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The Pathway to Kitchen Safety

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					1.01 C The Pathway to
Kitchen Safety
Seven Classifications of Kitchen
Safety
   Kitchen accidents lead to injuries that could
    be prevented by not taking shortcuts.
   Kitchen hazards are conditions that lead to
    accidental injuries.
   There a seven types of kitchen accidents.




               1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety   2
Cuts: Guidelines for Prevention
   Keeps knives sharp. Sharp knives make
    clear, safe cuts. A person is less likely to
    cut themselves with a sharp knife.
   Wash knives separately.
   Never cut toward yourself.
   Never point a knife at someone.


              1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety   3
Cuts: Guidelines for Prevention
cont.
 Never put fingers near blades of blenders
  or food processors.
 Dispose of broken glass properly with a
  broom or wet towel.
 Store knives in proper holders.



          1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety   4
First aid for Cuts
  Cover the wound and apply pressure until
   bleeding stops.
  Wash with soap and water, then apply
   antiseptic, sterile bandage.
  If cut is severe, continue to apply pressure
   and take the victim to the doctor or hospital.


         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety    5
Burns and Fires: Guidelines
for Prevention
  Use potholders to handle hot utensils
  Open lids of pans and microwave containers
   away from you.
  Keep ranges and drip pans free from grease.
  Do not put out grease fires with water.
   Water will spread the fire.

         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                               6
Burns and fires: Guidelines
for Prevention cont.
 Extinguish fires with a fire extinguisher
  or baking soda. Use water if the fire only
  if it is not a grease fire and is small.
 Keep towels away from heat sources.
 Turn handles of pans away from the
  edge of the range to avoid tipping.


         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                               7
First Aid for Burns and Fires
 If clothing catches fire, smother the flames.
      • Stop, Drop, and Roll
 Place area under cold running water. Do
  not apply ointment.
 Do not break blisters.



         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                                  8
 Falls: Guidelines for Prevention

 Always use a stepstool or ladder to reach
  high places.
 Secure loose area rugs.
 Wipe up spills immediately.
 Spray pan spray over the sink rather over
  the floor to prevent slick floors.
            1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                                  9
First Aid for Falls
  If someone has fallen, do not move the
   victim. Make the person comfortable
   and call for help.




         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                               10
Electrical Issues: Guidelines
for Prevention
  Avoid working with water and electrical
   appliances at the same time.
  Unplug appliances by the plug not the cord.
  Replace frayed cords.
  Do not use damaged appliances.
  Do not overload outlets.

        1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                              11
First Aid for Electrical Injuries
  Do not touch someone who is experiencing
   an electrical shock.
  Remove the source of the shock with a
   nonconductive material, such as wood or
   plastic.



         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                               12
Chemical Poisoning:
Guidelines for Prevention
  Keep all hazardous products and
   medications out of the reach of children.
  Keep all chemicals in their original
   container.
  Keep all chemicals away from food.



         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                               13
First Aid for Chemical Poisoning

  Call Poison Control Center. Have the
   container of the poison with you so you can
   give the poison control center any
   information listed on the bottle to assist the
   operator in giving first aid information.



          1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                                14
Choking: Guidelines for
Prevention
 Chew food thoroughly before swallowing.
 Do not give children small round pieces of
  food such as hot dogs or carrots.
 Avoid talking, laughing when you have
  food in your mouth.



          1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                                15
  First Aid for Choking
 The abdominal thrust is a
  procedure used to save
  choking victims.
 The abdominal thrust can
  injure a choking victim.
  Make sure that the victim
  sees a doctor as soon as
  possible after the rescue.
        1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                              16
Other Safety Issues:
Guidelines for Prevention

    Do not wear jewelry.
    Keep hair restrained.
    Do not wear loose clothing.
    Wear closed-toed shoes.



         1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                               17
First Aid for Other Safety
Issues
 If jewelry gets caught in a small appliance
  try to remove it to prevent cutting the
  victim.
 Try to release hair if caught in appliance.
 Smother hair with a cloth if it catches fire.



        1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
                                              18
 1.01 N




“Used with permission”   1.01N   Foodborne Illness   25
  Alice Henneman, MS, RD                  Joyce Jensen, CFSP
  University of Nebraska-Lincoln               Lincoln-Lancaster
  Extension in Lancaster County               County Health Dept.


               Download this PowerPoint at
http://lancaster.unl.edu/food/mypyramid-foodsafety.shtml


                 Updated slightly January 2007
                      1.01N   Foodborne Illness                26
 Acknowledgments

• Slide set is based on information provided by:
   – United States Department of Agriculture
   – United States Department of Health & Human Services

• For more information, visit:
   – http://www.mypyramid.gov
   – http://www.fsis.usda.gov
   – http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines

                      1.01N   Foodborne Illness        27
Estimates of foodborne illnesses
     in the U.S. each year:


    76 million people
       become ill
     5,000 people die


           1.01N   Foodborne Illness   28
  Common Signs and Symptoms




Upset stomach           Fever                Diarrhea



                                      Dehydration
                                (sometimes severe)
  Vomiting      1.01N    Foodborne Illness           29
    Possibly Severe Results



                                Meningitis




Paralysis                Death
            1.01N   Foodborne Illness        30
   Don’t count on these to
    test for food safety!




        Sight



Smell     1.01N   Foodborne Illness
                                      Taste   31
Even IF tasting would tell …
     Why risk getting sick?

             A “tiny taste” may not
             protect you …
             as few as 10 bacteria
             could cause some
             foodborne illnesses!


         1.01N   Foodborne Illness    32
Why gamble with your health?

                      It takes about ½ hour
                      to 6 weeks to become
                      ill from unsafe foods.

                      You may become sick
                      later even if you feel
                      OK after eating.

         1.01N   Foodborne Illness        33
 Why risk other people’s health?

Is the food safe
for everyone at
    the table?             Some people have
                           a greater risk for
                           foodborne illnesses.
                           A food you safely
                           eat might make others
                           sick.

             1.01N   Foodborne Illness       34
            Did You Know????
• These foods could potentially carry the
  following foodborne illnesses:
                                                     MOST
       Food             Foodborne Illness
  Any raw meat           Campylobacter
  Ground Meats            E-coli                    COMMON
  Shellfish               Norwalk virus
  Raw vegatables
  Feces/raw sewage
  Contaminated water/ice
  Chicken                  Salmonella

  Seafood/Salads          Hepatitis A
  Canned foods            Botulism
                       1.01N    Foodborne Illness            35
   People with a higher risk of
       foodborne illness




           Pregnant                    Young children
Infants
            women                           and
                                        older adults
          People with weakened immune
          systems and individuals with
          certain chronic diseases
           1.01N   Foodborne Illness                    36
     Be a winner!
Increase your odds
of preventing a
foodborne illness
in YOUR HOME!


             1.01N   Foodborne Illness   37
         “Key recommendations”
             for food safety

The 2005 USDA Dietary
Guidelines give FOUR
“Key Recommendations”
for food safety.


Source: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm
                          1.01N    Foodborne Illness                     38
Recommendation 1: CLEAN




Wash hands and food-contact
        surfaces.
         1.01N   Foodborne Illness   39
      Wash your hands!




Hand washing is the most effective way
    to stop the spread of illness.
             1.01N   Foodborne Illness   40
          How to wash hands
1. Wet hands with
  WARM water.
2. Soap and scrub for
  10-15 seconds.
3. Rinse under clean,
  running water.
4. Dry completely
  using a clean cloth
  or paper towel.
                    1.01N   Foodborne Illness   41
         Wash hands after …


                Handling pets                Sneezing, blowing
                                              nose & coughing
Using bathroom or
                                          or touching face and hair
changing diapers
                                      AND before
                                          ...
 Touching a cut or
    open sore
                                       Handling food
                     1.01N   Foodborne Illness                42
    Clean during food preparation

Wash and sanitize
cutting boards,
knives, utensils and
counter tops. Use
hot soapy water and
sanitizing solution
after preparing each
food and before
going on to the next.

