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U S Atlantic Command and Unified Endeavor by POWO


									U.S. Atlantic Command
                                                                                                               U.S. Navy (Kenneth J. Riley)

and Unified Endeavor ’95
                    By J O H N J. S H E E H A N

                                hough volumes have been written on             The current environment has forced us to
                                the lessons of the Persian Gulf War,      find other ways of preparing for and responding
                                many analysts overlook what is per-       to crises around the world. Training JTFs and
                                haps the most important point: an         their component staffs to operate as coherent
                    enemy should not give the United States and its       units prior to deployment overseas is our goal.
                    coalition partners six months to prepare for bat-     ACOM has been improving the capabilities of
                    tle. It is unlikely that an enemy will afford us as   CONUS-based forces since its establishment in
                    much time in the future to get command and            1993. In the area of field training exercises, feasi-
                    control structures and logistics systems in place     ble service exercises have been modified to en-
                    before an attack. It is more likely that the com-     compass joint mission essential tasks. We believe
                    mander of a joint task force (JTF) and his forces     that joint warfighting capabilities can be en-
                    will have to arrive in-theater ready to fight as a    hanced the most by focusing on JTF comman-
                    joint team. How can we assure that the forces         ders, components, and staffs. These command
                    which forward supported CINCs receive can fight       post exercises will incorporate the strides made in
                    jointly? What is the most effective and efficient     computer assisted exercises as well as modeling
                    way to train JTF staffs? How can we best leverage     and simulation.
                    technology in joint training? U.S. Atlantic Com-           Unified Endeavor (UE) exercises use an exist-
                    mand (ACOM) is working on the answers to these        ing three-star service component commander and
                    and other important questions.                        his staff and train them to form and operate a JTF.
                                                                          From January to April 1995, the Army’s III Corps
General John J. Sheehan, USMC, is commander in chief,                     was the core element for one of these exercises,
U.S. Atlantic Command, and Supreme Allied Commander                       Unified Endeavor ’95.
Atlantic. Prior to assuming his current position, he
served as director for operations (J-3), Joint Staff.

                                                                                                 Winter 1995–96 / JFQ                11

                     Background                                             Phase IA was three days and taught commanders
                          Unified Endeavor ’95 represented the first        and principal staff members the fundamentals of
                     ACOM developmental, simulations-based JTF staff        joint operations. It ended with the opportunity to
                     training exercise. It was divided into an academic     obtain the commander’s guidance on operational
                     training phase, an operation order (OPORD) de-         concepts. Phase IB was a day-long seminar imme-
                     velopment phase, and a plan execution phase.           diately preceding phase II and was designed to re-
                     Each phase focused on a period when JTF opera-         focus principal staff planners on the exercise sce-
                     tions are the most critical to mission success and     nario and commander’s intent for the campaign.
                     spread out to allow the commander and his staff        This phase dealt with JTF formation and joint
                     to train to task in a manageable yet realistic fash-   planning procedures. Phase IC was also one day
                     ion, given the busy world of operations tempo          of seminars prior to phase III. It was designed to
                     and commitments.                                       refocus the entire staff on the exercise and cen-
                          The scenario was set in Southwest Asia and        tered on functional tasks and preparing staff sec-
                     envisioned a notional JTF–780 made up of an            tions and personnel for their responsibilities.
                     Army reinforced heavy division, an Air Force rein-     ACOM developed seminar outlines (lesson plans)
                     forced composite wing, a Marine expeditionary          for each seminar.
                     force forward (MEF), a carrier battlegroup and an            Phase II—OPORD Development Exercise. This
                     amphibious ready group, and special operations         phase, which lasted a week, emphasized JTF staff
                     forces. The opposing force (OPFOR) fielded seven       planning procedures and the application of joint
                     combined arms divisions. The exercise was a dis-       doctrine and JTTPs to the commander’s concept
                     tributed training and technical success as well as     of operations. Participants included the sup-
                     a proof of principle for the joint training plan       ported theater staff (U.S. Central Command) as
                     (JTP)-driven JTF training initiative.                  well as the supporting CINC (ACOM), Joint Intel-
                                                                            ligence Center, JTF commander and staff, and
                     Phased Training                                        component staffs. The Chairman was the princi-
                       The objectives of each phase of UE ’95 were          pal trainer, with the ACOM staff and JTF training
                 aimed at a particular audience. Unlike some exer-          team helping to meet the objectives. The senior
                 cises, it had a goal of reducing cost in time, per-        observer mentored the Chairman and staff.
                 sonnel, and operations and maintenance funds.                    In this phase, the JTF planning staff, includ-
                                               Fundamentally, it            ing component liaison teams and augmentees, as-
                                                                            sembled at the JTF home station to build staff
UE ’95 offered focus, control, and sought to add value to                   procedures and working relationships. In the near
                                               training the JTF staff
flexibility unattainable in large              and supporting com-          future, at the option of the JTF commander, this
                                               ponent staff members.        phase may be hosted at the ACOM Joint Training,
scale field exercises
                                               Without a major de-          Analysis, and Simulation Center (JTASC) in Suf-
                                               ployment of forces to        folk, Virginia, to afford a self-contained exercise
                 drive the actions of the staff, the exercise offered       environment free of daily obligations at home
                 a degree of focus, control, and flexibility unat-          stations. Component planning staffs will nor-
                 tainable in large scale field training exercises.          mally remain at their home stations to reduce
                       Phase I—Academic Training. Seminars led by           cost and retain realism. During UE ’95, the 8th Air
                 key members of the ACOM staff were held for the            Force commander deployed his JFACC planning
                 core element of each designated JTF and compo-             staff to Fort Hood. Based on the operational situa-
                 nent staff, plus selected augmentees. This training        tion, the Navy component commander remained
                 focused on the roles of JTF commanders and their           at his home station as did the commander of II
                 staffs, staff procedures, joint planning, joint doc-       Marine Expeditionary Force. This second phase
                 trine, and joint tactics, techniques, and proce-           helped in team building and in developing and
                 dures (JTTPs) with the commander acting as prin-           validating procedures. After the introduction in
                 cipal trainer. He set the objectives and provided          phase IB, the JTF staff was presented with a crisis
                 guidance to the chief of the JTF training team             situation based on a real world scenario. They
                 (JTT), ACOM J-72, before the exercise. Then JTT            then developed an OPORD, complete with sup-
                 designed and executed training with constant               porting component orders as well as a time
                 feedback from the JTF commander. A senior ob-              phased force deployment data list (TPFDL). The
                 server (a former CINCSOC) served as mentor to              JTF commander’s course of action development
                 the JTF commander and staff which enhanced                 and wargaming efforts were supported by various
                 the experience of the exercise.                            modeling and simulation capabilities. The com-
                       The first phase took place over five days in         pleted OPORD was reviewed by key members of
                 the battle simulation center at Fort Hood, which           all staffs and groomed for execution during the
                 was the JTF home station. The seminars were con-           next phase.
                 ducted at the executive and action officer levels.

