Chapter 16 by pengxuebo

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									                                                               HIS 105
                                                             Homework One

1.       Which of the following factors allowed European nations to exert influence and dominance over much of the world?
A.       Pure cultural superiority
B.       Religious convictions and the spread of Christianity to new colonies
C.       Technological supremacy related to naval power and gunpowder
D.       All of these answers
E.       Longer-term experience with trade and colonization

2.     A fundamental element in the first two periods of European imperial ventures in the Americas was the presence of

3.       The 19th-century empires were based on formally _________ labor, though they still involved much harsh treatment of non-
white indigenous populations.

4.       Mercantilist thinkers assumed that:
A.       a stable economy was one that maintained its wealth, not allowing it to grow or decline.
B.       only modest levels of economic growth were possible.
C.       rapid growth every fiscal year was possible and necessary.
D.       none of these answers.
E.       gold and silver had little real value.

5.        Under mercantilism, colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources for the industries of the home country, and in
turn, the home country was to:
A.        protect and administer the colonies.
B.        educate and Christianize the colonies.
C.        generate free trade for the colonies to spur the local economy.
D.        produce agricultural and manufactured goods to supply the colonies.
E.        do little or nothing.

6.       The heart of the eighteenth-century colonial rivalry in the Americas lay in:
A.       middle West.
B.       the Ohio River valley.
C.       upper New England.
D.       the lower Saint Lawrence River valley.
E.       the West Indies.

7.       By the end of the seventeenth century, Spain, Holland, and ________ ruled all of South America.

8.      ______________ is the practice whereby governments heavily regulated trade and commerce in hope of increasing national

9.       A peninsulares refers to a person:
A.       born in the New World.
B.       born in Spain.
C.       who owns land in the New World.
D.       who owns land in Spain.
E.       who hopes to strike it rich in the New World.

10.     Until the mid-18th century, the primary purpose of the Spanish Empire was to supply Spain with the precious ____________
mined in the New World.

11.      The ________ system was meant to maintain Spain’s monopoly on trade.

12.    To increase the efficiency of tax collection and to end bureaucratic corruption, Charles III introduced the institution of the
__________ into the Spanish Empire.

13.      A ___________ is a person of European descent born in the Spanish colonies.

14.      As a result of a scarcity of labor, these nations were the first to quickly turn to the importation of African slaves:
A.       Holland and France.
B.      France and Spain.
C.      Portugal and Holland.
D.      Spain and Portugal.
E.      England and Scotland.

15.     The first slaves traded, dating to the early sixteenth century, in the transatlantic economy landed on:
A.      North America in Spanish Florida.
B.      North America in the British Virginia.
C.      the West Indies and South America.
D.      the coast of Dutch Guiana.
E.      North America in Canada.

16.      A vast increase in the number of Africans brought as slaves to the Americas occurred during the eighteenth century, with
most arriving in:
A.       the Carolinas or Virginia.
B.       the Caribbean or Brazil.
C.       Mexico or Florida.
D.       Granada or Peru.
E.       Canada or New England.

17.     Colonial trade in the transatlantic world followed roughly a geographic:
A.      circle.
B.      triangle.
C.      square.
D.      rectangle.
E.      pentagon.

18.      Newly arrived Africans were subjected to a process known as ___________, during which they were prepared for the
laborious discipline of slavery and made to understand that they were no longer free.

19.     What two areas were often the conflict of great powers and wars in the mid-eighteenth century?
A.      China and the access to the Mediterranean Sea
B.      The African coast and access to the Mediterranean Sea
C.      The overseas empires and central and eastern Europe
D.      The overseas empires and western Europe
E.      China and Africa

20.     The War of Jenkins’ Ear was fought by England to block incursions on British trade by:
A.      Russia.
B.      France.
C.      Portugal.
D.      Spain.
E.      All of the above.

21.     Frederick II’s invasion of Silesia offset the continental balance of power and:
A.      drew England into a war in North America.
B.      shattered the provisions of the Pragmatic Sanction.
C.      led to the defeat of the Spanish trade monopoly.
D.      sparked the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War.
E.      drew England into conflict with Prussia.

22.     Maria Theresa’s great achievement was:
A.      the defeat of Frederick II.
B.      the reconquest of Silesia.
C.      her granting of additional privileges to the nobility.
D.      the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as a major political power.
E.      her commitment to the goals of the Enlightenment.

