Tiered Lesson: Regions of the United States Students will KNOW: • Characteristics of regions, • Landforms • Natural resources • Historical economic resources • Climate Students will be able to DO: • Research, • Analyze cause and effect • Communicate findings in oral presentation, writing, and graphic diagrams Students will UNDERSTAND that: • Changes are taking place within regions of the US. • Issues and changes faced by one region are affected by the geography and history of that region Based on preassessment of reading and writing skills, and readiness levels for research and complex thinking, the teachers assigns students to tiered tasks. Students may work alone or in groups of two or three. Students will present their findings at a class conference on change in the United States. Research materials will be available for varied reading levels. Single Region Investigation: You have been exploring regions of the US and ways in which they are changing. Research one region and find an important change that is taking place in that region. Create a product that illustrates this change and that answers the guiding questions. You will present your product to the class at the conference. Your product may be a timeline, a photo essay, a dramatic play, or a simulation. You may choose one of these ideas or develop your own idea: Northeast – traffic, pollution, decline in industries Southeast – natural disasters, illegal immigration, industries moving to Asia Middle West – changing water supply, farming/agriculture, West – traffic, water supply, population growth Southwest – population/immigration, energy sources, environmental impact Key Questions • What caused the change in this region? • What have been the effects of the change? • How is this change a result of the history or geography of this region? • How are people in this region adapting to this change and what responses or solutions have been created because of the change? Product Guidelines: Single region investigation continued… 1. Read the selection from the textbook and complete the information in the chart given below: Region Landforms Climate Natural Resources Other chosen area 2. Your product should show that you understand the causes and effects of change and should contain the answers to the key questions. 3. You will need to show careful research from several sources, including video clips, textbooks, other books, and/or Internet sites on the topic. Although there will be materials provided in the classroom, you will need to gather information from other resources. 4. Your product should be clean and neat, and the writing should be clear to a reader unfamiliar with this topic. Captions should be informative. Writing should reflect your best effort and contain good grammar and no abbreviations or contractions. 5. You will need to keep a planning log which will be turned in as part of your grade. Complete entries on each part of the plan. If you are working with a partner, both individuals must turn in a planning log Plan Part I (checkpoint day 2) Choose a region. Explore changes within that region. Choose a change within that region for your project. Plan Part II (checkpoint days 5, 7) Research change/region. Plan Part III (checkpoint days 10, 12) Use research notes to create product Plan Part IV (final day 15) Class conference and self-reflection Total Regions Investigation (advanced level): You have been exploring regions of the US and ways in which they are changing. Research one change and find how it is taking place in multiple US regions. Create a product that illustrates this change and that answers the guiding questions. You will present your product to the class at the conference. Possible areas of change to explore include: Transportation Population make-up (age, ethnic groups) Agriculture Population growth or decreases Pollution Natural disasters Jobs and industries Immigration/ illegal immigration Energy sources Road and railroad and/or public transportation Key Questions • What caused the change? Why is it happening in different regions? • What have been the effects of the change and how do they differ between regions? • How are people in different regions adapting to this change? Examine the responses or solutions. • What geographic or historical factors are affecting whether changes are viewed positively or negatively? Product Guidelines: Total Regions Investigation (advanced level): 1. Your product should show that you understand the causes and effects of change, and should contain answers to the key questions. 2. You will need to show careful research from several sources, including video clips, textbooks, other books, and/or Internet sites on the topic. At least two sources must be from governmental departments or data- gathering reports, such as population census, Army Corps of Engineers reports, Dept. of Transportation reports, and other such sources. I have a list of websites for you to use, if you wish. 3. Your product should illustrate a change over time. Using your research, create a magazine article, a news program/video, a dramatic play, a simulation, or other product of your choice. It should be clearly written, engaging and informative, neat, contain good grammar and reflect your best work. 4. Your product should include a graphic illustration of change over time. This may be in the form of a table, graph, map, concept web, diagram, or timeline. 