12     JFQ / Winter 1995–96

                                                                                                                                             U.S. Air Force (Lee E. Rogers)
                                                                                                                                                   U.S. Air Force (Russ Pollanen)
                                                                                                                        Joint Information
                                                                                                                        Bureau, UE ’95.

Fort Hood—site of
Unified Endeavor ’95.
                      Phase III—OPORD Execution Exercise. This                Exercise Design and Support
                week-long phase, which was held as soon as feasi-                   With developmental help from the Joint
                ble after phase II, also included both the sup-               Warfighting Center, the aggregate level simulation
                ported and the supporting CINC staffs, Joint In-              protocol (ALSP) confederation of models replaced
                telligence Center, JTF commander and his staff,               deployed warfighting personnel and equipment as
                                              and components.                 the driver for staff training in the UE ’95 phase III
                                              The entire head-                OPORD execution exercise. The distributed simu-
distributed simulation architecture quarters staff assem-
                                                                              lation architecture allowed the JTF commander as
allowed commanders to take part               bled at Fort Hood,              well as most of his component commanders to
                                              an excellent site               take part from their home stations to replicate the
from home stations                            with the infrastruc-            separation of an actual contingency and realize
                                              ture to support a ro-           savings by minimizing deployments. The ALSP
                bust but realistic JTF headquarters environment.              confederation was used because it accommodates
                This phase focused on execution procedures, de-               two-echelon training audiences, offers a compre-
                cisionmaking, and applying joint doctrine and                 hensive intelligence package, reduces simulation
                JTTPs to operations. The JTF commander, ACOM                  cost and risk by employing existing service mod-
                staff, JTF training team, and senior observer                 els, and adds value for component participants by
                played the same roles as in phases I and II. Fol-             making JTF training meaningful for service and
                lowing IC, JTF–780 executed the plan developed                joint communities.
                in phase II in a simulations-driven wargame                         JTF Training Division (J-72) at ACOM, which
                against a “thinking” and reactive OPFOR. This                 has overall responsibility for the conduct of train-
                phase used a sophisticated confederation of ser-              ing, gathers data on real world operations to pro-
                vice simulation models to exercise a broad range              vide an after action review and discern lessons
                of joint warfighting skills and fully tax the train-          learned for the commands involved. J-72 recently
                ing audience.                                                 concluded such a mission supporting the JTF in