                   1.01N   Foodborne Illness   43
Avoid spreading bacteria

               • Use paper towels or
                 clean cloths to wipe
                 up kitchen surfaces
                 or spills.
               • Wash cloths often in
                 the hot cycle of your
                 washing machine
                 and dry in a hot
                 dryer.
       1.01N    Foodborne Illness        44
   Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria
• Wet or damp
  dishcloths are ideal
  environments for
  bacterial growth.
                               There are more germs
                               in the average kitchen
• Have a good supply           than the bathroom.
  of dishcloths to avoid       Sponges and
  reusing them before          dishcloths are worst
  laundry day.                 offenders.
                                 ~research by Dr. Charles Gerba
                 1.01N   Foodborne Illness                 45
    Recommendation 2: SEPARATE




•Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat
foods while shopping, preparing or
storing foods.
              1.01N   Foodborne Illness   46
• Use different cutting boards


                     Use one cutting board
                     for raw meat, poultry
                     and seafood …

                     … and a separate
                     one for fresh
                     produce.

          1.01N   Foodborne Illness     47
•Separate foods while
shopping and storing.
• Never bag or store raw
meats with ready to eat foods.
• Raw meats should be stored
on the bottom of the
refrigerator to keep juices from
leaking onto ready to eat
foods.


                  1.01N   Foodborne Illness   48
•Use clean plates

NEVER serve foods
on a plate that
previously held raw
meat, poultry or
seafood unless the
plate has first been
washed in hot,
soapy water.
              1.01N   Foodborne Illness   49
       Recommendation 3: COOK




• Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill
microorganisms.

                  1.01N   Foodborne Illness   50
  Recommendation 3: COOK!
• Cook chicken to a minimum
temperature of 170° for personal/home use
and 165° for food service for the prevention
of salmonella.

• Ground beef to a minimum temperature of
1600 for personal/home use and 155° for
food service the prevention of e-coli.

             1.01N   Foodborne Illness     51
        Recommendation 4: CHILL




•Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly
and defrost foods properly. 40° for
personal/home use and 41°F for or lower for
food service       1.01N Foodborne Illness  52
 DANGER
  ZONE
     Bacteria multiply
      rapidly between
  40-140°F personal/home
use 41 - 135°F food service



     1.01N   Foodborne Illness   53
Remember:


        1.01N   Foodborne Illness   54
1.01N   Foodborne Illness   55
1.01 T Food Sanitation




       1.01T   Food Sanitation
         Kitchen Equipment

Kitchen equipment
should be:

  • Clean
  • Properly working



              1.01T    Food Sanitation   62
                      Cleaning
• Dishes should be washed
  in hot soapy water, rinsed
  and air dried.
• Dish cloths and sponges
  should be changed
  regularly.


                  1.01T   Food Sanitation   63
                    Sanitizing
• Equipment can be sanitized
  with one teaspoon of
  bleach in a gallon of water.
  Surfaces should be
  sanitized regularly.
• Sanitation is to clean
  equipment in a way that
  kills germs and parasites.
                                              64
                    1.01T   Food Sanitation
   Pests
• Pests lead to the spread
  of germs and bacteria to
  food surfaces,
  equipment and food.
• Pest infestation lead to
  the loss of food in labs.


                    1.01T   Food Sanitation   65
                 Pest Control
Pests can be control by:
  • Cleaning up leftover foods.
  • Removing garbage
     regularly.
  • Keeping keeping doors
    closed and windows shut.


                 1.01T   Food Sanitation   66
 1.01 Y FOOD SAFETY
VS. FOOD SANITATION




   1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   67
What’s the difference?

        Food safety is how food
        is handled to prevent
        foodborne illness.

              Food Sanitation is the
              cleanliness of
              equipment and facilities.

    1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   68
Food Safety
Food safety is how food is handled
to prevent foodborne illness. This
includes:
    Food preparation methods
    Cooking
    Chilling
    Serving

            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   69
 Food Preparation Methods
 Raw foods must be kept
separate from ready to eat
foods to PREVENT cross
contamination.
 Food must be kept out of the
temperature danger zone 40°-140°
for personal/home 41°-135° for
food service and use to PREVENT
foodborne illness.

            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   70
 Cooking Food
 Meats should be cooked to
  the proper internal temperature
  to prevent foodborne illness.
 The temperatures for cooking
  ground beef and chicken are:
                         o
       Ground Beef 160 home /
          155° for food service
                            o
              Chicken 170 home /
                  165° for food service

              1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   71
    Serving Food
 Food should be served as
  quickly as possible after
  preparation and held at
  135° for food service
  140° personal/home use

 Food should be kept
  cold if serving from a food
  bar and held at 40° for personal/home use and
  41°for food service.
                1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   72
 Chilling Food
                                                     o
 Foods must chilled to below 40
  home/personal use and 41° for food service
  to prevent foodborne illness.
 Foods should be cooled in small
  containers to help speed the
  cooling process.
 Foods that are chilling should
  be covered to prevent cross
  contamination.                                         73
           1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
 Food Sanitation
Food Sanitation is the cleanliness
and maintenance of equipment
and facilities.

It is important for the safety of
lab members and the preparation
of food.

            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   74
 Food Sanitation cont.
The areas of food sanitation
include:
    pots and pans
    appliances
    kitchen utensils
    food preparation areas
    food storage areas.

            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   75
Pots and Pans
For the safety of lab members and
proper food preparation pots and
pans :
 must be clean
 have secure handles
 should have flat bottoms
 lids must have handles
 made from food grade metal
            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   76
Appliances
• Appliances that are not working
  properly are a danger to anyone who
  is operating them.
• Appliances that have cracks and
  crevices can harbor bacteria that can
  cause a foodborne illness.



            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   77
 Appliances cont.


• It is important that appliances:
     be smooth and easy to clean
     attachments should be used
       properly



            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   78
Kitchen and Serving Utensils

• Both kitchen and serving
  utensils must be:
    easy to clean
    made from food
     grade metal
    nonporous


            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   79
 Food Preparation Areas
Food preparation areas have the
potential for cross contamination of
food. To PREVENT this food
preparation areas:
 must be easy to clean
 must be non-porous
 be free from cracks and
    crevices
            1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   80
Food Storage Areas
 Food storage areas protect
  food from cross contamination
  from bacteria other hazards.
 Food storage areas must be:
     • kept clean
     • able to be covered
     • away from the wall and
       off of the floor
           1.01Y   Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety   81
1.02 C Work Plans


     The secret for
       success!




                          85
     1.02C   Work Plans
        Why use a work plan?
• It is important to use a work plan to help meal
  preparation run smoothly.
• To implement a work follow these steps:



                                    Steps 1- 5




                    1.02C   Work Plans              86
Step 1                                                           Steps for Pre-preparation
         Ingredients
         1 cups (2 sticks) butter, softened                                         1. Read The Recipe
         2 cups sugar
         4 large eggs
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract                                                                  •   Note the
         11/4 cup all-purpose flour
                                                                                                         ingredients
         3/4 cup unsweetened cocoa
         1/2 teaspoon baking powder                                                                      needed for
         1 (10-ounce) package Creme de Menthe baking chips (recommended: Andes)                          the item.
         Shaved Creme de Menthe thins (recommended: Andes)
         Chocolate frosting                                                                          •   Note the
                                                                                                         equipment
         Frosting:
                                                                                                         that will be
         1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted
         1/3 cup cocoa                                                                                   used in
         2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar                                                              preparation.
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         2 tablespoons milk                                                                          •   Notice
                                                                                                         cooking time
         Directions:
                                                                                                         and
         Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 13 by 9 by 2-inch pan.
         Using an electric mixer, combine butter and sugar in a large mixing bowl; beat at               temperature
         medium speed until creamy. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition. Add
         vanilla, mixing well.                                                                       •   Notice
         In a separate bowl, combine flour, cocoa, and baking powder. Gradually stir into butter         cooking
         mixture. Fold in mint chips. Spoon into greased pan. Bake for 35 minutes.                       terms
         While brownies are baking, prepare frosting. Combine butter, cocoa, confectioners' sugar,
         vanilla and milk in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed with an electric mixer
         until dry ingredients are moistened. Beat at high speed until spreading consistency.
         Remove pan from the oven and allow brownies to cool in pan on wire rack. Spread with
         chocolate frosting. Top with shaved mint thins.