23.     The war over the Austrian succession and the British-Spanish commercial conflict might have remained separate disputes.
What united them was the:
A.      role of France.
B.      immediate British conquest of the French colonies.
C.       slow-moving Prussian threat to the Low Countries.
D.       lasting Prussian threat to France.
E.       a long-standing religious controversy.

24.      The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, resulted in which of the following?
A.       Prussia retained Silesia
B.       Spain’s defeat in North America
C.       France renewed Britain’s privilege from the Treaty of Utrecht
D.       The end of British power in southeast Asia
E.       A much-weakened Prussia.

25.      The Seven Years’ War was fought mainly in:
A.       South America.
B.       North America.
C.       South Asia.
D.       Southern Europe.
E.       Africa.

26.      Much credit for Britain’s victory in the Seven Years’ War should go to:
A.       Robert Walpole.
B.       George III.
C.       George II.
D.       Samuel Fox.
E.       William Pitt the Elder.

27.      When Prussia’s King Frederick II seized the Austrian province of ________, it upset Europe’s balance of power.

28.       In January 1756, Britain and Prussia signed the Convention of ____________, a defensive alliance aimed at preventing the
entry of foreign troops into the German states.

29.      The two most important influences on Enlightenment thought were:
A.       Galileo and Copernicus.
B.       Newton and Copernicus.
C.       Locke and Newton.
D.       Galileo and Locke.
E.       Bacon and Descartes.

30.      After 1688, Great Britain permitted religious toleration to all EXCEPT:
A.       Lutherans and Unitarians.
B.       Lutherans and Jews.
C.       Jews and Roman Catholics.
D.       Unitarians and Roman Catholics.
E.       Muslims and Jews.

31.       An expanding, literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials created a new and increasing influential
social force called:
A.        public opinion.
B.        social premise.
C.        societal drive.
D.        communal view.
E.        the general will.

32.      According to Newton and others, nature is ________.

33.      The Enlightenment flourished in a ______________, that is, a culture in which books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets
had achieved a status of their own.

34.      Written by Voltaire in English and later translated to French, this book praised the virtues of the English, especially their
religious liberty, and implicitly criticized the abuses of French society:
A.       Faults of France.
B.       Improvements on the Island.
C.       Letters on the English.
D.       Critiques and Criticisms of Modern French Society.
E.       The Spirit of the Law.

35.      The writers and critics who flourished in the expanding print culture and who took the lead in forging the new attitudes
favorable to change, championed reform, and advanced toleration were known as the ______________.

36.      Philosophes criticized the Christian church for all of the following EXCEPT:
A.       teaching that humans were fundamentally sinful.
B.       encouraging more concern with the afterlife than with life on earth.
C.       doctrinal disputes and intolerance.
D.       inciting wars.
E.       taking too limited a role in national politics.

37.    According to Ethics, the most famous of his works, this man closely identified God and nature, an idea for which his
contemporaries condemned him:
A.     Hobbes.
B.     Spinoza.
C.     Descartes.
D.     Mendelssohn.
E.     Locke

38.      This 18th century philosopher was known as the “Jewish Socrates”:
A.       Hobbes.
B.       Spinoza.
C.       Descartes.
D.       Mendelssohn
E.       Lessing.

39.     Pascal and other critics saw this as an exceptionally carnal or sexually promiscuous religion because of its teaching that
heaven was a place of sensuous delights:
A.      Islam.
B.      Judaism.
C.      Catholicism.
D.      Protestantism.
E.      Hinduism

40.      The Encyclopedia:
A.       secularized learning and spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
B.       sold about 1,200 copies.
C.       received official support.
D.       was written entirely by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert.
E.       was written in 1750 but not published until 1789.

41.      He published On Crimes and Punishments, in which he applied critical analysis to the problem of making punishments both
effective and just:
A.       John Toland
B.       Denis Diderot
C.       Jean Le Rond d’Alembert
D.       Marquis Cesare Beccaria
E.       Montaigne

42.      Adam Smith advocated:
A.       a large role for government in the economy.
B.       the ending of England's mercantile system.
C.       the elimination of England's navy and army.
D.       that government take no part in the economy.
E.       an end to all taxes.