5. You will need to keep a daily planning log. On some days, I will ask you to respond to prompts and to reflect on what you have done so far, where you go next, and your thoughts about particular topics. Your job is to complete your entries thoughtfully and to turn the planning log in with your project. If you are working with a partner, both individuals must turn in a planning log. Jacksonian Democracy: Tiered Social Studies RAFT Learning goals are to review vocabulary, people, and essential questions related to the chapter. The teacher assigns choices based on readiness in analysis of text. Role Audience Format Topic Con- Andrew supporters conversatio Why I believe in the spoils system crete Jackson n Demo- Frontier TV Why Jackson is the man you want Con- crete cratic settlers & commercial as president Party farmers Martin Voter Q and A Questions about the economy and Mod van transcript state’s rights Buren Expan- National Venn Which of us was most important in Mod sion of bank issue diagram or causing the Whig Party to form? voting and graphic rights economy organizer John C. Future Prediction in How the nullification crisis Hard Calhoun citizens a diary entry foreshadowed issues that would divide the nation and lead to war. Hard Southern Northern Argument or Why these tariffs on manufactured citizens politicians debate goods are unfair to our region! Prejudice Scapegoating Articles Discuss how prejudice Imagine a group of Read the article. What and discrimination are people that could be could be reasons for the not only harmful to the scapegoats. List and persecution? How can “Generic” Think DOTS for victim, but also to those describe stereotypes of you justify the minds of High School Literature – who practice them. this group and the those responsible? treatment they received Concept: Prejudice because of them. Photography Genetics Stereotypes Photographs tell stories. Certain characteristics Your groups was Photography Prejudice Write a caption for the are blamed on genetics. persecuted. Identify a photo and explain why Do genetics impact the groups who has been Compare two Is it possible to grow to you chose it. characteristics of your persecuted in more photographs taken of adulthood without group? Explain the recent years. Compare similar events. What are harboring some reasoning behind your the two and give the similarities and prejudice? Why or why answer. Use your reasons why. differences? What might not?. science knowledge. be the significance of these similarities and differences Prejudice Scapegoating Articles Is it possible to grow to What is scapegoating? Read the article. What is Genetics Scapegoating adulthood without Explore the word’s genocide? Did the Did genetics have an Identify and discuss the harboring some etymology and people in your article impact on the Aryan scapegoating that took prejudice? Why or why hypothesize about its face genocide? Why? race? Why? Does it in the place in your group. not?. present day meaning. group you are studying? Compare the How was your groups Why? scapegoating of your scapegoated? group to that of a present day group. Photography Genetics Stereotypes Look at the clothing, hair, Do genetics cause Identify stereotypes your Stereotypes Articles setting, body language, brown hair? How? List group faced. Pick a and objects to help one way genetics clique in the school and Name a group you Read the article. If you determine social, affects your group (in discuss the traits of that stereotype and discuss were the person behind economic, country of your opinion). If group. Are they those traits that you the persecution and were origin and so on. Can genetics don’t affect stereotyped? stereotype. What were asked why you did what you see the emotions in your group explain why. the stereotypes your you did, what would you the people? How? Do group had? say? you think they are related? Hot Topic Writing Group 1 Group 2 • Meet with teacher • Alone or in pairs, develop a topic • Brainstorm for hot topics • Make a bank of power ideas • Web ideas for possible inclusion • Web or storyboard the sequence • Develop a word bank and support • Storyboard a sequence of ideas • Meet with teacher to ―ratchet‖ • Make support ladders • Begin writing • Begin writing • Paired revision • Paired editing Character Map Character Name____________ How the character How the character looks thinks or acts ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Most important thing to know about the character _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Character Map Character Name____________ What the character What the character says or does really MEANS to say or do ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ________________ Character Map Character Name____________ Clues the author Why the author gives us about the gives THESE clues character ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ The author’s bottom line about this character _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ __________ Secondary Literature Tiered Lesson All students will Know: (key ideas, vocabulary, facts) • Elements of literature • Author’s voice • Concept of responsibility All students will understand: (generalizations) • We are responsible for ourselves and our choices • We ―write‖ our own lives. • Our actions have a ripple effect. • Responsibility may require sacrifice and may result in fulfillment. • Our work bears our hallmark. All students will be able to do: (skills) • Argue and support • Edit and revise skills • Use figurative language effectively • Analyze literary pieces Secondary Literature continued The teacher uses several differentiated strategies in teaching these lessons, including offering a range of articles, books, or chapters to read. All students will read The Little Prince, but some students will be helped by using a recorded version or by shared reading. All students will analyze pieces of literature to explore the premise that we are responsible for those we tame, and will frame an argument to support their position. Group 1 Read pages from The Little Prince Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the fox’s feelings about responsibility toward those we tame and why he believes what he does. Read story, “Bloodstain” Complete analysis matrix on the beliefs of the main character. Select a newspaper article from folder. Write 2 paragraphs that compare beliefs of the people in the article with the two characters What advice would you give children about responsibility toward people we tame? Brainstorm on paper and then either: • Write a letter to a kid, giving your advice • Write guidelines for adults who affect children’s lives • Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a responsible adult Peer revise and then peer edit your work before turning in to teacher. Group 2 Read pages from The Little Prince. Using article and story list provided by the teacher, find at least one piece of writing that shares the fox’s view on responsibility for those we tame. Find at