Athletic Training

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Athletic Training Powered By Docstoc
					Jennifer Muscarello
  Jonathan Kurka
   “Is an allied health profession dealing with the
    prevention, care, and rehabilitation of injuries
    to physically active individuals”

   Began between 1900 and 1925

   Draws from many specific areas
       Closely aligned with sports medicine
   Practice in. . .
       Individual and team sports

       Educational and Professional settings

       Sports medicine and orthopedic clinics

       Industrial settings


   Limited scope of medical practice
   Physicians and athletic trainers make primary
    medical team
   Medical team provides immediate support
    services
       Receive related support
   MUST WORK IN CONJUNCTION with
    coaches, athletic directors, administrators, and
    strength coaches
   Headed by the physician

   Athletic trainer is the on-site representative
       Evaluates injuries
       Provides physician with the information for a
        definitive diagnosis
   Largest placement is in Sports Medicine
   2nd Largest placement is as a teacher and
    Athletic trainer in secondary school
   3rd Largest placement is at colleges as trainer or
    teacher
       Less than 10%
       Preferred profession to many
   Only 1% work for professional teams
   Industrial setting
   Established by NATA Board of Certification
   Core of AT is split into 6 domains
     Prevention of Athletic Injuries
     Recognition, Evaluation, and Assessment of Athletic
      Injuries
     Immediate Care of Athletic Injuries
     Treatment, Rehabilitation, and Reconditioning of
      Athletic Injuries
     Organization and Administration
     Professional Development and Responsibility
   Most important is for the participant to be fit
    before engaging in activity

   AT needs to inform person that injury is
    possible

   Know the signs and symptoms of injuries

   Minimize risk of injury
   Industrial setting
       Instruction in proper body movements
       Worksite fitness centers
       Assessing body mechanics
       Implementing lifetime fitness programs


   Exercise Caution
   Athletic Trainers are the eyes and ears of
    physicians at practice and competitions
   AT is the first to intervene to evaluate injury
   AT takes the evaluation to physician for diagnosis
   Must possess current certification in CPR from…
     American Red Cross
     American Heart Association
     National Safety Council



   First aid is strongly encouraged
   Primary Survey
       ABCs required
   Secondary Survey to evaluate specific
    complaint
   OSHA requirement must be met
       Use latex gloves
       Immunizations
   Injury history
       What, When, and How

   Observation of body language
   Observation of injured area
   Palpation of injured area
       Ask athlete to point to area
   Special testing to establish structural and functional
    integrity of injured body area
       Circulation beyond injury site
       Response to touch
       Ability to activate muscle

   Range of Motion is tested
       Active, Passive, and Resistive
   After injury is evaluated the athlete…
     Returns to sport (mild injury)
     Removes the athlete from sport (moderate to severe)
     Activates EMS (severe to catastrophic)
   Written record always kept after evaluation
     Format necessary so physician and future trainers will
      understand it
     SOAP
           Subjective
           Objective
           Assessment
           Plan
   Acute injuries are seen by AT before anyone
    else
   Most common treatment is RICE
       Rest
       Ice
       Compression
       Elevation
   Emergency Care Plan
       Implemented to prevent secondary injury
       Written document with roles for all involved
   Immediate effects of injury are pain, swelling,
    decreased range of motion, loss of function
   Period of inactivity = disuse atrophy
   Restoration incorporates physiological and
    accessory movements
       Physiological=movements of joint
       Accessory=repositioning
   Exercise types
       Isometric
       Isotonic  Eccentric, Concentric, Isokinetic
   Closed kinetic chain activities
       Use proprioceptive input
   Functional progression
     Acute inflammation
     Repair
     Remodeling
   Negligence is a consideration in health-care
    administration
       Elements: duty, breach of duty, causation, damage
       All four elements must exist for a successful claim
       Accused does something wrong or an act of
        omission
           Moving injured athlete when it’s not safe
           Allowing athlete to return to play prematurely
           Missing an injury
           Improper risk management
   Medical record keeping
   Personnel Management
   Facility Management and Design
   Budgeting
   Preparticipation physical examinations
   Medical record keeping
   Insurance
   Public Relations
   Maintenance of knowledge and skills

   Assist in education of student athletic trainers
    as mentors and clinical instructors
   Athletic trainer can have major influence on
    course of injury using theraputic modalities
       Limit inflammatory response to injury
       Increase rate of repair and remodeling


   Incorrectly used can lengthen healing time or
    lead to complication

   Common Injuries, Inflammatory Response,
    Tissue Repair, Theraputic Modalities
   Usually from direct trauma or overuse
   Signs, symptoms, and functional significance are
    evaluated for injury classification
   Sprains
       Graded according to severity
   Contusions
   Strains
       Graded according to severity
   Overuse Injuries
   Dislocations (luxations)
   Fractures
   Neurological injuries
   Body seeks to control effects of trauma,
    bacterial and viral invasion, decreased blood
    supply
   Pain, redness, temperature, swelling, loss of
    function
   Early phase begins immediately and can last
    up to 3 days
   Late phase continues for about a week longer
   Process begins on 3rd day and continues for about 3
    weeks
   Scar formation in 1st week
     Some people scar more than others
     Only 70% of strength of original tissue
     Collagen replaces blood vessels
   Remodeling begins on 9th day
       Continues on for a year or more
   Some things modify inflammatory and repair
    stages
       NSAIDs, immobilization, electrical stimulation,
        hyperbaric oxygen, ultrasound
   “Combinations of physical agents, machines,
    massage, and manual exercise are used to
    modify an inflammatory response, restore
    tissue, or increase strength and range of
    motion”
   Cold (confusion as whether to switch from cold
    to heat)
   Heating used most successfully on postacute
    and chronic inflammation
   Originally students would earn a physical
    education degree then work in an
    apprenticeship
   1959 – formal course work in athletic training
   1970 – Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC) became
    entry-level credential
       Formal education programs developed by NATA
   1983 – competency-based education
       Six domains indentified by NATA
       Currently developing new competencies to split into
        11 domains
   1980s – profession evolving similar to physical
    therapy
       State credentialing become a necessity
   1994 – first accredited athletic training
    programs endorsed CAHEA
   1996 – NATA adopted 18 reforms for educating
    athletic trainers
   2004 – only graduates in education programs
    can take certification examinations
   1990s – growth in credentialing, now
    credentialed by 38 states