43.      According to Smith, government should provide:
A.       armies, navies, roads, and hospitals.
B.       hospitals, armies, navies, and schools.
C.       armies, navies, roads, and parks.
D.       schools, armies, navies and roads.
E.       armies, navies, markets, and banks.

44.      The ___________, particularly of France, believed mercantilist legislation and the regulation of labor by governments and
guilds actually hampered the expansion of trade, manufacture, and agriculture.

45.      Adam Smith is usually regarded as the founder of the ________ economic thought and policy, which favors a limited role for
the government in economic life.

46.      The most important political thought of the Enlightenment occurred in:
A.       France.
B.       Holland.
C.       England.
D.       Scotland.
E.       Denmark.

47.      He contended that the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature:
A.       Smith
B.       Rousseau
C.       Descartes
D.       Montesquieu
E.       Voltaire

48.      Most European thinkers associated with the Enlightenment:
A.       favored social revolution.
B.       were members of the artisan class.
C.       were proponents of democracy.
D.       were atheists.
E.       favored the extension of European empires across the world.

49.      One of Montesquieu’s most far-reaching ideas was the division of ________ in government.

50.      Rousseau blamed much of the evil in the world on misdistribution of ________.

51.      The philosophes generally:
A.       advocated fundamental changes in the social condition of women.
B.       believed women to be socially equal but not politically equal to men.
C.       said little about women.
D.       were not avid feminists.
E.       saw women as the intellectual equals of men.

52.     He maintained that women were not naturally inferior to men and that women should have a wider role in society. He was
also sympathetic in his observations concerning the value placed on women’s appearance and the prejudice women met as they aged:
A.      Smith
B.      Rousseau
C.      Descartes
D.      Montesquieu
E.      Voltaire

53.       Which of the following styles of art utilizes lavish, often lighthearted decoration with an emphasis on pastel colors and the
play of light?
A.        Classical
B.        Abstract
C.        Impressionism
D.        Neoclassicism
E.        Rococo

54.      Which of the following styles of art embodies a return to figurative and architectural modes drawn from the Renaissance and
the ancient world?
A.       Rococo
B.       Abstract
C.       Impressionism
D.      Neoclassicism
E.      Expressionism

55.     Monarchs such as Joseph II and Catharine II made “enlightened” reforms as part of their drive to:
A.      increase revenues and gain political support.
B.      begin the process of moving away from monarchy.
C.      begin the process of moving toward constitutional monarchy.
D.      give commoners more political power.
E.      do away with the nobility in their realms.

56.       This monarch embodies enlightened absolutism more than any other. He/she forged a state that commanded the loyalty of
the military, the Junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy, and a growing bureaucracy:
A.        Joseph II
B.        Maria Theresa
C.        Frederick the Great
D.        Catherine II
E.        Peter the Great

57.     Monarchs associated with enlightened absolutism included all of the following EXCEPT:
A.      Joseph II.
B.      Maria Theresa.
C.      Frederick the Great.
D.      Catherine II.
E.      Louis XIV.

58.     Of all the rising states of the eighteenth century, this state was the most diverse in its people and problems:
A.      Austria.
B.      Russia.
C.      Prussia.
D.      France.
E.      Britain.

59.     Maria Theresa of Austria did all of the following EXCEPT:
A.      established a very efficient tax system.
B.      created central councils to deal with political problems.
C.      expanded primary education.
D.      created regional legislative councils to give ordinary people a say in politics.
E.      limited the amount of labor the nobility could demand from peasants.

60.     Joseph II of Austria:
A.      sought to improve the productivity and social conditions of the peasantry.
B.      increased the tax burden on the peasantry.
C.      reduced the serfs to slaves.
D.      built many Catholic seminaries and allowed the church total autonomy.
E.      extended freedom of worship to Muslims.

61.     Catherine the Great of Russia:
A.      replaced the nobles with loyal government bureaucrats.
B.      abandoned the ideals of absolutism.
C.      built a strong alliance with the nobility.
D.      made an alliance with Poland.
E.      freed Russia’s serfs.

62.      The phrase “enlightened absolutist” indicates a ________ government dedicated to the rational strengthening of the central
absolutist administration at the cost of lesser centers of political power.

63.     In the first partition, Poland lost one-third of its territory to Russia, ________, and Austria.

64.     The French parlements spoke for the interests of this group:
A.      the aristocracy.
B.      the peasantry.
C.      the guilds.
D.       the clergy.
E.       the poor.

