Secondary Literature Tiered Lesson

Document Sample
Secondary Literature Tiered Lesson Powered By Docstoc
					        Tiered Lesson: Regions of the United States
Students will KNOW:
• Characteristics of regions,
• Landforms
• Natural resources
• Historical economic resources
• Climate
Students will be able to DO:
• Research,
• Analyze cause and effect
• Communicate findings in oral presentation, writing, and graphic diagrams
Students will UNDERSTAND that:
• Changes are taking place within regions of the US.
• Issues and changes faced by one region are affected by the geography and
   history of that region

Based on preassessment of reading and writing skills, and readiness levels for
   research and complex thinking, the teachers assigns students to tiered tasks.
   Students may work alone or in groups of two or three. Students will present
   their findings at a class conference on change in the United States. Research
   materials will be available for varied reading levels.
Single Region Investigation:
You have been exploring regions of the US and ways in which they are
     changing. Research one region and find an important change that is
     taking place in that region.
Create a product that illustrates this change and that answers the guiding
     questions. You will present your product to the class at the conference.
     Your product may be a timeline, a photo essay, a dramatic play, or a
     simulation. You may choose one of these ideas or develop your own idea:
     Northeast – traffic, pollution, decline in industries
     Southeast – natural disasters, illegal immigration, industries moving to
     Middle West – changing water supply, farming/agriculture,
     West – traffic, water supply, population growth
     Southwest – population/immigration, energy sources, environmental

Key Questions
•    What caused the change in this region?
•    What have been the effects of the change?
•    How is this change a result of the history or geography of this region?
•    How are people in this region adapting to this change and what responses
     or solutions have been created because of the change?
Product Guidelines: Single region investigation continued…
 1.     Read the selection from the textbook and complete the information in the
        chart given below:
        Region          Landforms           Climate         Natural Resources      Other chosen area

 2.     Your product should show that you understand the causes and effects of
        change and should contain the answers to the key questions.
 3.     You will need to show careful research from several sources, including
        video clips, textbooks, other books, and/or Internet sites on the topic.
        Although there will be materials provided in the classroom, you will need to
        gather information from other resources.
 4.     Your product should be clean and neat, and the writing should be clear to
        a reader unfamiliar with this topic. Captions should be informative. Writing
        should reflect your best effort and contain good grammar and no
        abbreviations or contractions.
 5.     You will need to keep a planning log which will be turned in as part of your
        grade. Complete entries on each part of the plan. If you are working with a
        partner, both individuals must turn in a planning log
        Plan Part I (checkpoint day 2) Choose a region. Explore changes within that region. Choose a
        change within that region for your project.
        Plan Part II (checkpoint days 5, 7) Research change/region.
        Plan Part III (checkpoint days 10, 12) Use research notes to create product
        Plan Part IV (final day 15) Class conference and self-reflection
Total Regions Investigation (advanced level):
You have been exploring regions of the US and ways in which they are
     changing. Research one change and find how it is taking place in multiple
     US regions. Create a product that illustrates this change and that
     answers the guiding questions. You will present your product to the class
     at the conference.
Possible areas of change to explore include:
              Transportation         Population make-up (age, ethnic groups)
              Agriculture            Population growth or decreases
              Pollution              Natural disasters
              Jobs and industries    Immigration/ illegal immigration
              Energy sources         Road and railroad and/or public transportation
Key Questions
•    What caused the change? Why is it happening in different regions?
•    What have been the effects of the change and how do they differ
     between regions?
•    How are people in different regions adapting to this change? Examine the
     responses or solutions.
•    What geographic or historical factors are affecting whether changes are
     viewed positively or negatively?
Product Guidelines:         Total Regions Investigation (advanced level):
1.      Your product should show that you understand the causes and effects of
        change, and should contain answers to the key questions.
2.      You will need to show careful research from several sources, including
        video clips, textbooks, other books, and/or Internet sites on the topic. At
        least two sources must be from governmental departments or data-
        gathering reports, such as population census, Army Corps of Engineers
        reports, Dept. of Transportation reports, and other such sources. I have a
        list of websites for you to use, if you wish.
3.      Your product should illustrate a change over time. Using your research,
        create a magazine article, a news program/video, a dramatic play, a
        simulation, or other product of your choice. It should be clearly written,
        engaging and informative, neat, contain good grammar and reflect your
        best work.
4.      Your product should include a graphic illustration of change over time.
        This may be in the form of a table, graph, map, concept web, diagram, or
5.      You will need to keep a daily planning log. On some days, I will ask you
        to respond to prompts and to reflect on what you have done so far, where
        you go next, and your thoughts about particular topics. Your job is to
        complete your entries thoughtfully and to turn the planning log in with
        your project. If you are working with a partner, both individuals must turn
        in a planning log.
        Jacksonian Democracy: Tiered Social Studies RAFT
 Learning goals are to review vocabulary, people, and essential questions related to the
      chapter. The teacher assigns choices based on readiness in analysis of text.
        Role      Audience       Format          Topic

Con-    Andrew    supporters conversatio         Why I believe in the spoils system
crete   Jackson              n
        Demo-     Frontier       TV              Why Jackson is the man you want
crete   cratic    settlers &     commercial      as president
        Party     farmers
        Martin    Voter          Q and A         Questions about the economy and
Mod     van                      transcript      state’s rights
        Expan-    National       Venn            Which of us was most important in
        sion of   bank issue     diagram or      causing the Whig Party to form?
        voting    and            graphic
        rights    economy        organizer
        John C.   Future         Prediction in How the nullification crisis
Hard    Calhoun   citizens       a diary entry foreshadowed issues that would
                                               divide the nation and lead to war.