                        Confederation Models Used in Unified Endeavor ’95
                          Model                                                Warfare Area
                          Corps Battle Simulation (CBS)                        Ground
                          Air Warfare Simulation (AWSIM)                       Air
                          Research, Evaluation, and Systems Analysis (RESA)    Naval Air, Surface, and Subsurface
                          Tactical Simulation Model (TACSIM)                   Intelligence
                          Electronic Warfare Simulation (JECEWSI)              Joint Electronic Combat/Electronic Warfare

                                                                                                         Winter 1995–96 / JFQ           13

                     Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti. It also              JTF command/principal staff level and action offi-
                     manages joint doctrine issues for ACOM, devel-            cer/NCO level) and the JTF commander’s exercise
                     ops and promulgates ACOM JTTPs, develops JTF              report. As trainers, O/Ts lead most of the academic
                     standard operating procedures, and assists in the         training seminars and provide on-the-spot train-
                     design and evaluation of CONUS joint exercises            ing throughout the exercise. Emphasis is placed
                     and training. To this end, teams, groups, and doc-        on helping JTF members get over their initial
                     uments were developed and successfully em-                growing pains in JTF operations and thereby learn
                     ployed during UE ’95. They included:                      more throughout the drill.
                           Training Teams. All three J-72 teams consist              Control Group. The mission of the joint exer-
                     of operational-level, joint warfighting subject           cise control group (JECG) is to establish and main-
                     matter experts from each service. JTF training            tain a realistic operational backdrop through simu-
                     teams (JTTs) develop, execute, and maintain the           lation, role-playing, and scripts to foster and guide
                     phase I academic training program. They also              the training audience in meeting training objec-
                     lead the design, planning, and execution of               tives. Under J-72, the JECG staff is formed around
                     phases II and III. During execution, teams are            a nucleus from various ACOM directorates who
                     augmented as needed by functional (intelligence,          have first-hand knowledge of the exercise plan.
                     logistics, public affairs, et al.) subject matter ex-     Other members are drawn from those ACOM com-
                     perts from the ACOM staff and supporting agen-            ponents and supporting agencies with the subject
                     cies. JTTs work closely with the designated JTF           matter expertise needed to meet role-player and
                     commander to tailor the basic training program            controller requirements. The First Brigade, 87th Di-
                     to meet the JTF commander’s training objectives           vision (Exercises), of the Army Reserve served as
                     and operational requirements.                             the UE ’95 interactive OPFOR, a professionally
                           Observers/Trainers. In phases II and III of UE      staffed, task-organized unit which can represent
                     exercises, JTT assumes the role of the joint ob-          the actual capabilities, structure, and doctrine of
                     server/trainer (O/T) group which consists of both         real world threat forces.
                     JTT and operational analysts. As observers, O/Ts                Academic Training. To date a total of 52 war-
                     provide feedback to the JTF commander and his             fighting and peace operations seminars have been
                     staff on actions during the exercise. This is accom-      developed. After evaluations of UE ’95 are com-
                     plished mainly through after-action reviews (at           pleted, the seminar outlines and graphics will be
                                                                               made available to all users of the Joint Electronic
                                                                               Library (JEL).

                      Commands Involved in Unified Endeavor ’95
                                                                                                                  Joint Communications
                                                                                                                  Support Element for
                                                                                                                  UE ’95.

                         Command                               Training Role                  Training Location
                         U.S. Atlantic Command                 CINC                           Norfolk, Virginia
                         III Corps                             CJTF                           Fort Hood, Texas
                         CCDG 12                               NAVFOR                         Portsmouth, Virginia
                         II Marine Expeditionary Force         MARFOR                         Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
                                                                                                                                         U.S. Air Force (Randy S. Mallard)

                         III Corps (–)                         RFOR                           Fort Hood, Texas
                         8th Air Force                         AFFOR/JFACC                    Barksdale, Louisiana/Fort Hood, Texas
                         SOCACOM                               JSOTF                          Fort Hood, Texas
                         1st PSYOP Battalion                   JPOTF                          Fort Hood, Texas
                         1st Brigade, 87th Division            OPFOR                          Birmingham, Alabama