least 2 contrasting pieces. Develop notes on two views of responsibility with reasons and examples from your reading selections. Be sure you are thoughtful about each view. Then either: • Write an editorial about the implications of the two approaches for our school. • Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of decision about responsibility for someone he/she has tamed. • Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the ripple effect of such decisions in history, science, or our community. Peer revise and then peer edit your work before turning in to teacher. Poetry Setting Illustrate the setting of your poem. Use color (markers, pencils) and give your picture a title that is connected to the poem but not the title of the poem Theme Figurative Language Using a graphic Rhyme Describe the theme organizer, list all the Line Figure out the rhyme of your poem in a Describe the way scheme of the poem. paragraph. Check for similes and metaphors in your poem. If you the lines Be prepared to topic sentence, need help finding are arranged teach it to the supporting details metaphors, consult With class. and conclusion your group members Speaker Describe the speaker of this poem. Be prepared to share orally. Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin (1999) Amherst, VA Poetry Setting Illustrate the setting of your poem. Use color (markers, pencils) and give your picture a title that is connected to the poem but not the title of the poem Theme Rhyme Figurative Language Line Compare the theme of What does the rhyme Tell how the similes Describe the impact your poem to the theme scheme have to do and metaphors in your the line arrangement of a story or novel you with the meaning of poem enhance the has on the poem. have read. Use a Venn the poem? Why do imagery. Be prepared Argue convincingly diagram to show your you think the poet to share orally. In a short paragraph. comparison. chose this pattern? Speaker How does the speaker feel? Find at least 2 feelings and be prepared to explain orally. Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin (1999) Amherst, VA Poetry Setting If your poet were an artist, how would he/she express this poem as a picture? Use markers, pencils, etc. to illustrate your answer. Rhyme Theme Provide other examples Line Figurative Language Of rhyme or rhythm Write a short poem to How would the poet Write 2 more similes Besides end rhyme express the theme of arrange the next lines and metaphors that used in your poem. the poem you have How does this add of this poem if he/she could be added to chosen. Choose your To the sound of the were extending the the poem. own style. Poem? Be prepared meaning and theme? To share orally Speaker Create another line for this poem that the speaker may have written. Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin (1999) Amherst, VA Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density & Buoyancy Introduction: All students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys. Activities Common to All Three Groups • Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy • Determine density • Conduct an experiment • Write a lab report • Work at a high level of thinking • Share findings with the class The Soda Group • Given four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can. • They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy. The Brine & Egg Group • Students developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and observing. • They answered questions about their procedures and observations, as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy. The Boat Group • Students first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race. • They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density. • They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold. • They built and tested the boat and its projected load. • They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo. Science Lesson ThinkDOTS – Matter What is the correct symbol How are physical and for the element helium? chemical properties different? Which is higher, an element’s Research the history of this element and create a timeline Why? atomic number or its mass showing what elements were number? Why? discovered just before and after helium. Share two ways that scientists study atoms. Name three types of physical What does the periodic table Suggest any new ways you changes. Create a list with at tell us about calcium? How least two examples of each that can this help us in our might think of. are different from the examples in the book. everyday lives? Science Lesson ThinkDOTS - Matter How do the atomic numbers in Predict as many properties for the periodic table change from potassium as you can. To make Carbon is atomic number 6. How the top to the bottom? From your predictions, look at the are two carbon atoms with mass left to right across the table? information in the box for this numbers of 12 and 14 different? element and consider its Why are these atoms called location on the periodic table. isotopes? There are three jars in the Suppose you were given some Why do you think scientists front of the room. Each sugar cubes, a grinder, some used the term “cloud” to has a substance with a water, a pan, and a hot plate. describe the position of strong odor. One is a solid, What physical and chemical electrons in an atom? one is a liquid, and one is a changes could you make in the gas. Which odor would sugar? students in the back of the room smell first? Why? P. Goolsby & K. Brimijoin, Amherst County Schools, 2000 PHYSICS A High School Tiered Lesson After reading and discussing text and looking at models of flight, the students will refine thinking about the physics of flight. As a result of the Lab, students should: Know Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord, trailing edge, leading edge) Understand Bernoulli’s Principle—As the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in pressure on the top of the airfoil causes lift.) Newton’s Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction) Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or another gas is moving. Be Able to Do Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways