volume per 1,000m2
                                    across all sites nationally during 2009/10 (up from 1.77 litres in 2008/09).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                        - 22 -
                         Items and Volume per 1,000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                             NATIONAL - 2009/ 2010



                        35           32                                                                    2.16              2.5
                        30                                                                  1.89
                                                                                                                             2.0
                        25
                                                                                                                             1.5
                Items




                                                                                                                                   Litres
                        20
                        15                                              0.91                 12               12             1.0
                                                      0.53
                        10
                                                                                                                             0.5
                        5
                                    0.004               2                  5
                        0                                                                                                    0.0
                             CIGA RETTE B UTTS        GLA SS           M ETA L              P A P ER/     P LA STIC
                                                                                        P A P ERB OA RD


                                                               Items    Volume




                                  Despite seasonal minor fluctuations in the absolute numbers of items per
                                  1,000m2 identified within main material type categories, results across bi-
                                  annual counts from November 2005 through to the present do not show
                                  significant fluctuations in the proportional contributions of items within main
                                  material types to the overall litter present in the litter stream.



                             Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NATIONAL



                90
                80
                70                        16
                                                               15
                60                               15                                    13                                                   13
                                          14                               13                      12
                                                               15                                         12            11
                             12
        Items




                50                                                                                                                          13
                                            6    12                        12          14
                                            2                  6                                   11     12            11
                40           11                   6            2                       5                                                    5
                                                                           5                        5                    5                  2
                             5                    2                        2           2            2     5
                                                                                                                         2
                30           1                                                                            2
                20                        41                   38
                                                 32                        31          33          31     29            30                  34
                             27
                10
                 0
                         NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10



                                          CIGARETTE BUTTS          GLASS       METAL    PAPER/PAPERBOARD              PLASTIC



                                  Similarly, the representations of specific main material categories within the
                                  litter stream show no significant fluctuations across annual averages for the
                                  years 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10 respectively.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                             - 23 -
                     Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                        Averages - NATIONAL



                             80
                             70
                                                         15
                             60          14                                  13
                                                                                                12               12
                             50          13              13
                                                                             13
                     Items




                                                                                                12               12
                             40              5            6
                                             2            2                  5                  5                 5
                                                                             2                  2                 2
                             30
                             20          34              35                  32                 30               32
                             10
                              0
                                   YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10




      CIGARETTE BUTTS                            GLASS           METAL            PAPER/PAPERBOARD                     PLASTIC



                                 Results for litter volume per 1,000m2 remains generally proportional across
                                 material categories across counts from November 2005 through to present
                                 results, although, there has been a gradual decline in the volume of plastic
                                 in the litter stream.



                             Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NATIONAL



                 7
                 6
                 5       3.39        3.05        2.97    3.02                   2.77
                                                                      2.82              2.51         2.27      2.32     1.99
        Litres




                 4
                 3                                       2.02
                                     2.01        1.80                 1.69      2.07                                    1.90
                         1.76                                                           1.66         1.87      1.88
                 2
                 1       0.96        1.04        1.12    1.09         0.95      0.97    0.87         0.82      0.89     0.92
                         0.54         0.61       0.53    0.60         0.62       0.56    0.61        0.57      0.53     0.54
                 0
                         0.003       0.005       0.004   0.004    0.004         0.004   0.004        0.003     0.003    0.004
                     NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                       CIGARETTE BUTTS        GLASS     METAL      PAPER/PAPERBOARD          PLASTIC



                                 The general downward trend of litter volume has been lead by a decline in
                                 the volume of plastic items in the litter stream, as represented in the figures


KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                        - 24 -
                        for annual averages from 2005/06 to 2009/10, while the volumes of other
                        material type items have remained at similar levels.



                        Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                    Annual Averages - NATIONAL


                        7
                        6
                        5     3.22         2.99           2.79
                                                                      2.39          2.16
               Litres




                        4
                        3
                              1.89         1.91           1.88        1.77          1.89
                        2
                        1     1.00         1.10           0.96        0.84          0.91
                               0.57        0.56           0.59        0.59           0.53
                        0
                              0.004        0.004          0.004       0.003         0.004
                             YEAR         YEAR           YEAR         YEAR          YEAR
                             05/06        06/07          07/08        08/09         09/10



                            CIGARETTE BUTTS   GLASS     METAL     PAPER/PAPERBOARD     PLASTIC




                        Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                        identify the following characteristics of litter objects:


                             Plastic litter and paper/ paperboard items contribute large volumes to
                              the litter stream and are associated with moderate numbers of litter
                              items

                             Cigarette butts contribute a large number of items per 1,000m2 to the
                              litter stream and are frequently identified across all sites, however,
                              they are only associated with a negligible litter volume

                             Metal and glass contribute both small numbers of items and low
                              volumes to the overall litter stream




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                            - 25 -
                                  Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main
                                        Material Type - NATIONAL - 2009/ 2010




                            3.0


                            2.5

                                                                PLASTIC
                            2.0
                                                                 PAPER/
          Volume - Litres




                                                               PAPERBOARD

                            1.5


                            1.0
                                                  METAL


                            0.5           GLASS

                                                                                                CIGARETTE BUTTS

                            0.0
                                  0           5           10      15           20    25         30       35
                                                                       Items




The Dirty Dozen

                                      When partitioned according to object sub-type distinctions, cigarette butts
                                      clearly emerge as the most frequently identified litter item with 32 butts
                                      recorded per 1,000m2 during the 2009/2010 count (up from 30 butts in
                                      2008/09, the same as 32 butts in 2007/08, but down from 35 butts in
                                      2006/07). Other objects frequently identified included:


                                           Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (9 items per 1,000m2,
                                            unchanged from 2008/09 and down from 10 items in 2007/08 and 11
                                            items in 2006/07)

                                           Uncategorised plastic objects (6 items per 1,000m2, unchanged from
                                            2008/09 and 2007/08 and down from 10 items in 2006/07)

                                           Plastic food containers and utensils (5 items per 1,000m2, unchanged
                                            from 2009/10, 2007/08 and 2006/07)


KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                        - 26 -
                                  Uncategorised metal objects (3 items per 1,000m2, unchanged from
                                   2008/09 and 2007/08 and down from 4 items in 2006/07)



                 Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                      NATIONAL - 06/07 to 09/10


                                                                                                                 32
     CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                                30
                                                                                                                 32
                                                                                                                       35
       PAPER /PAPERBOARD -                                        9
                                                                 9 10
               Other
                                                                   10
                                                            6
               PLASTIC - Other                               6
                                                             6
                                                                   10
    PLASTIC - Food container or                        5
                                                       5
              utensil                                   5
                                                        5
                                                 3
                 METAL - Other                    3
                                                 3
                                                   4
                                             2
      MISCELLANEOUS - Total                  2
                                             2
                                                  4
       PAPER /PAPERBOARD -               1
                                         1
       Food container or utensil        1
                                        1
                                        1
                 GLASS - Other          1
                                        1
                                        1
       PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic          1
                                        1
         beverage container             1
                                             2
       PAPER /PAPERBOARD -              1
                                        1
          Cigarette packets             1
                                        1
       PAPER /PAPERBOARD -            1
                                     1
            Publication               1
                                    0
         METAL - Non-alcoholic          1
                                        1
          beverage container            1
                                    0

                                   0               5              10          15           20         25   30         35    40
                                                                                   Items



                                                        2006/07     2007/08      2008/09    2009/10




                       Illegal dumping represented the largest contribution to estimated litter
                       volume (1.85 litres per 1,000m2, down from 1.96 litres in 2008/09, 2.11 litres
                       in 2007/08 and 2.96 litres in 2006/07). Other object sub-categories which
                       were associated with substantial estimated volume measurements included:

                                  Uncategorised plastic objects (0.95 litres per 1,000m2, down from
                                   1.18 litres in 2008/09, 1.49 litres in 2007/08 and 1.53 litres in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                              - 27 -
                                   Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils (0.87 litres per
                                    1,000m2, marginally up from 0.86 litres in 2008/09, 0.82 litres in
                                    2007/08 and 0.75 litres in 2006/07)

                                   Plastic - non-alcoholic beverage containers (0.73 litres per 1,000m2,
                                    down 0.88 litres in 2008/09, 0.89 litres in 2007/08 and 0.99 litres in
                                    2006/07)


                  Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                        NATIONAL - 06/07 to 09/10

                                                                                               1.85
      ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                                                     1.96
                                                                                                      2.10
                                                                                                                        2.96
                                                                   0.95
                PLASTIC - Other                                             1.18
                                                                                     1.49
                                                                                      1.53

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food                                      0.87
                                                                0.86
      container or utensil                                     0.82
                                                             0.75
                                                             0.73
       PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                                 0.80
         beverage container                                       0.89
                                                                     0.99

   PLASTIC - Alcoholic beverage                       0.48
                                     0.01
            container                0.01


    GLASS - Alcoholic beverage                     0.41
                                                    0.46
            container                               0.44
                                                   0.41

METAL - Non-alcoholic beverage                 0.34
                                              0.29
          container                           0.29
                                              0.30

     METAL - Alcoholic beverage                0.32
                                               0.32
             container                            0.42
                                                     0.54

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-                    0.30
                                              0.29
  alcoholic beverage container                 0.33
                                                0.36
                                              0.27
 PLASTIC - Plain water container            0.20
                                            0.21
                                             0.23
                                            0.21
  PAPER /PAPERBOARD - Other              0.10
                                         0.10
                                     0

    PLASTIC - Food container or             0.19
                                            0.19
              utensil                       0.18
                                               0.30

                                   0.0             0.5            1.0               1.5         2.0            2.5     3.0     3.5
                                                                                      Litres


                                                                 2006/07           2007/08     2008/09       2009/10



                        The Dirty Dozen analysis shows the findings from November 2006 through
                        until May 2010. Results for 2005/06 are not included.

                        Prior to the 2006/07 count, specific research for this section of the report
                        was not carried out as part of the National Litter Index project.



KAB 2009/10 NLI - NATIONAL                                             - 28 -
4.2                 Australian Capital Territory


At a Glance

                    The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all of the 76 sites
                    surveyed in the ACT during the counts for the year 2009/10 was 51 items,
                    while the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 3.31 litres.


                    The number of items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream decreased (51 items
                    down from 56 items in 2008/09 and 2007/08 and 68 items in 2006/07). In
                    addition, the current years volume of 3.31 litres per 1,000m2 was lower than
                    previous years (down from 4.77 litres in 2008/09, 6.06 in 2007/08 and 7.04
                    litres in 2006/07).


                    Within the ACT retail sites and shopping centres displayed large numbers of
                    litter items per 1,000m2, but these areas were associated with only small
                    volumes of litter per 1,000m2. Industrial and highway sites contributed the
                    highest total volume of litter per 1,000m2 to the overall litter stream, with
                    moderately high volumes of litter per 1,000m2 also associated with
                    residential and retail sites.


                    Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item in the ACT in
                    2009/2010 with 27 butts per 1,000m2 recorded (down from 28 butts in
                    2008/09, 29 butts in 2007/08 and 36 butts in 2006/07). Cigarette butts
                    however, contributed only a small proportion of the overall litter volume
                    (0.003 litres per 1,000m2).


                    Paper/ paperboard litter objects (1.59 litres per 1,000m2, up from 1.27 litres
                    in 2008/09, 1.39 litres in 2007/08 and 1.47 litres in 2006/07) contributed the
                    largest amount of volume to the litter stream, followed by plastic objects
                    (0.84 litres per 1,000m2, down from 1.58 litres in 2008/09, 1.31 litres in
                    2007/08 and 2.86 litres in 2006/07).



Comparisons by Site Types

                    The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 at the sites surveyed within the
                    ACT during the year of 2009/10 were located within retail sites (175 items
                    per 1,000m2, up from 143 items in 2008/09 and 108 items in 2007/08) and

KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                               - 29 -
                           shopping centres (100 items per 1,000m2, down from 106 items in 2008/09,
                           but up from 95 items in 2007/08). Retail sites also contributed moderately
                           high volumes of litter (3.52 litres per 1,000m2, up from 2.04 litres in 2008/09,
                           but down from 5.64 litres in 2007/08), while shopping centres only contained
                           small volumes of litter (1.22 litres 1,000m2, down from 2.75 litres in 2008/09
                           and 3.49 litres in 2007/08).


                           Industrial sites contributed the highest volume totals to the litter stream, with
                           6.56 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 15.25 litres in 2008/09, 12.01 in 2007/08
                           and 18.60 litres in 2006/07) and estimated litter volume at highways (4.80
                           litres per 1,000m2, down from 6.44 litres in 2008/09, 6.25 litres in 2007/08
                           and 11.82 litres in 2006/07) was also high in comparison to most other site
                           types.


                                         Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - ACT- 2009/ 2010

           200                                                                                                                             7
                                                            6.56
                                                                                                          175
           180
                                                                                                                                           6
           160
                                              4.80
           140                                                                                                                             5

           120                                                                                3.62                               3.31
                                                                                                         3.52        100                   4
   Items




                                                                                                                                               Litres
           100                                                                                                                    51
                                                                                                                                           3
            80
                               57
            60    1.31                                      49                                                                             2
                                              38
                  33         1.18                                                             35                     1.22
            40                                                               0.69
                                                                                                                                           1
            20
                                                                              15
             0                                                                                                                             0
                 B EA CH   CA R P A RK      HIGHWA Y     INDUSTRIA L     RECREA TIONA L   RESIDENTIA L   RETA IL   SHOP P ING   OVERA LL
                                                                             P A RK                                 CENTRE




                                              Items per 1000 Sq Metres     Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                           Tracked results demonstrate an overall downward trend of items per
                           1,000m2 across most site types, with the exception of retail sites and
                           shopping sites. Retail sites litter count has progressively increased from a
                           low in May 2008.


                           Emerging trends in the results are demonstrated in season fluctuations
                           among beaches and recreational parks were there is a peak in the
                           November litter counts and a trough in May litter counts. In contrast there
                           are higher litter counts among residential sites in May compared to lower
                           litter counts in November.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                                       - 30 -
                                                          Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - ACT


                250



                200
                                                                                                                                                           RETAIL



                150
      Items




                                                                                                                                                           SHOPPING CENTRE
                100

                                                                                                                                                           INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                                           OVERALL
                50                                                                                                                                         CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                                           HIGHWAY
                                                                                                                                                           RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                                                                           BEACH
                                                                                                                                                           RECREATIONAL PARK
                  0
                 NOV.06            MAY.07             NOV.07                  MAY.08              NOV.08          MAY.09             NOV.09            MAY.10




                                    The annual average of items per 1,000m2 for the year 2009/10 (51 items per
                                    1,000m2) is below the 56 items per 1,000m2 recorded for the years 2008/09
                                    and 2007/08 and well below the 68 items per 1,000m2 recorded in 2006/07.


                                    Decreases in the litter count were most strongly apparent at industrial sites
                                    (with 49 items per 1,000m2, compared to 71 in 2008/09), highway sites (with
                                    38 items per 1,000m2, compared to 53 in 2008/098) and shopping centre
                                    sites (with 100 items per 1,000m2, compared to 106 in 2008/09).


                                    Theses decreases compensated for the increase in litter counts at retail,
                                    sites (175 items per 1,000m2, up from 143 in 2008/09), car parks (57 items
                                    per 1,000m2, up from 52 in 2008/09) and residential sites (35 items per
                                    1,000m2, up from 30 in 2008/09).


                                              Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - ACT


                200
                                                                                                                                                 175
                180

                160
                                                                                                                                          143
                140

                120                                                                                                                  109108                    106
                                                                                                                                                                  100
        Items




                                                                                                                                                       97 95
                100                     92
                                                                                81 84
                 80                          73           74                            71                                                                              68
                 60                               52 57             53                       49
                                                                                                                                                                             56 56 51
                                                               47
                                34 33                                    38                                        39 38        35
                 40   33                                                                                                   30
                           27
                                                                                                    20 19
                                                                                                          15 15
                 20
                  0
                           BEACH         CAR PARK          HIGHWAY               INDUSTRIAL        RECREATIONAL     RESIDENTIAL         RETAIL          SHOPPING         OVERALL
                                                                                                       PARK                                              CENTRE




                                                                              YEAR 06/07     YEAR 07/08    YEAR 08/09      YEAR 09/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                                                         - 31 -
                           Overall there has been a downward trend in the volume of litter across the
                           ACT, with some sites dropping sharply in volume levels compared to
                           previous counts and others displaying a steady downward trend in volume
                           levels.


                           Emerging trends in volume estimates of litter within site types in the ACT
                           characterise seasonal fluctuations where there were higher litter volumes
                           among residential, shopping centre and car park sites in May compared to
                           lower litter volumes in November. Conversely, there were higher litter
                           volumes among beach sites were there has generally been peaks in the
                           November and a troughs in May.



                                      Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - ACT


                  25




                  20




                  15
         Litres




                  10
                                                                                                INDUSTRIAL


                                                                                                HIGHWAY
                                                                                                RETAIL
                  5                                                                             RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                OVERALL
                                                                                                BEACH
                                                                                                SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                CAR PARK
                   0                                                                            RECREATIONAL PARK
                  NOV.06     MAY.07      NOV.07    MAY.08      NOV.08   MAY.09     NOV.09   MAY.10




                           The annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all sites
                           within the ACT for the year 2009/10 is lower than the results for the previous
                           years (3.31 litres per 1,000m2, down from 4.77 litres in 2008/09, 6.06 litters
                           in 2007/08 and 7.04 litters in 2006/07).


                           The decrease in volume of litre was most strongly evident among industrial
                           sites (6.56 litres per 1,000m2, down from 15.25 litres in 2008/09 and 12.01
                           litres in 2007/08), highways (4.80 litres per 1,000m2, down from 6.44 litres
                           in 2008/09 and 6.25 litres in 2007/08), shopping centres (1.22 litres per
                           1,000m2, down from 2.75 litres in 2008/09 and 3.49 litres in 2007/08) and




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                       - 32 -
                                       car park sites (1.18 litres per 1,000m2, down from 2.23 litres in 2008/09 and
                                       8.57 litres in 2007/08).


                                       There were only marginal increases at a few site types across the ACT, the
                                       largest of these was at retail sites (3.52 litres per 1,000m2, up from 2.04
                                       litres in 2008/09 but down from 5.64 litres in 2007/08).


                                                     Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - ACT



                20                                                              18.60
                18
                16                                                                      15.25

                14
                                                             11.82                 12.01
                12
       Litres




                10                            8.57
                                                                     6.44                                                                                                       7.04
                8                                                                           6.56                             6.75
                                                                6.25                                                                                                               6.06
                                                                                                                                               5.64
                6                                                       4.80                                          4.76                                                            4.77
                                                                                                                                3.49 3.62               3.52 3.48 3.49                   3.31
                4       1.92                                                                                                                                           2.75
                                                  2.23                                                                                               2.04
                           1.70            1.22                                                    1.29                                     1.65                        1.22
                2    1.16           1.31              1.18                                                0.54     0.69
                                                                                                              0.50
                0
                            BEACH             CAR PARK          HIGHWAY            INDUSTRIAL        RECREATIONAL         RESIDENTIAL              RETAIL     SHOPPING CENTRE     OVERALL
                                                                                                         PARK




                                                                               YEAR 06/07       YEAR 07/08     YEAR 08/09       YEAR 09/10




                                       Items and volume estimates per 1,000 m2 within the ACT identify differential
                                       patterns across site types. Site characteristics which are evident are as
                                       follows:


                                                    Industrial sites and highway sites are associated with large estimated
                                                     litter volume but small numbers of litter items

                                                    Residential sites are associated with moderate levels of litter volume
                                                     but small numbers of litter items

                                                    Residential, beach and car park sites were all associated with small
                                                     numbers and low volumes of litter items

                                                    Shopping centre sites were associated with moderate numbers of
                                                     litter items but low levels of litter volume

                                                    Retail sites are associated with large numbers of litter items but only
                                                     small volumes of litter




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                                                            - 33 -
                                   Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site
                                               Type - ACT - 2009/ 2010




                               7
                                                           INDUSTRIAL

                               6

                               5
                                                     HIGHWAY
             Volume - Litres




                               4       RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                  RETAIL
                               3

                               2
                                               BEACH
                                                                               SHOPPING
                                                             CAR PARK
                               1                                                CENTRE
                                           RECREATIONAL
                                               PARK
                               0
                                   0                  50                     100          150          200
                                                                        Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                    An average of 27 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all sites
                                    during 2009/10 in the ACT. Cigarette butts however, contributed only a
                                    small proportion of the overall litter volume (0.003 litres per 1,000m2).


                                    Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in the ACT
                                    were paper/ paperboard litter objects (1.59 litres per 1,000m2), followed by
                                    plastic objects (0.84 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                               - 34 -
                          Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - ACT - 2009/ 2010



             30                                                                                                                           1.8
                                27                                                                   1.59
                                                                                                                                          1.6
             25
                                                                                                                                          1.4
             20                                                                                                                           1.2
     Items




                                                                                                                                                Litres
                                                                                                                            0.84          1.0
             15
                                                                                                                                          0.8
                                                                                                      10
             10                                                              0.48                                            9            0.6
                                                                                                                                          0.4
             5                                           0.23                  3
                                                           1                                                                              0.2
                               0.003
             0                                                                                                                            0.0
                          CIGA RETTE B UTTS              GLA SS              M ETA L        P A P ER/ P A P ERB OA RD    P LA STIC




                                              Items per 1000 Sq Metres   Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                                     Results from November 2006 through to current findings do not show
                                     significant fluctuations in the proportional contributions of items within main
                                     material types to the overall litter present in the litter stream in the ACT.




                            Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - ACT




                          80
                          70
                          60           12           13
                                                                                           11                                        10
                          50           9            13            9           11
                  Items




                                                                                            9                10
                          40           6             4            8                                                     7            12
                                       1             1            5           12            4                10
                                                                  1                         1                           8             3
                          30                                                   4                              4                       1
                                                                               1                              1         3
                                                                                                                        1
                          20           36           37            32                       32                                        28
                                                                              26                             25         25
                          10
                          0
                                NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                          CIGARETTE BUTTS                      GLASS     METAL         PAPER/ PAPERBOARD                 PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                                       - 35 -
                     Annual average figures for counts across 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09 and
                     2009/10 in the ACT confirm the cigarette butts continue to contribute the
                     highest number of items to the litter stream and that this remains
                     consistently proportional among the main material type categories.


                     There has been an overall decline in the number of items by most material
                     type across the litter counts to date, as outlined below:


                               Cigarette butts (27 butts per 1,000m2, down from 28 butts in 2008/09,
                                29 butts in 2007/08 and 36 butts in 2006/07)

                               Paper/ paperboard objects (10 items per 1,000m2, unchanged from
                                2008/09 and 2007/08 and down from 11 items in 2006/07)

                               Plastic objects (9 items per 1,000m2, down from 11 items in 2008/09,
                                10 items in 2007/08 and 12 items in 2006/07)

                               Metal objects (3 items per 1,000m2, down from 4 items in 2008/09
                                and 2007/08 and 5 items in 2006/07)

                               Glass objects (1 items per 1,000m2, unchanged from 2008/09,
                                2007/08 and 2006/07)


             Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                   Averages - ACT



                           70

                           60        12

                           50        11           10                11
                                                                                9
                           40         5
                   Items




                                      1           10                10
                                                                               10
                           30                      4                4
                                                   1                1           3
                                                                                1
                           20        36
                                                  29                28         27
                           10

                           0
                                YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10




              CIGARETTE BUTTS             GLASS   METAL         PAPER/ PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                  - 36 -
                         Results for November counts and May counts reveal a seasonal trend in the
                         number and estimated volume of paper items in the litter stream, decreasing
                         in numbers and volume in November and increasing in May.



                Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - ACT


                     7

                     6

                     5
                          3.21
                     4                2.52
            Litres




                                                         1.14       1.77                       0.96
                     3                         1.49                         1.38
                          1.22
                     2                1.71               1.62       1.26             0.71      2.04
                                               1.16                         1.27
                     1    1.22                                                       1.13
                                      0.64     0.59      0.59       0.77    0.55               0.57
                          0.46        0.50      0.55      0.52       0.42    0.34    0.39      0.33
                     0                                              0.004
                                                                                     0.13
                                                                                               0.003
                          0.004       0.004    0.004     0.003              0.003    0.003
                         NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10



                         CIGARETTE BUTTS         GLASS      METAL    PAPER/PAPERBOARD        PLASTIC




                         The annual averages for from 2006/07 through to 2009/10 show there has
                         been a decrease in the volume levels of most of the material categories in
                         the ACT litter stream, most significantly among plastic litter items (0.84 litres
                         per 1,000m2, down from 1.58 litres in 2008/09, 1.31 litres in 2007/08 and
                         2.86 litres in 2006/07).


                         Reductions in volume levels of other material types in the litter stream also
                         included:

                                 Metal volumes declined to 0.48 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 0.66
                                  litres in 2008/09, 0.59 litres in 2007/08 and 0.93 litres in 2006/07)

                                 Glass volumes reduced to 0.23 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 0.38
                                  litres in 2008/09, 0.54 litres in 2007/08 and 0.48 litres in 2006/07)


                         There was however, a marginal increase in the volume levels of paper/
                         paperboard to 1.59 litres per 1,000m2 (up from 1.27 litres in 2008/09, 1.39
                         litres in 2007/08 and 1.47 litres in 2006/07).



KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                   - 37 -
                 Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                Annual Averages - ACT

                                 7

                                 6

                                 5
                                         2.86
                        Litres   4

                                 3                     1.31           1.58
                                                                                    0.84
                                 2       1.47
                                                       1.39           1.27          1.59
                                 1       0.93          0.59           0.66
                                         0.48          0.54                         0.48
                                                                      0.38          0.23
                                 0
                                         0.004         0.003          0.003         0.003
                                     YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10



                                 CIGARETTE BUTTS   GLASS   METAL   PAPER/PAPERBOARD    PLASTIC




                    Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                    identify the following characteristics of litter objects within the ACT:


                                Paper/ paperboard items contribute large volumes to the litter stream
                                 but are associated with only a small to medium number of litter items

                                Plastic litter items contribute moderate volumes to the litter stream
                                 and are associated with only a small to medium number of litter items

                                Metal and glass items contribute both a small number of items and
                                 volumes to the litter stream

                                Cigarette butts are associated with a large number of litter items but
                                 contribute only a negligible volume to the litter stream




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                 - 38 -
           Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                  ACT - 2009/ 2010




                               3.0

                               2.5
                                                   PAPER/
             Volume - Litres




                               2.0               PAPERBOARD

                               1.5

                               1.0
                                                     PLASTIC
                               0.5          METAL                           CIGARETTE BUTTS
                                         GLASS
                               0.0
                                     0              10              20              30           40
                                                                         Items




The Dirty Dozen

                                     When partitioned according to object sub-type distinctions, cigarette butts
                                     clearly emerge as the most frequently identified litter item with 27 butts
                                     recorded per 1,000m2 within the ACT during the 2009/10 counts (down from
                                     28 butts in 2008/09, 29 butts in 2007/08 and 36 butts in 2006/07).