65.       He was responsible for the introduction of the revolutionary land tax that all landowners would have to pay regardless of their
social status:
A.        Jacques Necker.
B.        Louis XIV.
C.        Rene Maupeou.
D.        Charles Alexandre de Calonne.
E.        Louis XV.

66.      The Second Estate of the Estates General was made up of the:
A.       clergy.
B.       middle class.
C.       artisans.
D.       peasants.
E.       nobility.

67.      By which of the following ways did the aristocracy attempt to limit the influence of the Third Estate:
A.       they demanded that each estate have an equal number of representatives.
B.       they levied excessive “luxury” taxes on the estate.
C.       they demanded that each individual should have a vote in the Estates General.
D.       they attempted to disband the estate all together.
E.       they prevented delegates from attending the Estates General.

68.      The cahiers de doleances presented to the king included all of the following grievances EXCEPT criticism of:
A.       government waste.
B.       indirect taxes.
C.       the hunting rights of the aristocracy.
D.       the institution of monarchy as a whole.
E.       corruption.

69.      The Tennis Court Oath refers to an oath taken by the:
A.       National Assembly to give France a constitution.
B.       monarchy of Louis XVI to bring France’s people together as one.
C.       National Assembly to unite all those not of noble birth or clerical relations and represent “the people” of France.
D.       monarchy of Louis XVI to squelch any hint of possible rebellion with the utmost severity.
E.       personal guards protecting Louis XVI to confirm that they would never abandon the monarch.

70.      Throughout the winter and spring of 1789, the high prices for this commodity produced many riots:
A.       wine.
B.       cotton.
C.       cheese.
D.       bread.
E.       beef.

71.      “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” was proclaimed by:
A.       Louis XVI.
B.       the National Constituent Assembly.
C.       the National Assembly.
D.       the First Estate.
E.       Olympe de Gouges.

72.      On June 1, 1789 the Third Estate invited the clergy and the nobles to join them in organizing a new legislative body, which
was later named the ___________.

73.      The fall of the ___________ marked the first time the populace of Paris redirected the course of the revolution.

74.      “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” claimed that natural rights included “liberty, property, security, and
resistance to ________.”

75.      Which of the following best describes the form of government pursued by the National Constituent Assembly:
A.      democracy.
B.      constitutional monarchy.
C.      oligarchy.
D.      theocracy.
E.      dictatorship.

76.     According to the suffrage stipulations of the Constitution of 1791, approximately how many of France’s 25 million citizens
were qualified to vote?
A.      50,000
B.      250,000
C.      1 million
D.      25 million
E.      10 million

77.     The Chapelier Law:
A.      put an end to ecclesiastical taxes.
B.      put a protective tariff on wine imports.
C.      granted female suffrage.
D.      expunged residual feudal dues.
E.      forbade workers’ associations.

78.     The Roman Catholic Church:
A.      condemned the French Revolution.
B.      enthusiastically supported the French Revolution.
C.      accepted the French Revolution.
D.      ignored the French Revolution.
E.      was a driving force behind the French Revolution.

79.       In 1791, ____________, a butcher’s daughter from Montauban in northwest France who became a major revolutionary
radical in Paris, composed a Declaration of the Rights of Woman.

80.       The National Constituent Assembly abolished the ancient French provinces and established in their place 83 administrative
units called __________.

81.     Known as __________, over 16,000 French aristocrats settled in countries near the French border, where they sought to
foment counterrevolution.

82.     All of the following statements about the Jacobins are true EXCEPT:
A.      they established a network of local clubs throughout the provinces.
B.      they contributed to the radicalization of the French Revolution.
C.      embraced Rousseau’s emphasis on equality, popular sovereignty, and civic virtue
D.      they were the most famous and best-organized club of the Third Estate.
E.      they were the most conservative political group in the National Constituent Assembly.

83.     The sans-culottes wanted, above all else,:
A.      a constitutional monarchy.
B.      freedom of religion.
C.      tax relief.
D.      democracy.
E.      relief from food shortages and high prices.

84.     Louis XVI was condemned to death on the charge of:
A.      conspiring against the liberty of the people.
B.      the manslaughter of hundreds of revolutionaries.
C.      subversive actions against the state.
D.      conspiracy to commit murder.
E.      embezzlement from the national treasury.