        Southern Northern        Argument or Why these tariffs on manufactured
        citizens politicians     debate      goods are unfair to our region!
        Prejudice                   Scapegoating                 Articles
Discuss how prejudice            Imagine a group of       Read the article. What
 and discrimination are         people that could be     could be reasons for the
 not only harmful to the        scapegoats. List and      persecution? How can             “Generic” Think DOTS for
victim, but also to those     describe stereotypes of     you justify the minds of          High School Literature –
   who practice them.             this group and the        those responsible?
                              treatment they received
                                                                                              Concept: Prejudice
                                   because of them.
     Photography                     Genetics                 Stereotypes
Photographs tell stories.      Certain characteristics      Your groups was
                                                                                             Photography                    Prejudice
 Write a caption for the      are blamed on genetics.     persecuted. Identify a
 photo and explain why        Do genetics impact the      groups who has been                 Compare two           Is it possible to grow to
     you chose it.             characteristics of your     persecuted in more            photographs taken of           adulthood without
                                 group? Explain the      recent years. Compare         similar events. What are          harboring some
                               reasoning behind your        the two and give               the similarities and     prejudice? Why or why
                                  answer. Use your            reasons why.             differences? What might                not?.
                                science knowledge.                                       be the significance of
                                                                                         these similarities and
         Prejudice               Scapegoating                    Articles
 Is it possible to grow to    What is scapegoating?      Read the article. What is             Genetics                  Scapegoating
     adulthood without         Explore the word’s           genocide? Did the            Did genetics have an       Identify and discuss the
      harboring some             etymology and             people in your article         impact on the Aryan        scapegoating that took
 prejudice? Why or why        hypothesize about its       face genocide? Why?          race? Why? Does it in the      place in your group.
           not?.              present day meaning.                                      group you are studying?           Compare the
                              How was your groups                                                Why?                 scapegoating of your
                                 scapegoated?                                                                      group to that of a present
                                                                                                                           day group.
      Photography                    Genetics                   Stereotypes
Look at the clothing, hair,      Do genetics cause       Identify stereotypes your
                                                                                             Stereotypes                    Articles
 setting, body language,       brown hair? How? List         group faced. Pick a
    and objects to help          one way genetics         clique in the school and         Name a group you          Read the article. If you
     determine social,         affects your group (in     discuss the traits of that    stereotype and discuss      were the person behind
   economic, country of           your opinion). If            group. Are they            those traits that you    the persecution and were
  origin and so on. Can         genetics don’t affect           stereotyped?            stereotype. What were       asked why you did what
 you see the emotions in      your group explain why.                                    the stereotypes your       you did, what would you
  the people? How? Do                                                                         group had?                      say?
    you think they are
    Hot Topic                  Writing
Group 1                                Group 2
•   Meet with teacher                  •   Alone or in pairs, develop a topic
•   Brainstorm for hot topics          •   Make a bank of power ideas
•   Web ideas for possible inclusion   •   Web or storyboard the sequence
•   Develop a word bank                    and support
•   Storyboard a sequence of ideas     •   Meet with teacher to ―ratchet‖
•   Make support ladders               •   Begin writing
•   Begin writing                      •   Paired revision
                                       •   Paired editing
                Character Map
How the character                       How the character
looks                                   thinks or acts
____________                            ____________
____________                            ____________
____________                            ____________
____________                            ____________
____________                            ____________
____________   Most important thing to know about the

                Character Map
What the character                  What the character
says or does                        really MEANS to say or
         What the character would mostly like
         us to know about him or her
                 Character Map
Clues the author                      Why the author
gives us about the                    gives THESE clues
            The author’s bottom line about this
       Secondary Literature Tiered Lesson
All students will Know: (key ideas, vocabulary, facts)
• Elements of literature
• Author’s voice
• Concept of responsibility
All students will understand: (generalizations)
• We are responsible for ourselves and our choices
• We ―write‖ our own lives.
• Our actions have a ripple effect.
• Responsibility may require sacrifice and may result in
• Our work bears our hallmark.
All students will be able to do: (skills)
• Argue and support
• Edit and revise skills
• Use figurative language effectively
• Analyze literary pieces
Secondary Literature continued
The teacher uses several differentiated strategies
  in teaching these lessons, including offering a
  range of articles, books, or chapters to read. All
  students will read The Little Prince, but some
  students will be helped by using a recorded
  version or by shared reading.

All students will analyze pieces of literature to
  explore the premise that we are responsible for
  those we tame, and will frame an argument to
  support their position.
                            Group 1
Read pages from The Little Prince
Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the fox’s feelings
  about responsibility toward those we tame and why he
  believes what he does.
Read story, “Bloodstain”
Complete analysis matrix on the beliefs of the main character.
Select a newspaper article from folder.
Write 2 paragraphs that compare beliefs of the people in the
  article with the two characters
What advice would you give children about responsibility
  toward people we tame? Brainstorm on paper and then
• Write a letter to a kid, giving your advice
• Write guidelines for adults who affect children’s lives
• Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a responsible
Peer revise and then peer edit your work before turning in to
                            Group 2
Read pages from The Little Prince.
Using article and story list provided by the teacher, find at
   least one piece of writing that shares the fox’s view on
   responsibility for those we tame.
Find at least 2 contrasting pieces.
Develop notes on two views of responsibility with reasons
   and examples from your reading selections. Be sure you
   are thoughtful about each view.
Then either:
• Write an editorial about the implications of the two
   approaches for our school.
• Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of
   decision about responsibility for someone he/she has
• Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the
   ripple effect of such decisions in history, science, or our
Peer revise and then peer edit your work before turning in
   to teacher.
                      Illustrate the setting of
                      your poem. Use color
                      (markers, pencils) and
                      give your picture a title
                        that is connected to
                       the poem but not the
                          title of the poem