as a demonstration of student knowledge of key information and understanding of key principles. Explain, illustrate and defend thinking regarding the objects they create and modify. Students are assigned to work in pairs at a lab station based on a brief preassessment writing prompt asking for their basic knowledge and understandings of the physics of flight. Each lab station has three tasks, increasing in complexity of design and understandings. Required elements included a written explanation of their findings for initial designs and modified designs, and the use of key vocabulary and key principles. In the lab students design, redesign, and explain Paper Airplanes that fly for Maximum Distance Maximum Hang Time Tricks Kites Diamond Box Triangle-Layered Pinwheels Forward Motion Backward Motion Upward Motion Alien invasion Provide each student with a sheet of “aliens” with varied numbers of arms, legs, eyes, noses, mouths, and ears. Target Group Advanced Group Student A selects one of the Student B also asks questions aliens. Student B asks about why the alien is questions in an attempt to formed as it is. Student A figure out which Alien makes up responses. In the student A selected. Student end, the students write a A answers the questions in descriptive statement about complete sentences. All the structure and function of questions must be ―yes‖ ―no‖ the alien. Students then questions having to do with switch roles. the aliens’ features. Students then switch roles. Alien invasion continued … Struggling Group If there are students who cannot succeed with the target activity, the teacher can provide ONE of the following: 1. A list of possible questions in the language 2. A list of helpful vocabulary 3. A brief period of teacher coaching to help students develop a model for the task. Following this initial activity, students design, describe and name their own alien. These are displayed in the classroom and the whole class engages in a questioning activity to determine who created each alien. (Ex: Does Will’s alien have long legs?) Based on a differentiated Spanish I activity developed by Ellin Gallagher, Park City, Utah, from Enhancing Foreigh Language Instruction in Your Classroom by Barbara Snyder. German: Past Tense Verbs (tiered lesson) For part of today, students will work in one of three groups to practice using verbs. Group One: Complete an oral round-robin exercise by reading German sentences and questions from a flipchart, and select which of two verb forms beneath a sentence should be placed in the sentence. Group Two: Take turns reading sentences with present-tense verbs, converting them into sentences with past-tense verbs, and then converting them into past-tense questions. Group Three: Work in pairs to ad lib a conversation in which they ask questions and give answers about what happened at home and school yesterday and today. Tomorrow, students will work in mixed readiness triads (one person from each group) to prepare for a ―skill drill‖. Music Lesson Standard: Analyze and compare the use of music element representing various genres and cultures emphasizing meter and rhythm. Know: Elements of music, especially meter and rhythm Understand: The elements of music are used across various music genres and cultures. Music expresses the culture. Do: Analyze music for elements Show how the elements are used in various genres and cultures. Music Lesson The elements of music are presented in a mini lecture. Students take notes using the split entry journal with either two or three columns. Analyzing music for elements in small groups: M – given a simple piece of recorded music, fill in a detailed outline identifying specific elements. U – With a slightly more sophisticated piece of musicv, identify and describe any elements heard. S – With a more complex piece of music, identrify and describe the elements. I – Given sheet music and an accompanying recording, analyze the elements. C – From sheet music only, analyze and identify the elements. Hypothesize what was the intent of the composer. Music Lesson Show how the elements represent various genres and cultures. You may work alone, with a partner, or in a group of three. You may present your music and finding in any format of your choice. Choose two cultures and samples of their traditional music. Compare the elements of the two pieces. How do the pieces reflect the culture from which they come? Choose three pieces from different genres of music. Compare the elements of the pieces. How do the pieces reflect mood and emotion? Determine what style of music best represents you – your environment, history and mood. Explain how the elements of the music represent who you are as a person. Find music from the culture of one of your ancestors. Does the music dtill reflect who you are? Why or why not? How do the elements support your decision? Tiered Lesson -- ART Skill: Contour Drawing 1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination • Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your draw. • Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing. 2. Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination • Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand. That means you can look at your hand and the paper but Cannot draw any time you look at the paper. • Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing a half-blind contour drawing. 3. Students with excellent eye-hand coordination • Do a blind contour drawing of your hand. • Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your sketchbook. Reading Homework Coupon Reading Homework Coupon Name: Name: Date: Date: Please ask your child to tell you Please echo read the book your the story in the book he or she brought child brought home. (Echo reading home today by looking at the pictures. means you read a line, then your child reads or echoes the same line.) Ask your child to show you some words in the story he or she recognizes. Reading Homework Coupon Reading Homework Coupon Name: Name: Date: Date: Ask your child to read with Ask your child to read with a expression as if he or she were reading different voice for each character to entertain someone, After the reading, ask how your Ask your child to give you several child decided on how his/her voice could reasons why he or she likes (or dislikes) help you know the various characters the book. better. Have your child tell you what Ask your child to tell you which feelings the character in the book has. character would be most fun to spend Ask for evidence from the book. time with. Ask for reasons for his/her choice. Adapted from Managing A Diverse Classroom by Carol Cummings - by Tomlinson „02 Tiered Lesson Planning Sheet Tiering is a readiness response, and usually differentiates the skill levels of students. The skills are the “Do” part of the learning goals, the verbs. Sometimes, though, the content level or the difficulty/complexity of the problem or task is the differentiating element in a tiered lesson. 