                                     The other main types of objects frequently identified included:


                                          Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (8 items per 1,000m2, up
                                           from 7 items in 2008/09, the same as 2007/08 and 2006/07)

                                          Uncategorised plastic objects (4 items per 1,000m2, down from 5
                                           items in 2008/09 and 2007/08 and from 6 items in 2006/07)

                                          Plastic food containers and utensils (4 items per 1,000m2, unchanged
                                           from 2008/09 and 2007/08 and down from 5 items in 2006/07)

                                          Uncategorised metal objects (3 items per 1,000m2, unchanged from
                                           2008/09, 2007/08 and 2006/07).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                           - 39 -
              Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                       ACT - 06/07 to 09/10



                                                                                                     27
      CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                             28
                                                                                                           29
                                                                                                                     36
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                                     8
                                                              7
               Other                                           8
                                                               8
                                                  4
               PLASTIC - Other                        5
                                                      5
                                                          6
      PLASTIC - Food container                4
                                                4
             or utensil                        4
                                                 5
                                             3
                 METAL - Other               3
                                              3
                                              3
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -               1
                                        1
       Food container or utensil        1
                                        1
                                         1
       MISCELLANEOUS - Total             1
                                          2
                                          2
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -             1
                                       1
          Cigarette packets             1
                                        1
       PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic         0.5
                                       1
         beverage container             1
                                        1
                                       0.5
                 GLASS - Other         1

         METAL - Non-alcoholic         0.4
                                       1
          beverage container           0.5

       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -             0.4
                                       0.3
            Publication

                                   0              5                10        15       20        25        30    35        40
                                                                                  Items




                                                                   2006/07    2007/08      2008/09   2009/10


                      Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils contributed the largest
                      proportion to the total estimated litter volume (0.96 litres per 1,000m2, up
                      from 0.79 in 2008/09, 0.66 in 2007/08 and 0.58 litres in 2006/07)

                      Other object sub-categories with substantial volume estimates included:

                             Plastic - non-alcoholic beverage containers (0.32 litres per 1,000m2,
                              down from 0.56 litres in 2008/09, 0.51 litres in 2007/08 and 0.79 litres
                              in 2006/07)

                             Paper/ paperboard publications (0.28 litres per 1,000m2, up from 0.17
                              litres in 20085/09, down from 0.49 litres in both 2007/08 and 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                                   - 40 -
                                  Uncategorized plastic objects (0.22 litres per 1,000m2, down from
                                   0.66 litres in 2008/09, 0.40 litres in 2007/08, 1.73 litres in 2006/07).

                        The other notable decrease was from illegal dumped items which was
                        absent from the dirty dozen in the ACT in 2009/10, after contributed the
                        largest proportion to the total estimated litter volume in 2008/09 (0.10 litres
                        per 1,000m2 in 2009/10 down from 0.83 litres in 2008/09).


                  Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories-
                                           ACT - 06/07 to 09/10


                                                                                             0.96
   PAPER /PAPERBOARD - Food                                                           0.79
       container or utensil                                                  0.66
                                                                         0.58

        PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                          0.32
                                                                      0.56
          beverage container                                        0.51
                                                                                      0.79
                                                     0.28
        PAPER /PAPERBOARD -                  0.17
             Publication                                           0.49
                                                                   0.49
                                                  0.22
                PLASTIC - Other                                                0.66
                                                            0.40
                                                                                                                          1.73
                                              0.18
 METAL - Non-alcoholic beverage                    0.28
           container                            0.21
                                                                 0.43
                                              0.16
   PAPER /PAPERBOARD - Non-               0.10
   alcoholic beverage container          0.07
                                                                        0.54
                                             0.16
     METAL - Alcoholic beverage                     0.25
             container                              0.26
                                                       0.32
                                            0.15
    PLASTIC - Food container or               0.20
              utensil                       0.15
                                            0.15
                                            0.15
 PLASTIC - Plain water container            0.15
                                                 0.24
                                              0.19
                                            0.14
     GLASS - Alcoholic beverage                          0.33
             container                                    0.35
                                                           0.37
                                           0.13
        PAPER /PAPERBOARD -                 0.15
           Cigarette packets              0.11
                                                          0.34

                                   0.0      0.2           0.4           0.6         0.8      1.0       1.2    1.4   1.6    1.8   2.0

                                                                                             Litres




                                                                   2006/07         2007/08   2008/09    2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - ACT                                                     - 41 -
4.3                New South Wales


At a Glance

                   The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all of the 151 sites
                   surveyed within NSW during the counts for the year 2009/10 was 75, while
                   the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 13.43 litres.


                   The number of litter items per 1,000m2 represents an increase from the
                   previous year (up from 65 items in 2000/09, but down from 77 items in
                   2007/08, up from 71 items in 2006/07 and down from 80 items in 2005/06).
                   The current volume total is also higher than volumes recorded in the
                   previous two years (up from 12.13 litres in 2008/09 and 11.90 litres in
                   2007/08), however, it remains lower than those recorded in 2006/07 (14.69
                   litres) and 2005/06 (14.95 litres).


                   The most littered sites surveyed within NSW remained industrial sites, car
                   parks and highway sites which were associated with large numbers of litter
                   items and litter volume per 1,000m2.


                   Retail sites contributed large numbers of litter items per 1,000m2, however,
                   they were associated with lower but still appreciable volumes of litter per
                   1,000m2.


                   Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item, with 35 butts per
                   1,000m2 (up from 31 butts in 2008/09, but down or similar to 39 butts in
                   2007/08, 34 butts in 2006/07 and 40 butts in 2005/06) recorded within NSW
                   for the year 2009/10, they were however, associated with only a very small
                   proportion of the overall litter volume (0.004 litres per 1,000m2).


                   Plastic litter objects continued to contribute the largest amount of volume to
                   the litter stream, adding 3.00 litres of volume per 1,000m2 (up from 2.67
                   litres in 2008/09 and 2.95 litres in 2007/08, but down from 3.50 litres in
                   2006/07 and 4.19 litres in 2005/06). Paper/ paperboard objects contributed
                   the second largest volume to the litter stream, with 2.72 litres of volume per
                   1,000m2 (up from 2.24 litres in 2008/09, 2.03 litres in 2007/08, 2.21 litres in
                   2006/07 and 2.68 litres in 2005/06).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                          - 42 -
Comparisons by Site Types

                            The largest numbers of items per 1,000 m2 were associated with industrial
                            sites (141 items, up from 122 items in 2008/09 and 2007/08) retail locations
                            (121 items, up from 101 items in 2008/09 and 103 items in 2007/08) and car
                            park sites (88 items, down from 95 items in 2008/09, up from 76 items in
                            2007/08, but below the 94 items recorded in 2005/06).


                            Industrial sites (26.62 litres, down from 34.86 litres in 2008/09) also
                            displayed higher volume totals per 1,000 m2 in comparison to other site
                            types. A considerable estimated volume of litter was also recorded at
                            highway sites (21.85 litres, up from 13.99 litres in 2008/09) and car parks
                            (14.93 litres, down from 14.64 litres in 2008/09).


                             Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NSW - 2009/ 2010




              160                                      141                                                                   30
                                                      26.62
              140
                                                                                               121                           25
              120                         21.85

                                 88                                                                                          20
              100
                                                                                                                    75
      Items




                                                                                                                                  Litres
                                14.93       75                                                            78
               80    66                                                                                            13.43     15

               60                                                                   42         10.31
                    7.31                                                                                                     10
                                                                                   7.97
               40                                                     34                                 4.97

                                                                     1.63                                                    5
               20

                0                                                                                                            0
                    BEACH      CAR PARK   HIGHWAY    INDUSTRIAL   RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL   RETAIL   SHOPPING   OVERALL
                                                                      PARK                               CENTRE




                                                    Items per 1000 Sq Metres         Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                            Tracked results from November 2005 demonstrate seasonal fluctuations
                            among shopping centres, residential and industrial sites with an increase in
                            the overall numbers of items per 1,000m2 recorded in the May counts, and
                            lower results in figures for November counts.


                            Since the inception of the litter monitors there also appears to be a gradual
                            increase in the number of litter items per 1,000m2 at retail and industrial
                            sites.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                              - 43 -
                                                                   Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NSW


                    200

                    180
                                                                                                                                                                                     INDUSTRIAL
                    160

                    140
                                                                                                                                                                                     RETAIL
                    120
            Items




                    100
                                                                                                                                                                                     CAR PARK
                    80                                                                                                                                                               BEACH
                                                                                                                                                                                     OVERALL
                                                                                                                                                                                     SHOPPING CENTRE
                    60
                                                                                                                                                                                     HIGHWAY
                    40                                                                                                                                                               RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                                                                                                     RECREATIONAL PARK
                    20

                      0
                     NOV.05            MAY.06            NOV.06           MAY.07          NOV.07         MAY.08            NOV.08         MAY.09             NOV.09           MAY.10




                                            The annual average number of litter items per 1,000m2 within NSW for the
                                            year of 2009/10 (75 items) represented an increase from the figure recorded
                                            in 2008/09 (65 items), but remained lower than the number of litter items
                                            recorded in 2007/08 (77 items).


                                            Increases in the litter recorded per 1,000m2 were most strongly evident at
                                            shopping centres (78 items, up from 49 items in 2008/09), beaches (66
                                            items, up from 45 items in 2007/08), retail sites (121 items, up from 101
                                            items in 2008/09) and industrial sites (141 items, up from 122 items in
                                            2008/09).


                                            There was however, a decrease in the litter recorded per 1,000m2 at car
                                            park sites (88 items, down from 95 items in 2008/09).


                                                         Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - NSW

            160
                                                                                          136        141
            140
                                                                                                 122
                                                                                                   122                                                                  121
            120      110
                                                                              102                                                                                  103
                                                                                                                                                                     101
                                            94 91        95         95                                                                                                         93
            100                                               88         84                 86                                                             83 87                    82 78             80
    Items




                                                    76                               75                                                                                                          78             77        75
             80                        66                                                                                                                                                                  71
                          60 60                                                 63                                                                                                                                   65
             60                   45                                                                                                                                                        49
                                                                                                                                          43        42
                                                                                                                  37              37 40
             40                                                                                              31        30 32 34                31

             20

                0
                           BEACH              CAR PARK                   HIGHWAY            INDUSTRIAL       RECREATIONAL          RESIDENTIAL                 RETAIL         SHOPPING CENTRE              OVERALL
                                                                                                                 PARK




                                                                              YEAR 05/06        YEAR 06/07    YEAR 07/08          YEAR 08/09             YEAR 09/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                                                                    - 44 -
                             There is also some seasonal fluctuation evident in volume estimates of litter
                             within site types in the NSW where there are higher litter volumes among
                             residential and shopping centre sites in May compared to lower litter
                             volumes in November. Conversely, there are higher litter volumes among
                             beach and highway sites in the November and a lower volumes in May.

                             The volume estimates from the other site types show fluctuations across
                             count results but without evidence of predictable seasonal activity.
                             Fluctuations in litter volumes at industrial and highway sites are mainly due
                             the discarding of high volume materials through illegal dumping.


                                       Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NSW



                    50

                    45

                    40

                    35
                                                                                                          INDUSTRIAL
                    30
           Litres




                    25

                    20

                    15                                                                                    CAR PARK
                                                                                                          HIGHWAY
                                                                                                          OVERALL
                    10                                                                                    RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                          RETAIL
                                                                                                          BEACH
                    5
                                                                                                          SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                          RECREATIONAL PARK
                     0
                    NOV.05    MAY.06   NOV.06   MAY.07   NOV.07   MAY.08   NOV.08   MAY.09   NOV.09   MAY.10




                             The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                             sites within NSW for the year 2009/10 (13.43 litres) was marginally higher
                             than the results recorded in the previous two years (up from 12.13 litres in
                             2008/09 and 11.90 litres in 2007/08) but still remain lower however, than the
                             results for 2006/07 (14.69 litres) and 2005/06 (14.95 litres).

                             The increase in litter volume per 1,000m2 was most strongly reflected within
                             the recorded results from highway sites (21.85 litres, up from 13.99 litres in
                             2008/09 and 18.99 litres in 2007/08) and beach sites (7.31 litres, up from
                             3.34 litres in 2008/09, but down from 7.43 litres in 2007/08).

                             Conversely, decreases in the annual average estimated litter volume per
                             1,000m2 were most evident at industrial sites (26.62 litres, down from 34.86




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                         - 45 -
                                       litres in 2008/09) and residential sites (7.97 litres, down from 10.80 litres in
                                       2008/09).


                                                   Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - NSW




              40

                                                                                         34.86
              35                                                                33.13


              30
                                                                                    27.23    26.62

              25                       23.79
                                                                        21.85
                                                             20.52
     Litres




                                         18.85                  18.99
              20
                   16.59                                                                16.60                                                                                      14.95
                                                  14.64    15.89                                                                                                                                 13.43
                     13.63                     14.14 14.93         13.99                                                                                                               14.69 12.13
              15                                                                                                        13.03                               13.25
                                                                                                                                                                                           11.90
                                                                                                                               10.80                                11.46
                                                                                                                      10.13 9.38                    10.61
                                                                                                                                                        10.31
              10                                                                                                                          8.85
                           7.43 7.31                                                                                               7.97
                                                                                                                                             6.85
                                                                                                                                                                  5.31      4.97
              5               3.34                                                                                                                                       3.89
                                                                                                        1.97
                                                                                                                                               2.19
                                                                                                     1.10 1.94 1.63
                                                                                                             1.16
              0
                           BEACH           CAR PARK            HIGHWAY             INDUSTRIAL         RECREATIONAL       RESIDENTIAL           RETAIL           SHOPPING CENTRE         OVERALL
                                                                                                          PARK




                                                         YEAR 05/06      YEAR 06/07         YEAR 07/08     YEAR 08/09     YEAR 09/10




                                       Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within NSW identify the following
                                       site characteristics across the respective site types surveyed in 2009/10:


                                                   Industrial sites were associated with both large numbers of litter items
                                                    as well as high levels of litter volumes

                                                   Retail sites were associated with high numbers of litter items and
                                                    moderate levels of litter volumes

                                                   Car park sites were associated with both moderate levels of litter
                                                    items and litter volumes

                                                   Shopping centres were associated with moderate levels of litter items
                                                    and low levels of litter volumes

                                                   Beaches, recreational parks and residential sites were associated
                                                    with both lower levels of litter items and litter volumes




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                                                            - 46 -
                            Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                              NSW - 2009/ 2010




                            30


                            25                                                                            INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                 HIGHWAY
                            20
          Volume - Litres




                            15                                                         CAR PARK


                            10                                                                          RETAIL
                                                                 BEACH

                                                   RESIDENTIAL
                            5                                                     SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                      RECREATIONAL
                            0                             PARK

                                 0         20         40         60             80      100       120       140        160
                                                                               Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                     An average of 35 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all sites
                                     surveyed within NSW during the year of 2009/10. These items however,
                                     only contributed 0.004 litres per 1,000m2 in volume to the litter stream in
                                     that state.


                                     Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in NSW in
                                     2009/10 were plastic objects (3.00 litres per 1,000m2) and paper/
                                     paperboard objects (2.72 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                                 - 47 -
                      Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                             NSW - 2009/ 2010




                   40          35                                                                     3.00         3.5
                   35                                                              2.72                            3.0
                   30                                                                                              2.5
                   25
           Items




                                                                                                                         Litres
                                                                                       17                          2.0
                   20                                           1.31
                                                                                                       13          1.5
                   15
                   10                            0.69                                                              1.0
                                                                  5
                    5                                                                                              0.5
                              0.004               3
                    0                                                                                              0.0
                         CIGA RETTE B UTTS       GLA SS         M ETA L            P A P ER/         P LA STIC
                                                                               P A P ERB OA RD




                                         Items per 1000 Sq Metres          Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                            There is no evidence to support the notion of a seasonal pattern among
                            material categories, the contribution of each main material type to the
                            overall litter stream, however, has remained proportionally consistent across
                            each count. The only significant variance remains the cigarette butt litter
                            count recorded in May 2006 which remains well above all other counts.



                            Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NSW


                      100
                       90
                                         16
                       80

                       70                                                         12
                                         21                13             12                                       13
                                                                                                                                  12
                       60                                                                               12
                              11                      12
              Items




                                             5             16             14      20         10                    18
                       50                    3                                                                                    17
                                                           4              4                             16
                              13                      14                           3         15                    5
                       40                                  2              4        2                                              5
                                                                                                         3         3              2
                               4                      4                                          4       2
                       30      1                      4                                          2
                                         48
                       20                                  39             38      39                               36
                              31                                                             29         33                        34
                                                      29
                       10
                        0
                            NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                      CIGARETTE BUTTS      GLASS          METAL    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD             PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                           - 48 -
                          There has been a marginal increase over all material categories in 2009/10
                          from the results recorded in 2008/09. The contribution of each main material
                          type to the overall litter stream however, has maintained a similar
                          proportional contribution to the overall totals.



                 Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                      Averages - NSW



                     90

                     80

                     70        13                          12
                                                                                    13
                                             12
                     60
                                                                        11
                               17                          17
                     50                                                             17
             Items




                                             15
                                4                          4            15
                     40         2            4             3                        5
                                             3                          3           3
                     30                                                 2

                     20        40                          39
                                             34                         31          35
                     10

                     0
                           YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10



                CIGARETTE BUTTS          GLASS     METAL        PAPER/ PAPERBOARD    PLASTIC




                          There is the absence of evidence to support the notion of a seasonal pattern
                          among material categories. Each of the main material types maintained a
                          similar proportional contribution to the overall estimated litter volume across
                          seasonal counts.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                  - 49 -
                         Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NSW

                   12


                   10


                   8
                         5.93                                                                    3.86
          Litres




                   6                               2.82
                                 2.46                         3.68                                       2.14
                                         4.18                                   2.57     2.77
                                                                        2.21
                   4
                                                                                                 2.89
                         2.37                      2.47                                                  2.55
                                 2.99                         1.72              2.12
                                                                        2.34             2.36
                   2                     1.94
                         1.08                      1.17       0.82              0.74             1.40    1.23
                                 0.68    0.53                           0.63             0.67
                         0.80    0.63     0.61      0.87       0.90      0.51   0.96     0.64    0.80    0.59
                   0                                                    0.005                    0.004   0.004
                         0.004   0.006   0.003     0.005      0.004             0.003    0.004
                        NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10


                            CIGARETTE BUTTS      GLASS     METAL      PAPER/PAPERBOARD     PLASTIC



                          Annual results for the year 2009/10 revealed an overall increase in the
                          volume of litter per 1,000m2 in NSW across all main material types except
                          glass. Glass declined to the lowest volume recorded during across all litter
                          monitors in 2009/10 (0.69 litres, down from 0.80 litres in 2008/09, 0.71 litres
                          in 2007/08, 0.74 litres in 2006/07 and 0.71 litres in 2005/06).


                          The largest increase in 2009/2010 among the other main material types was
                          the increase in the volumes per 1,000m2 of metal litter (1.31 litres, up from
                          0.71 litres in 2008/09, 0.72 litres in 2007/08, 0.85 litres in 2006/07 and 0.88
                          litres in 2005/06). Paper/ paperboard and plastic volumes per 1,000m2 also
                          increased marginally from 2008/09 to 2009/10, as outlined:


                                Paper (2.72 litres, up from 2.24 litres in 2008/09, 2.03 litres in
                                 2007/08, 2,21 litres in 2006/07 and 2.68 litres in 2005/06)

                                Plastic (3.00 litres, up from 2.67 litres in 2008/09, down from 2.95
                                 litres in 2007/08, but down from 3.50 litres in 2006/07 and 4.19 litres
                                 in 2005/06)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                      - 50 -
                    Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                         Averages - NSW




                    9
                    8
                    7
                             4.19                                                          3.00
                    6
                                                 3.50
                                                                             2.67
           Litres




                    5                                            2.95
                    4
                                                                                           2.72
                    3        2.68                2.21            2.03        2.24
                    2
                             0.88                0.85            0.72        0.71          1.31
                    1
                              0.71               0.74            0.71         0.80          0.69
                    0
                             0.005               0.004           0.004       0.004         0.004
                        YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09                     YEAR 0/10


                        CIGARETTE BUTTS          GLASS   METAL     PAPER/PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC



                         Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                         identify the following characteristics of litter objects recorded within NSW
                         during the year of 2009/2010:


                                    Plastic and paper/ paperboard items contribute large volumes to the
                                     litter stream and were also associated with a moderate number of
                                     litter items

                                    Cigarette butts are associated with large numbers of litter items but
                                     they contribute only a negligible volume to the overall litter stream in
                                     the state

                                    Metals items are contributed a lower number of litter items and
                                     moderate volumes to the litter stream

                                    Glass items are associated with a lower number of litter items and
                                     lower volumes in the litter stream




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                       - 51 -
              Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material
                              Type - NSW - 2009/ 2010




                                   3.0                          PLASTIC
                                                                               PAPER/
                                   2.5                                       PAPERBOARD
                 Volume - Litres




                                   2.0

                                   1.5
                                                      METAL

                                   1.0           GLASS

                                   0.5
                                                                                     CIGARETTE BUTTS
                                   0.0
                                         0               10              20             30             40
                                                                             Items




The Dirty Dozen

                                   Within object type sub-categories, cigarette butts remained the strongest
                                   contributor to the presence of litter objects at sites within NSW, with 35 butts
                                   per 1,000m2 were identified on average across the 2009/10 counts (up from
                                   31 butts in 2008/09, down from 39 in 2007/08 and up from 34 butts in
                                   2006/07).


                                   Other object sub-categories associated with large litter counts included:


                                            Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (12 items per 1,000m2, up
                                             from 11 items in 2008/09, down from 13 items in 2007/08 and up from
                                             10 items in 2006/07)

                                            Plastic food containers or utensils (5 items per 1,000m2, unchanged
                                             from 2008/09, up from 4 items in 2007/08 and the same as 2006/07)

                                            Uncategorised plastic objects (5 items per 1,000m2, up from 5 items
                                             in 2008/09 and the same as 2007/08 and 2006/07)



KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                               - 52 -
             Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                      NSW - 06/07 to 09/10



                                                                                                  35
 CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                     31
                                                                                                       39
                                                                                                  34

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                              12
                                                 11
          Other                                     13
                                                10

 PLASTIC - Food container                  5
                                          5
        or utensil                       4
                                           5
                                          5
          PLASTIC - Other                4
                                          5
                                          5
                                    3
            METAL - Other          2
                                   2
                                   2
                                     2
  MISCELLANEOUS - Total            2
                                   2
                                   2

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                    2
                                   1
       Publication                1
                                  1

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -               2
                                   1
  Food container or utensil       1
                                    2
                                   2
            GLASS - Other         1
                                    2
                                    2

    METAL - Non-alcoholic          1
                                  1
     beverage container           1
                              0

  PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic          1
                                  1
    beverage container            1
                                    2

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                  1
                                  1
     Cigarette packets            1
                                  1

                              0          5     10        15            20       25      30        35   40   45
                                                               Items




                                               2006/07    2007/08           2008/09   2009/10



                       Illegal dumping was strongly associated with litter volume present at sites
                       within NSW and contributed 5.47 litres of litter volume per 1,000m2 (down
                       from 5.58 litres in 2008/09, up from 5.26 litres in 2007/08 but still down
                       substantially from 7.15 litres in 2006/07).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                         - 53 -
                   Other object sub-categories associated with large litter volume estimates
                   included:

                        Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils (1.10 litres per
                         1,000m2, up from 0.87 litres in 2008/09, 0.83 litres in 2007/08 and
                         0.72 litres in 2006/07)

                        Plastic - non-alcoholic beverage containers (1.03 litres per 1,000m2,
                         up from 0.80 litres in 2008/09 and 0.95 litres in 2007/08 and down
                         from 1.23 litres in 2006/07)

                        Paper/ paperboard - publications (1.01 litres per 1,000m2, down from
                         0.83 litres in 2008/09, 0.70 litres in 2007/08 and 0.90 litres in 2006/07)

                        Uncategorised plastic objects (1.00 litres per 1,000m2, down from
                         1.23 litres in 2008/09, 1.52 litres in 2007/08 and 1.62 litres in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                         - 54 -
               Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                        NSW - 06/07 to 09/10

                                                                                                         5.47
                              ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                                     5.58
                                                                                                        5.26
                                                                                                                        7.15
                                                                      1.10
        PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food container or utensil               0.87
                                                                    0.83
                                                                   0.72
                                                                     1.03
             PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic beverage container            0.80
                                                                    0.95
                                                                      1.23
                                                                     1.01
                    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Publication                 0.83
                                                                   0.70
                                                                    0.90
                                                                        1.00
                                        PLASTIC - Other                   1.23
                                                                            1.52
                                                                             1.62
                                                                  0.70
                         PLASTIC - Plain water container        0.42
                                                               0.29
                                                                0.40
                                                                  0.58
               METAL - Non-alcoholic beverage container         0.32
                                                                0.33
                                                                0.32
                                                                 0.51
                   GLASS - Alcoholic beverage container           0.58
                                                                 0.49
                                                                 0.49
                                                               0.28
               PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Cigarette packets           0.26
                                                               0.22
                                                               0.26
                                                             0.27
                   METAL - Alcoholic beverage container     0.15
                                                            0.14
                                                           0
                                                             0.26
                                          METAL - Other     0.11
                                                            0.13
                                                           0
                                                               0.25
 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-alcoholic beverage container          0.18
                                                               0.19
                                                               0.25

                                                           0       1          2       3     4      5       6        7          8
                                                                                          Litres



                                                                      2006/07       2007/08   2008/09     2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NSW                                          - 55 -
4.4                    Northern Territory


At a Glance

                       Overall, there were 70 items per 1,000m2 on average recorded across all of
                       the 76 sites surveyed in the Northern Territory during the 2009/10 litter
                       counts, while the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 5.09
                       litres.


                       The number of items per 1,000m2 represented a decrease from previous
                       year (down from 84 items in 2008/09 but up from 60 items in 2007/08) and
                       similarly, the current volume of 5.09 per 1,000m2 also represented a
                       decrease from the previous year (down from 6.00 litres in 2008/09 and 7.24
                       litres in 2007/09).


                       Within the Northern Territory, retail sites were associated with the highest
                       number of litter items and also contributed a substantial volume of litter to
                       the estimated total volume. Other sites that also contributed large volumes
                       of litter to the litter stream in the Northern Territory included beaches,
                       residential and car park sites.


                       Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item over all sites in the
                       Northern Territory for 2009/10, with an average of 38 butts per 1,000 m2
                       (unchanged from 2008/09 but up from 28 butts in 2007/08, they were
                       however, associated with only a very small proportion of the overall litter
                       volume (0.004 litres per 1,000m2).

                       Plastic litter items contributed the highest amount of volume to the litter
                       total, with 1.83 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 1.87 litres in 2008/09 and 2.28
                       litres in 2007/08). Paper/ paperboard items (1.14 litres per 1,000m2,
                       marginally up from 1.12 litres in 2008/09, but down from 1.27 litres in
                       2007/08) and metal items (0.82 litres per 1,000m2, down from 0.90 litres in
                       2008/09 and 1.20 litres in 2007/08) also contributed appreciable amounts to
                       the overall total volume in the litter stream.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                - 56 -
Comparisons by Site Types

                       The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 at the sites surveyed within the
                       Northern Territory during the year 2009/10 were located within retail sites
                       (364 items per 1,000m2, up from 225 items in 2008/09 and 230 items in
                       2007/08). Retail sites also contributed the third highest volume of litter per
                       1,000m2 by site across the Northern Territory (6.57 litres per 1,000m2, down
                       from 11.74 litres in 2008/09 and marginally up from 6.34 litres in 2007/08).

                       The other sites that contributed the second and third highest, although more
                       moderate, levels of items per 1,000m2 to the litter stream were beaches (98
                       items per 1,000m2, down from 154 items in 2007/08 and 101 items in
                       2007/08) and shopping centres (81 items per 1,000m2, down from 100 items
                       in 2007/08 and up from 74 items in 2007/08).

                       The highest level of estimated volume per 1,000m2 of the litter in the litter
                       stream was recorded at residential sites (8.19 litres, down from 10.42 litres
                       in 2008/09 and up from 7.89 litres in 2007/08), these sites however, were
                       associated with only a smaller number of litter items per 1,000m2 (61 items,
                       up from 52 items in 2008/09 and 42 items in 2007/08).

                       High to moderate levels of litter volume per 1,000m2 were also contributed
                       by beaches (7.64 litres, down from 12.52 litres in 2008/09 and 14.53 litres in
                       2007/08) and car parks (6.22 litres, down from 8.29 litres in 2008/09 and
                       14.79 litres in 2007/08).