       Theme          Figurative Language
                        Using a graphic                                    Rhyme
Describe the theme
                      organizer, list all the           Line         Figure out the rhyme
 of your poem in a
                                                  Describe the way   scheme of the poem.
paragraph. Check for similes and metaphors
                      in your poem. If you            the lines         Be prepared to
   topic sentence,
                        need help finding           are arranged        teach it to the
 supporting details
                     metaphors, consult With                                class.
   and conclusion      your group members

                       Describe the speaker
                         of this poem. Be
                        prepared to share
                                                           Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin
                                                           (1999) Amherst, VA
                       Illustrate the setting of
                       your poem. Use color
                       (markers, pencils) and
                       give your picture a title
                         that is connected to
                        the poem but not the
                           title of the poem

         Theme                                        Rhyme
                         Figurative Language                                 Line
 Compare the theme of                          What does the rhyme
                          Tell how the similes                       Describe the impact
your poem to the theme                         scheme have to do
                         and metaphors in your                      the line arrangement
 of a story or novel you                       with the meaning of
                          poem enhance the                            has on the poem.
have read. Use a Venn                           the poem? Why do
                         imagery. Be prepared                        Argue convincingly
 diagram to show your                            you think the poet
                            to share orally.                        In a short paragraph.
      comparison.                              chose this pattern?

                       How does the speaker
                        feel? Find at least 2
                          feelings and be
                        prepared to explain
                               orally.                    Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin
                                                          (1999) Amherst, VA
                         If your poet were an
                            artist, how would
                         he/she express this
                          poem as a picture?
                        Use markers, pencils,
                             etc. to illustrate
                              your answer.
       Theme                                  Provide other examples             Line
                         Figurative Language    Of rhyme or rhythm
Write a short poem to                                                  How would the poet
                         Write 2 more similes  Besides end rhyme
express the theme of                                                   arrange the next lines
                         and metaphors that     used in your poem.
 the poem you have                              How does this add
                                                                       of this poem if he/she
                          could be added to
chosen. Choose your                             To the sound of the     were extending the
                              the poem.
      own style.                               Poem? Be prepared       meaning and theme?
                                                  To share orally

                        Create another line for
                          this poem that the
                          speaker may have
                                                          Beth Atkins & Kay Brimijoin
                                                          (1999) Amherst, VA
Tiered Activity
Subject: Science
Concepts: Density & Buoyancy
Introduction: All students take part in an
  introductory discussion, read the chapter, and
  watch a lab activity on floating toys.
Activities Common to All Three Groups
•   Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy
•   Determine density
•   Conduct an experiment
•   Write a lab report
•   Work at a high level of thinking
•   Share findings with the class
The Soda Group
• Given four cans of different kinds of soda,
  students determined whether each would
  float by measuring the density of each can.
• They completed a lab procedure form by
  stating the materials, procedures, and
  conclusions. In an analysis section, they
  included an explanation of why the cans
  floated and sank, and stated the
  relationship between density and
The Brine &
Egg Group
• Students developed a prescribed procedure
  for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving
  the salt in the water, cooling the brine,
  determining the mass of water, determining
  the mass of an egg, recording all data in a
  data table, pouring the egg on the cool
  mixture, stirring the solution and observing.
• They answered questions about their
  procedures and observations, as well as
  questions about why a person can float in
  water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or
  seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in
  air, and the relationship between density and
  The Boat Group
• Students first wrote advice to college students building
  concrete boats to enter in a boat race.
• They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a
  boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its
• They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well
  as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the
  maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold.
• They built and tested the boat and its projected load.
• They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations
  of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float,
  the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how
  freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal
                                      Science Lesson
                                   ThinkDOTS – Matter

 What is the correct symbol        How are physical and
   for the element helium?
                                chemical properties different?     Which is higher, an element’s
 Research the history of this
element and create a timeline              Why?                     atomic number or its mass
showing what elements were                                               number? Why?
  discovered just before and
         after helium.

    Share two ways that
  scientists study atoms.       Name three types of physical      What does the periodic table
Suggest any new ways you        changes. Create a list with at    tell us about calcium? How
                                least two examples of each that   can this help us in our
      might think of.
                                are different from the examples
                                in the book.
                                                                  everyday lives?
                                           Science Lesson
                                        ThinkDOTS - Matter

How do the atomic numbers in          Predict as many properties for
the periodic table change from      potassium as you can. To make      Carbon is atomic number 6. How
 the top to the bottom? From          your predictions, look at the    are two carbon atoms with mass
  left to right across the table?   information in the box for this    numbers of 12 and 14 different?
                                        element and consider its       Why are these atoms called
                                     location on the periodic table.   isotopes?

                                    There are three jars in the          Suppose you were given some
 Why do you think scientists        front of the room. Each             sugar cubes, a grinder, some
 used the term “cloud” to           has a substance with a              water, a pan, and a hot plate.
 describe the position of           strong odor. One is a solid,        What physical and chemical
 electrons in an atom?              one is a liquid, and one is a       changes could you make in the
                                    gas. Which odor would               sugar?
                                    students in the back of the
                                    room smell first? Why?

