(Computer-based System Engineering)
Is the activity of specifying, designing,
implementing, deploying, maintaining systems,
which include hardware, software , people and
interaction of the system with users and its
• To introduce the concept of emergent
system properties such as reliability and
• To explain system engineering and system
What is a system?
• A collection of inter-related components working
together towards some common objective.
• A system may include software, mechanical,
electrical and electronic hardware and be operated
• System components are dependent on other
What is a system? Cont…
• System is more than simply the sum of its
• It has a properties of the system as a whole.
• Socio-technical systems
– Systems that include technical systems
but also operational processes and people
(knowledge) who use and interact with the
– Socio-technical systems are governed by
organizational policies and rules.
• They have emergent properties
– Properties of the system of a whole that
depend on the system components and
• They are often Non-deterministic
– They do not always produce the same
output when presented with the same
input because the system’s behaviour is
partially dependent on human operators.
System categories , cont…
• Technical computer-based systems
– Systems that include hardware and
software but where the operators are not
normally considered to be part of the
– The system is not self-aware (Power point
is not aware that is it being used to
present Software Engineering course) .
Problems of systems engineering
• Large systems are usually designed to solve
• Systems engineering requires a great deal of
coordination across disciplines
– distrust and lack of understanding across
• Systems must be designed to last many
years in a changing environment
Emergent System properties
• Properties of the system as a whole rather than
properties that can be derived from the properties
of components of a system.
• Emergent properties are a consequence (result) of
the relationships between system components
• They can therefore only be assessed and
measured ONCE the components have been
integrated into a system
Examples of emergent
• The reliability of the system
– This depends on the reliability of system
components and the relationships between the
• The usability of a system
– This is a complex property which depends on
the system operators and the environment
where it is used.
Types of emergent properties
• Functional properties
– These appear when all the parts of a system
work together to achieve some objective.
– For example, a bicycle has the functional
property of being a transportation device once it
has been assembled from its components.
Types of emergent properties
• Non-functional emergent properties
– Examples are reliability, performance,
safety, and security.
– These relate to the behaviour of the
system in its operational environment.
– They are often critical for computer-based
systems as failure that may make the
Complexity of emergent system properties-
• Because of component inter-dependencies, faults
can be propagated through the system, so failure
in one component can affect the operation of
• System failures often occur because of
unforeseen inter-relationships between
Influences on a system
• Hardware reliability
– What is the probability of a hardware component failing
and how long does it take to repair that component?
• Software reliability
– How likely is it that a software component will produce
an incorrect output.
– Software failure is usually distinct from hardware failure
in that software does not wear out.
• Operator reliability
– How likely is it that the operator of a system will make
• Hardware failure can generate a non genuine
• Software errors can cause alarms to be activated
which cause operator stress and lead to operator
• The environment in which a system is installed can
affect its reliability( a system design to operate in temp
between 0 and 10 degrees will feel if the air condition
broke, components will behave in unpredictable way)
• Properties such as performance, usability, and reliability
are difficult to assess but can be measured after the
system is operational.
• However, some properties such as safety and security
pose a different problem, because it is very hard to predict
all possible modes of access and explicitly forbid them.
– Safety - the system that reflects the system’s ability to
operate without danger
– Security - the system should not permit unauthorised
• Measuring or assessing these properties is very hard
The system engineering process
• Usually follows a ‘waterfall’ model because of the
need for development of different parts of the
• There are important distinctions between the
system engineering process and the software
The system engineering process
• Little scope for rework during system
development because hardware changes are
very expensive, reworking the system design
to solve these problems. Software becomes
so important in systems because of its
• Example: siting of Base station in mobile cell
• Always involves engineers from different disciplines
- interdisciplinary involvement- many engineering
disciplines who must work together, much scope for
misunderstanding here. Different disciplines use a
different vocabulary and much negotiation is
required. Engineers may have personal agendas to
The system engineering
Air traffic control
Software Electronic Mechanical
engineering engineering engineering
Structural ATC systems User interface
engineering engineering design
Before a software can be engineered, the system
in which it resides must be understood.
To accomplish this, the overall objective of the
system must be determined;
the hardware, software, people, databases,
procedures, and other system elements must be
system requirements must be elicited, analyzed,
specified, modeled, validated, and managed. All
the above activities are the foundation of system
Quote: the hardest part of building a
software system is deciding what to build
Advice: be sure you have assessed overall
feasibility before you expend effort and time
eliciting detailed requirements.
Advice: if different customers cannot agree
on requirements, the risk of failure is very
System requirements definition
• System requirements
– A structured document setting out detailed descriptions of
the system services. Written as a contract between client
• Three types of requirement defined at this stage
– Abstract functional requirements.
The basic functions that the system must provide are defined
in an abstract way
– System properties.
Non-functional requirements for the system in general
are defined (availability, performance)
– Desirable and Undesirable characteristics.
24Unacceptable system behaviour is specified (what the
system must not do)
Also, the system requirement must define overall
organizational objectives which the system should
Consider a system for an office building to provide for
fire protection and intruder detection.
A statement of objective might be:
• Functional objectives
– To provide a fire and intruder alarm system for the
building which will provide internal and external
warning of fire or unauthorized intrusion
System requirements problems:
• Complex systems are usually developed to
address wicked problems
– Problems that are not fully understood;
Example : earthquake
Can tackle the problem after it has happened
The system design process, 1
Partition Define sub-system
Identify Specify sub-system
sub-system s functionality
The system design process
• Partition requirements, organize
requirements into related groups , HW Req.
, SW Req.
• Identify sub-systems, identify a set of sub-
systems which collectively can meet the
• Assign requirements to sub-systems,
causes particular problems when are
integrated , happen when purchase any
The system design process, cont…
• Specify sub-system functionality
and relationships between them
• Define sub-system interfaces, if the
interface has been agreed then a
parallel sub-system development
System design 1 problems:
• As a problems appear you often have to redo work
done in earlier stages.
• Solution : Using spiral process , each round on
the spiral may add more detail to design.
Spiral model of requirements and design
Spiral process 2