2) If you have taught 1) Describe the grade 1) Learning goals of this lesson or activity level activity for the lesson: before, what group of lesson. What should students students would most KNOW (facts) benefit from a What should students modification to this be able to DO (verbs) version? How will What should students you preassess and UNDERSTAND find this group? (statement) 1)What element(s) should be changed 1)If time permits, what might be to make the activity more appropriate a second cloned version that in challenge to the defined group? Use would benefit a different group the Equalizer to analyze the lesson of learners? and determine how you might improve the lesson for the defined group of learners. Write that first cloned version here. Creating a Cubing or Think Dot Exercise • Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or topics? • First Step: (use one of the cubes) – Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit. – Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions. – Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit. – Keep one question opinion based – no right or wrong. • Second Step: (use other cubes) – Use the first cube as your ―average‖ cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level. – Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level. Don’t water down or make too busy – Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing. – Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell, adjust slightly. • Third Step: – Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels. – Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions. – Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3 cubes? Places to get questions: Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated. CUBING 1. Describe it: Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses as Or you can . . well as your mind) .. 2. Compare it: What is it similar to? • Rearrange it What is it different from? • Illustrate it 3. Associate it: What does it make • Question it you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps • Satirize it people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what • Evaluate it feelings you have for the subject. • Connect it 4. Analyze it: Tell how it is made? • Cartoon it What are it’s traits and attributes? • Change it 5. Apply it: Tell what you can do with • Solve it it. How can it be used? 6. Argue for it or against it: Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want – logical, silly, anywhere in between. Cubing Ideas for Cubing Cubing Cubing Ideas for Cubing in Math • Arrange ________ into a 3-D • Describe how you would solve ______ collage to show ________ • Analyze how this problem helps us use • Make a body sculpture to show mathematical thinking and problem solving ________ • Compare and contrast this problem to one on page _____. • Create a dance to show • Demonstrate how a professional (or just a • Do a mime to help us understand regular person) could apply this kink or • Present an interior monologue with problem to their work or life. dramatic movement that ________ • Change one or more numbers, elements, or signs in the problem. Give a rule for what • Build/construct a representation of that change does. ________ • Create an interesting and challenging word • Make a living mobile that shows and problem from the number problem. (Show us how to solve it too.) balances the elements of ________ • Diagram or illustrate the solutionj to the • Create authentic sound effects to problem. Interpret the visual so we accompany a reading of _______ understand it. • Show the principle of ________ with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works. Cubing with Charlotte’s Web Basic Cube Abstract Cube 1. Draw Charlotte as you think 1. Use a graphics program on the computer and create a character web she looks. for Wilbur. 2. Use a Venn diagram and 2. Use symbols on a Venn diagram to compare Charlotte and Fern. compare Wilbur and Charlotte. 3. Use a comic strip to tell what 3. Draw the farm and label the items, happened in this chapter. people, and buildings. 4. Shut your eyes and describe 4. Use a storyboard to show the progress the barn. Jot down your of the plot to this point. ideas. 5. What is the message that you think the writer wants people to remember? 5. Predict what will happen in the Draw a symbol that illustrates your next chapter using symbols. ideas. 6. In your opinion, why is 6. When you think of the title, do you Charlotte a good friend? agree or disagree that it is a good choice? Why or why not? Create a Think Dot Activity Put yourself in the place of the What are the characters in this characters. What are you thinking? cartoon feeing? Why? If you were going to describe this scene in exactly one word, which What do you like best about this word would you choose? Why? cartoon? Explain. Describe a situation you’ve been in recently that this cartoon reminds How is this cartoon similar to your you of. How are they similar? How educational experiences? Why? are they different? What is the cause and effect of the Take a stand. Argue for or against humor in this cartoon? Why? the message of this cartoon. If you used this cartoon to teach a concept, what concept could you Compare this cartoon to a written teach? editorial on the same subject. Which one would be more effective and why? Describe the tone of this cartoon. If music were playing in the