                                                                       P. Goolsby & K. Brimijoin,
                                                                       Amherst County Schools, 2000
 PHYSICS A High School Tiered Lesson
After reading and discussing text and looking at models of flight, the
   students will refine thinking about the physics of flight. As a result of the
   Lab, students should:
   Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber,
   airfoil, chord, trailing edge, leading edge)
Bernoulli’s Principle—As the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure
  decreases. (Moving fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in
  pressure on the top of the airfoil causes lift.)
Newton’s Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and
  opposite reaction)
Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or
  another gas is moving.
Be Able to Do
Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways
  as a demonstration of student knowledge of key information and
  understanding of key principles.
Explain, illustrate and defend thinking regarding the objects they create
  and modify.
            Students are assigned to work in pairs at a lab station based on a brief
preassessment writing prompt asking for their basic knowledge and understandings of
the physics of flight.
            Each lab station has three tasks, increasing in complexity of design and
understandings. Required elements included a written explanation of their findings for
initial designs and modified designs, and the use of key vocabulary and key principles.
In the lab students design, redesign, and explain
 Paper Airplanes that fly for
                  Maximum Distance
                  Maximum Hang Time


                                                   Forward Motion
                                                   Backward Motion
                                                   Upward Motion
                     Alien invasion

Provide each student with a sheet of “aliens” with varied numbers of arms, legs, eyes, noses, mouths,
and ears.

 Target Group                                       Advanced Group
 Student A selects one of the                       Student B also asks questions
    aliens. Student B asks                             about why the alien is
    questions in an attempt to                         formed as it is. Student A
    figure out which Alien                             makes up responses. In the
    student A selected. Student                        end, the students write a
    A answers the questions in                         descriptive statement about
    complete sentences. All                            the structure and function of
    questions must be ―yes‖ ―no‖                       the alien. Students then
    questions having to do with                        switch roles.
    the aliens’ features.
    Students then switch roles.
Alien invasion continued   …
Struggling Group
If there are students who cannot succeed with the target activity, the
       teacher can provide ONE of the following:
     1. A list of possible questions in the language
     2. A list of helpful vocabulary
     3. A brief period of teacher coaching to help students develop a
          model for the task.

      Following this initial activity, students design, describe
          and name their own alien. These are displayed in
          the classroom and the whole class engages in a
          questioning activity to determine who created each
      (Ex: Does Will’s alien have long legs?)

      Based on a differentiated Spanish I activity developed by Ellin Gallagher, Park City, Utah, from Enhancing
             Foreigh Language Instruction in Your Classroom by Barbara Snyder.
   German: Past Tense Verbs (tiered lesson)
For part of today, students will work in one of three groups
   to practice using verbs.
Group One: Complete an oral round-robin exercise by
   reading German sentences and questions from a
   flipchart, and select which of two verb forms beneath a
   sentence should be placed in the sentence.
Group Two: Take turns reading sentences with present-tense
   verbs, converting them into sentences with past-tense
   verbs, and then converting them into past-tense
Group Three: Work in pairs to ad lib a conversation in which
   they ask questions and give answers about what
   happened at home and school yesterday and today.

Tomorrow, students will work in mixed readiness triads
  (one person from each group) to prepare for a ―skill drill‖.
                Music Lesson
Standard: Analyze and compare the use of music
  element representing various genres and cultures
  emphasizing meter and rhythm.
Know: Elements of music, especially meter and rhythm
Understand: The elements of music are used across
  various music genres and cultures.
  Music expresses the culture.
Do: Analyze music for elements
  Show how the elements are used in various genres
  and cultures.
                   Music Lesson
The elements of music are presented in a mini lecture.
  Students take notes using the split entry journal with
  either two or three columns.

Analyzing music for elements in small groups:
M – given a simple piece of recorded music, fill in a
   detailed outline identifying specific elements.
U – With a slightly more sophisticated piece of musicv,
   identify and describe any elements heard.
S – With a more complex piece of music, identrify and
   describe the elements.
I – Given sheet music and an accompanying recording,
   analyze the elements.
C – From sheet music only, analyze and identify the
   elements. Hypothesize what was the intent of the
                     Music Lesson
Show how the elements represent various genres and cultures.
  You may work alone, with a partner, or in a group of three.
  You may present your music and finding in any format of
  your choice.
 Choose two cultures and samples of their traditional music.
  Compare the elements of the two pieces. How do the pieces
  reflect the culture from which they come?
 Choose three pieces from different genres of music. Compare
  the elements of the pieces. How do the pieces reflect mood
  and emotion?
 Determine what style of music best represents you – your
  environment, history and mood. Explain how the elements of
  the music represent who you are as a person.
 Find music from the culture of one of your ancestors. Does
  the music dtill reflect who you are? Why or why not? How
  do the elements support your decision?
                          Tiered Lesson -- ART

Skill: Contour Drawing
1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination
                 •    Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your
                     hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger
                     segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your
                 •    Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book
                     looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing.
2. Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination
• Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand.
   That means you can look at your hand and the paper but
   Cannot draw any time you look at the paper.
• Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing
  a half-blind contour drawing.
3. Students with excellent eye-hand coordination
• Do a blind contour drawing of your hand.
• Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your
Reading Homework Coupon                     Reading Homework Coupon
Name:                                       Name:
Date:                                       Date:
   Please ask your child to tell you          Please echo read the book your
the story in the book he or she brought     child brought home. (Echo reading
home today by looking at the pictures.      means you read a line, then your child
                                            reads or echoes the same line.)
                                               Ask your child to show you some
                                            words in the story he or she recognizes.
Reading Homework Coupon                     Reading Homework Coupon
Name:                                       Name:
Date:                                       Date:
   Ask your child to read with                     Ask your child to read with a
expression as if he or she were reading     different voice for each character
to entertain someone,                               After the reading, ask how your
   Ask your child to give you several      child decided on how his/her voice could
reasons why he or she likes (or dislikes)   help you know the various characters
the book.                                   better.
   Have your child tell you what                     Ask your child to tell you which
feelings the character in the book has.     character would be most fun to spend
Ask for evidence from the book.             time with. Ask for reasons for his/her

 Adapted from Managing A Diverse Classroom by Carol Cummings - by Tomlinson „02
                                            Tiered Lesson Planning Sheet
Tiering is a readiness response, and usually differentiates the skill levels of students. The skills are the “Do” part of the
learning goals, the verbs. Sometimes, though, the content level or the difficulty/complexity of the problem or task is the
                                       differentiating element in a tiered lesson.