85.    In 1792, the Paris Commune compelled the Legislative Assembly to call for the election of a new assembly, called the
___________, to write a democratic constitution.

86.     As Prime Minister of Britain, William Pitt the Younger:
A.      embraced political reform.
B.      supported the French Revolution.
C.      suppressed popular movements.
D.      suppressed reform.
E.      suppressed reform AND popular movements.

87.     Which of the following best summarizes Edmund Burke’s view of the French Revolution:
A.      he wholeheartedly supported the uprising.
B.      he believed it was shortsighted and politically ignorant.
C.      he believed it was the inevitable extension of Enlightenment ideals.
D.      he was rather ambivalent toward the revolutionary events.
E.      he supported its ideals, but was unsure if they would be realized.

88.     On November 4 in the single bloodiest day of combat in the decade, __________ troops killed well over 10,000 Poles outside

89.     By April 1793, which of the following countries was NOT at war with France?:
A.      Austria.
B.      Great Britain.
C.      Spain.
D.      Sweden.
E.      Prussia.

90.     Issued in August of 1793, the lévee en masse was a(n):
A.      military requisition on the entire population.
B.      restriction on foreign imports.
C.      attempt to fix prices in order to quell inflation.
D.      call to the French population to rise up and defend the church.
E.      a new income tax.

91.     By late 1794, the French army:
A.      was disbanded.
B.      was larger than any other in European history.
C.      numbered little more than 50,000 men.
D.      joined forces with the soldiers of Polish reform.
E.      was in disarray.

92.     The core value of the republic of virtue created by the revolution was:
A.      public good over the private good.
B.      individual interests over the general will.
C.      private good over the public good.
D.      liberty for all.
E.      equality of all, including men and women.

93.     Which of the following was not part of the ideology embraced by Maximilien de Robespierre:
A.      wholehearted support of the republican government.
B.      renunciation of self-interested politics.
C.      the assault on foreign and domestic enemies of the revolution.
D.      embrace of Christianity.
E.      establishment of equal rights for women.

94.     Many victims of the Reign of Terror were subject to this “humane” form of execution:
A.      hanging.
B.      guillotine.
C.      starvation.
D.      poisoning.
E.      shooting.

95.      The immediate need to protect the revolution from enemies, real or imagined, from across the spectrum of French political
and social life manifested itself in what became known as the _____________.
96.    As part of a policy of de-Christianization, the Convention, in November of 1793, decreed the Cathedral of _____________ a
“Temple of Reason.”

97.      In May 1794, at the height of his power, Robespierre, considering the worship of “Reason” too abstract for most citizens,
replaced it with the ____________.

98.     The Thermidorian reaction resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:
A.      a new constitution.
B.      the closing of the Paris Jacobin Club.
C.      the reduction of the political power of the sans culottes.
D.      a pull back from the radical revolution.
E.      an end to political violence.

99.     Which of the following best summarizes the comparison of freedoms exercised by women before 1789 versus after 1795:
A.      women had less freedom before 1789.
B.      women had more freedom after 1795.
C.      women had more freedom before 1789.
D.      the degree of freedom exercised was comparable.
E.      women gained political rights after 1795.

100.    Called the _________, throughout the country, people who had been involved in the Reign of Terror were attacked and often

101.    Who was the commander who destroyed the French fleet at Abukir in 1798?
A.      William Pitt the Younger
B.      Nicholas Appert
C.      Sir Arthur Wellesley
D.      Horatio Nelson
E.      William Pitt the Elder

102.    The Second Coalition against France was made up of:
A.      Russia, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, and Britain.
B.      Russia, Austria, Italy, and Britain.
C.      Russia, Belgium, the Ottoman Empire, and Britain.
D.      Egypt, Austria, the Ottoman Empire, and Britain.
E.      England, Belgium, and Prussia.

103.    “What Is the Third Estate?” was written by:
A.      Sir Walter Scott.
B.      Abbé Siéyès.
C.      Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord.
D.      Edward FitzGerald.
E.      Louis XVI.

104.    Napoleon worked to restore order in France, in part by:
A.      decentralizing the administration.
B.      banishing from the country those who had opposed him.
C.      doing away with the secret police.
D.      employing men from various political groups.
E.      making peace with all of France’s enemies.