                                              A1.02C     Work Plans                                                87
         Ingredients                                            Steps for Pre-preparation
         1 cups (2 sticks) butter, softened
Step 2   2 cups sugar                                                           2. Interpret Instructions
         4 large eggs
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         11/4 cup all-purpose flour
         3/4 cup unsweetened cocoa
         1/2 teaspoon baking powder
         1 (10-ounce) package Creme de Menthe baking chips (recommended: Andes)
         Shaved Creme de Menthe thins (recommended: Andes)
         Chocolate frosting
                                                                                              •    Note the step-
         Frosting:                                                                                 by- step
         1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted                                                          instructions and
         1/3 cup cocoa                                                                             preparing/
         2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
                                                                                                   mixing
         2 tablespoons milk                                                                        /cooking terms.

         Directions:
         Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 13 by 9 by 2-inch pan.
         Using an electric mixer, combine butter and sugar in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium
         speed until creamy. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition. Add vanilla, mixing
         well.
         In a separate bowl, combine flour, cocoa, and baking powder. Gradually stir into butter mixture.
         Fold in mint chips. Spoon into greased pan. Bake for 35 minutes.
         While brownies are baking, prepare frosting. Combine butter, cocoa, confectioners' sugar,
         vanilla and milk in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed with an electric mixer until dry
         ingredients are moistened. Beat at high speed until spreading consistency.
         Remove pan from the oven and allow brownies to cool in pan on wire rack. Spread with
         chocolate frosting. Top with shaved mint thins.



                                          A1.02C         Work Plans                                                   88
         Ingredients                                            Steps for Pre-preparation
Step 3   1 cups (2 sticks) butter, softened
         2 cups sugar                                           3. Prepare the market order.
         4 large eggs
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         11/4 cup all-purpose flour                                                                •   List needed
         3/4 cup unsweetened cocoa                                                                     ingredients
         1/2 teaspoon baking powder
         1 (10-ounce) package Creme de Menthe baking chips (recommended: Andes)                    •   List amount of
         Shaved Creme de Menthe thins (recommended: Andes)                                             ingredients
         Chocolate frosting
                                                                                                   •   List on-hand
         Frosting:                                                                                     ingredients
         1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted
         1/3 cup cocoa                                                                             •   Calculate amount
         2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar                                                            needed to
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         2 tablespoons milk                                                                            purchase
         Directions:                                                                               •   List amount
         Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 13 by 9 by 2-inch pan.
         Using an electric mixer, combine butter and sugar in a large mixing bowl; beat at             needed to
         medium speed until creamy. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition.           purchase
         Add vanilla, mixing well.
         In a separate bowl, combine flour, cocoa, and baking powder. Gradually stir into butter   •   Teacher or
         mixture. Fold in mint chips. Spoon into greased pan. Bake for 35 minutes.                     assigned student
         While brownies are baking, prepare frosting. Combine butter, cocoa, confectioners'
         sugar, vanilla and milk in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed with an electric         will compile
         mixer until dry ingredients are moistened. Beat at high speed until spreading                 market orders for
         consistency.
         Remove pan from the oven and allow brownies to cool in pan on wire rack. Spread               labs and
         with chocolate frosting. Top with shaved mint thins.                                          complete one
                                                                                                       master market
                                                 A1.02C         Work Plans                             order      89
Step 4
                                                              Steps for Pre-preparation
         Ingredients
         1 cups (2 sticks) butter
                                                4. Gather / Assemble equipment needed
         2 cups sugar
         4 large eggs
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         11/4 cup all-purpose flour
         3/4 cup unsweetened cocoa
         1/2 teaspoon baking powder
         1 (10-ounce) package Creme de Menthe baking chips (recommended: Andes)
         Shaved Creme de Menthe thins (recommended: Andes)                                •     Note the
         Chocolate frosting                                                                     equipment
                                                                                                that will be
         Frosting:                                                                              used in
         1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted
         1/3 cup cocoa
                                                                                                preparation.
         2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar                                                    (look for
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract                                                             underlined
         2 tablespoons milk                                                                     equipment)
         Directions:
         Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 13 by 9 by 2-inch pan.
         Using an electric mixer, combine butter and sugar in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed
         until creamy. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition. Add vanilla, mixing well.
         In a separate bowl, combine flour, cocoa, and baking powder. Gradually stir into butter mixture.
         Fold in mint chips. Spoon into greased pan. Bake for 35 minutes.
         While brownies are baking, prepare frosting. Combine butter, cocoa, confectioners' sugar, vanilla
         and milk in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed with an electric mixer until dry
         ingredients are moistened. Beat at high speed until spreading consistency.
         Remove pan from the oven and allow brownies to cool in pan on wire rack. Spread with chocolate
         frosting. Top with shaved mint thins.

                                        1.02C         Work Plans                                               90
                                                         Steps for Pre-preparation
Step 5
         INGREDIENTS:                                   5. Gather / assemble ingredients
         1 cups (2 sticks) butter, softened
         2 cups sugar                                                           needed.
         4 large eggs
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         11/4 cup all-purpose flour
         3/4 cup unsweetened cocoa
         1/2 teaspoon baking powder
         1 (10-ounce) package Creme de Menthe baking chips (recommended: Andes)
         Shaved Creme de Menthe thins (recommended: Andes)
         Chocolate frosting
                                                                                                 •    Note the
         FROSTING:
         1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted
                                                                                                      ingredients
         1/3 cup cocoa                                                                                needed for
         2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar                                                           the item.
         1 teaspoon vanilla extract
         2 tablespoons milk

         DIRECTIONS:
         Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 13 by 9 by 2-inch pan.
         Using an electric mixer, combine butter and sugar in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed
         until creamy. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition. Add vanilla, mixing well.
         In a separate bowl, combine flour, cocoa, and baking powder. Gradually stir into butter mixture.
         Fold in mint chips. Spoon into greased pan. Bake for 35 minutes.
         While brownies are baking, prepare frosting. Combine butter, cocoa, confectioners' sugar, vanilla
         and milk in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed with an electric mixer until dry ingredients
         are moistened. Beat at high speed until spreading consistency.
         Remove pan from the oven and allow brownies to cool in pan on wire rack. Spread with chocolate
         frosting. Top with shaved mint thins.


                                        A1.02C       Work Plans                                                91
           1.02 I
        Preparation
         Tasks List



1.02I     Listing Preparation Tasks   97
     Listing of
    preparation
     Tasks: 1-8   Preparation Tasks
• All recipes are different. Tasks may be more or less
  complex.
• Dovetailing is accomplished during lab by multi-
  tasking so tasks can be done at the same time to save
  time and energy.
   1. Wash hands
   2. Set the table
   3. Open all packages
   4. Wash /rinse produce and other ingredients if
       necessary 1.02 I   Listing Preparation Tasks     98
     Listing of
     Preparation
                   Preparation Tasks

4. Prep ingredients
5. Measuring ingredients.
        Ingredients should be assembled before beginning
        measuring and preparation.
6.   Prepare equipment
7.   Clean as you go
8.   Preheat oven
9.   Mix ingredients

                   1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks       99
Listing of
Preparation
Tasks


10. Place mixture in baking dish
11. Place in oven
12. Set timer
13. Cook / bake
14. Remove from oven / cool
15. Add icing and garnish. Slice / sample
16. Final cleanup
Note: All of these tasks may be completed at the same
      time by lab members.