                       Both highway and industrial sites contributed small numbers of litter items
                       and moderate volumes of litter, while recreational parks were associated
                       with both low levels of litter items and low volumes of litter.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                               - 57 -
                                       Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NT - 2009/ 2010

             400                                                                                                                           9
                                                                                        8.19         364
                            7.64                                                                                                           8
             350

                                                                                                     6.57                                  7
             300                      6.22
                                                                                                                                  5.09     6
             250                                                                                                                   70
                                                                                                                                           5
    Items




                                                                                                                                               Litres
                                                 4.32
             200
                                                            3.92                                                   3.90
                                                                                                                                           4
             150
                                                                                                                                           3
                             98                                          1.81             61
             100                       64                                                                              81
                                                                                                                                           2
                                                  47         49
                50                                                         33
                                                                                                                                           1

                    0                                                                                                                      0
                            BEACH    CAR PARK   HIGHWAY   INDUSTRIAL   RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL    RETAIL        SHOPPING      OVERALL
                                                                           PARK                                     CENTRE




                                                Items per 1000 Sq Metres      Volume per 1000 Sq Metres



                                    The tracked results demonstrate that there are some seasonal fluctuations
                                    in the number of litter items per 1,000m2, particularly within beach and retail
                                    sites which display peaks in May and troughs in November.


                                    Litter item counts among most site types have remained relatively steady
                                    when tracked from November 2006. The most noticeable differences are the
                                    fluctuations at retail sites, due largely to cigarette butts.



                                                Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NT


                    600

                                                                                                                                  RETAIL
                    500


                    400
            Items




                    300


                    200

                                                                                                                                  BEACH

                    100                                                                                                 OVERALL RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                                                CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                                                HIGHWAY
                         0                                                                                                      RECREATIONAL PARK
                        NOV.06      MAY.07      NOV.07      MAY.08         NOV.08           MAY.09            NOV.09          MAY.10




                                    The annual average of items per 1,000m2 within the Northern Territory for
                                    the year 2009/10 totalled 70 items, which is significantly lower than the 84
                                    items recorded for 2008/09.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                                      - 58 -
                                          Decreases in the number of items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream were most
                                          evident at car parks (64 items, down from 179 items in 2008/09), industrial
                                          sites (49 items, down from 121 items in 2008/09) and beaches (98 items,
                                          down from 154 items in 2008/09). Conversely, the increase in the number of
                                          items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream was most apparent at retail sites (364
                                          items, up from 225 items in 2008/09).


                                                    Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - NT


             400                                                                                                                                      364
             350

             300
                                                                                                                                        230
             250                                                                                                                               225
     Items




             200                                   179
                               154                                                                                                     165
             150                                                                            121                                                             129
                             101     98                                                98                                                                              100
             100        77                 82 73                                                                                                                  74         81           84
                                                         64                                                                                                                       64 60        70
                                                               49         47      56              49                    51 42 52 61
                                                                    33 41
             50                                                                                           21 25 31 33
                0
                             BEACH           CAR PARK           HIGHWAY            INDUSTRIAL            RECREATIONAL    RESIDENTIAL         RETAIL         SHOPPING CENTRE        OVERALL
                                                                                                             PARK




                                                                               YEAR 06/07         YEAR 07/08      YEAR 08/09   YEAR 09/10




                                          Overall, there has been a downward trend with regard to total litter volume
                                          in the litter stream in the Northern Territory.


                                          Tracked results of total estimated volume shows distinctive seasonal
                                          fluctuations particularly among residential sites, with higher litter volumes in
                                          November, offset by considerably lower volume levels in May.



                                                          Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - NT


                       25




                       20




                       15
              Litres




                       10                                                                                                                                              BEACH
                                                                                                                                                                       RESIDENTIAL

                                                                                                                                                                       RETAIL
                                                                                                                                                                       OVERALL
                       5                                                                                                                                               CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                                                       HIGHWAY
                                                                                                                                                                       SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                                                                                        INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                                                       RECREATIONAL PARK

                        0
                       NOV.06             MAY.07              NOV.07             MAY.08                  NOV.08         MAY.09         NOV.09               MAY.10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                                                                   - 59 -
                                 The overall average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all Northern
                                 Territory sites for the year 2009/10 was 5.09 litres, a reduction from the
                                 volume recorded in the previous year (6.00 litres in 2008/09).


                                 The decrease in litter volume per 1,000m2 was most evident at retail sites
                                 (6.57 litres, down from 11.74 litres in 2008/09), and beaches (7.64 litres,
                                 down from 12.52 litres in 2008/09), residential sites (8.19 litres, down from
                                 10.42 litres in 2008/09) and car parks (6.22 litres, down from 8.29 litres in
                                 2008/09).


                                 Conversely, there were moderate increases in the litter volume per 1,000m2
                                 at recreational parks (1.81 litres, up from 0.90 litres in 2008/09) and
                                 highways sites (4.32 litres, up from 3.75 litres 2008/09).



                                        Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - NT


              16
                    14.53            14.79

              14
                         12.52
                                                                                                                                        11.74
              12 11.01
                                                                                                                       10.42
              10                 8.74
                                          8.29                                                                     7.89   8.19
     Litres




              8              7.64                                                                                                                                           7.24
                                                        7.01
                                              6.22                                                                               6.28 6.34     6.57
                                                                           5.89                                 5.76                                                           6.00
                                                                                                                                                                     5.32
              6                                                                  5.09                                                                                              5.09
                                                     4.85                                                                                                   4.64
                                                                    4.32      4.27
                                                             3.75                     3.92                                                                         3.90
              4                                                                                                                                   2.73
                                                                                                                                                         2.43
                                                                                                    1.21 1.81
              2                                                                                       0.90
                                                                                             0.58
              0
                     BEACH           CAR PARK          HIGHWAY              INDUSTRIAL        RECREATIONAL        RESIDENTIAL         RETAIL          SHOPPING              OVERALL
                                                                                                  PARK                                                 CENTRE



                                                            YEAR 06/07        YEAR 07/08            YEAR 08/09     YEAR 09/10




                                 Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within the Northern Territory
                                 identify differential patterns across site types. Particular site characteristics
                                 which are evident are as follows:


                                            Retail sites were associated with a large number of litter items and
                                             medium to high volumes of litter.

                                            Residential and beach sites were associated with a small number of
                                             litter items and high volumes of litter.

                                            Car park sites were associated with a small number of litter items and
                                             medium to high levels of litter volume.



KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                                                     - 60 -
                                          Industrial, highways and shopping centre sites were associated with a
                                           low number of litter items and low to moderate levels of litter volume

                                          Recreational parks were associated with both a low number of litter
                                           items and a low level of litter volume


                            Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                               NT - 2009/ 2010




                            9
                                                 RESIDENTIAL
                            8                            BEACH

                            7
                                                                                                        RETAIL
                            6                     CAR PARK
          Volume - Litres




                            5
                                               HIGHWAY
                            4
                                                     SHOPPING CENTRE
                                    INDUSTRIAL
                            3

                            2             RECREATIONAL
                                              PARK
                            1

                            0
                                0         50         100         150            200   250   300   350       400
                                                                            Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                     An average of 38 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all sites
                                     within the Northern Territory during the year of 2009/10. Cigarette butts
                                     however, only contributed 0.004 litres per 1,000m2 in volume to the litter
                                     stream.


                                     Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the overall litter stream
                                     included plastic items (1.83 litres per 1,000m2), paper/ paperboard items
                                     (1.14 litres per 1,000m2) and metal items (0.82 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                                   - 61 -
                  Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NT -
                                              2009/ 2010




                 40                  38                                                                     1.83         2.0
                 35                                                                                                      1.8
                                                                                                                         1.6
                 30
                                                                                                                         1.4
                 25                                                                       1.14
                                                                                                                         1.2
         Items




                                                                                                                               Litres
                 20                                                     0.82                                             1.0
                                                                                                             14          0.8
                 15                                 0.59
                                                                                           8                             0.6
                 10                                                       7
                                                                                                                         0.4
                 5                                      3
                                    0.004                                                                                0.2
                 0                                                                                                       0.0
                              CIGA RETTE B UTTS     GLA SS              M ETA L          P A P ER/         P LA STIC
                                                                                     P A P ERB OA RD




                                     Items per 1000 Sq Metres       Volume per 1000 Sq Metres



                                    Results from November 2006 through May 2010 do reveal any seasonal
                                    fluctuations within main material types when comparing November and May
                                    counts.

                                    The most notable fluctuations occurred among metal and cigarette butt
                                    numbers in the litter stream, with increases in metal items and cigarette
                                    butts, and to a lesser extent plastic items, in November 2008 and May 2009
                                    and cigarette butts again in May 2010.



                               Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NT


                               90
                               80
                                                                                     13            17
                               70                                                                                        17
                               60                                                    11                9
                                          12       10           13                                                       9
                                                                              9                               11
                      Items




                               50                                                    14            16                    6
                                          12       12                                                          6         3
                                                                12            10
                               40                                                     3                4       7
                                            7      6
                                                   3            7             6                                2
                               30           4                   3             2
                               20                                                    38                                  43
                                                                                                   37
                                          28       31                         29                              32
                                                                27
                               10
                                0
                                      NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10



                                     CIGARETTE BUTTS         GLASS       METAL     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD               PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                                    - 62 -
                       The most significant fluctuations in annual litter items per 1,000m2 in the
                       litter stream from 2006/07 to 2009/2010 were the increases the number
                       metal, plastic and cigarette butts in 2008/09. While the number of metal litter
                       items decreased to previous levels in 2009/10, plastic litter items and
                       cigarette butts numbers have remained elevated in comparison to 2006/07
                       and 2007/08.



                Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                               Annual Averages - NT


                                90
                                80
                                                                   15
                                70
                                60                                 10         14
                                        11
                                                      11
                                                                              8
                        Items




                                50                                 15
                                        12                                    7
                                40                    11
                                                                    4         3
                                         7
                                         3            7
                                30                    2
                                20                                 38         38
                                        30            28
                                10
                                0
                                     YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10



                   CIGARETTE BUTTS            GLASS        METAL   PAPER/ PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC



                       There does not appear to be seasonal pattern among the material
                       categories, resulting from variances in November and May counts.


                       The spike in the volume of plastic litter items in November 2007 remains the
                       most significant variance among the overall results, due primarily to a higher
                       overall litter count total, which included a significantly larger amount of high-
                       volume plastic items such as domestic and industrial containers. Volumes in
                       the litter stream of the other material types have remained relatively
                       proportional across the litter counts.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                  - 63 -
                        Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - NT
               8

               7

               6

               5                            3.13
      Litres




               4    1.58
                                                                                   1.84
                                                                                                1.76        1.91
               3                  1.26                    1.44            1.89
                    1.37                    1.80
                                                                                   1.35
               2                  0.91                                                          0.98        1.31
                                                          0.74            0.88
                    1.39                    1.37                                   1.00         0.77
               1                  1.07                    1.03            0.81                              0.86
                    0.51                     0.47                                   0.58        0.73
                                  0.42                    0.36            0.37                              0.45
               0                                                                                 0.004
                    0.003         0.004     0.003         0.003           0.004     0.004                   0.005
                   NOV.06       MAY.07     NOV.07       MAY.08        NOV.08      MAY.09       NOV.09      MAY.10



                                  CIGARETTE BUTTS      GLASS      METAL     PAPER/PAPERBOARD     PLASTIC



                            The overall annual average in 2009/10 in the Northern Territory are almost
                            the same as the average in the previous year with only minor changes
                            within the different material categories Glass litter items represented the
                            largest increase in litter volume per 1,000m2 (0.59 litres, up from 0.48 litres
                            in 2008/09, 0.41 litres in 2007/08 and 0.46 litres in 2006/07


                            The volume levels of other material types in the litter stream also included:


                                 Plastic litter volumes reduced to 1.83 litres per 1,000m2 (down from
                                  1.87 litres in 2008/09, 2.28 litres in 2007/08, but still higher than 1.42
                                  litres in 2006/07)

                                 Paper/ paperboard volumes reduced to 1.14 litres per 1,000m2 (up
                                  from 1.12 litres in 2008/09, but down from 1.27 litres in 2007/08 and
                                  the same as 2006/07)

                                 Metal volumes declined to 0.82 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 0.90
                                  litres in 2008/09, 1.20 litres in 2007/08 and 1.23 litres in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                      - 64 -
                 Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                 Annual Averages - NT

                                6

                                5

                                4                        2.28
                                          1.42                             1.87          1.83
                       Litres


                                3

                                          1.14           1.27
                                2                                          1.12          1.14

                                1         1.23           1.20              0.90          0.82

                                          0.46            0.41              0.48          0.59
                                0
                                          0.003           0.003            0.004         0.004
                                      YEAR 06/07      YEAR 07/08      YEAR 08/09     YEAR 09/10

                                    CIGARETTE BUTTS    GLASS      METAL   PAPER/PAPERBOARD       PLASTIC



                       Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                       identify the following characteristics of litter objects within the Northern
                       Territory:


                                   Plastic litter items contribute large volumes to the litter stream but are
                                    associated with a moderate number of litter items.

                                   Paper/ paperboard and metal litter items contribute moderate volumes
                                    to the litter stream and are also associated with a low to medium
                                    number of litter items.

                                   Glass contributes low volumes of litter and is also associated with low
                                    numbers of litter items.

                                   Cigarette butts represent a large proportion of the litter items,
                                    however, they contribute only a negligible volume to the overall litter
                                    stream.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                     - 65 -
           Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type
                                  - NT - 2009/ 2010




                                    3.0

                                    2.5
                  Volume - Litres




                                    2.0
                                                              PLASTIC

                                    1.5                 PAPER/
                                                      PAPERBOARD
                                    1.0
                                                    METAL
                                               GLASS
                                    0.5
                                                                                        CIGARETTE BUTTS
                                    0.0
                                          0          10                20       30            40
                                                                        Items




The Dirty Dozen

                              When partitioned according to object sub-type distinctions, cigarette butts
                              were the most frequently identified litter item, with 38 butts recorded per
                              1,000m2 (unchanged from 2008/09 and up from 28 butts in 2007/08 and 30
                              butts in 2006/07) on average across the 2009/10 counts in the Northern
                              Territory.

                              Other objects frequently identified in that state during the counts included:

                                         Uncategorised plastic objects (7 items, down from 11 items in
                                          2008/09, up from 5 items in 2007/08 and 6 items in 2006/07)

                                         Plastic food containers and utensils (6 items, up from 3 items in
                                          2008/09, and 4 items in both 2007/08 and 2006/07)

                                         Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (5 items, down from 8 items
                                          in 2008/09, 8 items in and 2007/08 and 10 items in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                          - 66 -
                             Uncategorised metal objects (5 items, down from 13 items in 2008/09
                              and up from 4 items in both 2007/08 and 2006/07)


             Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                        NT - 2009/ 2010


                                                                                                                       38
     CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                                           38
                                                                                                       28
                                                                                                             30
                                                             7
              PLASTIC - Other                                          11
                                                     5
                                                         6

     PLASTIC - Food container                        6
                                                3
            or utensil                           4
                                                 4

      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                            5
                                                              8
              Other                                           8
                                                                   10
                                                     5
                METAL - Other                                                13
                                                4
                                                4
                                           2
      MISCELLANEOUS - Total                 2
                                           2
                                      1
                                       2
                GLASS - Other             3
                                        2
                                          3

      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -             1
                                      1
      Food container or utensil       1
                                      1

            GLASS - Alcoholic         1
                                      1
           beverage container         1
                                      1

            METAL - Alcoholic         1
                                      1
           beverage container              2
                                           2

      PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic         1
                                      1
        beverage container             1
                                       1

      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -             0.5
                                      0.4
           Publication


                                  0              5                10          15          20      25        30    35    40
                                                                                       Items



                                                             2006/07         2007/08    2008/09   2009/10



                       The largest contributor to volume in the litter stream in the Northern Territory
                       was uncategorized plastic objects, with a litter volume of 1.11 litres per
                       1,000m2 (up from 1.04 litres in 2008/09, down from 1.33 litres in 2007/08
                       and up from 0.54 litres in 2006/07).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                                        - 67 -
                       Other object sub-categories which were associated with substantial
                       estimated volume measurements per 1,000m2, included:

                           Paper/ paperboard – food container or utensil (0.53 litres, down from
                            0.55 litres in 2008/09 and up from 0.43 litres in 2007/08 and 0.28 litres
                            in 2006/07)

                           Illegal dumping, with an estimated litter volume of 0.52 litres (down
                            from 1.45 litres in 2008/09, 1.96 litres in 2007/08 and 0.93 litres in
                            2006/07)

                           Glass - non-alcoholic beverage containers (0.47 litres, up from 0.33 in
                            2008/09, 0.33 litres in 2007/08 and 0.34 litres in 2006/07)

                           Plastic - non-alcoholic beverage containers (0.41 litres, down from
                            0.58 litres, 0.62 litres in 2007/08 and 0.57 litres in 2006/07)

                           Metal – alcoholic beverage container (0.35 litres, down from 0.44
                            litres in 2007/08, 0.73 in 2007/08 and 0.77 litres in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                              - 68 -
              Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                        NT - 06/07 to 09/10



                                                                                 1.11
             PLASTIC - Other                                                   1.04
                                                                                        1.33
                                                         0.54

 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food                             0.53
                                                       0.55
     container or utensil                          0.43
                                           0.28
                                                        0.52
    ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                                                1.45
                                                                                                     1.96
                                                                         0.93

   GLASS - Alcoholic beverage                          0.47
                                                0.33
           container                            0.33
                                                0.34

      PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                     0.41
                                                          0.58
        beverage container                                  0.62
                                                          0.57

   METAL - Alcoholic beverage                   0.35
                                                   0.44
           container                                             0.73
                                                                  0.77

      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                  0.28
                                        0.19
           Publication                      0.31
                                             0.34

 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-                0.20
                                         0.20
 alcoholic beverage container                   0.33
                                                0.33
                                        0.19
     MISCELLANEOUS - Total              0.19
                                          0.23
                                      0.13

       METAL - Non-alcoholic            0.19
                                      0.12
        beverage container

  PLASTIC - Food container or           0.17
                                      0.13
            utensil                    0.15
                                        0.19

    METAL - Food container or          0.14
                                        0.16
             utensil                    0.17
                                      0.10

                                0.0                0.5                   1.0               1.5       2.0    2.5

                                                                            Litres




                                                       2006/07     2007/08       2008/09   2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - NT                                               - 69 -
4.5                Queensland


At a Glance

                   The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all 151 sites
                   surveyed within Queensland during the counts in the year 2009/10 was 76,
                   while the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 5.65 litres.


                   There was an overall increase in the number of litter items per 1,000m2 for
                   the year 2009/10 (76 items, up from 59 items, the same as 76 items in
                   2007/08 and down from 86 items in 2006/07). The current volume total per
                   1,000m2 however, is very similar to the volume recorded in litter monitor last
                   year and below the volumes recorded in all other previous years (5.65 litres,
                   similar to 5.60 litres in 2008/09 and below 7.44 litres in 2007/08 and 7.59
                   litres in 2006/07).


                   In Queensland retail sites and shopping centres both displayed large
                   number of litter items per 1,000m2, but were associated with only smaller
                   volumes of litter per 1,000m2. Highway and industrial sites contributed the
                   highest total volume of litter per 1,000m2 to the overall litter stream and were
                   also associated with appreciable numbers of litter items per 1,000m2.


                   Cigarette butts most frequently identified item across all sites in Queensland
                   during the 2009/10 counts, with 38 butts per 1,000m2 (up from 27 butts in
                   2008/09, 36 butts in 2007/08 and 43 butts in 2006/07). Only a very small
                   proportion of the overall litter volume (0.004 litres per 1,000m2) however,
                   was associated with these items.


                   Plastic objects (1.89 litres per 1,000m2, up from 1.80 litres in 2008/09 and
                   down from 2.57 litres in 2007/08), and paper/ paperboard litter objects (1.75
                   litres per 1,000m2, up from 1.71 litres in 2008/09 and down from 2.14 litres
                   in 2007/08) contributed the largest amount of volume to the litter stream.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                          - 70 -
Comparisons by Site Types

                   The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 at the sites surveyed within the
                   Queensland during the year 2009/10 were located within retail sites (160
                   items, up from 105 items in 2008/09 and 120 items in 2007/08) and
                   shopping centres (136 items, up from 81 items in 2008/09 and 98 items in
                   2007/08). Retails sites (2.45 litres, down from 3.43 litres in 2008/09) and
                   shopping centres (1.37 litres, up from 0.39 litres in 2008/09), however,
                   contributed lower volumes of litter per 1,000m2 by site type across
                   Queensland in comparison to other sites.


                   Sites that were associated with a moderate level of litter items per 1,000m2
                   included industrial sites (91 items, up from 86 items in 2008/09, but down
                   from 100 items in 2007/08) and beach sites (81 items, up from 65 items in
                   2008/09, but down from 83 items in 2007/08). Residential, recreational
                   parks and car park sites were associated with lower but still appreciable
                   levels of litter.


                   The estimated volumes per 1,000m2 of the litter objects at highway sites
                   (9.26 litres, up from 8.68 litres in 2008/09 and 10.21 litres in 2007/08) and
                   industrial sites (8.63 litres, down from 8.97 litres in 2008/09 and 10.80 litres
                   in 2007/08) and were higher than at any other site types.


                   Sites that were associated with a moderate level of litter volume per
                   1,000m2 included residential (4.50 litres, down from 5.80 litres in 2008/09
                   and 8.58 litres in 2007/08) and beach sites (3.80 litres, up from 1.84 litres in
                   2008/09 and down from 4.13 litres in 2007/08). Lower volumes of litter were
                   also associated with recreational park and car park sites.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                          - 71 -
                                    Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - QLD - 2009/ 2010


                    180                            9.26       8.63                                                                       10
                                                                                                       160
                    160                                                                                                                  9
                                                                                                                  136                    8
                    140
                                                                                                                              5.65       7
                    120
                           81                                                                                                  76        6
            Items




                                                                                                                                              Litres
                    100                                        91
                          3.80                                                            4.50                                           5
                     80
                                       62           68                       62            64                                            4
                     60                                                                                2.45                              3
                                                                            1.69
                     40                                                                                           1.37                   2
                                      1.19
                     20                                                                                                                  1
                      0                                                                                                                  0
                          BEACH      CAR PARK     HIGHWAY   INDUSTRIAL   RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL    RETAIL    SHOPPING    OVERALL
                                                                             PARK                                 CENTRE




                                             Items per 1000 Sq Metres      Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                                  Tracked results demonstrate some seasonal fluctuations in the number of
                                  litter items per 1,000m2, particularly within beach sites which display peaks
                                  in November and troughs in May. The converse applies however, to the
                                  recorded number of litter items for car parks which peak in the May and
                                  decline in November.


                                  Litter item fluctuations at retail and shopping centre sites are due largely to
                                  cigarette butts.



                                                Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - QLD

            250




            200


                                                                                                                                RETAIL

            150
                                                                                                                                SHOPPING CENTRE
    Items




            100                                                                                                                 INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                OVERALL
                                                                                                                                 BEACH
                                                                                                                                HIGHWAY
                                                                                                                                RECREATIONAL PARK
              50                                                                                                                RESIDENTIAL




                0
               NOV.05     MAY.06      NOV.06      MAY.07     NOV.07        MAY.08       NOV.08        MAY.09    NOV.09      MAY.10




                                  The annual average number of items per 1,000m2 within Queensland for the
                                  year 2009/10 (76 items) is higher than the figures corresponding to 2008/09




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                                      - 72 -
                                          (59 items) the same as 2007/08 (76 items) and lower than 2006/07 (86
                                          items).

                                          There was an increase across all site types in 2009/10 and was particularly
                                          evident among retail (160 items, up from 105 items in 2008/09 and 120
                                          items in 2007/08) and shopping centre sites (136 items, up from 81 items in
                                          2008/09 and 98 items in 2007/08).


                                                          Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - QLD


            200                                                                                                                                                 185
                                                                                                                                                             179
            180
                                                                                                                                                                          160
            160
                                                                                          133                                                                                               136
            140                                                                              127
                                                                                                                                                                  120
            120                                                                                                                                                                    112
                                                                                               100                                                                   105        104
    Items




                                                                                                                                                                                      98
            100   88 82 83
                                     81                          85                               86 91                                      88
                                                                                                                                                                                           81
                                                                                                                                                                                                  89 86
                                            73 72                     77                                         74                                                                                       76        76
            80                  65                  63                     64        68                     67        65             65 65             64
                                                         57 62                                                                  62
                                                                                                                                                  53                                                           59
            60                                                                  50
                                                                                                                           41
            40
            20
             0
                           BEACH              CAR PARK                HIGHWAY               INDUSTRIAL      RECREATIONAL              RESIDENTIAL                RETAIL         SHOPPING CENTRE     OVERALL
                                                                                                                PARK




                                                                            YEAR 05/06        YEAR 06/07     YEAR 07/08              YEAR 08/09             YEAR 09/10



                                          The overall trend in Queensland has been a decrease in the litter volume in
                                          the litter stream, the decrease in volume has been most apparent at
                                          industrial sites.

                                          The other apparent trend is the seasonal fluctuation of litter volume per
                                          1,000m2 at beach sites, with peaks in November and troughs in May.



                                                           Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - QLD

                           30



                           25



                           20
                  Litres




                           15



                           10
                                                                                                                                                                          HIGHWAY

                                                                                                                                                                          INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                                                          OVERALL
                           5                                                                                                                                              RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                                                                                          RETAIL
                                                                                                                                                                          BEACH
                                                                                                                                                                          RECREATIONAL PARK
                                                                                                                                                                          SHOPPING CENTRE
                            0                                                                                                                                             CAR PARK
                           NOV.05         MAY.06         NOV.06       MAY.07              NOV.07    MAY.08        NOV.08             MAY.09        NOV.09         MAY.10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                                                              - 73 -
                                  The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                                  sites within Queensland for the year of 2009/10 is almost the same as the
                                  previous year‟s result (5.65 litres, marginally higher that 5.60 litres in
                                  2008/09 and down from 7.44 litres in 2007/08, 7.59 litres in 2006/07 and
                                  7.66 litres in 2005/06).


                                  The increase was most evident at beaches (3.80 litres, up from 1.84 litres in
                                  2008/09 and down from 4.13 in 2007/08) and shopping centre sites (1.37
                                  litres, up from 0.39 litres in 2008/09 and down from 2.36 litres in 2007/08).
                                  Conversely, the most apparent decrease among the different sites was at
                                  residential sites (4.50 litres, down from 5.80 litres in 2008/09 and 8.58 litres
                                  in 2007/08).


                                         Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - QLD




              25
                                                                   22.02

              20


              15
                                                                        13.19
     Litres




                                                      12.08
                                                 10.72    10.21            10.80
                                                                9.26          8.97
              10                                             8.68                8.63                        8.58                                                    7.66 7.44
                   6.29                                                                                                                                                 7.59    5.65
                                                                                                         5.09       5.80                                                     5.60
                        4.13 3.80       3.43                                                                           4.50         3.93
              5       3.19                                                              3.57 3.67     3.86                    3.13       3.43
                                   2.65                                                                                                    2.45         2.36
                           1.84 2.02       1.95                                                   1.69                           2.34
                                             1.19                                    1.35       1.00                                             0.93         1.37
                                                                                                                                              0.62        0.39
              0
                          BEACH       CAR PARK         HIGHWAY         INDUSTRIAL       RECREATIONAL      RESIDENTIAL             RETAIL          SHOPPING CENTRE       OVERALL
                                                                                            PARK



                                            YEAR 05/06      YEAR 06/07     YEAR 07/08        YEAR 08/09    YEAR 09/10




                                  Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within Queensland identify the
                                  following site characteristics across the respective site types surveyed in
                                  2009/ 2010:

                                          Highway and industrial sites were associated with a moderate number
                                           of litter items as well as a large litter volume per 1,000m2

                                          Residential and beach sites were associated with both a moderate
                                           number of litter items as well as a moderate litter volume per 1,000m2

                                          Retail sites and shopping centres were associated with large numbers
                                           of litter items but only a small volume of litter

                                          Recreational parks and car parks were associated with both a small
                                           number of litter items as well as a small volume of litter



KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                                               - 74 -
                                      Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site
                                                  Type - QLD - 2009/ 2010




                                      10
                                                               HIGHWAY
                                      9
                                                                     INDUSTRIAL
                                      8
                                      7
                    Volume - Litres




                                      6
                                      5              RESIDENTIAL

                                      4                               BEACH

                                      3                                                 RETAIL
                                               RECREATIONAL
                                      2            PARK
                                                                                  SHOPPING
                                                              CAR PARK
                                      1                                            CENTRE

                                      0
                                           0           50                   100   150            200
                                                                        Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                   An average of 38 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all sites
                   surveyed within Queensland during the year 2009/10, these items however,
                   only contributed 0.004 litres per 1,000m2 in volume to the litter stream.


