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					THE NEW INFORMATION
ECOLOGY


Lee Rainie
Director – Pew Internet Project
Colorado Association of Libraries
Denver
11.20.09
          1996 Benton Foundation report:
           “Buildings, books, and bytes”


  "If you plopped a library down. . .30
    years from now. . .there would be
cobwebs growing everywhere because
  people would look at it and wouldn't
   think of it as a legitimate institution
 because it would be so far behind. . ."
                          -- Experienced library user.
    New information ecology                              November 20, 2009   2
          1996 Benton Foundation report:
           “Buildings, books, and bytes”




 “Many Americans would just as
soon turn their local libraries into
museums and recruit retirees to
           staff them.”

    New information ecology          November 20, 2009   3
New information ecosystem: Then and Now

  Industrial Age               Information Age
     Info was:                     Info is:
      Scarce                     Abundant
    Expensive                      Cheap
   Institutionally               Personally
      oriented                    oriented
   Designed for                 Designed for
   consumption                  participation
     New information ecology        November 20, 2009   4
   The internet is the asteroid: Then and now

             2000                               2009
 46% of adults use internet         77-79% of adults use internet
5% with broadband at home           63% with broadband at home
   50% own a cell phone                85% own a cell phone
  0% connect to internet             54-56% connect to internet
       wirelessly                           wirelessly
     <10% use “cloud”                  >two-thirds use “cloud”
     = slow, stationary              = fast, mobile connections
connections built around my         built around outside servers
         computer                            and storage
          New information ecology               November 20, 2009   5
          Media ecology – then (industrial age)
Product            Route to home           Display          Local storage

TV stations           phone                 TV              Cassette/ 8-track
                      broadcast TV          radio
                      broadcast radio      stereo           Vinyl album



News                  mail

Advertising           newspaper delivery   phone
                                                               paper
Radio Stations                             non-electronic


                                             Tom Wolzien, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co

              New information ecology                        November 20, 2009    6
                         37% of adults own DVRs –
           Media ecology – now (information age) 2002
                              up from 3% in
    47% of Route to homeown laptops – Local storage
Product        adults            Display
                cable            TiVo (PVR)  VCR
TV stations up from 30% in 2006
                DSL              TV          Satellite radio player
Info                     wireless/phone                radio               DVD
“Daily me”               broadcast TV                  PC                  Web-based storage
 content
Cable Nets
                            37% of adults own game consoles
                         books
                         broadcast radio
                                                       iPod /MP3
                                                       stereo
                                                                           server/ TiVo (PVR)
                                                                           PC
Web sites                satellite                     monitor             web storage/servers
Local news               mail                          headphones          CD/CD-ROM
          18% of adults own
Content from
  individuals
                         express delivery pager
                         iPod / storage
                                                       satellite player
                                                       portable gamer
                                                                           cell phone memory
                                                                           MP3 player / iPod
       personal gaming devices
Peer-to-peer             subcarriers / WIFI            cell phone          pagers - PDAs
Advertising             newspaper delivery             non-electronic      cable box
Radio stations          camcorder/camera               PDA/Palm            game console

Satellite radio                45% of adults own MP3 players –
                                                       game console
                                                       e-reader / Kindle
                                                                           paper
                                                                           storage sticks/disks
                                                                           e-reader/Kindle
                                     up from 11% in 2005
                                            Adapted from Tom Wolzien, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
                  New information ecology                                  November 20, 2009      7
            Media ecology – now (information age)
Product                Route to home                   Display             Local storage
                         cable                         TiVo (PVR)          VCR
TV stations              DSL                           TV                  Satellite radio player
Info                     wireless/phone                radio               DVD
“Daily me”     … and this all affects social networks
                         broadcast TV                  PC                  Web-based storage
 content                 books                         iPod /MP3           server/ TiVo (PVR)
Cable Nets              1) their composition
                         broadcast radio               stereo              PC