How did it affect your mood and background, what would it be and why? why? Think of the last book you read or Create two oxymorons that movie you saw. Compare the describe the situation in this situation in this cartoon to some cartoon. Explain your thinking. aspect of the plot. How are they alike? How are they different? Rearrange something in the Explain how this cartoon could be picture and leave the caption the used, other than for your own same. Did you improve it? What enjoyment. happens? This situation in this cartoon could If this cartoon had another frame be an analogy for what situation in before and after it, what would be your life? Why? in each frame and what would be Examples of Tiered Tasks • Novel Think-Tac-Toe • Double Entry Journal • Writing prompts that differ in the sophistication required for response • Skill groupings that are based on readiness • Quality rubrics that differentiate expectations of excellence • Learning contracts that assign more or less difficulty of practice for students’ learning • Differentiated literature circle or other group role requirements • Strategies like RAFTs or cubing/Think Dots that are modified from basic to complex • Others? What have you used or seen presented? Product Cards and Quality Rubrics • Standards of excellence progress along a continuum to allow for personal growth and improvement • Students assigned a standard for performance that provides appropriate challenge • Some elements of performance are same/similar for everyone Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade Oral Presentation I Parts Attributes Introduction Purpose introduced, impetus for project explained Beginning Topic described in general terms, major points outlined/emphasized, audience involved Body of Speech Major points supported with details/examples Body Language Sustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, confident volume Use of Artifacts To support major points, limited Summary Major points reviewed, conclusion presented Content Responds to learning goals, ―big ideas‖ presented Tomlinson modification of Curry and Samara: Curriculum Guide for the Education of Gifted High School Students 1991 Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade Oral Presentation II Parts Attributes Introduction Purpose introduced, topic described, impetus for project explained, project outline reviewed Beginning Topic described in general terms, major points outlined/emphasized, audience involved Body of Speech Major points supported with details/statistics/examples, intermittent summarizations, audience involved with content Body Language Sustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, leader level volume, poised and comfortable appearance Use of Artifacts To support major points, selections are appropriate/illustrative Summary Major points reviewed, call to action or ask for acceptance of concepts/beliefs/positions Content Responds to learning goals, ―big ideas‖ presented Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade Oral Presentation III Parts Attributes Introduction Purpose introduced, topic described, impetus for project explained, project outline reviewed, expected outcomes discussed Beginning Topic described in general terms, major points outlined/emphasized, audience involved Body of Speech Major points supported with details/statistics/examples, intermittent summarizations, transition statements link major points, audience involved with content, artful use of language, insightful connections/conclusions Body Language Sustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, leader level volume, poised and comfortable appearance Use of Artifacts To support major points, intermittent use, selections are appropriate/illustrative Summary Major points reviewed, call to action or ask for acceptance of concepts/beliefs/positions, creativity and power of thought in final points/appeal Content Responds to learning goals, ―big ideas‖ presented, draws connections to personal lives or to other disciplines The What and the Why Quality Rubrics …. • responds to differences in students’ readiness levels (skills and/or knowledge) • gives students an opportunity to be successful while improving at assigned levels of tasks • attempts to fit students’ learning into a zone of proximal development, providing a moderate level of challenge • identifies an ascending level of demand, levels of qualities. • Differs from grading rubrics, because it diagnoses and prescribes where students need to work for success. Principles of Differentiation • Are the learning goals clear and embedded in every task, every choice? • Are there pre-, on-going, and summative assessments that are used to adjust instruction? • Are groupings changing? • Do tasks feel respectful, meaningful? • Are students engaged, putting forth effort, and growing from what they already know and can do? Developing clear learning goals KNOW: the what •Facts •Vocabulary •Dates •People •Key ideas Developing clear learning goals DO: verbs, the skills • Basic skills: literacy, numeracy • Discipline skills: graphing, mapping, persuasive writing, discussion • Social skills: working respect, cooperation, stewardship • Thinking skills: summarizing, predicting, inferring Juicy Verbs compose influence adopt unify devise promote elaborate designate detail substitute merchandize limit deconstruct prove formulate structure predict simulate shadow illustrate propose tailor inscribe refresh eliminate transform wonder transfer improve advise visualize reflect expand emphasize access concentrate minimize convert immerse approximate connect ponder justify regroup portray design compete simulate incorporate concentrate disguise modify produce compartmentalize personify anchor energize integrate uncover deviate Developing clear learning goals UNDERSTAND: big ideas, statements • Written as a sentence • Using a concept word to relate idea to both the subject and to the greater world • States an essential truth or generalization that connects to other disciplines, to other subjects, to students’ lives Reflect/ Reflection Concept Words Completion Scale/Proportion Power Timeliness Security Justice Balance Implications Explore/Exploration Prove/Proof