                                           2) If you have taught                 1) Describe the grade
  1) Learning goals of                     this lesson or activity               level activity for the
  lesson:                                  before, what group of                 lesson.
  What should students                    students would most
  KNOW (facts)                             benefit from a
  What should students                    modification to this
  be able to DO (verbs)                    version? How will
  What should students                    you preassess and
  UNDERSTAND                               find this group?
  1)What element(s) should be changed                             1)If time permits, what might be
  to make the activity more appropriate                           a second cloned version that
  in challenge to the defined group? Use                          would benefit a different group
  the Equalizer to analyze the lesson                             of learners?
  and determine how you might
  improve the lesson for the defined
  group of learners. Write that first
  cloned version here.
    Creating a Cubing or Think Dot Exercise

•   Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in
    this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests,
    levels, or topics?
•   First Step: (use one of the cubes)
     –   Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit.
     –   Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions.
     –   Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit.
     –   Keep one question opinion based – no right or wrong.
•   Second Step: (use other cubes)
     –   Use the first cube as your ―average‖ cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a
         higher level.
     –   Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level. Don’t water
         down or make too busy
     –   Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing.
     –   Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell, adjust
•   Third Step:
     –   Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels.
     –   Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions.
     –   Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any
         two questions on each of the 3 cubes?

    Places to get questions:
          Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated.
1.   Describe it: Look at the subject
     closely (perhaps with your senses as         Or you can . .
     well as your mind)                           ..
2.   Compare it: What is it similar to?       •   Rearrange it
     What is it different from?
                                              •   Illustrate it
3.   Associate it: What does it make          •   Question it
     you think of? What comes to your
     mind when you think of it? Perhaps       •   Satirize it
     people? Places? Things? Feelings?
     Let your mind go and see what            •   Evaluate it
     feelings you have for the subject.
                                              •   Connect it
4.   Analyze it: Tell how it is made?         •   Cartoon it
     What are it’s traits and attributes?
                                              •   Change it
5.   Apply it: Tell what you can do with      •   Solve it
     it. How can it be used?

6.   Argue for it or against it: Take a
     stand. Use any kind of reasoning
     you want – logical, silly, anywhere in
    Ideas for Cubing                                    Cubing

                                               Ideas for Cubing in Math
•    Arrange ________ into a 3-D           •   Describe how you would solve ______
     collage to show ________              •   Analyze how this problem helps us use
•    Make a body sculpture to show             mathematical thinking and problem solving
     ________                              •   Compare and contrast this problem to one
                                               on page _____.
•    Create a dance to show
                                           •   Demonstrate how a professional (or just a
•    Do a mime to help us understand           regular person) could apply this kink or
•    Present an interior monologue with        problem to their work or life.
     dramatic movement that ________       •   Change one or more numbers, elements, or
                                               signs in the problem. Give a rule for what
•    Build/construct a representation of       that change does.
     ________                              •   Create an interesting and challenging word
•    Make a living mobile that shows and       problem from the number problem. (Show
                                               us how to solve it too.)
     balances the elements of ________
                                           •   Diagram or illustrate the solutionj to the
•    Create authentic sound effects to         problem. Interpret the visual so we
     accompany a reading of _______            understand it.
•    Show the principle of ________
     with a rhythm pattern you create.
     Explain to us how that works.
            Cubing with Charlotte’s Web
Basic Cube                             Abstract Cube
1.   Draw Charlotte as you think       1.   Use a graphics program on the
                                            computer and create a character web
     she looks.
                                            for Wilbur.
2.   Use a Venn diagram and            2.   Use symbols on a Venn diagram to
     compare Charlotte and Fern.            compare Wilbur and Charlotte.
3.   Use a comic strip to tell what    3.   Draw the farm and label the items,
     happened in this chapter.              people, and buildings.
4.   Shut your eyes and describe       4.   Use a storyboard to show the progress
     the barn. Jot down your                of the plot to this point.
     ideas.                            5.   What is the message that you think the
                                            writer wants people to remember?
5.   Predict what will happen in the        Draw a symbol that illustrates your
     next chapter using symbols.            ideas.
6.   In your opinion, why is           6.   When you think of the title, do you
     Charlotte a good friend?               agree or disagree that it is a good
                                            choice? Why or why not?
Create a Think Dot Activity
Put yourself in the place of the   What are the characters in this
characters. What are you thinking? cartoon feeing? Why?

If you were going to describe this
scene in exactly one word, which     What do you like best about this
word would you choose? Why?          cartoon? Explain.

Describe a situation you’ve been in
recently that this cartoon reminds  How is this cartoon similar to your
you of. How are they similar? How educational experiences? Why?
are they different?
What is the cause and effect of the Take a stand. Argue for or against
humor in this cartoon? Why?         the message of this cartoon.

If you used this cartoon to teach a
concept, what concept could you       Compare this cartoon to a written
teach?                                editorial on the same subject.
                                      Which one would be more
                                      effective and why?

Describe the tone of this cartoon.    If music were playing in the
How did it affect your mood and       background, what would it be and
why?                                  why?
Think of the last book you read or     Create two oxymorons that
movie you saw. Compare the             describe the situation in this
situation in this cartoon to some      cartoon. Explain your thinking.
aspect of the plot. How are they
alike? How are they different?