                   Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in
                   Queensland were constructed of plastic materials (1.89 litres per 1,000m2)
                   and paper/ paperboard (1.75 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                              - 75 -
                Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - QLD-
                                            2009/ 2010




                                38                                                                         1.89
                 40                                                                         1.75                        2.0

                 30                                                                                                     1.5
        Items




                                                                                                                              Litres
                                                                      0.84
                 20                                                                                         15          1.0
                                                   0.30
                 10                                                                            14                       0.5
                               0.004                 2                 6
                    0                                                                                                   0.0
                          CIGA RETTE B UTTS        GLA SS            M ETA L              P A P ER/       P LA STIC
                                                                                      P A P ERB OA RD




                                        Items per 1000 Sq Metres           Volume per 1000 Sq Metres


                               With the exception of the 2008/09 results, which show little seasonal
                               variation, most main material type categories demonstrated relatively
                               consistent seasonal fluctuations in the numbers of items per 1,000m2
                               identified within each category with lows in November 2005, 2006, 2007 and
                               2009 and peaks in May 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010.



                               Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - QLD




                        120


                        100                   23

                                                                19
                        80                    21
                                                                                           16                                          16
                                                                20
                Items




                                              6          14
                        60                    1                                13                                      13
                                 14                             7                          17                                          15
                                                         13     1                                   13       12
                                                                               13                                      12
                                                                                           6                                           6
                        40       11                       5                    6           1        13                  5              2
                                                          1                    1                             12         1
                                  5
                                  1           60                                                     4
                                                                                                     1        4
                                                                                                              1
                                                                49
                        20                               37                    35          38                          36              40
                                 30                                                                 28       27

                         0
                              NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                              CIGARETTE BUTTS       GLASS          METAL       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD      PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                                 - 76 -
                   Annual averages for Queensland from 2005/06 through to 2009/10
                   demonstrate relatively consistent proportions of litter objects within the main
                   material types. There was an increase in the number of all material type
                   items per 1,000m2 in 2009/10, with the largest increase was among
                   cigarette butts (38 butts, up from 27 butts in 2009/10, 36 in 2007/08 and
                   down from 43 in 2006/07). The increase in the number of litter items per
                   1,000m2 among other material types included:


                            Plastic objects (15 items, up from 12 items in 2008/09, 14 items in
                             2007/08 and down from 17 items in 2006/07)

                            Paper/ paperboard objects (14 items, up from 13 items in 2008/09
                             and down from 15 items in 2007/08 and 17items in 2006/07)

                            Metal objects (6 items, up from 4 items in 2008/09 and the same as
                             2007/08 and 2006/07)

                            Glass objects (2 items, up from 1 item     in 2008/09, 2007/08 and
                             2006/07)



                Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                      Averages -QLD




                           100
                            90
                            80      18           17
                            70                                                     15
                                                             14
                            60      16           17
                   Items




                            50       5                       15        12          14
                                     1            6
                                                  1
                            40                                6        13           6
                                                                                    2
                                                              1
                            30                                          4
                                                                        1
                            20      45           43                                38
                                                             36
                            10                                         27
                             0
                                 YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10



                 CIGARETTE BUTTS         GLASS    METAL    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                             - 77 -
                            There is an overall seasonal trend in the volume of paper/ paperboard and
                            metal in the litter stream in Queensland, with a decrease in volumes
                            November and increase in volumes in May. There is the absence however,
                            of any seasonal pattern for the other material categories.



                      Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - QLD



               9
               8
               7
               6                4.55
                                                     3.20
      Litres




               5                            3.41                      2.30
                                                             2.85
                    3.21
               4                                                                                 2.15    1.63
                                                                              1.92    1.69
               3
                                2.42                 2.45             2.29
               2                            1.79             1.99                                        1.85
                    1.55                                                      1.64    1.78       1.64
               1    0.81        0.98        0.88     0.91    0.93     1.03                       0.81    0.88
                                                                              0.67    0.71
                    0.37         0.34        0.36    0.41     0.34    0.39     0.29    0.34       0.31   0.28
               0                                     0.006   0.004                    0.003      0.004   0.005
                    0.003       0.007        0.004                    0.004   0.003
                   NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10


                            CIGARETTE BUTTS          GLASS   METAL    PAPER/PAPERBOARD        PLASTIC




                            There has been an overall general decline in the litter volume of all material
                            categories per 1,000m2 in the Queensland litter stream, with plastic litter
                            volume associated with the most significant overall volume reduction.


                            Glass was the only material category which had a very small decrease in
                            the volume of litter in 2009/10 (0.30 litres, down from 0.32 litres in 2008/09,
                            0.37 litres in 2007/08, 0.38 litres in 2006/07 and 0.35 litres in 2005/06), all
                            other categories recorded a very marginal increase in litter volumes per
                            1,000m2 from 2008/09 to 2009/10, as outlined:


                                       Plastic volumes increased (1.89 litres, up from 1.80 litres, but down
                                        from 2.57 litres in 2007/08, 3.31 litres in 2006/07 and 3.88 litres in
                                        2005/06).

                                       Paper/ paperboard volumes increased (1.75 litres, up from 1.71 litres
                                        in 2008/09, but down from 2.14 litres in 2007/08, 2.12 litres in 2006/07
                                        and 1.99 litres in 2005/06)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                        - 78 -
                              Metal volumes increased (0.84 litres, up from 0.69 litres in 2008/09,
                               but down from 0.98 litres in 2007/08, 0.89 litres in both 2006/07 and
                               2005/06)


             Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                   Averages - QLD



                           8
                           7
                           6
                           5     3.88         3.31              2.57
                  Litres




                           4                                               1.80      1.89
                           3
                                 1.99         2.12              2.14
                           2                                               1.71      1.75
                           1     0.89         0.89              0.98       0.69      0.84
                                  0.35         0.38              0.37       0.32      0.30
                           0      0.005                                              0.004
                                              0.005             0.004      0.003
                                YEAR         YEAR              YEAR       YEAR      YEAR
                                05/06        06/07             07/08      08/09     09/10



                           CIGARETTE BUTTS      GLASS          METAL    PAPER/PAPERBOARD     PLASTIC



                    Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                    identify the following characteristics of litter objects recorded within
                    Queensland during the year 2009/10:


                              Plastic and paper/ paperboard litter items contribute large volumes to
                               and a moderate number of items to the litter stream

                              Metal and glass items contribute both small numbers of items and low
                               volumes to the litter stream

                              Cigarette butts were associated with a large number of litter items, but
                               they contributed only a negligible volume to the overall litter stream




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                 - 79 -
                        Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main
                                 Material Type - QLD - 2009/ 2010




                                           3.0

                                           2.5
                         Volume - Litres
                                                                    PLASTIC
                                           2.0
                                                                      PAPER/
                                           1.5                     PAPERBOARD

                                           1.0          METAL
                                           0.5                                           CIGARETTE
                                                     GLASS                                 BUTTS
                                           0.0
                                                 0           10            20       30      40
                                                                            Items




The Dirty Dozen

                   Cigarette butts remained the most frequently identified litter item in
                   Queensland, with 38 butts (up from 27 butts in 2008/09, 36 butts in 2007/08
                   and down from 43 butts in 2006/07) recorded per 1,000m2 on average
                   during the 2009/10 counts across the State.


                   The other most frequently identified objects per 1,000m2 in Queensland
                   included:

                          Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (11 items, up from 10 items
                           in 2008/09, the same as 2007/08 and down from 13 items in 2006/07)

                          Uncategorised plastic objects (7 items, up from 6 items in 2008/09,
                           the same as 2007/08 and down from 8 items in 2006/07)

                          Plastic food containers and utensils (6 items, up from 5 items in
                           2008/09 and the same as 2007/08 and 2006/07)

                          Uncategorised metal objects (4 items, up from 3 items in 2008/09 and
                           the same as 2007/08 and 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                             - 80 -
               Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                        QLD - 06/07 to 09/10


                                                                                                                      38
     CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                     27
                                                                                                                 36
                                                                                                                            43
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                                     11
                                                              10
               Other                                            11
                                                                     13
                                                         7
              PLASTIC - Other                       6
                                                        7
                                                          8
      PLASTIC - Food container                      6
                                                5
             or utensil                             6
                                                    6
                                                4
                METAL - Other              3
                                                4
                                                4
                                           2
      MISCELLANEOUS - Total               2
                                            3
                                            3

      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -             1
                                      1
      Food container or utensil       1
                                      1
       PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic        1
                                      1
         beverage container           1
                                          2
                                     1
                GLASS - Other      0.3
                                    1
                                   0
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -            1
                                      1
            Publication               1
                                      1
        METAL - Non-alcoholic         1
                                      1
         beverage container           1
                                      1
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -            1
                                      1
          Cigarette packets           1
                                      1

                                  0             5         10          15            20     25         30    35         40   45   50
                                                                                         Items


                                                                 2006/07            2007/08   2008/09      2009/10




                      Plastic – non-alcoholic beverage containers represented the largest
                      contribution to estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 in Queensland in
                      2009/10 (0.91 litres, up from 0.82 litres, down from 0.97 litres in 2007/08
                      and 1.29 litres in 2006/07).

                      Other object sub-categories which were associated with substantial
                      estimated volume measurements included:

                                 Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils (0.80 litres, up from
                                  0.79 litres in 2008/09, down from 0.90 litres in both 2007/08 and
                                  2006/07).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                                      - 81 -
                                 Uncategorised plastic objects (0.64 litres, up from 0.63 litres in
                                  2008/09, down from 1.21 litres in 2007/08 and 1.49 litres in 2006/07)

                                 Illegally dumped items (0.59 litres, down from 0.91 litres in 2008/09,
                                  1.12 litres in 2007/08 and 0.64 litres in 2006/07).

                                 Paper/ paperboard - publications (0.56 litres, up from 0.55 litres in
                                  2008/09, down from 0.74 in 2007/08 and 0.69 litres in 2006/07)



              Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                       QLD - 06/07 to 09/10


                                                                                              0.91
      PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                                                          0.82
        beverage container                                                                       0.97
                                                                                                                  1.29

                                                                                   0.80
 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food                                                         0.79
     container or utensil                                                                     0.90
                                                                                              0.90

                                                                        0.64
             PLASTIC - Other                                            0.63
                                                                                                               1.21
                                                                                                                            1.49

                                                                   0.59
    ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                                                   0.91
                                                                                                        1.12
                                                                        0.64

                                                                0.56
      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                                       0.55
           Publication                                                        0.74
                                                                           0.69

                                                    0.32
       METAL - Non-alcoholic                      0.28
        beverage container                         0.30
                                                       0.36

                                                  0.29
                                        0.16
     MISCELLANEOUS - Total                      0.25
                                               0.23

                                                  0.28
   METAL - Alcoholic beverage                  0.23
           container                                  0.35
                                                    0.32

                                               0.23
   GLASS - Alcoholic beverage                    0.26
           container                               0.29
                                                     0.32

                                         0.18
 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-                0.18
 alcoholic beverage container               0.24
                                              0.27

                                         0.17
  PLASTIC - Food container or           0.15
            utensil                       0.20
                                             0.24

                                        0.15
    METAL - Food container or
             utensil                    0.15


                                0.0     0.2              0.4     0.6             0.8             1.0     1.2          1.4      1.6
                                                                        Litres



                                                   2006/07     2007/08      2008/09           2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - QLD                                          - 82 -
4.6                    South Australia


At a Glance

                       The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all of the 151 sites
                       surveyed within SA during the counts in the year of 2009/10 was 54, while
                       the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 7.13 litres.


                       The number of litter items per 1,000m2 represents a decrease from all
                       previous years (down from 57 items in 2008/09, 68 items in 2007/08, 61
                       items in 2006/07 and 60 items in 2005/06) The current year‟s volume of
                       7.13 litres per 1,000m2 estimate also represents a decrease from all
                       previous years (down from 8.02 litres in 2008/09, 9.55 litres in 2007/08,
                       11.08 litres in 2006/07 but slightly higher than 7.23 litres in 2005/06).


                       In South Australia the most littered sites were generally retail sites, industrial
                       locations and shopping centres. Industrial sites were associated with large
                       number of litter and estimated volume per 1,000m2, while retail sites and
                       shopping recorded high levels of litter but low estimated litter volumes.


                       Cigarette butts remained the most frequently identified litter item across all
                       sites in South Australia during the 2009/10 counts, with 21 butts per
                       1,000m2 (up from 19 butts in 2008/09, but down from 26 butts in 2007/08,
                       25 butts in 2006/07 and 24 butts in 2005/06). Cigarette butts however, were
                       associated with only a very small proportion of the overall litter volume
                       (0.002 litres per 1,000m2).


                       Plastic objects (2.05 litres per 1,000m2, down from 2.33 litres in 2008/09,
                       3.29 litres in 2007/08 and 2.94 litres in 2006/07) and paper/ paperboard litter
                       objects (1.42 litres per 1,000m2, down from 1.84 litres in 2008/09, 2.24 litres
                       in 2007/08 and 1.53 litres in 2006/07) contributed the largest amount of
                       volume to the litter stream.



Comparisons by Site Types

                       The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 were located within retail sites
                       (142 items, down from 153 items in 2008/09 and 191 items in 2007/08),
                       shopping centres (107 items, up from 85 items in 2008/09, but down from

KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                  - 83 -
                         115 items in 2007/08) and industrial sites (92 items, down from 100 items in
                         2008/09 and 126 items in 2007/08). Industrial sites contributed the largest
                         estimated volumes per 1,000m2 in South Australia (21.47 litres, up from
                         20.55 litres in 2008/09 and 20.87 litres in 2007/08) to the litter stream while
                         retails sites (2.42 litres, down from 2.38 litres in 2008/09) and shopping
                         centres (4.00 litres, up from 3.39 litres in 2008/09) contributed only lower
                         volumes of litter per 1,000m2 by site type.


                         Sites that were associated with a moderate level of litter items per 1,000m2
                         included industrial sites (92 items, down from 100 items in 2008/09 and 126
                         items in 2007/08) and car park sites (64 items, down from 65 items in
                         2008/09 and 67 items in 2007/08). Highway, beach, residential and
                         recreational parks sites were associated with lower but still appreciable
                         number of litter items.


                         Highway sights contributed the second largest estimated volumes per
                         1,000m2 of the litter objects (8.18 litres per 1,000m2, down from 10.51
                         litres), after industrial sights. Lower volumes of litter were associated with all
                         other site types.


                           Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - SA - 2009/ 2010
           160                                                                                                             25
                                                                                             142
           140                                     21.47
                                                                                                                           20
           120
                                                                                                       107
           100                                       92
                                                                                                                           15
   Items




                                                                                                                                Litres

            80
                           64                                                                                     54
                                                                                                                           10
            60                          8.18                                                                     7.13
                  39                     44
            40                                                      32           5.25
                          4.11                                                                         4.00                5
                                                                                  22         2.42
            20   1.29                                              1.46

             0                                                                                                             0
                 BEACH   CAR PARK      HIGHWAY    INDUSTRIAL    RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL   RETAIL   SHOPPING   OVERALL
                                                                    PARK                               CENTRE




                                Items per 1000 Sq Metres       Volume per 1000 Sq Metres



                         Overall, there has been a downward trend with regard to number of litter
                         items in the litter stream in South Australia.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                               - 84 -
                          Tracked results demonstrate some seasonal fluctuations in the number of
                          litter items per 1,000m2, particularly within retail and residential sites which
                          generally display peaks in May and troughs in November.



                                        Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - SA

            250



            200



            150                                                                                       RETAIL
    Items




                                                                                                      SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                      INDUSTRIAL
            100

                                                                                                      CAR PARK
                                                                                                      OVERALL
            50                                                                                        HIGHWAY
                                                                                                      BEACH
                                                                                                       RECREATIONAL PARK
                                                                                                      RESIDENTIAL
              0
             NOV.05   MAY.06   NOV.06     MAY.07   NOV.07   MAY.08   NOV.08   MAY.09     NOV.09   MAY.10




                          The annual average of items per 1,000m2 within SA for the year of 2009/10
                          (54 items) is lower than the figures corresponding to all previous years
                          (down from 57 items in 2008/09, 68 items in 2007/08, 61 items in 2006/07
                          and 60 items in 2005/06).


                          The decrease in the number of items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream was
                          most evident at beaches (39 items, down from 61 items in 2008/09 and 46
                          items in 2007/08), retail sites (142 items, down from 153 items in 2008/09
                          and 191 items in 2007/08), industrial sites (92 items, down from 100 items in
                          2008/09 and 126 items in 2007/08) and residential sites (22 items, down
                          from 28 items in 2008/09 and 36 items in 2007/08). There were also
                          decreases in the litter count, to a lesser extent, at highway and car park
                          sites.


                          Conversely, there was a notable increase in the of number of items per
                          1,000m2 at shopping centres (107 items, up from 85 items in 2008/09 and
                          down from 115 items in 2007/08). There was also a very marginal increase
                          in the litter count at recreational parks.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                        - 85 -
                                                                 Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - SA


                250


                200                                                                                                                                        185191
                                                                                                                                                         159
                                                                                                                                                                  153
                                                                                                                                                                    142 145
                150                                                                                      126
      Items


                                                                                                                                                                          117
                                                                                                                                                                            115
                                                                                                   101 99   10092                                                                 107
                100                                    80                                                                                                                       85
                                                            68 67 65 64                                                                                                                           68
                               55           61                                        58                                                                                                  60 61        57 54
                                                                                 50        46 44
                                    42 46        39                         41
                   50                                                                                                29 36 32 29 32   34 31 36 28
                                                                                                                                                    22

                       0
                                     BEACH                  CAR PARK             HIGHWAY              INDUSTRIAL      RECREATIONAL     RESIDENTIAL             RETAIL   SHOPPING CENTRE     OVERALL
                                                                                                                          PARK



                                                                          YEAR 05/06          YEAR 06/07       YEAR 07/08    YEAR 08/09     YEAR 09/10




                                                      The trend overall, with the exception of industrial sites, has been a decline
                                                      in the estimated volumes per 1,000m2 of litter items within South Australia.
                                                      While there are fluctuations in the estimated volumes from November to
                                                      May across site types they do not demonstrate a consistent seasonal
                                                      pattern.



                                                                       Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - SA

                       35



                       30



                       25                                                                                                                                                      INDUSTRIAL




                       20
              Litres




                       15



                       10
                                                                                                                                                                               HIGHWAY
                                                                                                                                                                               OVERALL
                                                                                                                                                                               RESIDENTIAL
                           5
                                                                                                                                                                               CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                                                               RECREATIONAL PARK
                                                                                                                                                                               SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                                                                                               RETAIL
                        0                                                                                                                                                      BEACH
                       NOV.05                MAY.06            NOV.06            MAY.07             NOV.07         MAY.08      NOV.08       MAY.09             NOV.09   MAY.10




                                                      The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                                                      sites within South Australia for the year of 2009/10 is lower than the results
                                                      for all previous years (7.13 litres, down from 8.02 litres in 2008/09, 9.55
                                                      litres in 2007/8, 11.08 litres in 2006/07 and 7.23 litres in 2005/06).


                                                      This decrease was most strongly reflected with at highway sites (8.18 litres,
                                                      down from 10.51 litres in 2008/09 and 12.75 litres in 2007/08) and to a


KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                                                                               - 86 -
                                  lesser extent, beaches (1.29 litres, down from 3.21 litres in 2008/09 and
                                  1.92 litres in 2007/08)


                                  There were very marginal increases in the volumes of litter per 1,000m2
                                  across all other site types, the largest increase was at industrial sites (21.47
                                  litres, up from 20.55 litres in 2008/09 and 20.87 litres in 2007/08).


                                            Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - SA


                30                                                            27.97


                25
                                                                                  20.87 21.47
                                                                          21.09     20.55
                20
                                                            16.85
       Litres




                15                                               12.75
                                                                  10.51                                                                                                11.08
                                                          9.31                                                                                                             9.55
                10                                                                                                   8.74
                                                                       8.18                                                                                          7.23     8.02
                                             4.58                                                                      5.18                                                      7.13
                                        4.10                                                                              5.25      5.11
                              3.21                                                                            3.76                     4.44                3.39
                     2.66                 3.07 3.624.11                                                                                             2.30      4.00
                5          1.92                                                                            2.61                  2.47      2.38          2.26
                        1.71                                                                 1.65 1.09 1.46                                  2.42 1.53
                                 1.29                                                            0.59 1.05

                0
                         BEACH            CAR PARK           HIGHWAY          INDUSTRIAL      RECREATIONAL    RESIDENTIAL               RETAIL       SHOPPING           OVERALL
                                                                                                  PARK                                                CENTRE




                                                             YEAR 05/06       YEAR 06/07        YEAR 07/08    YEAR 08/09          YEAR 09/10



                                  Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within South Australia identify the
                                  following site characteristics across the respective site types surveyed in
                                  2009/10:


                                              Industrial sites were associated with a relatively high number of litter
                                               items and a large estimated litter volume

                                              Highway sites were associated with a moderate volume of litter but
                                               only a small number of litter items

                                              Retail sites and shopping centres were associated with large numbers
                                               of litter items but only a small volume of litter

                                              Car park sites were associated with a moderate number of litter items
                                               but only a small volume of litter

                                              Residential, beach and recreational park sites were associated with
                                               both a small number of litter items and a small volume of litter




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                                                       - 87 -
                        Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                           SA - 2009/ 2010




                                 25

                                                                                  INDUSTRIAL
                                 20
               Volume - Litres




                                 15


                                 10
                                                            HIGHWAY

                                 5                 RESIDENTIAL
                                                                      CAR PARK          SHOPPING   RETAIL
                                          RECREATIONAL                                   CENTRE
                                              PARK       BEACH
                                 0
                                      0                    50                     100               150
                                                                          Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                  An average of 21 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all sites
                                  surveyed within SA during the year 2009/10, these items however, only
                                  contributed 0.002 litres of volume per 1,000m2 to the litter stream.


                                  Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in SA were
                                  constructed of plastic materials (2.05 litres per 1,000m2) and paper/
                                  paperboard materials (1.42 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                             - 88 -
                  Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - SA-
                                             2009/ 2010




                  25                                                                                                          2.5
                                       21
                                                                                                                 2.05
                  20                                                                                                          2.0

                  15                                                                         1.42                             1.5
          Items




                                                                                                                                    Litres
                                                                                              13                  12
                  10                                                                                                          1.0
                                                                      0.40
                      5                              0.25                                                                     0.5
                                   0.002                                4
                                                      1
                      0                                                                                                       0.0
                              CIGA RETTE B UTTS      GLA SS         M ETA L                  P A P ER/          P LA STIC
                                                                                         P A P ERB OA RD




                                             Items per 1000 Sq Metres       Volume per 1000 Sq Metres


                                 With the exception of the 2006/07 results, there are generally seasonal
                                 fluctuations in South Australia across both plastic and paper/ paperboard
                                 material type categories in the numbers of items per 1,000m2. The seasonal
                                 pattern is demonstrated by a lower number of items in November and a
                                 higher number of items in May. The proportion of each major litter type to
                                 the overall litter stream has also remained fairly steady across all counts
                                 from November 2005 to May 2010.



                                        Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - SA


                      70

                      60                                                            15
                                             16                         15
                      50                             15       14
                                                                                                           15                  12
                                  14                                                             13
                                                                                    17
                      40                                                                                               11
                                             12                         15
              Items




                                                     11       12                                                               14
                                  11                                                5            13        14
                      30                     4        5                                                                12
                                             1                5         5           2
                                                      1                 2                                                      3
                                   4                          1                                    5       5                   1
                                   1                                                               2       2            4
                      20                                                                                                2
                                             28      26                             27
                                  21                          24        24                                                     24
                      10                                                                         20        19          18

                          0
                               NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                            CIGARETTE BUTTS   GLASS         METAL    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD              PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                                - 89 -
                         There has been an overall gradual decrease in the number of items per
                         1,000m2 across the plastic material type category and cigarette butts, plastic
                         items also displayed the strongest decrease (2 items per 1,000m2) from the
                         previous litter monitor in 2008/09.



                  Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                        Averages - SA



                         70

                         60
                                                               15
                         50       15          15
                                                                          14        12
                         40                                    16
                 Items




                                  12          12
                                                                          13        13
                         30                   5                5
                                  4                            2
                                  1           1                                         4
                                                                          5
                         20                                               2             1

                                  24          25               26
                         10                                               19        21

                          0
                              YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10




                           CIGARETTE BUTTS    GLASS     METAL       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD       PLASTIC




                         Results for the November and May litter monitors across South Australia
                         reveal a seasonal trend in the volume of plastic litter per 1,000m2 in the litter
                         stream. The seasonal pattern displays decreasing plastic volumes in
                         November and increasing plastic volumes in May. There does not appear
                         however, to be seasonal patterns for the other material categories.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                  - 90 -
                             Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - SA
                8

                7

                6

                5                                                   3.58
                                                            3.00
       Litres




                4                                  3.15                              2.50
                                 2.91      2.74                             2.15
                     2.44                                                                    1.96
                3                                                                                        2.13

                                                            2.28    2.19
                2                                                           1.84     1.84
                                 1.46      1.43    1.63
                     1.32                                                                    1.40
                                                                                                         1.45
                1                                                   0.73
                     0.45                          0.59     0.60            0.52     0.59    0.43
                                 0.53      0.61
                     0.36        0.28      0.22    0.30     0.45     0.43    0.35     0.44    0.34       0.37
                                                                                                          0.15
                0    0.002                                                           0.002   0.002
                                 0.003     0.003   0.003    0.003   0.003    0.002                       0.003
                    NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10


                                         CIGARETTE BUTTS   GLASS    METAL   PAPER/PAPERBOARD         PLASTIC




                             Since the litter monitor research commenced there has been an overall
                             decrease in the volume of litter per 1,000m2. The annual averages from
                             2008/09 to 2009/10 show there has been a decrease in the volume levels of
                             all material categories in the SA litter stream, and most significantly among
                             plastic litter items (2.05 litres, down from 2.33 litres in 2008/09, 3.29 litres in
                             2007/08, 2.94 litres in 2006/07 and 2.67 litres in 2005/06).


                             Reductions in volume levels of other material types in the litter stream also
                             included:


                                   Paper/ paperboard volumes (1.42 litres, down from 1.84 litres in
                                    2008/09, 2.24 litres in 2007/08, 1.53 litres in 2006/07 and slightly up
                                    from 1.39 litres in 2005/06)

                                   Metal volumes (0.40 litres, down from 0.56 litres in 2008/09, 0.67
                                    litres in 2007/08, 0.60 litres in 2006/07 and 0.49 litres in 2005/06)

                                   Glass volumes (0.25 litres, down from 0.39 litres in 2008/09, 0.44
                                    litres in 2007/08, 0.26 litres in 2006/07 and 0.32 litres in 2005/06)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                       - 91 -
                  Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                  Annual Averages - SA

                         7

                         6

                         5                                      3.29

                         4                                                    2.33
                Litres



                                            2.94
                                2.67
                         3                                                                 2.05

                                                                2.24
                         2                                                    1.84
                                1.39        1.53
                                                                                           1.42
                         1
                                                                0.67          0.56
                                0.49        0.60                                           0.40
                                 0.32           0.26            0.44          0.39          0.25
                         0
                                0.003       0.003               0.003         0.002        0.002
                             YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 0/10


                              CIGARETTE BUTTS     GLASS    METAL        PAPER/PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC


                         Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                         identify the following characteristics of litter objects recorded within SA
                         during the year of 2008/09:


                              Plastic litter items contribute large volumes to the litter stream and are
                               associated with a moderate number of litter items

                              Paper/ paperboard items contribute both moderate volumes to the
                               litter stream and are associated with a moderate number of litter items

                              Metal and glass items contribute both small numbers of items and low
                               volumes to the litter stream

                              Cigarette butts were associated with a large number of items, but
                               contributed only a negligible volume to the overall litter stream




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                   - 92 -
              Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material
                               Type - SA - 2009/ 2010


                                   3.0


                                   2.5


                                   2.0                          PLASTIC
                 Volume - Litres




                                   1.5                             PAPER/
                                                                 PAPERBOARD

                                   1.0


                                   0.5
                                                  METAL                    CIGARETTE
                                               GLASS                         BUTTS

                                   0.0
                                         0                 10              20          30          40
                                                                             Items



The Dirty Dozen

                                   Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified litter item, with 21 butts
                                   were recorded per 1,000m2 on average during the 2009/10 counts (down
                                   from 19 butts in 2008/09, 26 butts in 2007/08 and 25 butts in 2006/07).