105.    Revolutionary policies regarding what organization garnered the most domestic opposition?
A.      The secret police
B.      The Napoleonic Code
C.      The French Catholic Church
D.      The Jacobins
E.      Bread prices

106.    The Napoleonic Code was officially known as the Civil Code of:
A.      1802.
B.      1804.
C.      1806.
D.     1808.
E.     1810.

107.   The Organic Articles of 1802 established:
A.     the church’s rights to confiscated property.
B.     that the church would pay the salaries of the clergy.
C.     the supremacy of state over church.
D.     the supremacy of church over state.
E.     rules for the establishment of new churches in France.

108.   The Battle of Trafalgar:
A.     established England’s control of Spain.
B.     took Prussia out of the war.
C.     took Russia out of the war.
D.     led to a short-lived peace.
E.     ended any possibility of France invading England.

109.   Who established the Third Coalition for the British?
A.     William Pitt the Younger
B.     Nicholas Appert
C.     Sir Arthur Wellesley
D.     Horatio Nelson
E.     Sir Robert Walpole

110.   What was the name of the 1802 accord between France and Britain?
A.     The Treaty of Campo Formio
B.     The Peace of Amiens
C.     The Treaty of Pressburg
D.     The Treaty of Chaumont
E.     The Treaty of Tilsit

111.   In 1805, which two countries joined the British against France?
A.     Spain and Germany
B.     Spain and Belgium
C.     Russia and Austria
D.     Russia and Germany
E.     Prussia and Sweden

112.   After the Treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon aimed to cripple the British by:
A.     cutting off all trade between Britain and the rest of Europe.
B.     taking on the British navy one fleet at a time.
C.     attacking nations that Britain traded with.
D.     turning France into a free-trade empire.
E.     invading Scotland.

113.   By the end of 1810, what country had withdrawn from the Continental System?
A.     Spain
B.     Russia
C.     Denmark
D.     Italy
E.     Prussia

114.   After divorcing Josephine, Napoleon married ___________.

115.   Food canning was invented by:
A.     Mikhail Kutuzov.
B.     Nicholas Appert.
C.     Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord.
D.     Abbé Siéyès.
E.     Jacques-Louis David.

116.   The Continental System extended as far east as:
A.     Denmark.
B.     Sweden.
C.     Austria.
D.     Russia.
E.     China.

117.   Following the Congress of Vienna, which country gained control of northern Italy?
A.     Germany
B.     Austria
C.     Prussia
D.     Spain
E.     France

118.   Following Napoleon’s defeat, ___________ was the key person in gaining consensus among the allies.

119.   Romantics were drawn to the art, literature, and architecture of:
A.     Ancient Rome.
B.     Ancient Greece.
C.     Ancient Judea.
D.     the New World.
E.     the Middle Ages.

120.   Immanuel Kant argued that human perception is as much a product of the mind’s activity as of:
A.     sensory perception.
B.     human mortality.
C.     the influence of a free society.
D.     the existence of God.
E.     divinely inspired ideals.

121.   ___________ believed that adults should allow childlike sentiments to flourish.

122.    The English Romantics directly opposed psychological tenets held by whom?
A.     Immanuel Kant
B.     John Locke
C.     Jean-Jacques Rousseau
D.     Victor Hugo
E.     Thomas Hobbes

123.   Together with his good friend Samuel Coleridge, ___________ wrote Lyrical Ballads.

124.   What group had a key influence on the development of Methodism, following an encounter with its founder?
A.     The Moravians
B.     The Reformers
C.     The Roman Catholics
D.     The Spanish
E.     The Jews

125.   The founder of Methodism was ___________.

126.   The most important German philosopher of the Romantic era was:
A.     Hegel.
B.     Herder.
C.     Fichte.
D.     Goethe.
E.     Blake.

127.   The single most powerful European political ideology proved to be:
A.     socialism.
B.     communism.
C.     republicanism.
D.     liberalism.
E.     nationalism.
128.     As a political outlook, nationalism was and is based on the relatively modern concept that a nation is composed of people
who are joined together by the bonds of a common:
A.       language, customs, culture, and history.
B.       religion, culture, customs, and military.
C.       military, language, history, and culture.
D.       culture, language, religion, and customs.
E.       residence within defined borders.

129.    A significant difficulty for nationalism was, and is:
A.      transitioning from monarchies to republicanism and peaceful elections.
B.      determining which ethnic groups could be considered nations, with claims to territory and political autonomy.
C.      deciding which religion should be accepted as the formal religion of the state.
D.      settling on which national customs should be formally adopted by the state and schools.
E.      finding enough support among the mass of the population.