Rearrange something in the             Explain how this cartoon could be
picture and leave the caption the      used, other than for your own
same. Did you improve it? What         enjoyment.

This situation in this cartoon could   If this cartoon had another frame
be an analogy for what situation in    before and after it, what would be
your life? Why?                        in each frame and what would be
        Examples of Tiered Tasks
• Novel Think-Tac-Toe
• Double Entry Journal
• Writing prompts that differ in the sophistication required
  for response
• Skill groupings that are based on readiness
• Quality rubrics that differentiate expectations of
• Learning contracts that assign more or less difficulty of
  practice for students’ learning
• Differentiated literature circle or other group role
• Strategies like RAFTs or cubing/Think Dots that are
  modified from basic to complex
• Others? What have you used or seen presented?
Product Cards and Quality Rubrics
• Standards of excellence progress along a
  continuum to allow for personal growth
  and improvement
• Students assigned a standard for
  performance that provides appropriate
• Some elements of performance are
  same/similar for everyone
Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade
                                             Oral Presentation I
            Parts                                                              Attributes
Introduction                        Purpose introduced, impetus for project explained

Beginning                           Topic described in general terms, major points
                                    outlined/emphasized, audience involved
Body of Speech                      Major points supported with details/examples

Body Language                       Sustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural
                                    gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, confident
Use of Artifacts                    To support major points, limited

Summary                             Major points reviewed, conclusion presented

Content                             Responds to learning goals, ―big ideas‖ presented

Tomlinson modification of Curry and Samara: Curriculum Guide for the Education of Gifted High School Students 1991
Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade
                        Oral Presentation II
          Parts                                Attributes
Introduction       Purpose introduced, topic described, impetus for project
                   explained, project outline reviewed
Beginning          Topic described in general terms, major points
                   outlined/emphasized, audience involved
Body of Speech     Major points supported with details/statistics/examples,
                   intermittent summarizations, audience involved with content
Body Language      Sustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural
                   gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, leader
                   level volume, poised and comfortable appearance
Use of Artifacts   To support major points, selections are appropriate/illustrative

Summary            Major points reviewed, call to action or ask for acceptance of
Content            Responds to learning goals, ―big ideas‖ presented
Tiered Assignment Criteria for a Formal Speech to Inform or Persuade
                       Oral Presentation III
          Parts                                Attributes
Introduction       Purpose introduced, topic described, impetus for project
                   explained, project outline reviewed, expected outcomes
Beginning          Topic described in general terms, major points
                   outlined/emphasized, audience involved
Body of Speech     Major points supported with details/statistics/examples,
                   intermittent summarizations, transition statements link major
                   points, audience involved with content, artful use of language,
                   insightful connections/conclusions
Body Language      Sustained eye contact with audience, formal posture, natural
                   gestures and expressions, clear and well-paced voice, leader
                   level volume, poised and comfortable appearance
Use of Artifacts   To support major points, intermittent use, selections are
Summary            Major points reviewed, call to action or ask for acceptance of
                   concepts/beliefs/positions, creativity and power of thought in final
Content            Responds to learning goals, ―big ideas‖ presented, draws
                   connections to personal lives or to other disciplines
         The What and the Why
Quality Rubrics ….
• responds to differences in students’ readiness
  levels (skills and/or knowledge)
• gives students an opportunity to be successful
  while improving at assigned levels of tasks
• attempts to fit students’ learning into a zone of
  proximal development, providing a moderate
  level of challenge
• identifies an ascending level of demand, levels
  of qualities.
• Differs from grading rubrics, because it
  diagnoses and prescribes where students need
  to work for success.
    Principles of Differentiation
• Are the learning goals clear and
  embedded in every task, every choice?
• Are there pre-, on-going, and summative
  assessments that are used to adjust
• Are groupings changing?
• Do tasks feel respectful, meaningful?
• Are students engaged, putting forth effort,
  and growing from what they already know
  and can do?
Developing clear learning goals
    KNOW: the what

•Key ideas
         Developing clear learning goals
          DO: verbs, the skills
• Basic skills: literacy, numeracy
• Discipline skills: graphing, mapping,
  persuasive writing, discussion
• Social skills: working respect,
  cooperation, stewardship
• Thinking skills: summarizing,
  predicting, inferring
                       Juicy Verbs
compose       influence          adopt         unify
devise        promote            elaborate     designate
detail        substitute         merchandize   limit
deconstruct   prove              formulate     structure
predict       simulate           shadow        illustrate
propose       tailor             inscribe      refresh
eliminate     transform          wonder        transfer
improve       advise             visualize     reflect
expand        emphasize          access        concentrate
minimize      convert            immerse       approximate
connect       ponder             justify       regroup
portray       design             compete       simulate
incorporate   concentrate        disguise      modify
produce       compartmentalize   personify     anchor
energize      integrate          uncover       deviate
       Developing clear learning goals
  UNDERSTAND: big ideas, statements