                                   Other objects that were frequently identified in the South Australian litter
                                   counts included:


                                            Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (10 items per 1,000m2, the
                                             same as 2008/09, down from 12 items in 2007/08 and up from 9 items
                                             in 2006/07)

                                            Uncategorised plastic objects (7 items per 1,000m2, down 8 items in
                                             2008/09, 9 items in 2007/08 and 8 items in 2006/07)

                                            Plastic food containers and utensils (4 items per 1,000m2, down from
                                             5 items in 2008/09, 2007/08 and 2006/07)

                                            Uncategorised metal objects (3 items per 1,000m2, down from 4 items
                                             in 2008/09, 2007/08 and 2006/07).

KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                              - 93 -
                Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                          SA - 06/07 to 09/10




                                                                                                                21
    CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                                19
                                                                                                                           26
                                                                                                                      25

     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                                                     10
                                                                            10
             Other                                                                  12
                                                                       9
                                                          7
             PLASTIC - Other                                       8
                                                                       9
                                                               8

  PLASTIC - Food container or                    4
                                                     5
            utensil                                   5
                                                      5
                                             3
               METAL - Other                     4
                                                 4
                                                 4
                                             3
     MISCELLANEOUS - Total                    3
                                                4
                                             3

 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food             1
                                       1
     container or utensil                2
                                     1
                                     1
               GLASS - Other          1
                                     1
                                     1

     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -            1
                                     1
        Cigarette packets              2
                                     1

     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -            0.5
                                    1
          Publication                1
                                    0.5
                                    0.5
     PLASTIC - Shopping bag         0.5
                                      1
                                      1

   GLASS - Alcoholic beverage       0.4
                                    1
           container                  1
                                    0.4

                                0                    5                 10                  15              20        25         30

                                                                                         Items


                                                     2006/07       2007/08           2008/09     2009/10




                       Illegal dumping represented the largest contribution to estimated litter
                       volume per 1,000m2 in South Australia during 2009/10 (2.77 litres, a
                       marginal increase from 2.62 litres in 2008/09 and 2.57 litres in 2007/08, but
                       still significantly down from 5.39 litres in 2006/07).


                       Other object sub-categories which were associated with substantial
                       estimated volume measurements per 1,000m2 in the litter stream included:



KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                                       - 94 -
                             Uncategorised plastic objects (1.63 litters, down from 1.76 litres in
                              2008/09, 2.56 litres in 2007/08 and 2.31 litres in 2006/07).

                             Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils (0.78 litres, down
                              from 0.93 litres in 2008/09, 1.11 litres in 2007/08 and up from 0.80
                              litres in 2006/07)


            Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                       SA - 2009/ 2010


                                                                                            2.77
                       ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                            2.62
                                                                                          2.57
                                                                                                                       5.39
                                                                               1.63
                                 PLASTIC - Other                                1.76
                                                                                          2.56
                                                                                       2.31
                                                                    0.78
 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food container or utensil                        0.93
                                                                        1.11
                                                                    0.80
                                                           0.24
                        MISCELLANEOUS - Total              0.28
                                                            0.34
                                                            0.35
                                                           0.24
             PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Publication                0.35
                                                             0.38
                                                           0.21
                                                          0.21
            GLASS - Alcoholic beverage container           0.32
                                                            0.36
                                                          0.23
                                                          0.19
      PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic beverage container           0.27
                                                            0.41
                                                            0.36
                                                          0.19
              PLASTIC - Food container or utensil         0.23
                                                          0.22
                                                          0.20

  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-alcoholic beverage              0.15
                                                           0.23
                 container                                 0.27
                                                          0.16
                                                          0.15
       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Cigarette packets              0.21
                                                            0.34
                                                           0.26
                                                          0.12
                                   METAL - Other           0.19
                                                           0.19
                                                          0.15
                                                       0.11
                  PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Other             0.12
                                                        0.14
                                                      0

                                                    0.0             1.0         2.0         3.0       4.0       5.0       6.0
                                                                                       Litres




                                                                           2006/07     2007/08     2008/09   2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - SA                                              - 95 -
4.7                 Tasmania


At a Glance

                    The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all of the 76 sites
                    surveyed within Tasmania during the counts in the year 2009/10 was 86,
                    while the overall average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 was 9.40
                    litres.


                    The number of litter items per 1,000m2 represents an increase from
                    previous years (up from 64 items in 2008/09, 61 items in 2007/08, 70 items
                    in 2006/07 and 59 items in 2005/06). The current year‟s volume per
                    1,000m2 estimate is also higher than previous years (up from 9.20 litres in
                    2008/09, 5.90 litres in 2007/08, 6.68 litres in 2006/07 and 5.15 litres in
                    2005/06).


                    The most littered sites surveyed within Tasmania were generally industrial
                    locations, which were significantly above all other sites in numbers of litter
                    items and total estimated volume per 1,000m2. There were also a greater
                    number of litter items recorded at retail sites, while there were moderate
                    numbers of litter items at car parks, shopping centres, beaches and highway
                    sites. Beaches and highways also had moderate estimated litter volumes
                    per 1,000m2, recording the second and third largest volumes by site type
                    after industrial sites.


                    Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item across all sites in
                    Tasmania with 56 butts per 1,000m2 (up from 38 butts in 2008/09, 36 butts
                    in 2007/08, 37 butts in 2006/07 and 27 butts in 2005/06) recorded in annual
                    figures for 2009/10. Cigarette butts however, were associated with a very
                    small proportion of the litter volume (0.006 litres per 1,000m2).


                    Paper/ paperboard objects (2.57 litres, down from 2.66 litres and up from
                    1.67 litres in 2007/08, 1.23 litres in 2006/07 and 1.35 litres in 2005/06) and
                    plastic objects (2.47 litres, up from 2.07 litres in 2008/09, 2.02 litres in
                    2007/08, 2.45 litres in 2005/06 and 1.76 litres in 2005/06) both contributed
                    the largest amounts of volume per 1,000m2 to the litter stream.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                           - 96 -
Comparisons by Site Types

                           The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 were located within industrial
                           sites (333 items, up from 203 items in 2008/09 and 185 items in 2007/08).
                           Industrial sites were also associated with the largest estimated litter volume
                           per 1,000 m2 across site types (42.05 litres, up from 33.72 litres in 2008/09
                           and 25.20 litres in 2007/08).


                           Retail sites (196 items, up from 107 items in 2008/09 and 124 items in
                           2007/08) were also associated with large numbers of litter items per
                           1,000m2, however, contributed lower volumes of litter per 1,000m2 by site
                           type across Tasmania in comparison to other sites (6.78 litres, up from 3.96
                           litres in 2008/09 and 2.41 litres in 2007/08).


                           Sites that were associated with a moderate level of litter items per 1,000m2
                           included car park sites (94 items, up from 61 items in 2008/09 and 80 items
                           in 2007/08), shopping centres (86 items, up from 64 items in 2008/09 and
                           54 items in 2007/08) and beaches (84 items, down from 89 items in
                           2008/09, but up from 66 items in 2007/08).


                           Sites that were also associated with a moderate level of litter volume per
                           1,000m2 included beaches (13.71 litres, down from 18.60 litres in 2008/09
                           and up from 9.07 litres in 2007/08) and highway sites (11.87 litres, down
                           from 13.57 litres in 2008/09 and up from 8.81 litres in 2007/08).


                             Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - TAS - 2009/ 2010


                                                       333
             350                                      42.05                                                                 45

                                                                                                                            40
             300
                                                                                                                            35
             250
                                                                                                                            30
                                                                                              196
             200                                                                                                            25
     Items




                                                                                                                                 Litres




             150                                                                                                            20
                   13.71                                                                                           86
                               94         11.87                                                                             15
             100                                                                                         86       9.40
                              6.80                                                6.61        6.78                          10
                    84
              50                           72
                                                                     30            33                   3.09                5
                                                                    1.27
               0                                                                                                            0
                   BEACH     CAR PARK    HIGHWAY    INDUSTRIAL   RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL   RETAIL   SHOPPING   OVERALL
                                                                     PARK                               CENTRE



                                        Items per 1000 Sq Metres     Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                              - 97 -
                          Overall, there has been an upward trend with regard to number of litter
                          items in the litter stream in Tasmania.


                          Tracked results demonstrate some seasonal fluctuations in the number of
                          litter items per 1,000m2 within recreational parks which generally display
                          modest increases in November and modest declines in May.



                                      Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - TAS



                400

                350
                                                                                                      INDUSTRIAL

                300

                250
        Items




                                                                                                      RETAIL
                200

                150
                                                                                                     CAR PARK
                100                                                                                  HIGHWAY
                                                                                                     OVERALL
                                                                                                     BEACH
                50                                                                                   SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                     RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                     RECREATIONAL PARK
                  0
                 NOV.05   MAY.06   NOV.06   MAY.07   NOV.07   MAY.08   NOV.08   MAY.09   NOV.09   MAY.10




                          The annual average of items per 1,000m2 within Tasmanian for the year of
                          2009/10 (86 items) was higher than figures corresponding to previous years
                          2008/09 (64 items), 2007/08 (61 items), 2006/07 (70 items) and 2005/06 (59
                          items).


                          This increase in the number of items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream was
                          particularly evident at industrial sites, (333 items, up from 203 items in
                          2008/09 and 185 items in 2007/08) and retail sites (196 items, up from 107
                          items in 2008/09 and 124 items in 2007/08). There were also considerable
                          increases, to a lesser extent, at both car park sites (94 items, up from 61
                          items in 2008/09 and 80 items in 2007/08) and shopping centres (86 items,
                          up from 64 items in 2008/09 and 57 items in 2007/08).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                         - 98 -
                                                        Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - TAS



              350                                                                                         333

              300
              250                                                                             232
                                                                                                        203
                                                                                                      185                                                       196
              200                                                                                   172
      Items


                        153                                                                                                                           153
                           141
              150                                                                                                                                  114 124107            115
                                       89 84                      94                                                                                                                86                 86
              100                                       80
                                  66            64 59        61             62        63 72                                                                                 57 64        59 70 61 64
                                                                       41        50                                                                                   43
              50                                                                                                 28 23 25 26 30   30 27 33 36 33

               0
                              BEACH               CAR PARK                  HIGHWAY             INDUSTRIAL       RECREATIONAL      RESIDENTIAL         RETAIL         SHOPPING CENTRE      OVERALL
                                                                                                                     PARK




                                                        YEAR 05/06           YEAR 06/07         YEAR 07/08        YEAR 08/09      YEAR 09/10




                                           There has been an overall upward trend with regard to volume of litter in the
                                           litter stream in Tasmania, primarily influenced by increases in litter volume
                                           at industrial sites.


                                           There is also some seasonal fluctuation evident in volume estimates of litter
                                           among highway sites, where there are higher litter volumes in May
                                           compared to lower litter volumes in November. Conversely, to a lesser
                                           extent, there are generally higher litter volumes among recreational parks in
                                           November compared to lower litter volumes in May.



                                                              Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - TAS



                             50
                                                                                                                                                                               INDUSTRIAL
                             45

                             40

                             35

                             30
                    Litres




                             25

                             20

                             15
                                                                                                                                                                               HIGHWAY
                                                                                                                                                                               BEACH
                             10                                                                                                                                                OVERALL
                                                                                                                                                                               RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                                                                                               RETAIL
                             5                                                                                                                                                 CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                                                               SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                                                                                               RECREATIONAL PARK
                              0
                             NOV.05            MAY.06         NOV.06              MAY.07        NOV.07          MAY.08       NOV.08       MAY.09       NOV.09          MAY.10




                                           The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                                           sites within Tasmania for the year of 2009/10 is similar to the results for the




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                                                                         - 99 -
                                      previous years (9.40 litres, up from 9.20 litres in 2008/09, up from 5.90 litres
                                      in 2007/08, 6.68 litres in 2006/07 and 5.15 litres in 2005/06).


                                      The recent increase was most strongly evident at industrial sites with the
                                      current findings higher than for the previous year (42.05 litres, up from 33.72
                                      litres in 2008/09, 25.20 litres in 2007/08, 15.32 in 2006/07 and 18.61 in
                                      2005/06).


                                      The overall area of industrial sites is significantly smaller in proportion to
                                      other site locations within Tasmania.




                                              Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - TAS



               45                                                                     42.05

               40
                                                                                 33.72
               35

               30
                                                                              25.20
               25
      Litres




                              18.60                                      18.61
               20                                                            15.32
                      13.15         13.71                       13.57
               15                                                  11.87
                    10.25                               10.72                                                                                                                9.40
                                                             8.81
               10
                             9.07                   6.80                                                                    6.61                                     6.68 9.20
                                       4.70      6.21                                                                            5.33       6.78                5.15
                                          3.96          5.21                                                         3.73 4.34            3.96                          5.90
               5                             2.99                                           3.17 2.01     1.27 2.94                 3.23
                                                                                                                                       2.41
                                                                                                                                                     3.10    3.09
                                                                                                                  1.76                           2.09 0.82 1.41
                                                                                                    0.721.23
               0
                            BEACH           CAR PARK           HIGHWAY        INDUSTRIAL       RECREATIONAL      RESIDENTIAL        RETAIL      SHOPPING CENTRE      OVERALL
                                                                                                   PARK




                                                                YEAR 05/06     YEAR 06/07       YEAR 07/08     YEAR 08/09      YEAR 09/10



                                      Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within Tasmania identify the
                                      following site characteristics across the respective site types surveyed in
                                      2009/10:


                                                Industrial sites contribute a high number of litter items and a large
                                                 estimated litter volume, compared to all other sites

                                                Retail sites were associated with large numbers of litter items but only
                                                 a small volume of litter

                                                Beaches and highways were associated with both a moderate
                                                 numbers of litter items and moderate litter volumes

                                                Shopping centres and car park sites contributed a moderate number
                                                 of litter items but were associated with low litter volumes


KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                                                      - 100 -
                                        Recreational parks and residential sites were associated with lower
                                         levels of litter items and lower litter volume


                Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                   TAS - 2009/ 2010

                                    50
                                                                                                   INDUSTRIAL
                                    45

                                    40

                                    35
                  Volume - Litres




                                    30

                                    25

                                    20

                                    15                      BEACH

                                                           HIGHWAY
                                    10       RESIDENTIAL
                                                           CAR PARK                   RETAIL
                                    5        RECREATIONAL SHOPPING
                                                 PARK      CENTRE
                                    0
                                         0        50        100      150            200    250   300    350
                                                                            Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                            An average of 56 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 were identified across all sites
                            surveyed within Tasmania during the year of 2009/10, these items however,
                            only contributed 0.006 litres of volume per 1,000m2 to the litter stream.


                            Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in
                            Tasmania were constructed of paper/ paperboard materials (2.57 litres per
                            1,000m2) and plastic materials (2.47 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                             - 101 -
                  Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - TAS -
                                              2009/ 2010




               60             56                                                                                           3.0
                                                                                            2.57              2.47
               50                                                                                                          2.5

               40                                                                                                          2.0
       Items




                                                                                                                                  Litres
                                                                    1.45
               30                                                                                                          1.5

               20                                                                                             13           1.0
                                                 0.41                                         9
               10                                                     5                                                    0.5
                             0.006                 1
                0                                                                                                          0.0
                        CIGA RETTE B UTTS        GLA SS             M ETA L                P A P ER/      P LA STIC
                                                                                       P A P ERB OA RD



                                        Items per 1000 Sq Metres          Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                               The most apparent fluctuations in Tasmania in the numbers of items per
                               1,000m2 by material type across the different counts were among cigarette
                               butts. There is no seasonal pattern apparent however, among cigarette butt
                               litter item results. The findings from November 2005 through to 2009/10 also
                               do not provide evidence to support the notion of seasonal trends of any of
                               the other material type litter counts.

                                Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - TAS



                       100

                       90
                                                                                                                                 14
                       80                                     14
                                                                                                                                 9
                       70                                                                                             12
                                                              15                                                                 5
                                                                                                   13                            2
                       60                                                              10                             8
                               13                             6
               Items




                                                              3                                          9            4
                       50                                                 10           9           8                  1
                                9           17                                         4           5     8
                       40                              13                  8           2           2     3
                                7                                                                        1
                                1           6          7                   3
                       30                                                  2                                                     62
                                            5          3
                                                       1      50                                                      49
                                            1
                       20                                                              41          39    37
                               32                                         31
                       10                   23         24

                        0
                             NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                            CIGARETTE BUTTS        GLASS       METAL        PAPER/ PAPERBOARD         PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                               - 102 -
                    Annual average figures for counts from 2005/06 to 2009/10 in the Tasmania
                    confirm that there have been some fluctuations in the number of cigarette
                    butts per 1,000m2, while the contribution of litter items per 1,000m2
                    generally remained proportional in the litter stream among the other main
                    material type categories.


                    Overall, cigarette butts per 1,000m2 have increased in the litter stream from
                    2005/06 to 2009/2010 (56 butts, up from 38 butts in 2008/09, 36 butts in
                    2007/08, 37 in 2006/07 and 27 butts in 2005/06).


                    There has also been a modest increase in the number of litter items per
                    1,000m2 among most other material types since the previous year, as
                    outlined below:


                         Plastic objects (13 items, up from 11 items in 2008/09, 10 items in
                          2007/08, the same as 2006/07 and down from 15 items in 2005/06)

                         Paper/ paperboard objects (9 items, up from 8 items in 2008/09 and
                          2007/08, down from 11 items in 2006/07 and up from 8 items in
                          2005/06)

                         Metal objects (5 items, up from 4 items in 2008/09 and 2007/08, the
                          same as 2006/07 and down from 6 items in 2005/06)

                         Glass objects (1 item, the same as 2008/09, down from 2 items in
                          2007/08 and 2006/07 and the same as 2005/06)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                           - 103 -
                              Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                                    Averages - TAS




                       90
                       80
                                                                                                                       13
                       70
                                                                                                                       9
                       60                               13                                                             5
                                                                                                    11                 1
                                                                                 10
               Items




                       50              15               11                                           8
                                                                                  8
                       40                                5                        4                  4
                                       8                 2                        2                  1
                       30              6
                                       1                                                                               56
                       20                               37                       36                 38
                                       27
                       10
                       0
                                   YEAR 05/06     YEAR 06/07            YEAR 07/08             YEAR 08/09          YEAR 09/10


                                        CIGARETTE BUTTS              GLASS       METAL        PAPER/ PAPERBOARD        PLASTIC



                                    Recent results for the November counts and May counts in Tasmania
                                    demonstrate a modest seasonal trend in the number of paper/ paperboard
                                    items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream, with the number of items decreasing
                                    in November and increasing in May. There does not appear however, to be
                                    seasonal patterns for the other material categories.



                                   Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - TAS

               8

               7

               6                                                                      2.91       2.59                           2.42
                                                                                                         1.54         2.52
               5
                        1.75
                                                             2.28
      Litres




               4
                                       1.78
                                                2.62                                             2.42                           2.64
                                                                                      2.48               2.90
               3        1.63                                                                                          2.49
                                                             1.52       1.12
                                       1.07
               2
                                                0.94                                             1.65
                        1.48                                            0.86          1.26                                      1.59
               1                       1.08                  1.10                                        1.28         1.30
                                                0.82                    0.73
                            0.66       0.64                  0.64                     0.65        0.60      0.51                 0.44
                                                0.33                      0.20                                         0.38
               0        0.004                   0.003        0.006                               0.005                0.006     0.007
                                       0.003                             0.004        0.005              0.004
                       NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10



                                       CIGARETTE BUTTS          GLASS        METAL       PAPER/PAPERBOARD           PLASTIC



KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                                   - 104 -
                      There has been an overall general increase in the litter volume of all
                      material categories per 1,000m2 in the Tasmanian litter stream since the
                      start of the litter monitor in 2005/06. Annual results for 2009/10 revealed an
                      increase in the volume per 1,000m2 in the litter stream association with
                      plastic litter volume (2.47 litres, up from 2.07 litres in 2008/09, 2.02 litres in
                      2007/08, 2.45 litres in 2006/07 and 1.76 litres in 2005/06).

                      There was however, a decrease in the litter volume of most other material
                      categories per 1,000m2 in the Tasmanian litter stream, as outlined:

                                Paper/ paperboard litter objects (2.57 litres, down from 2.66 litres in
                                 2008/09, 1.67 litres in 2007/08, 1.23 litres in 2006/07 and 1.35 litres in
                                 2005/06)

                                Metal objects (1.45 litres, down from 1.46 litres in 2008/09, up from
                                 0.99 litres in 2007/08, 0.96 litres in 2006/07 and 1.28 litres in 2005/06)

                                Glass objects (0.41 litres, down from 0.55 litres in 2008/09, 0.42 litres
                                 in 2007/08, 0.48 litres in 2006/07 and 0.65 litres in 2005/06)


              Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                    Averages - TAS


                            8
                            7
                            6                                                2.07       2.47
                            5
                   Litres




                            4      1.76         2.45               2.02
                                                                             2.66       2.57
                            3
                                   1.35
                            2                   1.23               1.67
                                   1.28                                      1.46       1.45
                            1                   0.96               0.99
                                    0.65        0.48                0.42      0.55       0.41
                            0
                                   0.003        0.004              0.004     0.004      0.006
                                YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10




                CIGARETTE BUTTS             GLASS       METAL       PAPER/PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC


                      Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                      identify the following characteristics of litter objects recorded within TAS
                      during the year of 2009/10:

                                Paper/ paperboard and plastic litter items contribute large volumes to
                                 the litter stream but are associated with a small number of litter items


KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                    - 105 -
                                         Cigarette butts contributed a large number of litter items, but
                                          associated with only a negligible volume in the litter stream

                                         Metal items contributed moderate volumes to the litter stream but
                                          were associated with only a small number of litter items

                                         Glass items contribute both a small number of litter items and volume
                                          to the litter stream


                    Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material
                                     Type - TAS - 2009/ 2010




                                          3.0

                                          2.5                 PLASTIC
                                                    PAPER/
                        Volume - Litres




                                          2.0 PAPERBOARD

                                          1.5         METAL

                                          1.0

                                          0.5
                                                    GLASS                                    CIGARETTE BUTTS
                                          0.0
                                                0       10       20         30     40   50        60
                                                                           Items




The Dirty Dozen
                    Cigarette butts remains the most frequently identified litter item in Tasmania,
                    with 56 butts on average per 1,000m2 (up from 38 butts in 2008/09, 36 butts
                    in 2007/08 and 37 butts in 2006/07) during the 2009/10 counts.

                    Other objects that were frequently identified in the litter counts included:

                                         Plastic food containers and utensils (6 items per 1,000m2, up from 5
                                          items in 2008/09, 4 items in 2007/08 and the same as 2006/07)

                                         Uncategorised plastic objects (5 items per 1,000m2, up from 4 items
                                          in 2008/09 and the same as 2007/08 and 2006/07)

                                         Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (4 items per 1,000m2, the
                                          same as 2008/09, down from 5 items in 2007/08 and 8 items in
                                          2006/07)



KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                            - 106 -
                   Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                            TAS - 06/07 to 09/10

                                                                                                                   56
           CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                              38
                                                                                              36
                                                                                               37

            PLASTIC - Food container
                                                          6
                                                      5
                   or utensil                        4
                                                          6
                                                   5
                    PLASTIC - Other               4
                                                    5
                                                    5

             PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                                   4
                                                  4
                     Other                          5
                                                              8

            PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                  3
                                                 3
            Food container or utensil           2
                                            1
                                             2
            MISCELLANEOUS - Total           1
                                            1
                                              2
                                            2
                      METAL - Other         1
                                             2
                                              3

              METAL - Non-alcoholic
                                             2
                                            1
               beverage container           1
                                            1

             PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic         1
                                             2
               beverage container           1
                                            1

                   METAL - Alcoholic        1
                                            1
                  beverage container        1
                                            1

             PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                            1
                                            1
                Cigarette packets           1
                                            1

                   GLASS - Alcoholic        1
                                            1
                  beverage container        1
                                            1

                                        0                     10        20          30             40         50        60
                                                                                Items




                                                                   2006/07   2007/08     2008/09    2009/10



                      Illegal dumping contributed the largest estimated litter volume in Tasmania,
                      with 2.17 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 2.29 litres in 2008/09, and up from
                      0.60 litres in 2007/08 and 1.44 litres in 2006/07).

                      Other strong contributors to the estimated litter volume included:

                              Paper/ paperboard – food containers or utensils (1.81 litres per
                               1,000m2, down from 1.96 litres in 2008/09, 1.11 litres in 2007/08 and
                               0.56 litres in 2006/07)

                              Plastic – non-alcoholic beverage containers (1.20 litres per 1,000m2,
                               down from 1.26 litres in 2008/09, up from 0.73 litres in 2007/08 and
                               1.04 litres in 2006/07)


KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                                 - 107 -
                                  Plastic – other (0.87 litres per 1,000m2, up from 0.43 litres in 2008/09,
                                   0.94 litres in 2007/08 and down from 1.04 litres in 2006/07

                                  Metal – non-alcoholic beverage container (0.67 litres per 1,000m2, up
                                   from 0.60 in 2008/09, 0.38 litres in 2007/08 and 0.20 litres in 2006/07)

                                  Metal – alcoholic beverage container (0.62 litres per 1,000m2, down
                                   from 0.69 in 2008/09, up from 0.53 litres in 2007/08 and 0.49 litres in
                                   2006/07)


                 Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                          TAS - 06/07 to 09/10
                                                                                                                         2.17
                                                                                                                             2.29
    ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                0.60
                                                                                                1.44

                                                                                                           1.81
     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                                                                                          1.96
     Food container or utensil                                                     1.11
                                                          0.56

                                                                                       1.20
     PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                                                             1.26
       beverage container                                         0.73
                                                                                1.04

                                                                         0.87
                                                   0.43
             PLASTIC - Other                                               0.94
                                                                              1.04

                                                             0.67
       METAL - Non-alcoholic                               0.60
        beverage container                       0.38
                                         0.20

                                                           0.62
   METAL - Alcoholic beverage                                0.69
           container                                    0.53
                                                       0.49

                                                0.35
           GLASS - Alcoholic                      0.40
          beverage container                    0.33
                                                 0.37

                                                0.34
                                         0.17
     MISCELLANEOUS - Total               0.19
                                       0.11

                                             0.30
     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                 0.20
          Publication                   0.16
                                           0.27

                                            0.26
    PLASTIC - Food container               0.25
           or utensil                  0.12
                                        0.16

                                         0.20
     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                  0.22
        Cigarette packets               0.16
                                         0.19

     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                 0.17
                                          0.20
     Non-alcoholic beverage              0.18
           container                    0.15

                                 0.0               0.5                    1.0                   1.5              2.0                2.5
                                                                                 Litres




                                                           2006/07         2007/08        2008/09      2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - TAS                                                    - 108 -
4.8                 Victoria


At a Glance

                    The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all of the 151 sites
                    surveyed within Victoria during the counts in the year of 2009/10 was 50,
                    while the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 4.91 litres.