                   2) the way people use them
Web sites                satellite                     monitor             web storage/servers
Local news               mail                          headphones          CD/CD-ROM
Content from
  individuals            3) their importance
                         express delivery pager
                         iPod / storage
                                                       satellite player
                                                       portable gamer
                                                                           cell phone memory
                                                                           MP3 player / iPod
           4) the way librarians can play a part in them
Peer-to-peer
Advertising
                         subcarriers / WIFI
                        newspaper delivery
                                                       cell phone
                                                       non-electronic
                                                                           pagers - PDAs
                                                                           cable box
Radio stations         camcorder/camera                PDA/Palm            game console
                                                       game console        paper
Satellite radio                                        e-reader / Kindle   storage sticks/disks
                                                                           e-reader/Kindle

                                            Adapted from Tom Wolzien, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
                  New information ecology                                  November 20, 2009        8
Behold the idea of networked individualism
Barry Wellman – University of Toronto


                           The turn from
                            groups to social
                            networks = a
                            new social
                            operating
                            system



 New information ecology           November 20, 2009   9
Big societal forces pushing us toward
networked individualism
• Affluence and affordable technology
• Expanding consumer options
• Income, wealth, job volatility
• Rise of free agency and freelancing
• Changes in family composition, roles,
  responsibilities
• Trends towards management of
  retirement and health care
• Rise of DIY politics and religion

    New information ecology       November 20, 2009   10
Why good social networks (and social
networking) matter


•    Healthier
•    Wealthier
•    Happier
•    More civically engaged = better
     communities


    New information ecology      November 20, 2009   11
 10 ways digital technology
has changed things for your
patrons and their networking
          behavior
       Network ecosystem change – 1



Volume of
 information
 grows
  -- Chris Anderson
          Hal Varian
        Network ecosystem change – 2



Variety of
 information
 and sources
 of information
 grow
… and people have more options for their passions
               -- Markus Prior and Cass Sunstein
    People-Press news consumer typology
      Disengaged
          16%




Net Newsers                       Traditionalists
    14%                                46%




       Integrators
           24%
     The internet rises in a fragmented media environment
                   (% of all Americans who “regularly” go to news source: PRC People/Press)



80

70

60                                                                                      Local TV       -25%

                                                                                        Natl TV news   -52%
50
                                                                                        Cable news     +18%
40
                                                                                        Newspapers     -41%
30                                                                                      Radio          -27%

20                                                                                      Online News +1,850%

10

 0
     1994   1996      1998     2000     2002     2004     2006     2008
        Network ecosystem change – 3


Velocity of
 information
 increases and
 smart mobs
 emerge
  -- Howard Rheingold
          Clay Shirky
          Network ecosystem change – 4

Venues of
 intersecting with
 information and
 people multiply and
 the availability of
 information expands
 to all hours of the
 day and all places
 we are
      -- Nielsen Company
            Network ecosystem change – 5

People’s vigilance
  for information
  changes in two
  directions:
1) attention is
  truncated (Linda
 Stone)
2) attention is
  elongated (Andrew
 Keen; Terry Fisher)
Kaiser Family Foundation, Media Multitasking Among American Youth, December 2006
Kaiser Family Foundation, Media Multitasking Among American Youth, December 2006
          Network ecosystem change – 6

The vibrance and          1) Virtual Worlds
 immersive
 qualities of
 media
 environments
 makes them
 more compelling
 places to hang
 out and interact
 -- Metaverse Roadmap
                Project
          Network ecosystem change – 6

The vibrance and           2) Mirror Worlds
 immersive
 qualities of
 media
 environments
 makes them
 more compelling
 places to hang
 out and interact
 -- Metaverse Roadmap
                Project
          Network ecosystem change – 6

The vibrance and          3) Augmented Reality
 immersive
 qualities of
 media
 environments
 makes them
 more compelling
 places to hang
 out and interact
 -- Metaverse Roadmap
                Project
          Network ecosystem change – 6

The vibrance and            4) Life-logging
 immersive                        -- Gordon Bell
 qualities of
 media
 environments
 makes them
 more compelling
 places to hang
 out and interact
 -- Metaverse Roadmap
                Project
          Network ecosystem change – 7