                  1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks
Listing of
Preparation
Tasks
               Let’s Practice…

• Using the recipe on the following slide
dovetail the Preparation Tasks.

• Be sure to read the recipe BEFORE you
start make the list of steps to dovetail.



              A1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks   101
BROWNIES
Ingredients
1 cups (2 sticks) butter, softened
                                                                    The Recipe
2 cups sugar
4 large eggs
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
11/4 cup all-purpose flour
3/4 cup unsweetened cocoa
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1 (10-ounce) package Creme de Menthe baking chips (recommended: Andes)
Shaved Creme de Menthe thins (recommended: Andes)
Chocolate frosting

Frosting:
1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, melted
1/3 cup cocoa
2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 tablespoons milk

Directions:
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease a 13 by 9 by 2-inch pan.
Using an electric mixer, combine butter and sugar in a large mixing bowl; beat at
medium speed until creamy. Add eggs, 1 at a time, beating well after each addition. Add
vanilla, mixing well.
In a separate bowl, combine flour, cocoa, and baking powder. Gradually stir into butter
mixture. Fold in mint chips. Spoon into greased pan. Bake for 35 minutes.
While brownies are baking, prepare frosting. Combine butter, cocoa, confectioners' sugar,
vanilla and milk in a large mixing bowl; beat at medium speed with an electric mixer
until dry ingredients are moistened. Beat at high speed until spreading consistency.
Remove pan from the oven and allow brownies to cool in pan on wire rack. Spread with
chocolate frosting. Top with shaved mint thins.

                    1.02L            Listing Preparation Tasks                              102
    Listing of
    Preparation
    Tasks                 Let’s Practice…
•    What are the preparation tasks that can be
   done before and during the preparation of
   the brownies? Let’s list them.
1. Remember proper attire and
    and prepare yourself for lab
2. Get out napkins for sampling
3. Open the packages
4. Prep ingredients
                  1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks   103
     Listing of
     Preparation
     Tasks



5.   Measure ingredients
6.   Prepare-grease baking pan
7.   Preheat oven
8.   Measure / mix first ingredients
9.   Clean up as needed during entire lab



                   1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks
      Listing of
      Preparation
      Tasks


11.   Complete the mixing process
12.   Pour batter in greased baking pan
13.   Place in the center of the preheated oven
14.   Set timer
15.   Bake
16.   Prepare frosting
17.   Take out of the oven to cool
18.   Frost, Slice / sample
19.   Clean up

                      1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks
 Listing of
                  Now it’s your
 Preparation
 Tasks            turn!


• Select a “SIMPLE” recipe from a cook
book or the internet and apply a work
plan with your group.



               1.02I   Listing Preparation Tasks   106
1.02 M Timetables




     1.02M   Timetables   109
  Why is a timetable important?

• The timing of tasks is important to ensure the
  completion of recipes in food lab or at home.
• A timetable is implemented by preparing a
  sheet into six categories :




                   1.02M   Timetables          110
                1. List Tasks
1. List tasks - Any task with optional start time.
  a.   Washing hands
  b.   Setting the table
  c.   Gathering food and equipment
  d.   Pre-preparation: opening packages and
       measuring ingredients are examples


   These tasks can all be Dovetailed.

                     1.02M   Timetables          111
Pre-Preparation and Preparation
•   2. List Pre-preparation time: Time needed
       to get ready for lab experience.

•   3. List Preparation time: The estimation of
       time to complete the preparation task(s).
       Estimate preparation times of each task.
       It is better to allow too much time than
       too little.

                   1.02M   Timetables          112
List Cooking Time
4. List Cooking time: Always record the time
   that each dish needs to cook.




                 1.02M   Timetables
5. Calculate Total time: The addition of the pre-
   preparation, preparation and cooking time. If the pre-
   preparation is 3 minutes, preparation time is 3
   minutes and cooking time is 10 minutes then the total
   time is 16 minutes for the dish.
6. Calculate Starting Time: The subtracting of the
   total time from the desired serving time. If the meal
   needs to served at 6:00. Subtract 16 minutes from
   6:00, this means the dish needs to be started by 5:44
   to be ready on time.

                                                      114
                     1.02M   TimeTables
Let’s make a timetable!
• Let’s make a timetable for the brownies.
  o If class is 60 minutes long, use this as a guide.
  o If class is 90 minutes long, use this as a guide.
• If class starts a 8:00 a.m.
• Remember the steps? List each:
  1.   List tasks
  2.   List pre-preparation time
  3.   List preparation time
  4.   List cooking time
  5.   Calculate total time
  6.   Calculate starting time

                                                        115
                       1.02M   TimeTables
            Task              Preparation Time        Cooking Time                 Total Time          Starting Time

                                                 Brownie Pre-Preparation
Wash Hands, restrain hair   5 min                                                               8:00 a.m.
and put on apron
Preheat Oven                10 min                                                              8:05 a.m.

Set Table                   10 min                                                              8:05 a.m.

Gather ingredients/         10 min                                                              8:05 a.m.
equipment


Grease Pan                  5 min                                                               8:05 a.m.


Measure dry ingredients     2 min                                                               8:35 a.m.


Measure liquid              2 min                                                               8:35 a.m.
ingredients
Cream sugar and butter,     2 min                                                               8:37 a.m.
Add eggs and vanilla
Combine dry ingredients     2 min                                                               8:39 a.m.
in separate bowl.
Fold in chips and place     2 min                                                               8:41 a.m.
batter in greased pan
Bake Brownies and cool                            35 min + 10 min                               9:16 a.m.

Mix frosting ingredients    2 min                                                               9:00 a.m.

Frost, Cut, Serve           5 min                                          2 min                9:18

Final Clean Up                                                             5 min                9:23 a.m.
                                                                                                                 116
              Let’s Evaluate!
• Take note of the way the brownie recipe was
  broken down into:
  1. brownie pre-preparation
  2. brownie preparation.
• Also notice that the time that is estimated for
  preparation time is added to the running start
  time of the next task.


                    1.02M   Timetables              117
            Task              Preparation Time        Cooking Time                 Total Time            Starting Time
                                                 Brownie Pre-Preparation
Wash Hands, restrain hair   5 min                                                                   Pre-preparation
                                                                                                1. 8:00 a.m.
and put on apron                                                     1. Pre-preparation
                                                                                                    steps.
Preheat Oven                10 min                                      steps.                    8:05 a.m.

Set Table                   10 min                                                                8:05 a.m.

Gather ingredients/         10 min                                                                8:05 a.m.
equipment


Grease Pan                  5 min                                                                 8:05 a.m.


Measure dry ingredients     2 min                                                                 8:35 a.m.


Measure liquid              2 min                                                                   Preparation
                                                                                                2. 8:35 a.m.
                                                                     1. Preparation
ingredients                                                                                         steps
Cream sugar and butter,     2 min
                                                                        steps                     8:37 a.m.
Add eggs and vanilla
                                                                                                3. The Preparation
Combine dry ingredients     2 min                                    2. The Preparation            8:39 a.m.
in separate bowl.                                                                                   time is added to
                                                                        time is added to
Fold in chips and place     2 min                                                                   the running
                                                                                                   8:41 a.m.
                                                                        the running
batter in greased pan                                                                               starting time
Bake Brownies and cool                            35 min + 10 min
                                                                        starting time             9:16 a.m.

Mix frosting ingredients    2 min                                                                 9:00 a.m.