                    The number of litter items identified per 1,000m2 is higher than the last two
                    counts (up from 43 items in 2008/09 and 48 items in 2007/08) but below the
                    other previous monitors (80 items in 2006/07 and 71 items in 2005/06). The
                    current year‟s volume per 1,000m2 also increased in line with the higher
                    count (up from 2.87 litres in 2008/09 and 4.19 litres in 2007/08) but below
                    other previous monitors (7.74 litres in 2006/07 and 7.87 litres in 2005/06).


                    The most littered sites surveyed within Victoria per 1,000m2 were generally
                    retail sites, industrial sites, beaches and car parks. Retail sites contributed
                    large numbers of litter and moderate volumes of litter items, while industrial
                    sites, beaches and car parks were associated with moderate to large
                    volumes of litter and moderate numbers of litter items.


                    Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item across all sites in
                    VIC, with 25 butts per 1,000m2 recorded in annual figures for 2009/10
                    (unchanged from 2008/09 and down from 28 butts in 2007/08, 41 butts in
                    2006/07 and 36 butts in 2005/06), these were however, associated with only
                    a very small proportion of the overall litter volume (0.003 litres per 1,000m2).


                    Paper/ paperboard objects contributed the largest volume to the litter
                    stream, with 1.57 litres of volume per 1,000m2 (up from 0.73 litres in
                    2008/09, 0.95 litres in 2007/08, but down from 1.82 litres in 2006/07 and
                    1.66 litres in 2005/06). Plastic litter objects contributed the second largest
                    amount of volume to the litter stream, and were associated with 1.18 litres of
                    volume per 1,000m2 (0.77 litres in 2008/09, but down from 1.37 litres in
                    2007/08, 1.73 litres in 2006/07 and 2.54 litres in 2005/06).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                          - 109 -
Comparisons by Site Types

                          The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 in Victoria were located within
                          retail sites (151 items, up from 106 items in 2008/09 and 83 items in
                          2007/08). Retail sites (5.85 litres, up from 4.62 litres in 2008/09 and 2.01
                          litres in 2007/08) were also associated with moderate volumes of litter per
                          1,000m2 compared to other site types.


                          Industrial sites (9.88 litres, up from 5.68 litres in 2008/09 and down from
                          11.13 litres in 2007/08) were associated with higher volumes of litter per
                          1,000m2 compared to other site types. Industrial sites (80 items, down from
                          92 items in 2008/09 and 107 items in 2007/08) contributed a moderate
                          numbers of litter items per 1,000m2, compared to other site types.


                          Other sites that were also associated with moderate numbers of litter items
                          per 1,000m2 were beaches (86 items, up from 71 items in 2008/09 and 31
                          items in 2007/08), and car parks (81 items, up from 53 items in 2008/09 and
                          59 items in 2007/08). Both beaches (8.56 litres, up from 4.10 litres in
                          2008/09 and 1.69 litres in 2007/08) and car park sites (6.35 litres, up from
                          2.74 litres in 2008/09 and 2.73 litres in 2007/08) contributed moderate to
                          large volumes per 1,000m2 to the litter stream, compared to other site types.


                             Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - VIC - 2009/ 2010
           160                                                                                151                           12

           140                                        9.88                                                                  10
           120   8.56
                                                                                                                            8
           100
                  86         6.35                                   5.97
                                                       80
   Items




                                                                                                                                 Litres




                                                                                              5.85                4.91
            80               81                                                                                     50      6
                                                                                  3.61                   57
            60                          3.90
                                                                     44            47                                       4
            40
                                         21                                                             1.36                2
            20

             0                                                                                                              0
                 BEACH     CAR PARK    HIGHWAY      INDUSTRIAL   RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL   RETAIL   SHOPPING   OVERALL
                                                                     PARK                               CENTRE




                         Items per 1000 Sq Metres    Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                          Overall, with the exception of retail sites, there has been a downward trend
                          with the number of litter items in the litter stream in Victoria.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                              - 110 -
                           Across all the results there appears to be a seasonal pattern of the numbers
                           of items per 1,000m2 in the litter stream at shopping centres and residential
                           sites. Shopping centre results generally demonstrate an increase in the
                           numbers of items in the November and a decrease in May, while residential
                           sites recorded an increase in the number of litter items in the May and lower
                           results in the November.

                                         Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - VIC

             300



             250


             200
     Items




                                                                                                        RETAIL
             150


             100                                                                                       INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                        BEACH
                                                                                                       SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                       CAR PARK
             50                                                                                         RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                        OVERALL
                                                                                                       RECREATIONAL PARK
                                                                                                        HIGHWAY
               0
              NOV.05   MAY.06   NOV.06     MAY.07   NOV.07   MAY.08    NOV.08   MAY.09     NOV.09   MAY.10




                           The annual average items per 1,000m2 within Victoria for the year of
                           2009/10 (50 items) was up from the figures recorded in 2008/09 (43 items)
                           and 2007/08 (48 items) but still significantly lower than the counts recorded
                           for the year 2006/07 (80 items).


                           The increase in the litter was apparent across most sites except highway
                           and industrial sites. Increases in the litter items per 1,000m2 were
                           demonstrated most strongly at retail sites (151 items, up from 106 items in
                           2008/09 and 83 items in 2007/08, but down from 229 items in 2006/07 and
                           up from 129 items in 2005/06) and shopping centres (57 items, up from 36
                           items in 2008/09, 45 items in 2007/08, but down from 83 items in 2007/07
                           and 89 items in 2005/06).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                        - 111 -
                                                      Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - VIC


            250                                                                                                                                     229
                                                                                    216

            200

                                                                                  147                                                                            151
            150                                                                                                                                   129
                                                126
    Items



                                              114                                       107
                       101                                                                                                                                 106
                                         86                                                92                                                                          89 83
            100           82                              81                                    80        79                                             83                                        80
                                    71                                                               71                                                                                       71
                                                  59 53                                                                     57 55                                                        57
                                                                                                               46                           47                                                          48 43 50
            50                 31                              35 32 36 28                                          38 44           36 33
                                                                                                                                                                               45
                                                                                                                                                                                    36
                                                                             21

             0
                            BEACH               CAR PARK         HIGHWAY            INDUSTRIAL        RECREATIONAL           RESIDENTIAL                RETAIL         SHOPPING CENTRE             OVERALL
                                                                                                          PARK




                                                                     YEAR 05/06         YEAR 06/07     YEAR 07/08           YEAR 08/09           YEAR 09/10




                                              Overall, there has been a downward trend in the total estimated litter
                                              volume per 1,000m2 in the litter stream in Victoria.


                                              The tracked results of estimated volumes of litter reveal seasonal
                                              fluctuations among retail sites, with higher litter volumes in November and
                                              lower litter volumes in May. While there are fluctuations among other site
                                              types they do not generally support the notion of seasonal patterns.



                                                           Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -VIC

                       30



                       25



                       20
              Litres




                       15



                       10
                                                                                                                                                                                INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                                                                 RECREATIONAL PARK
                                                                                                                                                                                CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                                                                BEACH
                                                                                                                                                                                OVERALL
                        5                                                                                                                                                        RETAIL
                                                                                                                                                                                RESIDENTIAL
                                                                                                                                                                                HIGHWAY
                                                                                                                                                                                SHOPPING CENTRE
                        0
                       NOV.05             MAY.06      NOV.06         MAY.07         NOV.07           MAY.08            NOV.08         MAY.09            NOV.09          MAY.10




                                              The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                                              sites within Victoria for 2009/10 was 4.91 litres per 1,000m2 (up from 2.87
                                              litres in 2008/09 and 4.19 litres in 2007/08, but down from 7.74 litres in
                                              2006/07 and 7.87 litres in 2005/06).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                                                            - 112 -
                                      The increase in volume per 1,000m2 was most clearly reflected among
                                      beaches (8.56 litres, up from 4.10 litres in 2008/09 and 1.69 litres in
                                      2007/08, and down from 9.96 litres in 2006/07 and up from 6.44 litres in
                                      2005/06 ), recreational parks (5.97 litres, up from 1.65 litres in 2008/09, 1.65
                                      litres in 2007/08 and down from 7.63 litres in 2006/07 and 7.59 litres in
                                      2005/06), industrial sites (9.88 litres, up from 5.68 litres in 2008/09, but
                                      down from 11.13 litres in 2007/08, 20.28 litres in 2006/07 and 22.61 litres in
                                      2005/06) and car park sites 6.35 litres, up from 2.74 litres in 2008/09, 2.73
                                      litres in 2007/08, but down from 11.81 litres in 2006/07 and 9.27 litres in
                                      2005/06).


                                                 Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - VIC



               25
                                                                               22.61
                                                                                  20.28
               20



               15
      Litres




                                            11.81
                                                                                       11.13
                      9.96                                                                     9.88
               10                         9.27                                                                                                                                    7.87
                                   8.56                                                                      7.63                              8.30
                                                             7.80                                     7.59                                                                            7.74
                    6.46                              6.35         5.92                                             5.97                                 5.85
                                                                5.72                     5.68
                                                                                                                           4.32                       4.62         5.12                       4.91
                             4.10                                       3.90                                                                                                             4.19
               5                                    2.74             3.38                                                     3.77     3.61                     3.62                       2.87
                                                 2.73                                                          1.67               2.48             2.01
                           1.69                                                                                 1.65               1.41     1.25                      0.86 1.36
                                                                                                                                                                         0.75
               0
                           BEACH             CAR PARK           HIGHWAY           INDUSTRIAL           RECREATIONAL          RESIDENTIAL           RETAIL       SHOPPING CENTRE       OVERALL
                                                                                                           PARK




                                                      YEAR 05/06      YEAR 06/07        YEAR 07/08            YEAR 08/09       YEAR 09/10




                                      Items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within VIC identify the following
                                      site characteristics across the respective site types surveyed in 2009/10:


                                                   Industrial sites and beaches were associated with a large estimated
                                                    litter volume per 1,000m2 and a moderate number of items per
                                                    1,000m2

                                                   Retail sites were associated with a large number of items per 1,000m2
                                                    and a moderate estimated litter volume per 1,000m2

                                                   Car parks were associated with a moderate number of items per
                                                    1,000m2 and moderate estimated litter volumes per 1,000m2

                                                   Recreational parks, highways and                                                  residential sites were generally
                                                    associated with a low number of items per 1,000m2 and moderate
                                                    estimated litre volumes per 1,000m2




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                                                           - 113 -
                                           Shopping centres were associated with both low numbers of items per
                                            1,000m2 and low estimated volumes of litter per 1,000m2


                 Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                    VIC - 2009/ 2010




                                   12


                                   10                                   INDUSTRIAL

                                                                            BEACH
                                    8
                 Volume - Litres




                                                                                      RETAIL
                                                                        CAR PARK
                                    6
                                                          RECREATIONAL
                                             HIGHWAY          PARK
                                    4
                                                   RESIDENTIAL
                                    2
                                                                 SHOPPING
                                                                  CENTRE
                                    0
                                        0               50                   100      150             200
                                                                            Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                   An average of 25 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 was identified across all sites
                                   surveyed within VIC during the year of 2009/10. However, such items only
                                   contributed 0.003 litres of volume per 1,000m2 to the litter stream.


                                   Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in Victoria
                                   were constructed of paper/ paperboard materials (1.57 litres per 1,000m2)
                                   and plastic materials (1.18 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                             - 114 -
                   Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - VIC -
                                               2009/ 2010




                   30                                                                                                      2.0
                                  25
                                                                                           1.57
                   25
                                                                                                         1.18              1.5
                   20
          Items




                                                                                                                                 Litres
                   15                                0.75            0.70                                                  1.0
                                                                                           10
                   10                                                                                        8
                                                                       4                                                   0.5
                   5                                  3
                                 0.003
                   0                                                                                                       0.0
                            CIGA RETTE B UTTS       GLA SS          M ETA L               P A P ER/     P LA STIC
                                                                                      P A P ERB OA RD



                                                Items per 1000 Sq Metres        Volume per 1000 Sq Metres




                               There is no evidence in results of the number of items of litter per 1,000m2
                               to suggest that demonstrate the presence of seasonal fluctuations in the
                               main material type categories in Victoria.

                               The proportion of each major material types in the overall litter stream has
                               remained fairly constant across the litter counts from November 2005 to
                               May 2010.


                                     Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - VIC



                   100
                    90
                    80                                21
                                           18
                    70
                                                      12
                    60                     11                  12
           Items




                    50          10          8         11
                                                       2       8                                                                          9
                                            2                                          8           8                  7
                    40          10                             4            9
                                                               1                                   6                  9
                                 4                                          7          6           2                                 10
                    30           1                                                     2
                                                                                       1           2     7            4
                                                                            3
                                                                            1                                         2               4
                                                                                                         5                            3
                    20                     43         44                                                 3
                                                                                                         1
                                                               38
                                30                                         26         29          31                 27
                    10                                                                                  20                           24

                        0
                             NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                          CIGARETTE BUTTS      GLASS       METAL     PAPER/ PAPERBOARD           PLASTIC




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                               - 115 -
                          There has been an overall decline in the number of litter items per 1,000m2
                          among the main material types in Victoria from 2005/06 to 2009/10. While
                          the number of cigarette butts and plastic items remained unchanged from
                          the previous count in 2008/09, there was an increase in the number of
                          paper/ paperboard, metal and glass items, as outlined:


                                Cigarette butts – 25 items (unchanged from 2008/09, down from 28
                                 items in 2007/08, 41 items in 2006/07 and 36 items in 2005/06)

                                Paper/ paperboard – 10 items (down from 5 items in 2008/09, 6 items
                                 in 2008/09, the same as 2006/07 and down from 11 items in 2005/06)

                                Plastic items – 8 items (unchanged from 2008/09 and 2007/08, but
                                 down from down from 16 items in 2006/07 and 14 items in 2005/06)

                                Metal items – 3 items (up from 2 items in 2008/09, the same as
                                 2007/08, down from 8 items in 2006/07 and 6 items in 2005/06).


            Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual Averages -
                                             VIC


                     90

                     80

                     70                         16
                     60         14
                                                10
                     50         11
             Items




                                                8                                                  8
                     40          6              2                     8
                                 2                                                  8             10
                                                                      6
                     30                                               3             5              4
                                                                      1             2              3
                                                                                    2
                     20         36              41
                                                                      28           25             25
                     10

                     0
                           YEAR 05/06    YEAR 06/07           YEAR 07/08       YEAR 08/09      YEAR 09/10



                              CIGARETTE BUTTS       GLASS     METAL        PAPER/ PAPERBOARD     PLASTIC



                          Overall, there are apparent seasonal fluctuations across the total estimated
                          volumes in Victoria, with larger total estimated volumes in November and
                          lower total estimated volumes in May. There does not appear however, to
                          be any seasonal patterns among the volumes of individual material
                          categories.



KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                       - 116 -
                          Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - VIC



                   8

                   7
                   6                       1.82
                                   2.54
                   5
          Litres




                        2.54               2.53
                   4                                                                             1.01
                                   1.80                                                                  1.35
                   3                               1.63
                                                              1.41    1.33
                        1.53                                                  0.91               2.02    1.12
                   2               1.53    2.00    1.11       0.77
                                                                      1.12            0.62
                                                                              0.78                       0.73
                   1    1.01                       0.81       0.67                    0.68       0.67
                                                                      0.62    0.49
                                   1.02    0.77                0.71           0.56
                                                                                      0.41       0.62    0.88
                        0.46                        0.45               0.32            0.33
                   0    0.003      0.005   0.005   0.004      0.003   0.003   0.004   0.002              0.003
                                                                                                 0.003
                       NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10


                                CIGARETTE BUTTS    GLASS     METAL    PAPER/PAPERBOARD        PLASTIC




                          Annual results for the contribution of objects within the main material types
                          to volume in the litter stream during the year 2009/10 demonstrate an
                          increase across most main material types:


                                  Paper/ paperboard objects – 1.57 litres per 1,000m2 (up from 0.73
                                   litres in 2008/09 and 0.95 litres in 2007/08, down from 1.82 litres
                                   2006/07 and 1.66 litres in 2005/06)

                                  Plastic litter objects – 1.18 litres per 1,000m2 (up from 0.77 litres in
                                   2008/09, down from 1.37 litres in 2007/08, 1.73 litres in 2006/07 and
                                   2.54 litres in 2005/06)

                                  Glass objects – 0.75 litres per 1,000m2 (up from 0.45 litres in 2008/09
                                   and 0.52 litres in 2007/08, 1.61 litres in 2006/07 and 0.74 litres in
                                   2005/06)

                                  Metal objects – 0.70 litres per 1,000m2 (up from 0.45 litres in 2008/09,
                                   0.64 litres in 2007/08, down from 1.41 litres in 2006/07 and 1.27 litres
                                   in 2005/06)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                      - 117 -
                       Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                       Annual Averages - VIC




                       7
                       6
                       5        2.54           1.73
              Litres




                       4
                                                                                           1.18
                       3        1.66           1.82                1.37
                       2                                                       0.77        1.57
                                1.27                               0.95
                                               1.41                            0.73        0.70
                       1                                           0.64        0.45
                                 0.74              0.61                0.52     0.45       0.75
                       0         0.004             0.005              0.003     0.003      0.003
                            YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10




              CIGARETTE BUTTS              GLASS           METAL       PAPER/PAPERBOARD   PLASTIC


                           Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                           identify the following characteristics of litter objects recorded within Victoria
                           during the year of 2009/10:


                                Plastic and paper/ paperboard items contribute large volumes to the
                                 litter stream but are associated with only small to moderate numbers
                                 of litter items

                                Cigarette butts were recorded in large numbers, but such items
                                 contribute only a negligible estimated volume to the overall litter
                                 stream

                                Metal and glass items contribute only small volumes to the litter
                                 stream and are associated with only small numbers of litter items




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                       - 118 -
              Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material
                               Type - VIC - 2009/ 2010




                                 3.0
                                 2.5
               Volume - Litres




                                 2.0                        PAPER/
                                 1.5                        PAPERBOARD

                                 1.0                   PLASTIC
                                               METAL
                                 0.5       GLASS                                CIGARETTE
                                                                                BUTTS
                                 0.0
                                       0               10                  20          30           40

                                                                       Items




The Dirty Dozen

                                  Cigarette butts remained the most frequently identified litter item in Victoria,
                                  with 25 butts were recorded on average per 1,000m2 during the 2009/10
                                  counts (the same as 2008/09 and down from 28 butts in 2007/08 and 41
                                  butts in 2006/07).


                                  Other objects frequently identified during the Victorian counts included:


                                          Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (7 items per 1,000m2, up
                                           from 4 items in 2008/09, 5 items in 2007/08 and 6 items in 2006/07)

                                          Plastic - food containers and utensils (4 items per 1,000m2,
                                           unchanged from 2008/09 and up from 3 items 2007/08 and down from
                                           7 items in 2006/07)

                                          Uncategorised plastic objects (3 items per 1,000m2, unchanged from
                                           2008/09 and down from 4 items in 2007/08 and 8 items in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                            - 119 -
                 Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                          VIC - 06/07 to 09/10


                                                                                                 25
      CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                                    25
                                                                                                      28
                                                                                                                         41

       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                                           7
                                                  4
               Other                                  5
                                                          6

      PLASTIC - Food container
                                                  4
                                                  4
             or utensil                          3
                                                              7
                                                3
               PLASTIC - Other                   3
                                                  4
                                                                  8
                                             2
                 METAL - Other           2
                                        1
                                                      5
                                         1
                 GLASS - Other          1
                                       0.3
                                         1
                                        1
       MISCELLANEOUS - Total            1
                                         2
                                                 3

       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                        1
                                       1
          Cigarette packets             1
                                        1

       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                       1
                                       1
       Food container or utensil        1
                                            2

       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -
                                      1
                                    0.1
            Publication             0.2
                                    0

     GLASS - Alcoholic beverage
                                        1
                                       0.4
             container                  1
                                        1

       PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic
                                       1
                                       0.4
         beverage container             1
                                        1

                                   0                 5                10      15        20      25        30   35   40        45
                                                                                          Items


                                                          2006/07          2007/08   2008/09    2009/10



                       Plastic – non-alcoholic beverage containers (0.68 litres per 1,000m2, up
                       from 0.33 litres in 2008/09, 0.58 litres in 2007/08 and down from 0.83 litres
                       in 2006/07) contributed the largest estimated litter volume in Victoria during
                       2009/10.


                       Other object sub-categories which were associated with substantial
                       estimated volume measurements included:

                                  Illegal dumping items (0.60 litres 1,000m2, up from 0.40 litres in
                                   2008/09, 0.45 litres in 2007/08 and down from 1.80 litres in 2006/07)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                                         - 120 -
                                     Paper/ paperboard - publications (0.57 litres per 1,000m2, up from
                                      0.08 litres in 2008/09, 0.14 litres in 2007/08 and 0.44 litres in 2006/07)

                                     Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils (0.46 litres per
                                      1,000m2, up from 0.37 litres in 2008/09, down from 0.52 litres and
                                      0.82 litres in 2006/07)

                                     Glass alcoholic beverage container (0.43 litres per 1,000m2, up from
                                      0.23 litres in 2008/09, 0.27 litres in 2007/08 and 0.37 litres in 2006/07)


               Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                          VIC - 2009/ 2010


                                                                             0.68
    PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                         0.33
      beverage container                                              0.58
                                                                                      0.83

                                                                       0.60
                                                          0.40
   ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                  0.45
                                                                                                                                1.80

                                                                     0.57
    PAPER /PAPERBOARD -                0.08
         Publication                      0.14
                                                              0.44

                                                             0.46
    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                                  0.37
    Food container or utensil                                   0.52
                                                                                    0.82

                                                              0.43
  GLASS - Alcoholic beverage                    0.23
          container                               0.27
                                                         0.37

                                                   0.31
  METAL - Alcoholic beverage                0.19
          container                                  0.33
                                                                                                 1.03

    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                            0.31
                                        0.11
    Non-alcoholic beverage              0.10
          container                              0.26

                                              0.24
      GLASS - Non-alcoholic                0.18
       beverage container                  0.18
                                           0.19

                                            0.22
      METAL - Non-alcoholic              0.14
       beverage container                 0.16
                                          0.17

                                            0.20
    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -                  0.13
       Cigarette packets                 0.15
                                              0.25

                                            0.19
       PLASTIC - Plain water           0.08
            container                    0.12
                                           0.17

                                          0.15
            PLASTIC - Other                      0.25
                                                                   0.57
                                                                0.49

                                0.0       0.2           0.4          0.6        0.8        1.0          1.2       1.4   1.6   1.8      2.0
                                                                                       Litres




                                                                2006/07        2007/08       2008/09          2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - VIC                                                      - 121 -
4.9                Western Australia


At a Glance

                   The overall average number of items per 1,000m2 across all of the 151 sites
                   surveyed within Western Australia during the counts in the year of 2009/10
                   was 71, while the overall average estimated volume per 1,000m2 was 9.44
                   litres.


                   The number of litter items per 1,000m2 identified was lower than most
                   previous years (87 items in 2008/09, 85 items in 2007/08, 83 items in
                   2006/07) but higher than in 2005/06 (60 items). The current year‟s volume
                   per 1,000 m2 estimate however, is lower than the results from the previous
                   two years (11.93 litres in 2008/09, 13.06 litres in 2007/08 and 12.19 litres in
                   2006/07) but slightly higher than in 2005/ 2006 (8.57 litres per 1,000 m2).


                   The most littered sites surveyed within Western Australia were generally
                   industrial sites, highways, retail sites and beaches. Industrial sites were
                   associated with both large volumes of litter and large numbers of litter items,
                   while highway sites contributed large volumes of litter but a small number of
                   litter items. Retail sites and beaches were both associated with large
                   numbers of litter items but only small volumes of litter.


                   Cigarette butts were the most frequently identified item across all sites in
                   Western Australia, with 33 butts per 1,000m2 recorded in annual figures for
                   2009/10 (down from 41 butts in 2008/09, 36 butts in 2007/08, 35 butts in
                   2006/07 and up slightly from 29 butts in 2005/06). Only a very small
                   proportion of the overall litter volume (0.004 litres per 1,000m2) however,
                   was associated with these items.


                   Plastic litter objects contributed the largest amount of volume to the litter
                   stream in Western Australia, with 3.39 litres of volume per 1,000m2 (down
                   from 5.21 litres in 2008/09, 5.09 litres in 2007/08, 4.62 litres in 2006/07 and
                   3.54 litres in 2005/06). Paper/ paperboard contributed the second highest
                   amount of litter with 2.30 litres of volume per 1,000m2 (down from 2.56 litres
                   in 2008/09, 2.72 litres in 2007/08 and 2.79 litres in 2006/07).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                           - 122 -
Comparisons by Site Types

                         The largest numbers of items per 1,000m2 were located at retail sites (179
                         items, up from 175 items in 2008/09), beaches (144 items, up from 110
                         items in 2008/09) and industrial areas (132 items, down from 148 items in
                         2008/09).


                         The largest estimated volumes of litter per 1,000m2 however, were
                         associated with industrial sites (18.04 litres, down from 18.65 litres in
                         2008/09) and highways (15.76 litres, down from 23.49 litres in 2008/09).


                           Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - WA - 2009/ 2010


           200                                   18.04                                                                   20
                                                                                           179
           180                                                                                                           18
                                     15.76
           160                                                                                                           16
                 144
           140                                    132                                                                    14
                                                                                                                9.44
           120                                                                                                           12
   Items




                                                                                                                              Litres
                                                                                                      95         71
           100                                                                                                           10

            80             73                                                                                            8
                                       59                                      5.50        5.63      5.44
            60                                                                                                           6
                 3.39     4.03
                                                                 2.04           41
            40                                                                                                           4
                                                                  25
            20                                                                                                           2

             0                                                                                                           0
                 BEACH   CAR PARK    HIGHWAY    INDUSTRIAL    RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL   RETAIL   SHOPPING   OVERALL
                                                                  PARK                               CENTRE




                              Items per 1000 Sq Metres       Volume per 1000 Sq Metres



                         The tracked results of the number of items per 1,000m2 across the site
                         types in Western Australia revealed that there are some seasonal
                         fluctuations, particularly among residential and highway sites which
                         displayed a lower number of litter items in November and a higher number
                         of litter items in May. There is little evidence however, to suggest that there
                         are any seasonal patterns among the other site types.




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                             - 123 -
                                      Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - WA



               250



               200                                                                                    RETAIL



                                                                                                      INDUSTRIAL
               150
       Items




                                                                                                      SHOPPING CENTRE

                                                                                                     BEACH
               100
                                                                                                     CAR PARK
                                                                                                     OVERALL
                                                                                                      HIGHWAY
               50                                                                                     RESIDENTIAL

                                                                                                      RECREATIONAL PARK

                 0
                NOV.05   MAY.06   NOV.06   MAY.07   NOV.07   MAY.08    NOV.08   MAY.09   NOV.09   MAY.10




                          The annual average of items per 1,000m2 within Western Australia for
                          2009/10 (71 items per 1,000m2) is lower than the figure corresponding to
                          the previous three years results (87 items in 2008/09, 85 items in 2007/08
                          and 83 items in 2006/07) and higher than the findings for the year 2005/06
                          (60 items per 1,000m2).