14     JFQ / Winter 1995–96

                          Training Plan. The JTF headquarters mission    UE ’96–2 in the summer of 1996, just as have III
                     training plan (MTP) is developed from the univer-   Corps and II MEF.
                     sal joint task list (UJTL) which identifies tasks
                     that a JTF headquarters may have to perform         Value Added
                     from formation of the JTF headquarters to rede-           While UE ’95 could have been mounted
                     ployment. The plan was used in UE ’95 and the       more effectively and efficiently, it cost 95 percent
                     feedback was positive. After coordination with      less than Agile Provider (AP) ’94 and involved just
                     the services and CINCs, ACOM will provide it to     over 4,000 personnel, half of whom received JTF
                     the Joint Warfighting Center for inclusion in the   staff training applicable throughout the world.
                     joint publications system.                          These officers and service members are just the
                          Operating Procedures. ACOM has drafted JTF     first in a cadre capable of forming the backbone
                     headquarters standing operating procedures          of any JTF. On the other hand, AP ’94 required
                     (SOP) for joint operations. Although designed for   nearly 45,000 personnel to accomplish many of
                     the ACOM AOR, there was a deliberate effort to      the same goals with little cohesive JTF staff train-
                     make it similar to other SOPs such as EUCOM ED      ing. Because of the nature of JTF missions, the
                     55–11. The draft was tested in UE ’95 and, like     ACOM JTF training program is designed to offer
                     the MTP, feedback was incorporated into the SOP     comprehensive education across a range of
                     to improve it prior to release.                     warfighting requirements. This is especially im-
                                                                         portant due to the many and varied regional
                     Future Events                                       CINCs who ACOM supports.
                      JTASC is a state-of-the-art simulation and               The computer model let us specifically focus
                 training center which supports the ACOM joint           on several doctrinal issues, including the roles of
                 training mission. It will contain the computer and      the joint force fires coordinator (JFFC), Joint Tar-
                                                communication ca-        geting Coordination Board (JTCB), and Joint Mu-
UE ’95 involved just over 4,000                 pacity for advanced      nitions Board (JMB). For the first time we incorpo-
                                                distributed simula-      rated realistic battle damage assessment and the
personnel, half of whom received tion, distance learn-                   implications of logistics limitations in real time
JTF staff training                              ing, and video tele-     and with good fidelity. Our computer modelling
                                                conferencing with        capability will improve significantly when JTASC’s
                 ACOM components as well as for on-site com-             full capacity is on-line. Eventually, the facility will
                 puter exercises and training. JTASC will provide a      offer CONUS-based and possibly even forward de-
                 JTF commander and his staff with the means to           ployed forces the full range of exercise and opera-
                 conduct all phases of JTF training in one location      tional rehearsal support for any contingency.
                 using actual C4I facilities in exercise spaces. Dur-          Finally, all the participants agreed that work-
                 ing a visit to JTASC, the Vice Chairman, Admiral        ing together as a JTF staff against a “thinking”
                 William Owens, noted that “For the first time, the      OPFOR and under realistic conditions was the ex-
                 JTASC will allow the commander and all the peo-         ercise’s greatest benefit. Members of all services
                 ple who support the joint task force to come to-        learned from each other and confirmed the truth
                 gether . . . though they were virtually participating   that the American way of war today really is team
                 together in war.” By FY97, JTASC will routinely         warfare. As forces shrink and commitments in-
                 host two JTF staff training cycles per year, conduct    crease, we must take full advantage of joint train-
                 JTF mission rehearsals to support crisis action         ing to be more effective. As joint force integra-
                 preparation, and provide simulation support for         tor/trainer, ACOM will continue to leverage
                 Tier 2 field training exercises.                        technology as well as develop new solutions to
                      The Marine Corps, and specifically II MEF,         training problems.
                 was the centerpiece of UE ’96-1 in late 1995. For
                 UE ’96-1, the MEF will provide the commander                 Unified Endeavor ’95 demonstrated the chal-
                 and the core of the JTF staff for a EUCOM-based         lenges as well as benefits of team warfighting. It
                 scenario, while the 347th Wing from Moody Air           pushed the envelope of joint operations in ways
                 Force Base will stand up as the Air Force compo-        that confirmed the value of doctrine and tested
                 nent to JTF. The details of UE ’96–1 are currently      concepts to improve how we will fight in the fu-
                 under development but promise an even more              ture. It focused on the actions of JTF and service
                 challenging training period for all concerned. 8th      component staff members without deploying
                 Air Force will participate as the JTF core unit for     sizeable numbers of supporting forces. UE ’95 was
                                                                         a major step in refining joint training and exer-
                                                                         cises and making them more effective and effi-
                                                                         cient. Only team warfare can guarantee the Na-
                                                                         tion’s preeminent military position.           JFQ

                                                                                                 Winter 1995–96 / JFQ       15

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