Frost, Cut, Serve           5 min                                          2 min                  9:18

Final Clean Up                                                             5 min                  9:23 a.m.         118
         Now It’s Your Turn!
• Choose a recipe from a cookbook or the
  internet to devise a timetable.
  Remember the steps…
  1. List tasks
  2. List pre-preparation time
  3. List preparation time
  4. List cooking time
  5. Calculate total time
  6. Calculate starting time
                    1.02M   Timetables     119
1.02 R Lab
Evaluation


 1.02R   Lab Evaluation   121
            Lab Evaluation
• A step-by-step procedure where students
  and teacher reflect on the lab experience’s
  success. The steps of lab evaluation include:




                  1.02R   Lab Evaluation      122
                  1. Evaluate Planning :

• Use of the recipe
  o Was the recipe followed correctly?
• Division of tasks among lab members
  equitably
  o Did everyone do their share of work in lab?
• Collection of all equipment / ingredients
  o Were all of the ingredients and equipment in the
    lab ready to go prior to the start of construction?
                     1.02R   Lab Evaluation               123
               2. Evaluate Preparation:

• Use of measuring techniques.
  o Did the group use proper measuring techniques?
• Correct use of appliances/equipment.
  o Did you use the proper appliances and equipment?
• Application of sanitation procedures.
  o Did you wash your hands and clean the lab?
• Correct table appointments / tableware placed
  on the table.
  o Did you set the table and eat with your group?

                     1.02R   Lab Evaluation            124
                 3. Evaluate Product

 Final cooking result.
  o Did the recipe turn out like you thought?
• Appearance
  o This should be an objective observation. Not your
    own feelings toward the result.
  o Does the product look like it should?
• Overall appeal and taste of the product.
  o Does the product smell and taste appealing?
                    1.02R   Lab Evaluation          125
                  4. Evaluate Clean-Up
Cleaning duties were shared by everyone!
  o Did everyone help clean the lab area?
• All areas of the preparation area cleaned.
  o Cleaning work areas and equipment help to control
    bacterial growth. This prevents foodborne illness
  o Was the lab area clean when the lab was finished?
     Work surfaces
     Dishes clean, dried and put away in the proper
      place
     Sinks washed and dried out
     Dirty towels in the appropriate area
                     1.02R   Lab Evaluation             126
         5. Evaluate Team Skills
• Overall collaboration of the entire team.
  o Labs run smoothly when everyone shares
    responsibilities.
  o Was everyone pleasant to work with?
• Ability to stay on task and complete lab
  preparation by designated time.
  o Did everyone work consistently and finish on time?
• Ability to keep noise levels to an acceptable
  level.
  o Did everyone in lab work quietly?

                     1.02R   Lab Evaluation              127
            Let’s Evaluate!
• Use the following rubric to evaluate lab
  experiences. We will use the brownies:




                  1.02R   Lab Evaluation     128
   Requirements             Great Job                   Good Job            Needs Improvement               Try Again

                              10 pts                      9-8 pts                   7-6 pts                   0-7 pts
                      All planning sheets         All planning sheets       All planning sheets       Not all planning sheets
                      were completed              were complete turned      were on turned in on      were turned in on time.
    Planning          thoroughly, neatly and      in on time, but not       time, with some           Many ingredients were
   Evaluation         turned in on time.          written neatly,           missing ingredients.      missing and not neatly
                                                                                                      written.
(2 possible points)
                      All ingredients and         Some ingredients and      Many ingredients and      All ingredients and
   Preparation        equipment were in lab       equipment were            equipment were            equipment were
    Evaluation        prior to lab, All           missing prior to the      missing prior to the      missing prior to the
(2 possible points)   equipment was used          start of lab. All         start of lab. Some        start of lab. Equipment
                      properly,                   equipment was used        equipment was not used    was not used properly.
                                                  properly.                 properly.
    Product           Product turned out          Product turned out not    Product turned out but    Product did not turn out
  Evaluation          perfectly.                  as expected.              had an unwanted           well.
(possible points)                                                           outcome.


                      All lab areas and           All areas and             Some areas and            There were areas and
                      equipment were              equipment were            equipment were not        equipment left dirty.
    Clean-Up          cleaned, sanitized, dry     cleaned, sanitized and    cleaned, sanitized and    Items were not put in
    Evaluation        and put in proper place     dry but not put in        dry or put in proper      proper place before the
(2 possible points)   before the end of class     proper place before the   place before the end of   end of class.
                                                  end of class.             class.

                      All lab members shared      All lab members           Not all lab members       Not all lab members
    Team Skills       work equally and            worked but not as         work in lab. The lab      work in lab. The lab
    Evaluation        worked well together to     equally. All members      members that work,        group does not work
                      complete lab.               work well together.       work well together.       well together.
(2 possible points)
                                                1.02R         Lab Evaluation                                                 129
   1.03 B UNDERSTAND
REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE
The best place to practice conserving
resources is at home. Individuals can
substantially REDUCE, REUSE, AND
RECYCLE waste and conserving resources
by practicing the following:
     REDUCE:            To cut the amount of WASTE used:
SOLID WASTE (consuming and conserving):
• Packaging:
   – Choose products with minimal packaging to reduce
• Paper Products:
   – Reduce the amount of paper products used
• Other:
   – Identify products and practices to reduce waste toxicity.
   • Consult:
     http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/pubs/hhw-con.pdf
     for options for using and disposing of household disposable
     waste safely
REDUCE: To cut the amount of ENERGY used:

 • Lighting
 • Surface Units
 • Refrigerators /
   Freezers
 • Ovens
   o Examples
   o Solutions
REDUCE: To cut the amount of WATER used:

 • Faucets
 • Dishwashing
 • Cooking Methods
   o Examples
   o Solutions
 REUSE: Products that you can use again


Solutions
• Consider reusable products
• Maintain and repair durable products
• Reuse bags, containers, and other items
• Borrow, rent, or share items used infrequently
• Sell or donate goods instead of throwing them out.
• Be creative with leftovers and create new dishes.
RECYCLE: Products that can be reprocessed to
               making something new
 Solutions:
 • Choose recyclable products
 • Select products made from recycled materials
  Consult this website
    http://www.epa.gov/osw/partnerships/plugin/pdf/do
    nate.pdf to find out details on e-cycle electronics
    and partners to assist with e-cycling
 • Compost yard clippings and some food scraps.
 • Find creative ways to recycle “diosposal packages
    and products.
    2.02 A KITCHEN
  EQUIPMENTAND
PROCEDURES FOR ITS
  USES AND CARE


    Measuring Equipment
 Cutting/Preparing Equipment
      Mixing Equipment
 Cooking/Cleaning Equipment
 2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care   139
              Measuring Equipment

• Volume:
  – Measuring spoons




  – Dry measuring cups




  – Liquid measuring cups




            2.02A      Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                              140
     Measuring Equipment, contd.

• Volume, contd.:
  – Sifter




  – Rubber spatula




  – Straight-edge spatula




             2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                            141
            Measuring Equipment, contd.
• Weight:
  – Scale




             2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                            142
            Measuring Equipment, contd.
• Temperature:
  – Thermometers
      •   Deep-fry




      •   Instant-read




      •   Meat




                 2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                                143
Cutting/Preparing Equipment
– Bread knife




– Chef’s/French knife



– Paring knife




– Slicing knife




     2.02A        Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                         144
Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
– Straightening steel




– Food chopper




– Grater/shredder




– Kitchen shears




             2.02A      Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                               145
Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
– Pastry blender




– Vegetable peeler/parer



– Cutting board




– Can opener




             2.02A    Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                             146
Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
– Colander




– Strainer




– Rolling pin




– Slotted spoon




             2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                            147
  Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
• Appliances:
  – Blender




  – Food processor




              2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                             148
                 Mixing Equipment
– Fork




– Mixing bowls




– Pastry blender




– Rubber spatula



     2.02A    Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                     149
           Mixing Equipment, contd.
– Sifter




– Wire whisk




– Wooden spoon




            2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                           150
           Mixing Equipment, contd.
• Appliances:
  – Hand mixer




  – Stand mixer




             2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                            151
        Cooking/Cleaning Equipment
• Bakeware:
  – Baking sheet



  – Cookie sheet




  – Cake pan




               2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                              152
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Bakeware, contd.:
  – Loaf pan




  – Muffin pan




  – Pie pan




               2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                              153
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Bakeware, contd.:
  – Pizza pan




  – Roasting pan




  – Square/rectangular pan




                2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                               154
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Bakeware, contd.:
  – Casserole




                2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                               155
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Cookware:
  – Double boiler




  – Dutch oven




  – Pots




              2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                             156
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Cookware, contd.:
  – Saucepans




  – Sauté pan/skillet




  – Steamer




                2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                               157
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Cookware, contd.:
  – Wok




  – Cooling rack




  – Ladle




              2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                             158
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Cookware, contd.:
  – Pastry brush




  – Oven mitt/pot holder




  – Tongs




              2.02A        Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                                  159
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Cookware, contd.:
  – Turner




             2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                            160
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.