                          The decrease in the number of items per 1,000m2, was most strongly
                          evident at shopping centres (95 items, down from 146 items in 2008/09, 115
                          in 2008/07, 105 in 2006/07 and up from 75 in 2005/06), car parks (73 items,
                          down from 104 items in 2008/09, 81 in 2008/07, 91 in 2006/07 and 86 in
                          2005/06), highways (59 items, down from 78 items in 2008/09, 80 items in
                          2007/08, 77 items in 2006/07 and above 55 items in 2005/06) and industrial
                          sites (132 items, down from 148 items in 2008/09, 188 items in 2007/08,
                          153 items in 2006/07 and up from 123 items in 2005/06). Conversely, the
                          largest increase in the number of items per 1,000m2 was apparent at
                          beaches (144 items, up from 110 items in 2008/09, down from 168 items in
                          2007/08 and above 131 items in 2006/07 and 73 items in 2005/06).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                         - 124 -
                                                    Items per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - WA


             200                                                                     188
                                                                                                                                                         179
                                                                                                                                                       175
             180              168
                                                                                   153 148                                                       151
             160                     144                                                                                                           141                 146
                            131                                                          132
             140                                                                 123
                                  110                                                                                                                               115
             120                                    104                                                                                                           105
     Items


                                                                                                                                                                          95
             100                            86 91 81                                                                                           87                                     83 85 87
                       73                              73        77 80 78                                                                                      75                                71
              80                                                                                                                                                                 60
                                                            55              59
             60                                                                                        43                       45 48 46 41
                                                                                                  35             32
             40                                                                                             24        25   19
             20
              0
                             BEACH            CAR PARK           HIGHWAY          INDUSTRIAL      RECREATIONAL              RESIDENTIAL             RETAIL     SHOPPING CENTRE        OVERALL
                                                                                                      PARK




                                                                   YEAR 05/06       YEAR 06/07     YEAR 07/08              YEAR 08/09         YEAR 09/10




                                           The tracked results of estimated volumes per 1,000m2 of litter reveal
                                           seasonal fluctuations among retail sites and highway sites, with lower litter
                                           volumes in November and higher litter volumes in May. While there are
                                           fluctuations among other site types they do not generally support the notion
                                           of seasonal patterns.


                                           There are higher volumes of litter per 1,000m2 evident at highway and
                                           industrial sites, compared to other site types.



                                                         Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - WA


                       30



                       25



                       20
                                                                                                                                                                      INDUSTRIAL
              Litres




                       15                                                                                                                                             HIGHWAY




                       10
                                                                                                                                                                      OVERALL
                                                                                                                                                                      RETAIL
                                                                                                                                                                      SHOPPING CENTRE
                                                                                                                                                                      RESIDENTIAL
                       5
                                                                                                                                                                      CAR PARK
                                                                                                                                                                      BEACH
                                                                                                                                                                      RECREATIONAL PARK

                        0
                       NOV.05           MAY.06      NOV.06         MAY.07         NOV.07        MAY.08                NOV.08         MAY.09         NOV.09      MAY.10




                                           The overall annual average estimated litter volume per 1,000m2 across all
                                           sites within Western Australia for 2009/2010 (9.44 litres) was lower in
                                           volume than 2008/09 (11.93 litres), 2007/08 (13.06 litres), 2006/07 (12.19
                                           litres), but higher than the findings for 2005/06 (8.57 litres).


KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                                                           - 125 -
                                  This decrease was most strongly demonstrated at highway sites (15.76
                                  litres per 1,000m2, down from 23.49 litres in 2008/09 24.01 litres in 2007/08,
                                  22.58 litres in 2006/07 and 16.63 litres in 2005/06).


                                           Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type - Annual Averages - WA




                   30

                                                                  24.01          23.76
                   25                                                  23.49
                                                             22.58

                                                                                         18.65
                   20                                                                      18.04
                                                             16.63             16.03
                                                                        15.76
          Litres




                   15                                                      13.91                                                                                         13.06
                        11.47                                                                                                                                          12.19 11.93
                                  8.89                                                                                                                                            9.44
                   10      8.64                                                                                    8.79                                              8.57
                                                                                                                                            5.63
                                                    4.82                                                              5.49 5.50                               5.44
                                   3.93      4.17       4.80                                         2.66                4.13       4.16 4.42            4.12
                   5                3.39                  4.03                                                                    2.97               2.58 3.39
                                           2.56                                                  1.93          2.68
                                                                                              1.20        2.04                  1.57               1.91
                                                                                                        0.76
                   0
                            BEACH                 CAR PARK       HIGHWAY        INDUSTRIAL         RECREATIONAL   RESIDENTIAL       RETAIL            SHOPPING              OVERALL
                                                                                                       PARK                                            CENTRE


                                                   YEAR 05/06    YEAR 06/07     YEAR 07/08         YEAR 08/09     YEAR 09/10




                                  The items and volume estimates per 1,000m2 within WA identified the
                                  following site characteristics across the respective site types surveyed in
                                  2009/10:


                                             Industrial sites were associated with large numbers of litter items and
                                              large estimated litter volumes

                                             Highway sites were associated with a moderate number of litter items
                                              and large estimated litter volumes

                                             Retail sites and beaches were associated with large numbers of litter
                                              items but only small estimated litter volumes

                                             Car parks and shopping centres were associated with moderate
                                              numbers of litter items but only small estimated litter volumes

                                             Recreational parks and residential areas were associated with low
                                              numbers of litter items and only a small estimated litter volumes




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                                                   - 126 -
                Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Site Type -
                                   WA - 2009/ 2010




                                   20
                                   18                                            INDUSTRIAL

                                   16                       HIGHWAY
                                   14
                 Volume - Litres




                                   12
                                   10
                                    8                             SHOPPING
                                              RESIDENTIAL          CENTRE
                                    6                                                          RETAIL
                                                       CAR PARK
                                        RECREATIONAL
                                    4
                                            PARK                                    BEACH
                                    2
                                    0
                                        0              50                100       150            200
                                                                        Items




Comparison by Main Material Types

                                   An average of 33 cigarette butts per 1,000m2 was identified across all sites
                                   surveyed within Western Australia during the year of 2009/10. However,
                                   such items only contributed 0.004 litres of volume per 1,000m2 to the litter
                                   stream.


                                   Items which contributed the greatest volumes to the litter stream in Western
                                   Australia were constructed of plastic materials (3.39 litres per 1,000m2) and
                                   paper/ paperboard materials (2.30 litres per 1,000m2).




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                          - 127 -
                     Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - WA -
                                                 2009/ 2010




                     35         33                                                                                        4.0
                                                                                                             3.39
                     30                                                                                                   3.5
                     25                                                                                                   3.0
                                                                                          2.30
                                                                                                                          2.5
             Items




                                                                                                                                Litres
                     20
                                                                                           14                14           2.0
                     15                                           1.36
                                                                                                                          1.5
                     10                           0.86
                                                                     6                                                    1.0
                      5                              3
                               0.004                                                                                      0.5
                     0                                                                                                    0.0
                          CIGA RETTE B UTTS      GLA SS           M ETA L                 P A P ER/      P LA STIC
                                                                                      P A P ERB OA RD




                                          Items per 1000 Sq Metres       Volume per 1000 Sq Metres


                               Results for November counts and May counts reveal a seasonal trend in the
                               number of plastic and paper/ paperboard items per 1000m2 in the litter
                               stream, where there are a lower number of these items in November and a
                               higher number of items in May. There does not appear however, to be
                               seasonal pattern for the other material categories.


                               Apart from some random fluctuations in the number of cigarette butts, the
                               contributions of items within main material types are generally proportional
                               to each other in the litter stream in Western Australia.



                                Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - WA


             100
             90
             80                                           21                                            16
                                                                     18        19               18
             70                                                                                                                  15
                                                          19                                            17
             60                      10         15                   15
     Items




                                                                               16               14                   12          16
             50                                           9                                             7
                          12         10         12                   8                           7      3            12
             40                                           4          3            8                                                6
                          10          6                                           3              3                                 3
                                      2          6                                                                    5
             30                                  2                                                                    2
                           5
                           1                                                                            45
             20                                           41         39                         37                               36
                                     34         30                             34                                    30
             10           23
                0
                      NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10


                                       CIGARETTE BUTTS         GLASS      METAL        PAPER/ PAPERBOARD             PLASTIC



KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                             - 128 -
                       The annual averages of the number of items per 1000m2 that were in the
                       litter stream in Western Australia for the years of 2008/09 and 2009/10 were
                       similar in terms of overall figures and proportions of the main material types.
                       The most noticeable change was the decrease of cigarette butts to 33 butts
                       (down from 41 in 2008/09), the overall changes to the main material types
                       included:


                             Cigarette butts – 33 items (down from 41 items in 2008/09, 36 items
                              in 2007/08, 35 items in 2006/07 and up from 29 items in 2005/06)

                             Plastic items –14 items (down from 17 items in 2008/09 and 18 items
                              2007/08 and 2006/07, but up from down 11 items in 2005/06)

                             Paper/ paperboard – 14 items (down from 16 items in 2008/09,
                              2007/08, 2006/07 and up from 10 items in 2005/06)

                             Metal items – 6 items (down from 7 items in 2008/09, 8 items in
                              2007/08 and 2006/07 and the same as 2005/06).


              Items per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - Annual
                                    Averages - WA

                      90
                      80
                                                             18         17
                      70                   18
                      60                                                16            14
                                           16                16
                              11
              Items




                      50                                                7             14
                              10            8                8          3
                      40                    3                3                        6
                               6                                                      3
                      30       2
                      20                   35                36         41
                              29                                                      33
                      10
                      0
                           YEAR 05/06 YEAR 06/07 YEAR 07/08 YEAR 08/09 YEAR 09/10



                       CIGARETTE BUTTS     GLASS      METAL       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD        PLASTIC


                       Results for November counts and May counts reveal a seasonal trend in the
                       volume of paper/ paperboard and glass per 1000m2 in the litter stream with
                       lower volumes in November and higher volumes in May. There does not
                       appear however, to be seasonal pattern for the other material categories.


                       The overall proportions of total litter volume contributed by objects within the
                       main material types have remained relatively consistent.



KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                               - 129 -
                               Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type - WA


                 14

                 12

                 10                                  5.73
                                                                          5.73
                 8                                                                5.68    4.74
        Litres




                                                                4.44
                                          3.51                                                       3.72    3.06
                 6     3.71       3.38
                                                     3.44                 3.18
                 4                                              2.27              2.24    2.87
                                  1.90    2.15                                                               2.52
                       2.15                                                                          2.07
                 2                                   2.21       1.79      1.87    1.68    1.54
                       1.25       1.43    1.48                                                       1.35    1.36
                                   0.79    0.84      1.09       0.96      1.27     .1
                                                                                   13     1.21       0.74    0.99
                       0.66
                 0                                   0.005      0.004
                       0.003      0.004   0.003                           0.004   0.004   0.005      0.003   0.004
                      NOV.05 MAY.06 NOV.06 MAY.07 NOV.07 MAY.08 NOV.08 MAY.09 NOV.09 MAY.10




                                   CIGARETTE BUTTS      GLASS     METAL     PAPER/PAPERBOARD      PLASTIC



                              The annual results for 2009/10 for the contribution of objects within the main
                              material types to volume in the litter stream per 1,000m2 are similar to the
                              2005/06 results, where volumes and the proportion of material types in the
                              litter stream are almost the same.


                              The annual results for 2009/10 for the volume of the main material types per
                              1,000m2 in the litter stream demonstrate a decrease across all main
                              material types from the previous year:


                                   Plastic material decreased to 3.39 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 5.21
                                    litres in 2008/09, 5.09 litres in 2007/08, 4.62 litres in 2006/07 and 3.54
                                    litres in 2005/06)

                                   Paper/ paperboard objects decreased to 2.30 litres per 1,000m2
                                    (down from 2.56 litres in 2008/09, 2.72 litres in 2007/08 and 2.79 litres
                                    2006/07 and up from 2.03 litres in 2005/06)

                                   Metal objects decreased to 1.36 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 1.61
                                    litres in 2008/09, 1.83 litres in 2007/08 and 1.84 litres in 2006/07 and
                                    up from 1.34 litres in 2005/06

                                   Glass decreased to 0.86 litres per 1,000m2 (down from 1.17 litres in
                                    2008/09, 1.11 litres in 2007/08 and 0.96 litres in 2006/07 and up 0.72
                                    litres in 2005/06)




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                         - 130 -
                Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type -
                                Annual Averages - WA



                          12

                          10

                          8                   4.62              5.09         5.21
                 Litres


                          6      3.54                                                 3.39

                          4                   2.79              2.72         2.56
                                 2.03                                                 2.30
                          2                   1.84              1.83         1.61
                                 1.34                                                 1.36
                                  0.72        0.96               .1
                                                                 11           .1
                                                                              17      0.86
                          0       0.003       0.004             0.004        0.005    0.004
                                YEAR        YEAR            YEAR            YEAR     YEAR
                                05/06       06/07           07/08           08/09    09/10



                  CIGARETTE BUTTS           GLASS       METAL           PAPER/PAPERBOARD      PLASTIC




                      Figures for items and volumes per 1,000m2 across main material types
                      identify the following characteristics of litter objects recorded within WA
                      during the year of 2009/ 2010:


                              Plastic litter items contribute large volumes to the litter stream but are
                               associated with only moderate numbers of litter items

                              Cigarette butts contribute large numbers, but such items contribute
                               only a negligible estimated volume to the overall litter stream

                              Paper/ paperboard objects contribute both a moderate number of litter
                               items and volumes to the litter stream

                              Metal and glass items contribute both small numbers of litter items
                               and low volumes to the litter stream




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                  - 131 -
           Items and Volume per 1000 Square Metres by Main Material Type
                                  - WA - 2009/ 2010




                                4.0
                                3.5                         PLASTIC
                                3.0
              Volume - Litres




                                2.5                           PAPER/
                                                            PAPERBOARD
                                2.0
                                1.5               METAL
                                1.0         GLASS
                                0.5                                             CIGARETTE BUTTS
                                0.0
                                      0              10          20           30            40
                                                                    Items




The Dirty Dozen

                                  Cigarette butts was the most frequently identified litter item in Western
                                  Australia during the 2009/10 counts, with 33 butts were recorded on
                                  average per 1,000m2 (down from 41 butts in 2008/09, 36 butts in 2007/08
                                  and 35 butts in 2006/07).


                                  Other objects frequently identified during the Western Australia counts
                                  included:


                                         Uncategorised paper/ paperboard objects (10 items per 1,000m2,
                                          down from 12 items in 2008/09 and 11 items in both 2007/08 and
                                          2006/07)

                                         Uncategorised plastic objects (7 items per 1,000m2, down from 8
                                          items in 2008/09, 9 items in 2007/08 and 10 items in 2006/07)

                                         Plastic food containers and utensils (5 items per 1,000m2, down from
                                          6 items in 2008/09 and 2007/08 and the same as 2006/07)



KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                          - 132 -
               Dirty Dozen - Items per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                         WA - 06/07 to 09/10

                                                                                                   33
                          CIGARETTE BUTTS - Total                                                               41
                                                                                                      36
                                                                                                     35
                                                                         10
                    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Other                              12
                                                                          11
                                                                          11
                                                                    7
                                   PLASTIC - Other                      8
                                                                         9
                                                                          10
                                                                5
                PLASTIC - Food container or utensil              6
                                                                 6
                                                                5
                                                               3
                                     METAL - Other              4
                                                                4
                                                                4
                                                              3
                           MISCELLANEOUS - Total               3
                                                              3
                                                                4
                                                           2
              GLASS - Alcoholic beverage container         2
                                                           2
                                                          1
                                                          1
   PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food container or utensil           2
                                                          1
                                                          1
                                                          1
        PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic beverage container         2
                                                           2
                                                           2
                                                          1
         METAL - Non-alcoholic beverage container         1
                                                          1
                                                          1
                                                          1
              METAL - Alcoholic beverage container        1
                                                           2
                                                           2
    PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-alcoholic beverage            1
                                                          1
                   container                              1
                                                          1

                                                      0        5        10     15   20   25   30    35     40        45
                                                                                     Items


                                                               2006/07         2007/08   2008/09   2009/10



                      Uncategorised plastic litter objects remained the strongest contributor to
                      estimated litter volume in Western Australia during 2009/10 (1.60 litres per
                      1,000m2, down from 2.63 litres in 2008/09, 2.37 litres in 2007/08 and 2.34
                      litres in 2006/07).

                      Other object sub-categories which were associated with substantial
                      estimated volume measurements included:

                             Illegal dumping (1.32 litres per 1,000m2, up from 1.12 litres in
                              2008/09, down from 1.93 litres in 2007/08 and 1.53 litres in 2006/07)

                             Plastic - non-alcoholic beverage containers (1.04 litres per 1,000m2,
                              down from 1.86 litres in 2008/09, 1.97 litres in 2007/08 and 1.62 litres
                              in 2006/07)



KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                           - 133 -
                                 Paper/ paperboard - food containers or utensils (0.94 litres per
                                  1,000m2, down from 1.05 litres in 2008/09, up from 0.91 litres in
                                  2007/08 and 0.92 litres in 2006/07)

                                 Glass - alcoholic beverage containers (0.78 litres per 1,000m2, down
                                  from 1.07 litres in 2008/09 and 0.96 litres in 2007/08 and up from 0.75
                                  litres in 2006/07)

                                 Paper/ paperboard - non-alcoholic beverage containers (0.77 litres
                                  per 1,000m2, down from 0.89 litres in 2008/09, 1.02 litres in 2007/08
                                  and 1.07 litres in 2006/07)


                 Dirty Dozen - Volume per 1000 Square Metres - Object Sub-Categories -
                                           WA - 06/07 to 09/10

                                                                                            1.60
             PLASTIC - Other                                                                                            2.63
                                                                                                                 2.37
                                                                                                                2.34

                                                                                 1.32
    ILLEGAL DUMPING - Total                                               1.12
                                                                                                       1.93
                                                                                        1.53

                                                                        1.04
      PLASTIC - Non-alcoholic                                                                        1.86
        beverage container                                                                              1.97
                                                                                            1.62

                                                                 0.94
PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Food                                            1.05
    container or utensil                                        0.91
                                                                0.92

                                                           0.78
   GLASS - Alcoholic beverage                                        1.07
           container                                              0.96
                                                        0.75

 PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Non-                                  0.77
                                                              0.89
 alcoholic beverage container                                     1.02
                                                                   1.07

                                                    0.59
   METAL - Alcoholic beverage                           0.71
           container                                            0.92
                                                               0.87

                                                  0.56
       METAL - Non-alcoholic                        0.62
        beverage container                         0.59
                                                   0.58

                                               0.52
        PLASTIC - Plain water               0.43
             container                      0.43
                                            0.41

                                         0.32
      PAPER/ PAPERBOARD -              0.27
           Publication                      0.42
                                            0.44

                                      0.22
  PLASTIC - Food container or           0.27
            utensil                     0.29
                                      0.23

                                      0.21
     MISCELLANEOUS - Total             0.25
                                           0.37
                                             0.43

                                0.0         0.5                   1.0                1.5              2.0         2.5          3.0
                                                                                 Litres



                                                           2006/07         2007/08         2008/09    2009/10




KAB 2009/10 NLI - WA                                                - 134 -
                 Appendix 1:
           Supplementary Information




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1   - 135 -
2005/ 2006 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres
                                                         ACT   NSW      NT    QLD          SA       TAS        VIC        WA       NATIONAL
                                  Average site area             563           842         939       506        500        500         654
              BEACH        Number of sites surveyed             16            16          16         8         16          16          88
                                          Total area           9000          13464       15017      4050      8000        8000       57531
                                  Average site area            1528          1490        1379       1489      1594        1494        1496
          CAR PARK         Number of sites surveyed             23            23          23         11        23          23         126
                                          Total area           35148         34271       31717     16378      36657      34365       188536
                                  Average site area            2209          3114        3889       2785      3480        3243        3152
           HIGHWAY         Number of sites surveyed             27            27          27         13        27          27         148
                                          Total area           59636         84076      105002     36200      93950      87565       466429
                                  Average site area            1017          1266        1340       504        914        881         1028
        INDUSTRIAL         Number of sites surveyed             17            17          17         9         17          17          94
                                          Total area           17288         21520       22786      4540      15545      14985       96664
                                  Average site area            2061          1690        1539       2000      1951        2000        1863
    RECREATIONAL
                           Number of sites surveyed             13            13          13         7         13          13          72
            PARK
                                          Total area           26790         21972       20003     14000      25360      26000       134125
                                  Average site area            1509          1161        1233       819       1272        1380        1266
       RESIDENTIAL         Number of sites surveyed             26            26          26         13        26          26         143
                                          Total area           39237         30191       32047     10650      33075      35870       181070
                                  Average site area            1163           767         663       647        687        904         819
              RETAIL       Number of sites surveyed             15            15          15         8         15          15          83
                                          Total area           17450         11502       9946       5172      10311      13556       67937
                                  Average site area            1211           501         752       1250      1179        1116        979
          SHOPPING
                           Number of sites surveyed             14            14          14         7         14          14          77
            CENTRE
                                          Total area           16950         7008        10534      8750      16505      15625       75372
                     Average area across all sites              1467          1483       1636      1312       1585       1563         1525
                           Total number of sites                151           151        151        76        151        151          831
                           Total area surveyed                 221499        224004     247052     99740     239403     235966      1267664

Please note that ACT and NT were not incorporated within litter counts prior to November 2006, and litter within area computations for November
2005/ May 2006 in the report have been based upon reduced area measurements accordingly.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                       - 136 -
2006/ 2007 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres
                                                        ACT     NSW       NT       QLD      SA      TAS      VIC      WA      NATIONAL
                                  Average site area     500      563      500      842       939     506     500      500       630
              BEACH        Number of sites surveyed      8        16       8       16        16       8      16       16        104
                                          Total area   4000      9000    4000     13464     15017   4050    8000     8000      65531
                                  Average site area    1500      1528    1335     1490      1379    1489    1594     1494       1485
          CAR PARK         Number of sites surveyed     11        23      11       23        23      11      23       23        148
                                          Total area   16500    35148    14680    34271     31717   16378   36657    34365     219716
                                  Average site area    3046      2209    3358     3114      3889    2785    3480     3243       3159
           HIGHWAY         Number of sites surveyed     13        27      13       27        27      13      27       27        174
                                          Total area   39600    59636    43660    84076    105002   36200   93950    87565     549689
                                  Average site area    1117      1017    1200     1266      1340     504     914      881       1049
        INDUSTRIAL         Number of sites surveyed      9        17       9       17        17       9      17       17        112
                                          Total area   10050    17288    10800    21520     22786   4540    15545    14985     117514
                                  Average site area    2000      2061    1507     1690      1539    2000    1951     2000       1845
    RECREATIONAL
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        13       7       13        13       7      13       13         86
            PARK
                                          Total area   14000    26790    10550    21972     20003   14000   25360    26000     158675
                                  Average site area    1235      1509    1395     1161      1233     819    1272     1380       1274
       RESIDENTIAL         Number of sites surveyed     13        26      13       26        26      13      26       26        169
                                          Total area   16050    39237    18141    30191     32047   10650   33075    35870     215261
                                  Average site area     876      1163     724      767       663     647     687      904       815
              RETAIL       Number of sites surveyed      8        15       8       15        15       8      15       15         99
                                          Total area   7005     17450    5791     11502     9946    5172    10311    13556     80733
                                  Average site area    1250      1211    1221      501       752    1250    1179     1116       1018
          SHOPPING
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        14       7       14        14       7      14       14         91
            CENTRE
                                          Total area   8750     16950    8550     7008      10534   8750    16505    15625     92672
                     Average area across all sites      1526     1467     1529     1483     1636     1312    1585     1563      1526
                           Total number of sites         76      151       76      151      151       76     151      151       983
                           Total area surveyed         115955   221499   116172   224004   247052   99740   239403   235966   1499791




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                      - 137 -
2007/ 2008 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres
                                                        ACT     NSW       NT       QLD      SA      TAS      VIC      WA      NATIONAL
                                  Average site area     500      563      500      842       939     506     500      500       630
              BEACH        Number of sites surveyed      8        16       8       16        16       8      16       16        104
                                          Total area   4000      9000    4000     13464     15017   4050    8000     8000      65531
                                  Average site area    1500      1528    1335     1490      1379    1489    1594     1494       1485
          CAR PARK         Number of sites surveyed     11        23      11       23        23      11      23       23        148
                                          Total area   16500    35148    14680    34271     31717   16378   36657    34365     219716
                                  Average site area    3046      2209    3358     3114      3889    2785    3480     3243       3159
           HIGHWAY         Number of sites surveyed     13        27      13       27        27      13      27       27        174
                                          Total area   39600    59636    43660    84076    105002   36200   93950    87565     549689
                                  Average site area    1117      1017    1200     1266      1340     504     914      881       1049
        INDUSTRIAL         Number of sites surveyed      9        17       9       17        17       9      17       17        112
                                          Total area   10050    17288    10800    21520     22786   4540    15545    14985     117514
                                  Average site area    2000      2061    1507     1690      1539    2000    1951     2000       1845
    RECREATIONAL
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        13       7       13        13       7      13       13         86
            PARK
                                          Total area   14000    26790    10550    21972     20003   14000   25360    26000     158675
                                  Average site area    1235      1509    1395     1161      1233     819    1272     1380       1274
       RESIDENTIAL         Number of sites surveyed     13        26      13       26        26      13      26       26        169
                                          Total area   16050    39237    18141    30191     32047   10650   33075    35870     215261
                                  Average site area     876      1163     724      767       663     647     687      904       815
              RETAIL       Number of sites surveyed      8        15       8       15        15       8      15       15         99
                                          Total area   7005     17450    5791     11502     9946    5172    10311    13556     80733
                                  Average site area    1250      1211    1221      501       752    1250    1179     1116       1018
          SHOPPING
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        14       7       14        14       7      14       14         91
            CENTRE
                                          Total area   8750     16950    8550     7008      10534   8750    16505    15625     92672
                     Average area across all sites      1526     1467     1529     1483     1636     1312    1585     1563      1526
                           Total number of sites         76      151       76      151      151       76     151      151       983
                           Total area surveyed         115955   221499   116172   224004   247052   99740   239403   235966   1499791




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                      - 138 -
2008/ 2009 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres

                                                        ACT     NSW       NT       QLD      SA      TAS      VIC      WA      NATIONAL
                                  Average site area     500      563      500      842       939     506     500      500       630
              BEACH        Number of sites surveyed      8        16       8       16        16       8      16       16        104
                                          Total area   4000      9000    4000     13464     15017   4050    8000     8000      65531
                                  Average site area    1500      1528    1335     1490      1379    1489    1594     1494       1485
          CAR PARK         Number of sites surveyed     11        23      11       23        23      11      23       23        148
                                          Total area   16500    35148    14680    34271     31717   16378   36657    34365     219716
                                  Average site area    3046      2209    3358     3114      3889    2785    3480     3243       3159
           HIGHWAY         Number of sites surveyed     13        27      13       27        27      13      27       27        174
                                          Total area   39600    59636    43660    84076    105002   36200   93950    87565     549689
                                  Average site area    1117      1017    1200     1266      1340     504     914      881       1049
        INDUSTRIAL         Number of sites surveyed      9        17       9       17        17       9      17       17        112
                                          Total area   10050    17288    10800    21520     22786   4540    15545    14985     117514
                                  Average site area    2000      2061    1507     1690      1539    2000    1951     2000       1845
    RECREATIONAL
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        13       7       13        13       7      13       13         86
            PARK
                                          Total area   14000    26790    10550    21972     20003   14000   25360    26000     158675
                                  Average site area    1235      1509    1395     1161      1233     819    1272     1380       1274
       RESIDENTIAL         Number of sites surveyed     13        26      13       26        26      13      26       26        169
                                          Total area   16050    39237    18141    30191     32047   10650   33075    35870     215261
                                  Average site area     876      1163     724      767       663     647     687      904       815
              RETAIL       Number of sites surveyed      8        15       8       15        15       8      15       15         99
                                          Total area   7005     17450    5791     11502     9946    5172    10311    13556     80733
                                  Average site area    1250      1211    1221      501       752    1250    1179     1116       1018
          SHOPPING
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        14       7       14        14       7      14       14         91
            CENTRE
                                          Total area   8750     16950    8550     7008      10534   8750    16505    15625     92672
                     Average area across all sites      1526     1467     1529     1483     1636     1312    1585     1563      1526
                           Total number of sites         76      151       76      151      151       76     151      151       983
                           Total area surveyed         115955   221499   116172   224004   247052   99740   239403   235966   1499791




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                      - 139 -
2009/ 2010 - Areas Surveyed - Square Metres

                                                        ACT     NSW       NT       QLD      SA      TAS      VIC      WA      NATIONAL
                                  Average site area     500      563      500      842       939     506     500      500       630
              BEACH        Number of sites surveyed      8        16       8       16        16       8      16       16        104
                                          Total area   4000      9000    4000     13464     15017   4050    8000     8000      65531
                                  Average site area    1500      1528    1335     1490      1379    1489    1594     1494       1485
          CAR PARK         Number of sites surveyed     11        23      11       23        23      11      23       23        148
                                          Total area   16500    35148    14680    34271     31717   16378   36657    34365     219716
                                  Average site area    3046      2209    3358     3114      3889    2785    3480     3243       3159
           HIGHWAY         Number of sites surveyed     13        27      13       27        27      13      27       27        174
                                          Total area   39600    59636    43660    84076    105002   36200   93950    87565     549689
                                  Average site area    1117      1017    1200     1266      1340     504     914      881       1049
        INDUSTRIAL         Number of sites surveyed      9        17       9       17        17       9      17       17        112
                                          Total area   10050    17288    10800    21520     22786   4540    15545    14985     117514
                                  Average site area    2000      2061    1507     1690      1539    2000    1951     2000       1845
    RECREATIONAL
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        13       7       13        13       7      13       13         86
            PARK
                                          Total area   14000    26790    10550    21972     20003   14000   25360    26000     158675
                                  Average site area    1235      1509    1395     1161      1233     819    1272     1380       1274
       RESIDENTIAL         Number of sites surveyed     13        26      13       26        26      13      26       26        169
                                          Total area   16050    39237    18141    30191     32047   10650   33075    35870     215261
                                  Average site area     876      1163     724      767       663     647     687      904       815
              RETAIL       Number of sites surveyed      8        15       8       15        15       8      15       15         99
                                          Total area   7005     17450    5791     11502     9946    5172    10311    13556     80733
                                  Average site area    1250      1211    1221      501       752    1250    1179     1116       1018
          SHOPPING
                           Number of sites surveyed      7        14       7       14        14       7      14       14         91
            CENTRE
                                          Total area   8750     16950    8550     7008      10534   8750    16505    15625     92672
                     Average area across all sites      1526     1467     1529     1483     1636     1312    1585     1563      1526
                           Total number of sites         76      151       76      151      151       76     151      151       983
                           Total area surveyed         115955   221499   116172   224004   247052   99740   239403   235966   1499791




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                      - 140 -
Litter Sub-Categories




                                                                                                       Average - Items




                                                                                                                          Volume - Litres




                                                                                                                                            Items per 1,000




                                                                                                                                                              2009/ 2010 Vol.