• Written as a sentence
• Using a concept word to relate
  idea to both the subject and to the
  greater world
• States an essential truth or
  generalization that connects to
  other disciplines, to other
  subjects, to students’ lives
Reflect/ Reflection
                                   Concept Words
                          Completion                               Scale/Proportion
Power                                           Timeliness
                          Security                                 Justice
Balance                                         Implications
                          Explore/Exploration                      Prove/Proof
Pattern                                         Charm
                          Continuum                                Unity
Community                                       Token
                          Independence                             Restore/Restoration
Part/Whole                                      Symbol/Symbolism
                          Interdependence                          Reduce/ Reduction
System                                          Coverage
                          Heritage                                 Compromise
Relate/Relationship                             Revision
                          Colonization                             Collaborate/Collaborat
Connect/Connection                              Improvement
                          Migration                                ion
Checks/Balances                                 Attributes
                          Organize/                                Illustrate/Illustration
Costs/Benefits                                  Archetype
                               Organization                        Stewardship
Evolve/Evolution                                Limitation
                          Regions                                  Respect
Direct/Direction                                Excellence
                          Encapsulate/                             Isolate/Isolation
Segmentation                   Encapsulation    Freedom
                                                Shape              Responsibility
Structure                 Value
                                                Style              Choice
Construct/ Construction   Attitude
                                                Transportation     Design
Light                     Heroes
                                                Revolution         Fashion
Movement                  Culture
                                                Construction       Beauty
Expand/Expansion          Point of View/
                               Perspective      Control            Compile/Compilation
                          Applications          Spiral/Circle      Metamorphosis
                          Action/Reaction       Endurance          Conflict
                          Predict/Prediction    Give/Take          Contrast
                          Diversity             Infancy/Maturity   Improvement
    Transformation        Discipline            Bridge/Link        Change
    Working with your subject lesson
• Using the bullet points under KNOW and DO,
  highlight the most essential fact(s) and skill(s) for
  this lesson, assignment, task, or project
• Use a concept to develop a set of
  generalizations/understandings, written as a
  statement (complete sentence).
• Determine what type of pre-assessment you will
  use. (interest, learning profile, or readiness)
• Develop a pre-assessment (you may use the
  Planning handout; presented as a Word doc)
• Depending on the items selected for the pre-
  assessment, you are likely to find at least two
  ways to sort the students into groups. Anticipate
  what those groups might be and list them.
• Develop a response to at least one group. Do
  you want
      • students to be motivated to try, to engage (interest)?
      • students to feel comfort and efficient although the skills or
        content facts are difficult to learn (learning style)?
      • students to have ―moderate‖ challenge so that every student
        shows growth (readiness)?
• List the task (as you currently use it in class) and
  then analyze what must change. What and how
  will you need to differentiate: the content, the
  process, the product, or the classroom
                    Primary Science
                      Plant Parts
Parts of a plant; root, stem, leaf, flower, seed
Plant needs: light, water, air, soil, food

Plants have needs that must be met in order for them to survive.
Each plant part has a job to do that helps the whole plant.
If one plant part can‟t do its job, the whole plant suffers.

                 • Identify and describe the plant parts
                 • Explain the role of each plant part in
                   meeting the plant‟s needs
                 • Work independently
                 • work collaboratively
                 • Draw conclusions

 1. To what degree does each approach address the designated learning goals?
 2. Which version best addresses readiness?
 3. Which version best addresses interest?
 4. Which version best addresses learning profile?
 5. Which version addresses more than one student trait/need?
    Which addresses only one?
 6. Which version would be smoothest to orchestrate?
 7. Which would be easiest for you to develop?
 8. Which best promotes student thinking?
 9. What other instructional strategy might you elect to use
    in teaching the goals? Why?
10. Which of these three do you feel best serves the learning
    goals of this lesson? Why?
11. Which would your students find most engaging?
                                                                    Tomlinson • 02
  •The teacher assigns a RAFT task to each student based on
     interest and/or learning profile.
  • Students work alone to complete their task.
  • Students review one another‟s work and make suggestions
      for improvement.
  • When changes are made, the teacher checks each student‟s work
      for accuracy and quality.
  • When students are ready, the teacher forms groups of students,
      RAFT role is represented in each group.

                   Role          Audience            Format              Topic

               Plant parts      Plant needs          Picture         We‟re made for
                                                                     each other

                Roots          Stem, Leaf, Flower    Letter           You‟d be lost
                               and Seeds                               without me
                Flower         Stem, Leaf, Seeds,    Ad               I‟m more than
                               and Roots                             just a pretty face

                Seeds          Flower, Leaf, Stem   Song rr Poem,    Here‟s where you
                               Roots                                 got your start.

                Stem            Flower, Leaf        Chart            Why you can‟t
                                Seeds, Roots                         do without me
                                                                                      Tomlinson • 02 (3 of 6)
RAFT (cont‟d)

  Role            Audience             Format                Topic
  Leaf          Stem, Seeds,         2 Riddles         Why I‟m Important
                Flower, Roots                          to you

                  • After completing the RAFT, students meet in
                    teacher-assigned table groups of 6.
                  • Each group has a leader or guide.
                  • Students share their RAFT work.
                  • As a group, they respond to this prompt:

• Draw or build something to prove that
  a plant is well made to have all of its
  needs met.
• Use words to explain.
• Everyone in your group should be ready to tell
  the class about your ideas.
  • Pick one circle job, one triangle job, and one
    square job. Cut out your choices.

 • Paste the jobs you plan to do on the blank shape
   that matches the one you cut out.

 • The teacher will help you find a partner for your
   square job.

                                                       Tolmlinson • 02 (3 of 6)
                                                             Work with a classmate
       Build a plant
                                                             to complete the plant
   that has all the plant              Write                lab that shows the jobs
  parts. Name the parts,            a story that            of plant parts and what
    tell what each part        shows why a plant                happens if plant
           does.               needs light, water,             needs are not met.
                                air, soil and food.

                                                              Work with a classmate
     Complete the
                                                            to show how plant parts
  plant picture. Label                 Make                    and human parts are
Each part with its name.             a wanted                alike and what happens
  Mark the part‟s job          poster that shows and         to plants and humans if
  with the right part.        tells why a plant needs        their needs are not met.
                            light, water, soil, and food.