    Small Appliances
    Electric skillet / griddle


    Slow cooker



    Toaster



    Toaster Oven



         2.02A      Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                           161
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.

• Large Appliances,
  contd.:
  – Microwave oven



  – Range/oven



  – Dishwasher




             2.02A   Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                            162
  Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
• Appliances, contd.:
  – Refrigerator/Freezer




              2.02A        Kitchen equipment & procedures for its uses and care
                                                                                  163
Cutting, Preparing and
   Cooking Terms



       2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
               Cooking Terms             169
Cutting Terms




   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
           Cooking Terms             170
 Chop
• To cut food into
  small, uneven pieces

• Equipment: French
  or Chef’s Knife




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             171
                   Mince
• To cut food into very
  fine, uneven
  pieces.
• Equipment: French or
  Chef’s knife.




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             172
                   Cube
• To cut food into
  small, equal size
  squares about ½ inch
  in size.




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             173
                        Dice
• To cut food into
  small, equal size
  squares about ¼ to
  1/8 inch in size.
• Equipment: French or
  Chef’s Knife, c. board




                      2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                              Cooking Terms             174
                           Grate
• To reduce food into
  small pieces by
  pressing and rubbing
  it against the “teeth”
  of a grater.
• Equipment: Grater



                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             175
                    Shred
To cut or break food
 into long, thin strips
 by using a knife, fork,
 or grater.




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             176
                     Pare
• To remove the stem
  and the very thin
  layer of peel of a
  fruit or vegetable
  with a paring knife or
  peeler.



                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             177
                      Peel
• To remove the outer
  layer/skin, by
  stripping or pulling
  off with your finger
  or a knife




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             178
                     Score
• To make small,
  straight, shallow cuts
  with a slicing knife in
  the surface of a food;
  often done to
  tenderize meat or to
  let sauces soak in.


                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             179
                    Slice
• To cut food into
  large, thick or thin
  flat pieces with a
  slicing knife. Use a
  sawing motion while
  gently pressing the
  knife down.


                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             180
Preparation Terms




     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
             Cooking Terms             181
                       Baste
• To pour or spoon
  pan juices, melted
  fat, or sauces over
  the surface of a food
  during cooking,
  using a baster, cup,
  or spoon, to keep
  the food moist and
  add flavor. 2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms       182
                   Freeze
• To lower a food’s
  temperature to
  freezing or below by
  placing it in a
  freezer.




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             183
                  Defrost/Thaw
• To expose to warmth
  in order to free from a
  frozen state.




                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             184
                  Dissolve
• To cause a solid food
  to turn into or become
  part of a liquid.




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             185
                   Drain
• To remove liquid
  from a solid food by
  pouring off the
  liquid, putting the
  food through a
  colander, or drying
  with paper towels.


                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             186
                   Strain
• To separate solid
  from liquid materials
  by pouring the
  mixture through a
  strainer or sieve.




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             187
                     Dust
• To lightly sprinkle the
  surface of a food with
  crumbs, flour, or
  sugar.




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             188
          Flour/Dredge/Coat
• To sprinkle or coat a
  food with flour.
• Equipment: Flour,
  crumbs or seasoning.




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             189
                    Grease
• To rub fat on the
  surface of a food or a
  cooking utensil




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             190
                  Marinate
• To soak food in a
  cold, seasoned liquid,
  usually containing an
  acid, in order to add
  flavor to or tenderize
  the food.



                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             191
                 Tenderize
• To make something
  easy to chew by
  applying a process or
  a substance that
  breaks down
  connective tissue or
  fiber.


                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             192
                      Melt
• To change food from
  a solid to a liquid by
  applying heat.




                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             193
                     Soak
• To immerse food in a
  liquid for the purpose
  of wetting, softening,
  dissolving, or
  cleaning.




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             194
               Season
• To increase the
  flavor of a food by
  adding herbs,
  spices, or other
  ingredients; to
  prepare a cooking
  utensil for cooking.
  (EX. Cast iron
  skillet)
                2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                        Cooking Terms             195
                    Vent
• To leave an opening
  in the covering of a
  food through which
  steam can escape.




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             196
Mixing Terms




   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
           Cooking Terms             197
                     Beat
• To thoroughly mix
  ingredients and
  incorporate air using
  a spoon, wire whisk,
  mixer, or food
  processor with an up-
  and-down and
  circular motion

                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             198
                     Blend
• To stir or mix
  ingredients until they
  are thoroughly
  combined and
  smooth




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             199
                Combine
• To blend or mix two
  or more ingredients




                  2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                          Cooking Terms             200
                   Cream
• To beat solid fat and
  sugar with a wooden
  spoon or electric
  mixer until smooth,
  light, and creamy




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             201
                     Cut in
• To combine flour and
  solid fat by cutting
  the fat into tiny pieces
  using a pastry
  blender, two forks or
  knives, or the hands



                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             202
                      Fold in
• To blend a delicate
  mixture into a
  heavier one, using a
  rubber spatula,
  spoon, or wire
  whisk in a gentle up,
  down, and over
  motion so that the
  mixture stays light
• Equipment: Bowl
                2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
  and spatula           Cooking Terms             203
                Knead
• To work a ball of
  dough with the
  heels of the hands
  repeating press,
  fold, and turn
  motions until the
  dough is smooth and
  elastic
• Equipment: Hands Preparing, and
                 2.03I_1 Cutting,
                     Cooking Terms   204
                     Mix
• To combine two or
  more ingredients into
  one mass by stirring
  or beating them




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             205
                       Sift
• To reduce dry
  ingredients to finer
  particles, add air to
  dry ingredients, or
  combine dry
  ingredients by putting
  them through a sieve



                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             206
                     Stir
• To mix using a spoon
  or wire whisk with a
  circular motion




                  2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                          Cooking Terms             207
                      Toss
• To lightly mix
  ingredients by
  tumbling them with
  tongs or a large fork
  and spoon




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             208
               Whip
• To beat quickly and
  vigorously by hand,
  wire whisk, or mixer
  to incorporate air
  and to make a
  mixture light and
  fluffy
• Equipment: Wire
  whisk or electric
  mixer
               2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                       Cooking Terms             209
 Cooking Terms:
Dry Heat Methods




     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
             Cooking Terms             210
                   Bake
• To cook in an oven
  with dry, hot air




                  2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                          Cooking Terms             211
                     Broil
• To cook uncovered
  under a direct heat
  source




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             212
                     Grill
• To broil over hot
  coals or on a griddle




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             213
                    Roast
• To cook meat, fish, or
  poultry uncovered in
  an oven with dry, hot
  air




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             214
                 Barbeque
• To roast slowly on a
  rack or spit over hot
  coals or some other
  direct heat source and
  baste with a spicy
  sauce



                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             215
 Cooking Terms:
Moist Heat Methods




      2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
              Cooking Terms             216
                            Boil
• To cook food in hot
  liquid, 2120F, having
  bubbles that rise to
  and break on the
  surface of the liquid