                                                                                                                                                              Metres - Litres
                                                                                                                                                              per 1,000 Sq.
                                                                                                                                            Sq. Metres
                                                                                                       2009/ 2010




                                                                                                                          2009/ 2010




                                                                                                                                            2009/ 2010
                                                                                                                          Average -
                                                                                Sub-category
CIGARETTE BUTTS                                                                                        48232                5.5466            32.16           0.0037
         Alcoholic sodas / spirit-based mixers, all sizes           Alcoholic beverage container         113               42.2959             0.08           0.0282
         Beer, < 750ml, all colours of glass                        Alcoholic beverage container         755              362.0225             0.50           0.2414
         Beer, 750ml or more, all colours of glass                  Alcoholic beverage container         200              161.6549             0.13           0.1078
         Cider/fruit based etc.                                     Alcoholic beverage container          14                6.1331             0.01           0.0041
         Flav. water/soft drink (carbonated) <1 litre               Non-alcoholic beverage container      37               29.9811             0.02           0.0200
         Flav. water/soft drink (carbonated) 1 litre+               Non-alcoholic beverage container      16               25.6370             0.01           0.0171
         Flav.wtr/fruit j. dr/sprts dr, (non-carb), <1 litre        Non-alcoholic beverage container     107               32.0672             0.07           0.0214
    GLASS




         Flav.wtr/fruit j. dr/sprts dr, (non-carb), 1 litre+        Non-alcoholic beverage container      20               32.2530             0.01           0.0215
         Fruit juice, < 1 litre                                     Non-alcoholic beverage container      28                8.5840             0.02           0.0057
         Fruit juice, 1 litre or more                               Non-alcoholic beverage container       5                7.8500             0.00           0.0052
         Other glass                                                Other                               1608               31.5713             1.07           0.0211
         Plain water (carbonated or non-carb.), <1 litre            Plain water container                 37               15.1402             0.02           0.0101
         Plain water (carbonated or non-carb.), 1 litre+            Plain water container                  9                9.5333             0.01           0.0064
         Wine & spirit, all sizes                                   Alcoholic beverage container          38               33.4275             0.03           0.0223
         Wine cooler, all sizes                                     Alcoholic beverage container           7                2.6201             0.00           0.0017
         GLASS - Total                                                                                  2990              800.7709             1.99           0.5339
ILLEGAL DUMPING                                                                                          116             2772.0000             0.08           1.8483
            Aerosols - pressure packs                               Other                                 48               32.8435             0.03           0.0219
            Alcoholic sodas & spirit-based mixers                   Alcoholic beverage container         487              273.6453             0.32           0.1825
            Beer, aluminium, all types, all sizes                   Alcoholic beverage container         464              200.1696             0.31           0.1335
            Cider/fruit based etc.                                  Alcoholic beverage container           6                2.3727             0.00           0.0016
            Flav. water/soft drink, (carbonated), all sizes         Non-alcoholic beverage container    1194              515.0916             0.80           0.3434
            Flav. water/soft drink, (non-carb), all sizes           Plain water container                 64               24.4224             0.04           0.0163
    METAL




            Foil take away                                          Food container or utensil            259              119.7564             0.17           0.0798
            Food cans (including pet food)                          Food container or utensil             92               42.6696             0.06           0.0285
            Industrial cans - all types                             Other                                 29              130.2461             0.02           0.0868
            Metal bottle tops and can pull rings                    Other                               2323                9.2920             1.55           0.0062
            Metal pieces                                            Other                                749                7.9394             0.50           0.0053
            Other foil                                              Other                               1368                2.1341             0.91           0.0014
            METAL - Total                                                                               7082             1360.5828             4.72           0.9072

KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                              - 141 -
                                                                                                                             Average - Items




                                                                                                                                                Volume - Litres




                                                                                                                                                                  Items per 1,000




                                                                                                                                                                                    2009/ 2010 Vol.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Metres - Litres
                                                                                                                                                                                    per 1,000 Sq.
                                                                                                                                                                  Sq. Metres
                                                                                                                             2009/ 2010




                                                                                                                                                2009/ 2010




                                                                                                                                                                  2009/ 2010
                                                                                                                                                Average -
                                                                                                      Sub-category
                       Clothing & materials                                               Other                                853               13.0509             0.57           0.0087
                       Condoms                                                            Other                                 27                0.0086             0.02           0.0000
    MISCELLANEOUS




                       Construction materials                                             Other                                527              189.5400             0.35           0.1264
                       Disposable nappies                                                 Other                                 40               44.4375             0.03           0.0296
                       Ice cream sticks                                                   Other                                413                0.3800             0.28           0.0003
                       Other miscellaneous                                                Other                                515                6.6758             0.34           0.0045
                       Rubber pieces (not tyres)                                          Other                                605                0.3666             0.40           0.0002
                       Syringes                                                           Other                                  7                0.0254             0.00           0.0000
                       Tyres & pieces                                                     Other                                244               54.7875             0.16           0.0365
                       MISCELLANEOUS - Total                                                                                  3229              309.2723             2.15           0.2062
                       Cartons, flavoured milk < 1 litre                                  Non-alcoholic beverage container     381              285.6357             0.25           0.1905
                       Cartons, flavoured milk 1 litre+                                   Non-alcoholic beverage container      20               19.7469             0.01           0.0132
                       Cartons, fruit juice, < 1 litre                                    Non-alcoholic beverage container      93               58.1018             0.06           0.0387
                       Cartons, fruit juice, 1 litre+                                     Non-alcoholic beverage container       5                9.3150             0.00           0.0062
                       Cartons, milk, plain (white) all sizes                             Non-alcoholic beverage container      38               38.4811             0.03           0.0257
    PAPER/PAPERBOARD




                       Cigarette packets                                                  Cigarette packets                   1216              264.9299             0.81           0.1766
                       Cups/take away containers                                          Food container or utensil           1784             1300.0823             1.19           0.8668
                       Flav. water/fruit j. drink/sports drink, non-carb, <1 litre        Non-alcoholic beverage container      36               10.4706             0.02           0.0070
                       Flav. water / fruit j. drink/ sports drink, (non-carb), 1 litre+   Non-alcoholic beverage container      13               25.8750             0.01           0.0173
                       Ice cream wrappers                                                 Food container or utensil            297                0.7128             0.20           0.0005
                       Junk mail / free circulars                                         Publication                          700              121.7130             0.47           0.0812
                       Newspapers & magazines                                             Publication                          503              592.9500             0.34           0.3954
                       Other paper                                                        Other                              10011               33.8372             6.67           0.0226
                       Packages & boxes                                                   Other                                782               62.5600             0.52           0.0417
                       Paper bags                                                         Other                                858                9.0776             0.57           0.0061
                       Shopper dockets & related shopping paper (eg, lists)               Other                               1033                2.0960             0.69           0.0014
                       Tickets, e.g. bus, ATM, vending machine etc.                       Other                                814                0.7163             0.54           0.0005
                       PAPER/ PAPERBOARD - Total                                                                             18581             2836.3012            12.39           1.8911




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                                            - 142 -
                                                                                                            Average - Items




                                                                                                                               Volume - Litres




                                                                                                                                                 Items per 1,000




                                                                                                                                                                   2009/ 2010 Vol.

                                                                                                                                                                   Metres - Litres
                                                                                                                                                                   per 1,000 Sq.
                                                                                                                                                 Sq. Metres
                                                                                                            2009/ 2010




                                                                                                                               2009/ 2010




                                                                                                                                                 2009/ 2010
                                                                                                                               Average -
                                                                                    Sub-category
              6 ring can holders                                        Other                                  68                 0.1020            0.05           0.0001
              Bags - heavier glossy typically branded carry bags        Shopping bag                           85                 7.4022            0.06           0.0049
              Bags - supermarket type light weight carry bags           Shopping bag                          605                20.5337            0.40           0.0137
              Bread bag tags                                            Other                                 233                 0.0536            0.16           0.0000
              Containers, domestic type                                 Other                                 106               878.1820            0.07           0.5855
              Containers, industrial e.g. oil                           Other                                  23               505.3050            0.02           0.3369
              Drink pouches                                             Non-alcoholic beverage container       40                 3.4069            0.03           0.0023
              Flav. milk, <1 litre                                      Non-alcoholic beverage container      233               123.8528            0.16           0.0826
              Flav. milk, 1 litre+                                      Non-alcoholic beverage container       24                50.2122            0.02           0.0335
              Flav.wtr/fruit j. dr, sprts dr etc.(non-carb) <1 litre    Non-alcoholic beverage container      138                76.7432            0.09           0.0512
              Flav. wtr/fruit j. dr, sprts dr etc.(non-carb) 1 litre+   Non-alcoholic beverage container       73               121.3641            0.05           0.0809
              Flav. water/soft drink (carbonated) <1 litre              Non-alcoholic beverage container      575               357.9181            0.38           0.2386
              Flav. water/soft drink (carbonated) 1 litre+              Non-alcoholic beverage container      106               173.9364            0.07           0.1160
              Fruit juice <1 litre                                      Non-alcoholic beverage container       89                47.1440            0.06           0.0314
    PLASTIC




              Fruit juice, 1 litre+                                     Non-alcoholic beverage container       23                48.0755            0.02           0.0321
              Lollipop sticks                                           Food container or utensil             709                 0.3783            0.47           0.0003
              Other plastic                                             Other                                4917                 6.1439            3.28           0.0041
              Packing tape & straps                                     Other                                 788                 0.2125            0.53           0.0001
              Plain water (carbonated or non-carb) <1 litre             Plain water container                 347               273.0074            0.23           0.1820
              Plain water (carbonated or non-carb) 1 litre+             Plain water container                  86               132.5950            0.06           0.0884
              Plastic bottle tops                                       Other                                1511                12.0757            1.01           0.0081
              Sacks - sheeting - other bags                             Other                                 356                 0.2059            0.24           0.0001
              Snack bags & confectionary wrappers                       Food container or utensil            2925                22.8145            1.95           0.0152
              Spoons/ cutlery                                           Food container or utensil             479                 4.5902            0.32           0.0031
              Straws                                                    Food container or utensil            1776                 7.3178            1.18           0.0049
              Styrene foam boxes, sheets, etc                           Other                                 523                19.9230            0.35           0.0133
              Take away & cups                                          Food container or utensil            1207               249.4591            0.80           0.1663
              White milk, all sizes                                     Non-alcoholic beverage container       40                85.4676            0.03           0.0570
              Wine cask bladders                                        Alcoholic beverage container           10                 4.6000            0.01           0.0031
              PLASTIC - Total                                                                               18088              3233.0224           12.06           2.1556
                                                                                              GRAND TOTAL   98317             11317.4961           65.55           7.5460




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 1                                  - 143 -
                       Appendix 2:
                    Data Collection Form




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 2   - 144 -
KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 2   - 145 -
KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 2   - 146 -
KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 2   - 147 -
                   Appendix 3:
               McGregor Tan Research
                      Profile




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3   - 148 -
McGregor Tan Research has been successful in recruiting some of the most highly qualified,
experienced and competent professionals from across a wide range of disciplines in order to
build the consultancy team.

In particular the executive project team have been users and buyers of research at some point
in their careers, and our aim is to produce quality work that is actionable strategically and
tactically.

Our working philosophy is to have several sets of eyes on the one project. We have
deliberately built a degree of redundancy into the project team, allowing us to be able to
deliver on time in the event unforseen circumstances such as staff illness and movements. An
added benefit is that a multi disciplinary collaborative team approach often leads to fresh
insights and solutions, based on collective learnings and experiences.


Executive Project Direction

Peter Hine – General Manager. Peter has considerable experience in statistically complex
quantitative and innovative qualitative research methodologies. He has a degree in
Mathematics, from the University of Adelaide, and post graduate qualifications in Marketing
and Management. Peter has over 20 years of research experience both as supplier and a
client. He was Divisional Marketing Manager at Mitsubishi before McGregor Tan Research.
His broad experience covers the tourism, the arts, sport and major events, environment, water
and energy, education, health, finance, ICT, mining, housing and construction, industrial, local,
state and federal government, retail and commercial sectors.

Zing Hai Tan - Managing Director is a Qualified Practising Market Researcher (QPMR) and
has over 25 years of market research experience at a senior level in a wide range of industries
including transport, local government, banking and management. Zing Hai‟s skills are in
assisting clients to use market research to its full capacity tactically and strategically. He has a
Masters Degree in Planning from the University of Adelaide and is a former Tennyson
Medallist. He is a member of the Australian Market and Social Research Society.


Project Management and Analysis

David O’Dea - Senior Manager. David has a background in marketing and strategic planning as
well as operational management within the Government and non-Government business
sectors in Australia and South East Asia. David‟s knowledge and experience includes
industrial marketing, product and organisational branding, website development and computer
software engineering. He has a Bachelor of Computer Science and a Bachelor of Commerce
(Accounting) from the University of Adelaide and he is a recipient the Rational Prize for
Software Engineering from the University.

KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                   - 149 -
Sarah Tyson - Project Manager graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from the
University of Adelaide in 1988 and brings to the team broad experience in quantitative as
well as qualitative research having worked as a consultant for KPMG for 4 years and 8 years
as project manager at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, and initially at CSIRO
(Human Nutrition Division). She also has a strong interest in the health care and disability
sectors at both private, state and commonwealth government levels and understands cross
cultural research issues well having worked on projects with Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islands Communities.

Vincent Burke - Senior Consultant is a specialist in qualitative and diagnostic research and a
highly qualified and experienced executive interviewer. He has a degree in education from the
University of London. Prior to joining the consultancy in 1993, Vincent worked in arts,
education and tourism. He was previously Marketing Manager of the Adelaide Festival Centre.

Sheila Hume – Project Researcher has a Bachelor of Media from Adelaide University and
provides logistics and analytical support across the full range of the firm‟s qualitative and
quantitative projects.


Project Operations and Data Management

Susan Mattner – Manager – Project and Data Operations, is responsible for data processing,
and data collection management, production of statistical tables, graphing, and preparation of
base data reports for analysis. Susan has been with the firm since 1985.

Jodie Egan – Manager – Research Operations, works closely with Susan and is likewise
responsible for data processing, and data collection management, production of statistical
tables, graphing, and preparation of base data reports for analysis. Jodie has been with the
firm since 2003.

Chris Inglis and Karen McCulloch are the Data and Administration Support staff who provide
specialist coding, administration and research support services.


Fieldwork and Qualitative Recruitment Team

Barbara Mead - Supervisor, has over 20 years of field experience is the main coordinator
organising and scheduling face-to-face and telephone fieldwork, and has access to team
leaders and a team of up to 30 specialist computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI)
staff a national team of over 100 casual field staff.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                   - 150 -
Toni Horberry, Terri Diglio and Anna Zoina are the dedicated recruiting team who recruit the
participants for focus group discussions, screening them to ensure they meet the
specifications for the task at hand.


Finance and ISO9001 Quality Standard

Christina Chen is the firm‟s Administration and Finance Manager. Her scope of responsibilities
include invoicing, and financial reporting, and maintenance of the quality control systems for
the ISO 9001 accreditation.

Sue Hannon – Executive Director provides high level direction and management of all strategic
company activities, and has overseen the company‟s consistent growth over the last 10 years.
Sue has an Arts degree from the University of Adelaide, and has a strong interest in social
research including studies of the education sector and the needs of culturally and linguistically
diverse groups.



Quality Management and Privacy Policy


Quality Control

McGregor Tan is the first Australian owned company in Australia to
achieve the double management system quality accreditation to the
highest standards (IS0 9001:2008, formerly ISO9001:2000) and
(ISO 20252:2007, formerly AS4752:2004) for the full scope of
research and strategy services including customized research for
consumer, social and commercial studies, as recognised by the
Australian Market and Social Research Society.

In qualitative research and conducting quantitative surveys, McGregor Tan Research prides
itself on our commitment to quality staff, processes, and continuous service improvement and
technical innovation. Our executive team of consultants are experienced in all facets of
qualitative and quantitative research – group moderation, on line surveys, questionnaire and
sampling design, survey methodology development, data analysis and report writing. Our
interviewers are fully trained in-house and we have specialist teams of telephone, door-to-
door, central location and executive interviewers




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                 - 151 -
Sampling Procedures

Whether the sample required is truly random or stratified (i.e. quotas of different types of
respondent are set), sampling procedures are devised and rigorously enforced to ensure that
the most representative sample is obtained.

Interviewers keep records of every telephone call made and every address on a door - to -
door call sheet. These records are used in our validation (quality control) procedures and they
are also used to ensure systematic call backs are made.

In general public surveys, interviewing times are restricted to evenings and weekends so that
working people are properly represented.



Privacy Policy

The McGregor Tan Research Policy is based on the Australian Market Research Society of
Australia‟s guidelines on privacy and data collection.

The AMSRS has a rigorous Code of Professional Behaviour which protects the privacy of
individuals. Our guidelines to protect the privacy of individuals are the following:

Respondents' identities shall not be revealed without their consent to anyone not directly
involved in the market research project (including the client who commissioned the work) or
used for any non-research purpose.

Nobody shall be adversely affected or harmed as a direct result of participating in a market
research study. Respondents are able to check without difficulty the identity and bona fides of
researchers.

Respondents' co-operation in a market research project is entirely voluntary at all stages. No
child under 14 years shall be interviewed without parent's/ guardian's/responsible adults‟
consent.

In the process of quantitative survey research, names and phone numbers are routinely
collected and recorded on questionnaires for quality assurance validation. In a door to door
survey addresses may be recorded. The respondent is asked for this information and is given
the opportunity to refuse. This information is kept for a short period of time (generally no more
than 10 days) for quality control purposes.

All information of the identity of respondents is physically separated from the records of the
survey information they have provided as soon as possible after the completion of any
necessary fieldwork quality checks.

KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                   - 152 -
Access to such material is restricted to authorised research personnel within the researcher's
own organisation for specific research purposes (e.g. field administration, data processors, or
for panel or longitudinal studies or other forms of research involving recall interviews).

The anonymity of respondents is protected by ensuring that any information provided by or
about them which could in practice identify them (e.g.: their company and job title) as well as
names, addresses and phone numbers is safeguarded.



Data Analysis

All our quantitative survey data are processed and analysed on our in-house computer system
utilising the industry-approved Survey System software package.

The data are subject to quality control verification, both at the input and pre-analysis stages to
eliminate keying in errors and, prior to analysis, is subject to a thorough check for logic errors
and other discrepancies.

All open-ended questions are collated in full for the subsequent interpretation by our qualified
quantitative report writers. It is at their discretion to post-code responses for inclusion into
existing categories or to create new categories where appropriate. Remaining verbatim
answers are provided in full.

A typical quantitative report includes our assessment of the data on a question-by-question
basis, supported by summary statistics tables, principal findings, recommendations and full
computer tabulations. Reports and data can also be supplied on disk if this is appropriate.




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                   - 153 -
Some of our Clients

ABB Grain Ltd, Australian Hotels Association, Australian Red Cross, Active Australia, Active
Radio Network, Adelaide Art Directors Club, Adelaide Bank, Adelaide City Council, Adelaide
City Marketing, Adelaide Entertainment Centre, Adelaide Festival Centre Trust, Adelaide
Produce Markets Ltd, Adelaide University, Advantage SA, Advertiser Newspaper Ltd, Andrew
Robertson, Angas Park, Anglicare, Annesley College, Applecorn Research, Art Gallery of SA,
Asthma Foundation, Attorney General's Department, Australian Central Credit Union, Australia
Post, Ball Public Relations, Banrock Station, Beech Environmental Services, Betts and Betts,
Blue Moon, Booze Brothers, Bottomline, Boylen Publishing, Bread and Butter Research and
Planning, Burnside City Council, Business Centre, Business SA, Capital City Committee
Adelaide, Castle Plaza Shopping Centre, Cement and Concrete Association, Central Field
Market Research, Centre for Innovation, Business & Manufacturing, Chariot Stokes, Charles
Darwin University, Charterhouse Advertising, Child & Youth Health Services, Children‟s Health
Development Fund, City of Campbelltown, City of Charles Sturt, City of Darwin, City of Marion,
City of Mitcham, City of Onkaparinga, City of Prospect, City of Salisbury, City of Unley, City of
West Torrens, Clelands Lawyers, Clemenger BDDO, Clipsal 500, Coastal and Marine Branch,
Colmar Brunton, Construction Industry Training Board, Continuity Group, Coopers Brewery,
CPS Credit Union, Cranio-Facial Foundation, Credit Union Pageant Company, Crompton
Corporation, CSIRO, Curtin Business School, CUSCAL, Delfin Ltd, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu,
Department of Education Training and Employment, Department for Education and Children’s
Services, Department for Environment and Heritage, Department of Administration and
Information Services, Department of Human Services, Department of Trade and Economic
Development, Department for Transport Urban Planning and the Arts, Department for Premier
and Cabinet, Elliott & Shanahan Research, Emphasis, Energy SA, Environmental Protection
Authority, Essential Services Commission of SA, ETSA Telecoms, ETSA Utilities, Eye Corp,
Festival Centre, Finlaysons, First National Real Estate, Flinders University, Franklins
Supermarkets, G Tech, Geoffrey Reed Communications, Gillespie Economics, Government
Communications Office, Great Southern Railways, Green Phone Inc, Grundfos Pumps, Guerilla
Advertising, Hamilton Heading Advertising, Harris Scarfe, Health Promotion SA, Home
Australia, HomeStart Finance, Homestead, Horticulture Australia, Icewerx, Imparja TV,
Independent Gaming Authority, Interaction, Ipsos Australia, Jarvis Marketing, Jebb Holland
Demasi, Jetty Road Glenelg Mainstreet Board, John Edwards Advertising, Judi White
Research, Keep Australia Beautiful, Kambitsis Group, Kemalex Plastics, KESAB, Killey Withy
Punshon, Klein Craig and Associates, Korvest Ltd, Leisure Co, Lendlease, Leo Burnett
Robinson (Institute of Engineers), Lifeplan, Living with Alcohol Program, Local Government
Association of South Australia, Local Government and Shires Association of NSW, Macquarie
University – NSW, Mark Makrid and Associates, Masonic Homes Inc, Maunsell, Mawson Lakes,
McIntyre Robertson, Mercer Cullen Egan Dell, Michels Warren, Millward Brown, mNet, Mt Lofty
Ranges Catchment Program, MTU Detroit, Multiplex, Munno Para Shopping Centre, Museum
and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Music Society, National Centre for Vocational Education
Research, National Parks & Wildlife, National Pharmacies, New Start Homes, New Tel, NFS
Marketing, North Western Adelaide Health Service, Northern Adelaide & Barossa Catchment
Water Management Board, Northern Territory Government, Northern Territory Tourist
Commission, NT Department of Community Development, Office for Recreation and Sport, One
to One, Optima Energy, Orima Research, Partnerships 21, Passenger Transport Board, Paul
Centenera, Peregrine Corporation, Phillips Group, Phyllis Mitchell & Associates, Piper
Alderman, Planning SA, Playford Centre, Police Credit Union, Porter Novelli, Power & Water
Authority – NT, Power Advertising, Prescott Consultants, Preston Motors, Prices’ Bakery,
Primary Industries and Resources SA, Public Trustee, Q&A Market Research, Q2 Strategic

KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                  - 154 -
Marketing Research, Quantum Research, Queensland Association of Secondary School
Principals, RAA, RAA Insurance, Radio Rentals, Repromed, Right Marketing, River Murray
Catchment Water Management Board, Robern Menz, Rossdale Homes, Rundle Mall
Management, SA Community Housing Authority, SA Cricket Association, SA Government
Radio Network, SA Housing Trust, SA Lotteries, SA Tourism Commission, SA Water, SA Waste
Management Committee, Sandvik Tamrock Pty Ltd, Savings & Loans Credit Union, School
Principal’s Association, Seeley International, Serco, Sexton Marketing Group, Shahin Group of
Companies, Silver Chef, Sims Metal, Sky City Adelaide, Smithers Oasis, Smoke Free Project,
South Australian Primary Principals Association, South East Catchment Water Management
Board, Southern Equity Holdings, Speakman & Associates, Special Broadcasting Services
(SBS), Spintus, SSABSA, Starcom, State Electoral Office, State Theatre Company, Statewide
Superannuation Trust, Stokes Advertising, Style Catering, Survey Talk, Sustainable Energy
Development Authority, Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority, TAB, Taylor Nelson Sofres, Tea
Tree Gully Council, Territory Insurance Organisation, The Advertiser, The Business Centre, The
Research Forum, THEM Advertising, Thomson Playford, Thoroughbred Racing SA, Tivoli
Gardenstone, TNR Meat, Toro Australia, Toshiba Australia, Trafalgar Corporate, Transitions
Optical, Transport SA, Transworld Enterprises, Tregloans, UMR, University of Adelaide,
University of SA, United Water, Unley Shopping Centre Management, Urbis Keys Young,
Watermark Patent Attorneys (Victoria), Watershed Protection Office, Western Australian Primary
Principals Association, West Lakes Mall, Westfield Shopping Centre Management, Wilkins
Research, Wilson Everard, Wirthlin Worldwide, Women‟s and Children‟s Hospital, Woodlands
School, Woods Bagot, WorkCover Corporation, WorkCover Employee Advocate Unit,
Worthington Dimarzio




KAB 2009/10 NLI – Appendix 3                - 155 -

								
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