Pattern Charm Continuum Unity Community Token Independence Restore/Restoration Part/Whole Symbol/Symbolism Interdependence Reduce/ Reduction System Coverage Heritage Compromise Relate/Relationship Revision Colonization Collaborate/Collaborat Connect/Connection Improvement Migration ion Checks/Balances Attributes Organize/ Illustrate/Illustration Costs/Benefits Archetype Organization Stewardship Evolve/Evolution Limitation Regions Respect Direct/Direction Excellence Encapsulate/ Isolate/Isolation Segmentation Encapsulation Freedom Shape Responsibility Structure Value Style Choice Construct/ Construction Attitude Transportation Design Light Heroes Revolution Fashion Movement Culture Construction Beauty Expand/Expansion Point of View/ Perspective Control Compile/Compilation Create/Creation Applications Spiral/Circle Metamorphosis Growth Action/Reaction Endurance Conflict Measure/Measurement Predict/Prediction Give/Take Contrast Equate/Equal/Equation Diversity Infancy/Maturity Improvement Transform/ Transformation Discipline Bridge/Link Change Working with your subject lesson • Using the bullet points under KNOW and DO, highlight the most essential fact(s) and skill(s) for this lesson, assignment, task, or project • Use a concept to develop a set of generalizations/understandings, written as a statement (complete sentence). • Determine what type of pre-assessment you will use. (interest, learning profile, or readiness) • Develop a pre-assessment (you may use the Planning handout; presented as a Word doc) • Depending on the items selected for the pre- assessment, you are likely to find at least two ways to sort the students into groups. Anticipate what those groups might be and list them. • Develop a response to at least one group. Do you want • students to be motivated to try, to engage (interest)? • students to feel comfort and efficient although the skills or content facts are difficult to learn (learning style)? • students to have ―moderate‖ challenge so that every student shows growth (readiness)? • List the task (as you currently use it in class) and then analyze what must change. What and how will you need to differentiate: the content, the process, the product, or the classroom environment? Primary Science Plant Parts KNOW: Parts of a plant; root, stem, leaf, flower, seed Plant needs: light, water, air, soil, food UNDERSTAND: Plants have needs that must be met in order for them to survive. Each plant part has a job to do that helps the whole plant. If one plant part can‟t do its job, the whole plant suffers. DO • Identify and describe the plant parts • Explain the role of each plant part in meeting the plant‟s needs • Work independently • work collaboratively • Draw conclusions . Using: Cubing RAFT Contract 1. To what degree does each approach address the designated learning goals? 2. Which version best addresses readiness? 3. Which version best addresses interest? 4. Which version best addresses learning profile? 5. Which version addresses more than one student trait/need? Which addresses only one? 6. Which version would be smoothest to orchestrate? 7. Which would be easiest for you to develop? 8. Which best promotes student thinking? 9. What other instructional strategy might you elect to use in teaching the goals? Why? 10. Which of these three do you feel best serves the learning goals of this lesson? Why? 11. Which would your students find most engaging? Tomlinson • 02 RAFT DIRECTIONS: •The teacher assigns a RAFT task to each student based on interest and/or learning profile. • Students work alone to complete their task. • Students review one another‟s work and make suggestions for improvement. • When changes are made, the teacher checks each student‟s work for accuracy and quality. • When students are ready, the teacher forms groups of students, RAFT role is represented in each group. Role Audience Format Topic Plant parts Plant needs Picture We‟re made for each other Roots Stem, Leaf, Flower Letter You‟d be lost and Seeds without me Flower Stem, Leaf, Seeds, Ad I‟m more than and Roots just a pretty face Seeds Flower, Leaf, Stem Song rr Poem, Here‟s where you Roots got your start. Stem Flower, Leaf Chart Why you can‟t Seeds, Roots do without me Tomlinson • 02 (3 of 6) RAFT (cont‟d) Role Audience Format Topic Leaf Stem, Seeds, 2 Riddles Why I‟m Important Flower, Roots to you • After completing the RAFT, students meet in teacher-assigned table groups of 6. • Each group has a leader or guide. • Students share their RAFT work. • As a group, they respond to this prompt: • Draw or build something to prove that a plant is well made to have all of its needs met. • Use words to explain. • Everyone in your group should be ready to tell the class about your ideas. CONTRACT DIRECTIONS: • Pick one circle job, one triangle job, and one square job. Cut out your choices. • Paste the jobs you plan to do on the blank shape that matches the one you cut out. • The teacher will help you find a partner for your square job. Tolmlinson • 02 (3 of 6) Work with a classmate Build a plant to complete the plant that has all the plant Write lab that shows the jobs parts. Name the parts, a story that of plant parts and what tell what each part shows why a plant happens if plant does. needs light, water, needs are not met. air, soil and food. Work with a classmate Complete the to show how plant parts plant picture. Label Make and human parts are Each part with its name. a wanted alike and what happens Mark the part‟s job poster that shows and to plants and humans if with the right part. tells why a plant needs their needs are not met. light, water, soil, and food. . Mark Work with a classmate a storyboard Learn to write a book for in which each part and sing kindergarteners that says what it does. the plant song show plant parts, Write or tape record that explains why their jobs, and their what each part a plant needs water, light, needs. says. air, soil. And food. Tomlinson • 02 CUBING DIRECTIONS: • Work with two partners to complete the whole plant cube. • Roll the dice to see who does each part of the cube. • Share your work with your partners. Get their “stamp of approval” showing your work is correct. List and Define the parts of a plant. Check