                    2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                            Cooking Terms             217
                     Braise
• To cook large pieces
  of meat or poultry
  slowly over low heat
  in a small amount of
  hot liquid in a tightly
  covered pan



                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             218
                Microwave
• To cook food in a
  microwave oven
  using little or no
  liquid




                       2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                               Cooking Terms             219
                    Simmer
• To cook food in
  liquid that is just
  below the boiling
  point
• Equipment:
  Saucepan



                        2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                                Cooking Terms             220
                      Steam
• To cook food in a pan
  using vapor produced
  by a boiling liquid
• Equipment: Steamer
  or Double Boiler




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             221
   Cooking Terms:
Cooking in Fat Methods




        2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                Cooking Terms             222
                 Deep-fry
• To cook food by
  completely
  immersing in hot fat;
  also know as French




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             223
                      Fry
• To cook food in a
  small amount of hot
  fat




                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             224
                 Sauté

• To lightly brown or
  cook food in a small
  amount of hot fat over
  moderate heat; Pieces
  of food are cut into
  small or thin pieces
  preserving texture,
  moisture, flavor.
• Equipment: Frying pan
  and butter/oil
                 2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                         Cooking Terms             225
                       Stir-fry
• To cook bite-sized
  small pieces of food
  quickly over high heat
  in a small amount of
  fat while stirring
  constantly.




                     2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                             Cooking Terms             226
Miscellaneous




   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
           Cooking Terms             227
                  Preheat
• To turn on an
  appliance or oven to
  a desired temperature
  about 5-10 minutes
  before food is to be
  placed in it



                   2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and
                           Cooking Terms             228
2.04 C ADJUSTING RECIPES

  Increasing or Decreasing
       a Recipe Yield
    Changing Ingredients


            2.04C   Adjusting Recipes   229
 Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield
• The YIELD of a recipe tells how many people you
  can serve and how much each person will get.
• It may be necessary to increase or decrease a
  recipe’s yield in order to prepare the number of
  servings needed or to adjust the serving size.




                   2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                 230
     2.05KK GRAINS: GOOD FOR
               YOU
•   BARLEY
•   CORN
•   OATS
•   RICE
•   WHEAT


REMEMBER: Grains are a great source of carbohydrates.
  When whole grains are eaten,
  The grains are carbohydrates are considered complex.
  They are a good source of fiber in our diet.
        GRAIN PRODUCTS
•   BARLEY
•   CORN-CORNMEAL, GRITS
•   OATS-OATMEAL, OAT FLOUR
•   RICE-RICE FLOUR
•   WHEAT-PASTA, FLOUR, COUSCOUS
        COOKING METHODS
• When using cornmeal or flours, they are incorporated
  into recipes.
• Grits-bring water to a boil, slowly add, stir, reduce to
  simmer for about 10 minutes, covered
• Oatmeal-bring water to a boil, slowly add, stir, reduce
  to simmer for about 5 minutes, uncovered
• Coucous-bring water to boil, slowly add, remove
  from heat, cover and let sit for 5
  minutes
 COOKING METHODS CONT.

• Pasta-bring water to boil, add pasta, bring back to
  boil and begin timing then, uncovered pot
  Use time on package, cook only until al dente
• Rice-bring water to boil, add rice, cover and
  reduce to simmer for 20 minutes or until water is
  absorbed
  (Brown rice takes a little longer)
    MEAL PATTERNS & GRAINS
• At what meals could the following cooked grains be served?
  What cultures eat these foods?
  Couscous
  Grits
  Pasta
  Rice
• What kind of add-ins could be used in these grains
   To make them palatable for different meals other
   than traditional ones?
• Can cold cereals be served at other times other than breakfast?
  Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe
                 Yield
• If more, or larger, servings are needed than the recipe
  will yield, it is necessary to increase the amounts of
  ingredients used.
• If less, or smaller, servings are needed, one can either
  decrease the amounts of ingredients used OR prepare
  the recipe as indicated and have leftovers.




                      2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
      Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe
                Yield, contd.
• When increasing or decreasing the yield and
  ingredients in recipes, it is usually necessary to
  make additional changes in:
   – Equipment size
   – Equipment shape
   – Cooking temperature
   – Cooking time



                      2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                       238
Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield,
                 contd.
• The steps for changing a yield are:
  1. Divide the desired yield by the recipe’s
  original yield. The result is called the conversion
  factor.
  2. Multiply all recipe ingredients by the
  conversion factor.
  3. Convert the measurements into logical,
  manageable amounts.


                      2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                        239
             Changing Ingredients

• Recipe ingredients are often changed for reasons
  other than increasing or decreasing the yield.
  Reasons for changing ingredients are to:
   – Adjust for high-altitude cooking
   – Adjust for microwave cooking
   – Substitute ingredients




                     2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                     240
        Changing Ingredients, contd.


• Adjusting for high-altitude cooking:
  – As altitude increases, air pressure decreases and
    liquids will boil at a temperature below 212 ˚F.
      • When liquid boils below 212 ˚F., foods
        simmering in the liquid take longer to cook.
        They require more liquid (to replace that which
        evaporates) and longer cooking times.


                    2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                     241
  Adjusting for high-altitude cooking:
– In baked goods, gas bubbles formed by the boiling
  liquid rise more quickly and cause the batter to rise
  before it “sets.” Without making adjustments to
  ingredients, the centers would collapse.
    • To prevent the centers of baked goods from
      collapsing, use less baking powder and sugar,
      and increase the oven temperature.




                   2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
      Changing Ingredients, contd.

Adjusting for microwave cooking:
• Decrease the liquid by 1/3 the total amount
• Eliminate fats (both solid and liquid) unless they are used for
  flavoring
• Use ½ of the seasonings
• Use HIGH power level unless food is “delicate,” then use
  MEDIUM-HIGH power level
• Decrease cooking time – look for a similar recipe in a
  cookbook designed for the microwave
• Allow for standing time.
                      2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                             243
       Changing Ingredients, contd.
Adjusting for substitute ingredients:
  – Ingredients in recipes are often substituted.
    Some reasons for changing recipe ingredients
    include:
      • Unavailable ingredients
      • Cost of ingredients
      • Decreasing/increasing nutritional value
      • Creativity


                     2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                    244
         Changing Ingredients, contd.
• Some recipes are easier to adjust than others. Those
  with NON-ESSENTIAL ingredients are easily
  adjusted. Recipes with ESSENTIAL ingredients are
  really difficult to change
   – NON-ESSENTIAL ingredients are those that act
     independently of each other.
   – ESSENTIAL ingredients are those that have specific
     functions in a recipe and are so sensitive to changes that
     the appearance, taste, or texture of the product are
     affected


                         2.04C   Adjusting Recipes                245
      Changing Ingredients, contd.
• Well-written cookbooks and the Internet are
  good sources for common ingredient
  substitutions. These ingredient substitutions
  can usually be made without any significant
  difference in the final product.




                2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                  246
                         Changing Ingredients, contd.
                         INGREDIENT                                  SUBSTITUTION
1 c. cake flour                                1 c. – 2 Tbsp. (7/8 c.) all-purpose flour

1 c. self-rising flour                         1 c. all-purpose flour + 1 tsp. baking powder + ½ tsp. salt

1 c. buttermilk                                1 Tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar + enough milk to equal 1 c.
                                               (Stir and allow mixture to stand several minutes before using.)