       Mark                                                 Work with a classmate
   a storyboard                         Learn                 to write a book for
in which each part                    and sing               kindergarteners that
 says what it does.                the plant song              show plant parts,
Write or tape record            that explains why            their jobs, and their
  what each part            a plant needs water, light,              needs.
       says.                    air, soil. And food.
                                                                            Tomlinson • 02
                    • Work with two partners to complete the whole plant cube.
                    • Roll the dice to see who does each part of the cube.
                    • Share your work with your partners. Get their “stamp
                      of approval” showing your work is correct.

List and Define the parts of a plant. Check your spelling. Write in sentences.
Draw and Label a plant and all its parts. Tell the job of each part.
Compare each part of a plant to something it is like in your life to show how
  the things are alike.
Re-design a plant to make sure all its needs are met, but in a “new and better”
  way. Use words to explain.
Prove that every part of a plant is necessary for the plant to survive. Use
words and pictures to show what would happen if any part of the plant got sick
and couldn‟t do its part.
Build a plant and show how its parts provide for all 5 of its needs.

           After the cubing sequence the teacher leads a closure
           discussion around the question “What did we learn about
           why a plant is made the way it is?”
What is Flexible Grouping?
• Students consistently working in a
  variety of groups…
• …based on different elements of their
• …and both homogeneous and
  heterogeneous in regard to those

      Tomlinson (2003) Fulfilling the Promise of the
               Differentiated Classroom.
              Flexible Grouping
Should be purposeful:
 may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness
 may be based on needs observed during learning times
 geared to accomplish curricular goals (K – U – D)

 purposefully plan using information collected – interest surveys,
  learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations
 list groups on an overhead or place in folders or mailboxes
 “on the fly” as invitational groups

 avoid turning groups into tracking situations
 provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups
 practice moving into group situations and assuming roles within the
                                                                 Judy Rex, 2003

•   Key phrases             •   How to use ideas
•   Important words         •   Why an idea is important
                            •   Questions
•   Main ideas
                            •   Meaning of key words,
•   Puzzling passages           passages
•   Summaries               •   Predictions
•   Powerful passages       •   Reactions
                            •   Comments on style
•   Key parts
                            •   Etc.
•   Etc.
  NOTE               EXPLAIN          ANOTHER VOICE

                    Why ideas are    • Teacher
• Key passages
                     important        • Author
• Key vocabulary
                    Author’s         • Expert in field
• Organizing         development of   • Character
  concepts           elements         • Satirist
• Key principles    How parts and    • Political
• Key patterns       whole relate       cartoonist
                    Assumptions of   • Etc.
                    Key questions
        Using Anchor Activities to
             Create Groups
1      Teach the whole class to work independently and
       quietly on the anchor activity.

2                           Flip-Flop

     Half the class works               Other half works on
     on anchor activity.                a different activity.

    1/3 works on                               1/3 works with
                       1/3 works on a         teacher---direct
    anchor activity.   different activity.       instruction.
 This instructional strategy is designed to help students become more
 strategic readers as they accept more and more responsibility for text
 analysis. The four-step process evolves from a teacher/student focus to
 a student/student focus through modeling.

1. Teacher and student(s) engage in a conversation about text using
   summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.
2. In the beginning, the teacher is responsible for initiating, sustaining, and
   modeling the process.
3. As students become more familiar and comfortable with the dialogue, the
   teacher hands more and more responsibility for the process to the
   students and serves as a coach to monitor and advise the process.
Summarizing=identifying and integrating the most important ideas in the text.
Question Generating=Identification of key information and formation of questions
   around them. Students can learn to pose questions of many kinds.
Clarifying=Students learn to be aware of impediments to reading and to take
   action to make meaning in the face of the impediments.
Predicting=Students use prior text info and relevant knowledge to hypothesize
   what will come next in text.
         Principles of Grading in a
         Differentiated Classroom
   Clearly communicate standards that are being
   Clearly delineate separate grades
        for growth (changes in learning from the beginning to
         the end of the instructional component),
        for achievement relative to standards of performance
        For habits of mind and work
   Student voices are heeded
   Grades are never used to punish

                                         Carolyn Callahan, UVA
 Note-taking while watching the video
Clarity of learning goals? Flexible grouping?

Assess and adjust?        Respectful tasks?
                          Moderate challenge?

Readiness, Interest,      Concerns or questions?
Learning Profile?
         Book and Online Resources
•   Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom, Carol Ann Tomlinson,
    ASCD, 2003. Good for teachers who already incorporate differentiation into
    instruction. Includes templates for the next steps.
•   How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms, 2nd Edition, Carol
    Tomlinson, ASCD, 2001. This is the basic book, and is widely available in all school
    libraries. This fits an overview study best.
•   The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Carol
    Tomlinson, ASCD, 1999. This is the next step for teachers who already know much
    about differentiation.
•   Differentiation in Practice, Carol Tomlinson and Caroline Eidson or Cindy
    Strickland, ASCD. Three resource books of actual lessons for grades K-6, or 5-9, or
    9-12 in a variety of subject areas. This represents good models, but works best with
    teachers who are well grounded in their understanding of both curriculum and
•   Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms, Carol Ann Tomlinson
    and Susan Allan, ASCD, 2000. A guide for instructional leaders.
•   Tools for High-Quality Differentiated Instruction, Cindy Strickland, ASCD, 2007. An
    Action Tool format with templates to copy. This best accompanies any of the books or
    videos as a supplement for planning and for additional examples.
• A source for books, but also an opportunity to see sample chapters,
    take online courses, etc.
•   Access some learner preference assessments at Look
    for the file entitled ―Profile Assessments for Cards.‖
• A source for standards-based, tiered lessons with rubrics with
    student examples.
• K-12 differentiated units, lessons and
    instructional strategies.