your spelling. Write in sentences. Draw and Label a plant and all its parts. Tell the job of each part. Compare each part of a plant to something it is like in your life to show how the things are alike. Re-design a plant to make sure all its needs are met, but in a “new and better” way. Use words to explain. Prove that every part of a plant is necessary for the plant to survive. Use words and pictures to show what would happen if any part of the plant got sick and couldn‟t do its part. Build a plant and show how its parts provide for all 5 of its needs. After the cubing sequence the teacher leads a closure discussion around the question “What did we learn about why a plant is made the way it is?” What is Flexible Grouping? • Students consistently working in a variety of groups… • …based on different elements of their learning… • …and both homogeneous and heterogeneous in regard to those elements. Tomlinson (2003) Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom. Flexible Grouping Should be purposeful: may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness may be based on needs observed during learning times geared to accomplish curricular goals (K – U – D) Implementation: purposefully plan using information collected – interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations list groups on an overhead or place in folders or mailboxes “on the fly” as invitational groups Cautions: avoid turning groups into tracking situations provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups practice moving into group situations and assuming roles within the group Judy Rex, 2003 DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Basic) IN THIS COLUMN,NOTE: IN THIS COLUMN, EXPLAIN: • Key phrases • How to use ideas • Important words • Why an idea is important • Questions • Main ideas • Meaning of key words, • Puzzling passages passages • Summaries • Predictions • Powerful passages • Reactions • Comments on style • Key parts • Etc. • Etc. DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Advanced) NOTE EXPLAIN ANOTHER VOICE Why ideas are • Teacher • Key passages important • Author • Key vocabulary Author’s • Expert in field • Organizing development of • Character concepts elements • Satirist • Key principles How parts and • Political • Key patterns whole relate cartoonist Assumptions of • Etc. author Key questions Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups 1 Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. 2 Flip-Flop Half the class works Other half works on on anchor activity. a different activity. 3 1/3 works on 1/3 works with 1/3 works on a teacher---direct anchor activity. different activity. instruction. Background: This instructional strategy is designed to help students become more strategic readers as they accept more and more responsibility for text analysis. The four-step process evolves from a teacher/student focus to a student/student focus through modeling. Steps: 1. Teacher and student(s) engage in a conversation about text using summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. 2. In the beginning, the teacher is responsible for initiating, sustaining, and modeling the process. 3. As students become more familiar and comfortable with the dialogue, the teacher hands more and more responsibility for the process to the students and serves as a coach to monitor and advise the process. Summarizing=identifying and integrating the most important ideas in the text. Question Generating=Identification of key information and formation of questions around them. Students can learn to pose questions of many kinds. Clarifying=Students learn to be aware of impediments to reading and to take action to make meaning in the face of the impediments. Predicting=Students use prior text info and relevant knowledge to hypothesize what will come next in text. Principles of Grading in a Differentiated Classroom Clearly communicate standards that are being used Clearly delineate separate grades for growth (changes in learning from the beginning to the end of the instructional component), for achievement relative to standards of performance For habits of mind and work Student voices are heeded Grades are never used to punish Carolyn Callahan, UVA Note-taking while watching the video Clarity of learning goals? Flexible grouping? Assess and adjust? Respectful tasks? Moderate challenge? Readiness, Interest, Concerns or questions? Learning Profile? Book and Online Resources • Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, Carol Ann Tomlinson, ASCD, 2003. Good for teachers who already incorporate differentiation into instruction. Includes templates for the next steps. • How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms, 2nd Edition, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD, 2001. This is the basic book, and is widely available in all school libraries. This fits an overview study best. • The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD, 1999. This is the next step for teachers who already know much about differentiation. • Differentiation in Practice, Carol Tomlinson and Caroline Eidson or Cindy Strickland, ASCD. Three resource books of actual lessons for grades K-6, or 5-9, or 9-12 in a variety of subject areas. This represents good models, but works best with teachers who are well grounded in their understanding of both curriculum and differentiation. • Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms, Carol Ann Tomlinson and Susan Allan, ASCD, 2000. A guide for instructional leaders. • Tools for High-Quality Differentiated Instruction, Cindy Strickland, ASCD, 2007. An Action Tool format with templates to copy. This best accompanies any of the books or videos as a supplement for planning and for additional examples. • www.ascd.org A source for books, but also an opportunity to see sample chapters, take online courses, etc. • Access some learner preference assessments at www.e2c2.com/fileupload.asp Look for the file entitled ―Profile Assessments for Cards.‖ • www.exemplars.com A source for standards-based, tiered lessons with rubrics with student examples. • www.curry.edschool.virginia.edu/hottlinx/ K-12 differentiated units, lessons and instructional strategies.