1 large egg                                    2 egg whites

1 Tbsp. cornstarch                             2 Tbsp. all-purpose flour

1 c. corn syrup                                1 ¼ c. sugar + ¼ c. liquid used in recipe

1 oz. unsweetened baking chocolate             3 Tbsp. unsweetened cocoa + 1 Tbsp. butter, margarine, or vegetable oil


1 2/3 oz. semisweet chocolate                  1 oz. unsweetened chocolate + 4 tsp. sugar OR 1 oz. semisweet chocolate
                                               chips + 1 tsp. shortening

1 tsp. dry mustard                             1 Tbsp. prepared mustard

1 clove garlic                                 1/8 tsp. garlic powder

1 Tbsp. chopped fresh herb                     1 tsp. chopped dried herb



                                      2.04C   Adjusting Recipes
                                                                                                                    247
             2.05
     How To Make Quick Bread
• A Quick Bread is one that takes a short amount
  of time to prepare and bake




                                               253
   Quick Bread
Ingredients Used              Function of Ingredient
• Liquids-milk, water         • Moisten dry ingredients
• Flour                       • Gives structure
• eggs                        • Gives structure, flavor,
                                richness
• Fats-solid or liquid such   • Gives tenderness,
  as (shortening,               flakiness, richness, flavor
  margarine, butter, oi)l
• Baking soda + acid          • Leavening agent
• Baking powder               • Leavening agent
• Sugar                       • Gives flavor (sweetens),
                                tenderness                    254
   DIFFERENT TYPES OF QUICK
           BREADS
• Biscuits
• Muffins
• Pancakes




                              255
         BISCUITS
•

• Mixing
     Cut in shortening to resemble small peas, stir
      with spoon, do not over mix
     Mix dry and add liquid all at once
• Preparation
     Roll out with rolling pin, cut with glass or biscuit
      cutter
• Cooking
     Make sure oven is preheated                            256
              Muffins

• MIXING
  Mix liquid in one bowl
  Mix dry in another larger bowl
  Make well in center, add liquid all at
   once Stir with spoon gently and do
   not over mix



                                            257
 Muffins
• PREPARATION
  Spray or line muffin pans with liners
  Fill muffin cups only ½ to 2/3 full. To get a
   consistent amount , use a proportion scoop.
• COOKING
  Make sure oven is preheated
  Fill empty muffin cups with water for even
   cooking. Use toothpick to check for doneness.


                                                   258
   Pancakes
• MIXING
  Add all ingredients together and stir gently, some
   lumps are ok.
• PREPARATION
  Pour by cupful or proportion scoops into hot pan.
• COOKING
  Get nonstick skillet or griddle very hot, pour on
   batter and flip when edges get dry and bubbles form
   on top.
                                                        259
      How Do I Know If My Quick
      Bread Are Of High Quality?

• Biscuits:          Muffins:                 Pancakes:
  –   Tender             Tender                   Tender
  –   Light, Fluffy      Lightly Brown            Lightly brown
  –   Light Brown         Top                      No clumps
  –   Flaky              No Tunnels or            Fluffy and
  –   Pleasing Flavor     Peaks                     light
                         Moist, Pleasing
                          Flavor
                                                               260
       ALWAYS REMEMBER WHEN
      MAKING ANY TYPE OF BREAD
                   OR CAKE:
• Ingredients are proportional. DO
  NOTchange ingredient amounts or
  product will not turn out correctly.




                                         261
 DO ALL BISCUITS HAVE TO
     BE ROLLED OUT?
• No, some biscuits have more liquid and need
  to be dropped onto the pan or can be used as a
  dumpling in a soup or stew.




                                                   262
     WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO
     PREHEAT THE OVEN WHEN
        MAKING BREADS?
• It is important to preheat the oven so that the
  rising process occurs properly and the products
  to not overcook.




                                                263
 WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNEAD
   THE DOUGH” IN A RECIPE?
• Kneading means to push and fold over with
  your hands to smooth and elastic dough.




                                              264
 WHAT IS A LEAVENING
       AGENT?

• A leavening agent causes a product
  to rise.
• Examples:
   Baking powder
   Baking soda
   Yeast



                                       265
WHAT IMPORTANT COOKING PRINCIPLE CHANGES
  BASED ON THE SIZE OF THE PAN USED WHEN
          MAKING QUICKBREADS?

• The cooking time will need to be increased for
  larger pans and decreased for smaller pans.
  An example is a recipe written for 2 inch
  muffins will not take as long if you were to
  bake it in a loaf pan.




                                                   266
 WHAT COOKING PRINCIPLE MUST BE
  FOLLOWED WHEN USING A DARK
     COATED PAN AND WHY?
• The temperature should be lowered 25 degrees
  because a dark pan absorbs more heat.




                                                 267
WHAT INGREDIENTS CAN BE ADDED TO
  QUICK BREADS TO CHANGE THE
            FLAVOR?
•   Fruits
•   Nuts
•   Spices
•   Extracts
•   Cheeses




                               268
 DO ALL RECIPES REQUIRE
 THE FLOUR TO BE SIFTED?
• No, today flour is sifted much more in the
  plant where it is processed and some recipes
  do not require the air necessary in recipes that
  are sifted.




                                                     269
    WHAT ARE SOME OF THE KINDS
    OF FLOUR CAN I USE TO MAKE
          QUICK BREADS ?
•   Self-rising flour
•   Plain or all-purpose flour
•   Bleached or unbleached flour
•   Whole wheat flour
•   Bread flour
•   Cake flour
•   Rye flour
•   Oat flour
•   Rice flour
                                   270
WHAT ARE OTHER QUICK BREADS I
  COULD PREPARE AND EAT?

 •   Pita bread(Mediterranean)
 •   Cornbread(Southern US)
 •   Crepes(French)
 •   Tortillas(Latin American)
 •   Matzo(Jewish)



                                 271
  WHAT ARE EXAMPLES ON
   NON-QUICK BREADS?
• Yeast breads
  –   Challah
  –   Croissants
  –   Loaf bread
  –   French bread
  –   Bagels
  –   English muffins
  –   Sourdough bread

                         272
    Basic Method for Biscuits
•    Sift together/mix dry ingredients
•    Cut the shortening into flour it looks like
     peas or coarse bread crumbs
•    Make a well in dry ingredients
•    Add the liquids
•    Stir until blended and forms a soft dough
•    Knead biscuits with your fingers
     8-10 times
•    Roll out, cut, and place in a greased pan
                                                   273
       Basic Method for Muffins
•   Sift together or mix all dry ingredients
•   Make a well in dry ingredients
•   Beat all liquid ingredients together
•   Pour liquid into the well
•   Mix to moisten
•   Batter should be lumpy



                                               274
       Basic Method for Muffins
•   Sift together or mix all dry ingredients
•   Make a well in dry ingredients
•   Beat all liquid ingredients together
•   Pour liquid into the well
•   Mix to Moisten
•   Batter should be lumpy



                                               275
2.05 ZZ Dairy/Egg Comparison




         PPT2.05_Dairy/Egg Comparison   277
  HOW ARE EGGS AND DAIRY
          FOODS
          ALIKE?
• Found in same refrigerated area in grocery
store.
• Good source of many nutrients.
• Both have protein, cholesterol, vitamin A.
• Must cook both at low temperatures and
stir while cooking.

                PPT2.05_Dairy/Egg Comparison   278
   Eggs and Dairy Similarities:
• May be eaten as a food or used as an
  ingredient in a recipe.
• Both are animal products.
• Many ways to cook and eat.




                 PPT2.05_Dairy/Egg Comparison   279
  HOW ARE EGGS AND DAIRY
          FOODS
       DIFFERENT?
• Nutrition:
• Eggs, Cholesterol can be lowered by using
  whites only.
• Dairy, Calcium, Vitamin D added, available in
  low fat and fat free varieties, and canned,
  fresh, dry

                 PPT2.05_Dairy/Egg Comparison   280
    Eggs and Dairy Differences:
Cost
• Eggs: Inexpensive protein food.
• Dairy: Can be expensive.
Cooking Principles
• Eggs: Must be cooked for food safety.
• Dairy: May be eaten fresh or cooked in a
  recipe.

                 PPT2.05_Dairy/Egg Comparison   281
   Eggs and Dairy Differences:
Animal:
• Eggs: Chicken
• Dairy: Cow, Goat




               PPT2.05_Dairy/Egg Comparison   282

				
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