Valence (relevance)
  of information
  improves – search
  and customization
  get better as we
  create the “Daily
  Me” and “Daily Us”
  – Nicholas Negroponte
        Network ecosystem change – 8
The voice of
 information
 democratizes
 and the
 visibility of new
 creators is
 enhanced.
 Identity and
 privacy change.
     -- William Dutton
         Network ecosystem change – 9

Voting on and
 ventilating about
 information
 proliferates as
 tagging, rating,
 and commenting
 occurs and
 collective
 intelligence
 asserts itself
      -- Henry Jenkins
     David Weinberger
          Information sharing and evaluation

31% of adult internet
  users have rated a
  person, product,
  or service online
         Network ecosystem change – 10

Social networks
  become more vivid
  and meaningful.
  Media-making is
  part of social
  networking.
  “Networked
  individualism” takes
  hold.
       -- Barry Wellman
      Content creation

>68% of online
   teens have
   created their own
   profile on a social
   network site
----
47% of online adults
   have such profiles
      Content creation

33% of college
   students keep
   blogs and
   regularly post
54% read blogs
----
11% of online adults
   have a blog
36% read them
    Content creation

15% of online adults
  say they remix
  content they find
  online into their
  own artistic
  creations
       Networked Individuals … have a different …
• Sense of information availability – it’s ambient
• Sense of time – it’s oriented around “continuous
  partial attention”
• Sense of community and connection – it’s about
  “absent presence”
• Sense of the rewards and challenges of
  networking for social, economic, political, and
  cultural purposes – new layers and new
  audiences
        New information ecology         November 20, 2009   36
Technology has helped people change their
networks
•    Bigger
•    Looser
•    More segmented
•    More layered
•    Facilitate greater freedom
•    Require more work
•    More important as sources of support,
     filters, curators, audience
    New information ecology     November 20, 2009   37
 The ways libraries can
   become nodes in
people’s social networks

  New information ecology   November 20, 2009   38
8 tips on how to be a node in a social network

• Think like a friend
• Remember your strengths and play to them by
  being an expert, a filter, and a recommender
  (linker)
• Be aware that your audience is bigger than the
  available evidence provides – lurkers and future
  arrivals are part of the mix
• Look for opportunities to provide support to users
  and chances to build communities with your
  material
 New information ecology           November 20, 2009   39
8 tips on how to be a node in a social network

• Help people cope with technology
• Participate in the Web 2.0 world
• Embrace the move towards mobility,
  constant connectivity, perpetual contact
   – This changes the realities of time and
     space and presence
• Ask for help/feedback



 New information ecology           November 20, 2009   40
A new pattern of communication and influence built
around social networks and participatory media


      The four-step flow of information
•    attention
•    acquisition
•    assessment
•    action


    New information ecology            November 20, 2009   41
How do you….


• get his/her attention?
  – leverage your traditional services
  – offer alerts, updates, feeds
  – be available in relevant places
  – find pathways through his/her
    social network

 New information ecology   November 20, 2009   42
How do you….


• help him/her acquire information?
  – be findable in a “long tail” world
  – pursue new distribution methods
  – offer “link love” for selfish
    reasons
  – participate in the conversation
    about your work
 New information ecology   November 20, 2009   43
How do you….


• help him/her assess information?
   – be transparent, link-friendly, and
     archive everything
   – aggregate the best related work
   – when you make mistakes, seek
     forgiveness


 New information ecology      November 20, 2009   44
How do you….


• assist him/her act on information?
  – offer opportunities for feedback
  – offer opportunities for remixing
  – offer opportunities for community
    building
  – be open to the wisdom of crowds

 New information ecology   November 20, 2009   45
Thank you!

Lee Rainie
Director
Pew Internet & American Life Project
1615 L Street NW
Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
Email: Lrainie@pewinternet.org
Twitter: http://twitter.com/lrainie
202-419-4500

 New information ecology               November 20, 2009   46

				
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