130.    Nineteenth-century liberals derived some of their political ideas from the:
A.      ancient writings of the Romans.
B.      philosophers of the American Revolution.
C.      biblical passages within the doctrine of the Holy Roman Church.
D.      writers of the Enlightenment.
E.      the writings of Thomas Hobbes.

131.    The political goals of nineteenth-century liberals included all of the following EXCEPT:
A.      distribution of land.
B.      legal equality.
C.      religious toleration.
D.      freedom of the press.
E.      limited government regulation of business.

132.    Behind the concept of nationalism usually lay the idea of popular ___________.

133.    Political liberals found inspiration in the 1789 French Declaration of the __________________.

134.    Which of the following correctly identifies the major pillars of nineteenth-century conservatism?
A.      Solid military, established churches, and legitimate monarchies
B.      Established churches, burgeoning merchant class, and legitimate monarchies
C.      landed aristocracies, established churches, and solid military
D.      legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches
E.      land, labor, and law.

135.    Louis XVIII agreed to become a(n):
A.      parliamentary monarch.
B.      socialist monarch.
C.      constitutional monarch.
D.      absolute monarch.
E.      elected president.

136.    The Charter provided for a(n):
A.      appointed legislature and hereditary monarchy.
B.      elected monarchy and appointed legislature.
C.      bicameral legislature and elected monarchy.
D.      hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature.
E.      suffrage for women and minorities.

137.   The early nineteenth-century statesman who, more than any other, epitomized conservatism was the Austrian prince

138.    The Concert of Europe refers to the:
A.      new informal arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issues.
B.      new Russian, Austrian, Prussian, and British quadruple alliance.
C.      January 1820 outbreak of the Spanish revolution.
D.      1814 restoration of the French monarchy.
E.      the combined effort to defeat Napoleon.

139.      He was placed on the Spanish throne after Napoleon’s downfall and although he promised to govern according to a written
constitution, he ignored his pledge:
A.        Louis XVIII
B.        Alexander I
C.        Ferdinand VII
D.        Charles X
E.        Estaban VII

140.    The Treaty of London, signed in 1827, demanded:
A.      that Russia resign Romania as an independent state.
B.      Turkish recognition of Greek independence.
C.      that the Turks allow Britain, France, and Russia to decide the future of Greece.
D.      both B and C.
E.      both A and C.

141.   While European powers were plotting conservative interventions in Italy and Spain, a third Mediterranean revolt erupted in

142.    The son of a king of Bavaria, __________, was chosen to be the first king of the new Greek kingdom.

143.     In 1830, the Ottoman sultan formally granted independence to __________, and by the late 1830s, the major powers granted
it diplomatic recognition.

144.     In the mid-1820s, __________, which was also a Slav state and Eastern Orthodox in religion, became Serbia’s formal

145.    Tsar Alexander I turned away from reform and at home and abroad took the lead in suppressing:
A.      nationalism and communism.
B.      liberalism and nationalism.
C.      communism and socialism.
D.      socialism and liberalism.
E.      feminism and Catholicism.

146.    Which of the following events illustrated to Russian soldiers how backward and politically stifled their own nation remained?
A.      Russian and Austrian commercial exchange
B.      Russian battles with the Prussians
C.      Russian occupation of France
D.      Visits by foreign army officers
E.      The imposition of new taxes on the merchant class

147.    He lowered interest rates on government bonds in order to create a fund to pay an annual sum to the survivors of the émigrés
who forfeited land, restored the rule of primogeniture, and enacted a law that punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death:

A.      Louis XVIII
B.      Charles X
C.      Alexander I
D.      Louis Philippe
E.      Napoleon III

148.    Which of the following is not true of the Four Ordinances?
A.      They eliminated any further elections.
B.      They restricted freedom of the press.
C.      They dissolved the recently elected Chamber of Deputies.
D.      They limited the franchise to the wealthiest people in the country.
E.      They called for new elections.

149.    The occupation of ____________ gave French merchants in Marseilles new economic ties to North America.
150.    In December 1830, Lord Palmerston, the British foreign minister, persuaded representatives of the powers in London to
recognize ___________ as an independent and neutral state.

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